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Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve


For other uses, see Adam and Eve (disambiguation).

The Creation of Adam

The Creation of Eve


from the Sistine Chapel
Adam and Eve, according to the creation myths of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. The
story of Adam and Eve is central to the belief that God created human beings to live in a Paradise on earth, although
they fell away from that state and formed the present world full of suffering and injustice. It provides the basis for
the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original
ancestors.[1] It also provides much of the scriptural basis for the doctrines of the Fall of man and Original Sin,
important beliefs in Christianity, although not generally shared by Judaism or Islam.[2][3]
In the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible, chapters one through five, there are two creation narratives with two
distinct perspectives. In the first, Adam and Eve (though not referenced by name) were created together in God's
image and jointly given instructions to multiply and to be stewards over everything else that God had made. In the
second narrative, God fashions Adam from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden where he is to have dominion
over the plants and animals. God places a tree in the garden which he prohibits Adam from eating. Eve is later
created from one of Adam's ribs to be Adam's companion. However, the serpent tricks Eve into eating fruit from the
forbidden tree. God curses only the serpent and the ground. He prophetically tells the woman and the man what will
be the consequences of their sin of disobeying God. Then he banishes 'the man' from the Garden of Eden.
The story underwent extensive elaboration in later Abrahamic traditions, and has been extensively analyzed by
modern biblical scholars. Interpretations and beliefs regarding Adam and Eve and the story revolving around them

Adam and Eve


vary across religions and sects.

Adam and Eve in Genesis


Creation of man
Main articles: Genesis creation narrative, Adam and Eve
In the Book of Genesis, the Genesis creation narrative tells of the creation of the first humans, humankind, in
Genesis 1:26-30 [4] as male and female. According to the Documentary hypothesis of the Genesis creation narrative,
there are two stories that derive from original independent sources: a Priestly source (P) (sixth-fifth centuries BC) in
Gen. 1:1-2:4a [5] and in Genesis 5 [6]; and an older Jahwist (J) or Jahwist-Elohist (J-E) (tenth-ninth centuries BC) in
Genesis 2:4b-25 [7]. Claus Westermann finds the recognition of two separate creation accounts to be "one of the most
important and most assured results of the literary-critical examination of the Old Testament".[8] In the Priestly
narrative (Genesis 1:1 to Genesis 2:4a [9]), Elohim creates the world in six days, culminating in the creation of
humanity, then rests on the seventh day.
In an older Jahwist or Jahwist-Elohist sources (tenth-ninth centuries BC) in Genesis 2:4b-25 [7], also known as the
"subordinating (of woman) account", Yahweh fashions a man (Heb. adam, "man" or "mankind") from the dust (Heb.
adamah) and blows the breath of life into his nostrils.
In this version of the story, God brings the animals to the man for him to name. None of them are found to be a
suitable companion for the man, so God causes the man to sleep and creates a woman from a part of his body
(English-language tradition describes the part as a rib, but the Hebrew word tsela, from which this interpretation is
derived, having multiple meanings, could also mean "side". See the Textual Note below). Describing her in
Gen.2:23a [10] as "bone of my bones, flesh of my flesh," the man calls his new partner "woman" (Heb. ishshah), "for
this one was taken from a man" (Heb. ish). The chapter ends by establishing the state of primeval innocence, noting
that the man and woman were "naked and not ashamed", and so provides the departure point for the subsequent
narrative in which wisdom is gained through disobedience at severe cost.
Adam named his wife Eve (Heb. hawwah) "because she was the mother of all living" and Adam receives his name
"the man", changing from "eth-ha'adham", before the fall to "ha'Adham" (with article/command), to Adam after the
fall (disobedience). Eve/woman is also established as subordinate to Adam/man, as the impetus for her creation is to
serve the needs of Adam by being his "helpmate" to man and to ensure that he not "be alone." [Gen. 3:18] [11]
However, others argue for a translation of the Hebrew ezer as "companion," in which manner it is used elsewhere in
the Bible; under that reading, the hierarchical relationship is not manifest in the original text but rather a result of
mis-translation.

Adam and Eve

Expulsion from Eden


For the Christian doctrines, see Fall of man and Original sin.
Genesis 3 continues the Adam and Eve story into the expulsion from
Eden narrative. A form analysis of Genesis 3 reveals that this portion
of the Adam and Eve story is characterized as a parable or wisdom tale
in the wisdom tradition. Genesis 3's poetic addresses belong to the
speculative type of wisdom that questions the paradoxes and harsh
realities of life. This characterization is determined by the narrative's
format, settings, and the plot. Genesis 3's form is also shaped by its
vocabulary technique, which makes use of various puns and double
entendres. The dating of Chapter 3 is said to be around 900s BCE
during the reigns of King David or Solomon. The Documentary
hypothesis for this narrative portion is attributed to Yahwist (J), due to
the use of YHWH.

William Blake's color printing of God Judging


Adam (1795). This print is currently held by the
Tate Collection. In the Biblical story, God's
judgement is expulsion from the Garden of Eden.

The expulsion from Eden narrative begins with a dialogue that is exchanged between the serpent and the woman
(3:1-5). The serpent is identified in 2:19 as an animal that was made by Yahweh among the beasts of the field. The
woman is willing to talk to the serpent and respond to the creature's cynicism by rehearsing Yahweh's prohibition
from 2:17. The woman is lured into dialogue on the serpent's terms which directly disputes Yahweh's command.
Adam and the woman sin (3:6-8).
In the next narrative dialogue, Yahweh questions Adam and the woman (3:9-13). Yahweh initiates dialogue by
calling out to Adam with a rhetorical question designed to consider his wrongdoing. Adam explains that he hid out
of fear because he realized his nakedness. This is followed by two more rhetorical questions designed to show
awareness of a defiance of Yahweh's command. Adam then points to the woman as the real offender, then accuses
Yahweh for the tragedy. Yahweh challenges the woman to explain herself, whereby she shifts the blame to the
serpent.
Divine pronouncement of three judgments are then laid against all culprits (3:14-19). A judgement oracle and the
nature of the crime is first laid upon the serpent, then the woman, and finally Adam. To the serpent, Yahweh places a
divine curse. To the woman, she receives a penalty that impacts two primary roles: childbearing and her relationship
to her husband. Adam's penalty results in Yahweh cursing the ground from which he came, and then receives a death
oracle. The reaction of Adam, the naming of Eve, and Yahweh making skin garments are described in a concise
narrative (3:20-21). The garden account ends with an intradivine monologue, determining the couple's expulsion, and
the execution of that deliberation (3:22-24). The reason given for the expulsion was not as retribution for eating the
fruit, but to prevent a challenge to Yahweh: "Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and
now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever". [Gen. 3:22] [12] Thus,
Yahweh removed the threat to His power by exiling Adam and Eve from the Garden and installing cherubs
(human-headed winged lions) and the "ever-turning sword" to guard the entrance. [Gen. 3:24] [13]

Adam and Eve

Offspring
Genesis four tells of the birth of Cain and Abel, Adam and Eve's first children, while Genesis five gives Adam's
genealogy past that. Adam and Eve are listed as having three children, Cain, Abel and Seth, then "other sons and
daughters". [Gen 5:4] [14]

Adam and Eve in other works


Certain concepts such as the serpent being identified as Satan, Eve being a sexual temptation, or Adam's first wife
being Lilith, come from literary works found in various Jewish apocrypha, but not found anywhere in the Book of
Genesis or the Torah itself. Writings dealing with these subjects are extant literature in Greek, Latin, Slavonic,
Syriac, Armenian and Arabic, going back to ancient Jewish thought. Their influential concepts were then adopted
into Christian theology, but not into modern Judaism. This marked a radical split between the two religions. Some of
the oldest Jewish portions of apocrypha are called Primary Adam Literature where some works became
Christianized. Examples of Christianized works are Life of Adam and Eve, Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan,
(translated from the Ethiopic by Solomon Caesar Malan, 1882)[15] and an original Syriac work entitled Cave of
Treasures[16] which has close affinities to the Conflict as noted by August Dillmann.

Abrahamic traditions
Judaism
For the Jewish Weekly Torah portion, see Bereshit (parsha)#Third reading and Bereshit (parsha)#Fourth reading.
It was also recognized in ancient Judaism, that there are two distinct accounts for the creation of man. The first
account says "male and female [God] created them", implying simultaneous creation, whereas the second account
states that God created Eve subsequent to the creation of Adam. The Midrash Rabbah Genesis VIII:1 reconciled
the two by stating that Genesis one, "male and female He created them", indicates that God originally created Adam
as a hermaphrodite,Wikipedia:Citation needed bodily and spiritually both male and female, before creating the
separate beings of Adam and Eve. Other rabbis suggested that Eve and the woman of the first account were two
separate individuals, the first being identified as Lilith, a figure elsewhere described as a night demon.
According to traditional Jewish belief, Adam and Eve are buried in the Cave of Machpelah, in Hebron.
In Reform Judaism, Harry Orlinsky analyzes the Hebrew word nefesh in [Gen. 2:7] [17] where "God breathes into the
man's nostrils and he becomes nefesh hayya." Orlinksy argues that the earlier translation of the phrase "living soul" is
incorrect. He points out that "nefesh" signifies something like the English word "being", in the sense of a corporeal
body capable of life; the concept of a "soul" in the modern sense, did not exist in Hebrew thought until around the
2nd century BC, when the idea of a bodily resurrection gained popularity.[18]

Adam and Eve

Christianity
Main articles: Fall of man and Original sin
Some early Fathers of the Church took the view that because Eve
tempted Adam to eat of the fatal fruit, they held her responsible for the
Fall of man, and all subsequent women to be the first sinners. "You are
the devil's gateway" Tertullian told his female listeners in the early 2nd
century, and went on to explain that they were responsible for the death
of Christ: "On account of your desert (i.e., punishment for sin), that is,
death, even the Son of God had to die." In 1486, the Dominicans
Kramer and Sprengler used similar tracts in Malleus Maleficarum
("Hammer of Witches") to justify the persecution of "witches".
Medieval Christian art often depicted the Edenic Serpent as a woman
(often identified as Lilith), thus both emphasizing the Serpent's
seductiveness as well as its relationship to Eve. Several early Church
Fathers, including Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius of Caesarea,
interpreted the Hebrew "Heva" as not only the name of Eve, but in its
aspirated form as "female serpent."

Adam, Eve, and the (female) Serpent (often


identified as Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame
Cathedral in Paris.

Based on the Christian doctrine of the Fall of man, came the doctrine of original sin. St Augustine of Hippo
(354430), working with a Latin translation of the Epistle to the Romans, interpreted the Apostle Paul as having said
that Adam's sin was hereditary: "Death passed upon (i.e., spread to) all men because of Adam, [in whom] all sinned"
(Romans 5:12 [19]). Original sin became a concept that man is born into a condition of sinfulness and must await
redemption. This doctrine became a cornerstone of Western Christian theological tradition, however, not shared by
Judaism or the Orthodox churches.
Over the centuries, a system of unique Christian beliefs had developed from these doctrines. Baptism became
understood as a washing away of the stain of hereditary sin in many churches, although its original symbolism was
apparently rebirth. Additionally, the serpent that tempted Eve was interpreted to have been Satan, or that Satan was
using a serpent as a mouthpiece, although there is no mention of this identification in the Torah and it is not held in
Judaism.
Conservative Protestants typically interpret Genesis 3 [20] as defining humanity's original parents as Adam and Eve
who disobeyed God's prime directive that they were not to eat "the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and
evil" (NIV). When they disobeyed, they committed a major transgression against God and were immediately
punished, which led to "the fall" of humanity. Thus, sin and death entered the universe for the first time. Adam and
Eve were ejected from the Garden of Eden, never to return.[21]

Gnostic and Manichaean traditions


See also: Gnostics and Manichaeans
Gnostic Christianity discussed Adam and Eve in two known surviving texts, namely the "Apocalypse of Adam"
found in the Nag Hammadi documents and the "Testament of Adam". The creation of Adam as Protoanthropos, the
original man, is the focal concept of these writings.
The Manichaean conception of Adam and Eve is pessimistic. According to them, the copulative action of two
demons, Adam and Eve were born to further imprison the soul in the material universe.
"Mani said, 'Then Jesus came and spoke to the one who had been born, who was Adam, and made him fear
Eve, showing him how to suppress (desire) for her, and he forbade him to approach her Then that (male)
Archon came back to his daughter, who was Eve, and lustfully had intercourse with her. He engendered with

Adam and Eve


her a son, deformed in shape and possessing a red complexion, and his name was Cain, the Red Man.'"[22]
Another Gnostic tradition held that Adam and Eve were created to help defeat Satan. The serpent, instead of being
identified with Satan, is seen as a hero by the Ophites. Still other Gnostics believed that Satan's fall, however, came
after the creation of humanity. As in Islamic tradition, this story says that Satan refused to bow to Adam due to pride.
Satan said that Adam was inferior to him as he was made of fire, whereas Adam was made of clay. This refusal led
to the fall of Satan recorded in works such as the Book of Enoch.

Islam
Main article: Biblical narratives and the Quran Adam and Eve ( Adam and Hawwaa)
In Islam, Adam (dam; Arabic: ), whose role is being the father of
humanity, is looked upon by Muslims with reverence. Eve (aww;
Arabic: ) is the "mother of humanity."[23] The creation of Adam
and Eve is referred to in the Qurn, although different Quranic
interpreters give different views on the actual creation story (Quran,
Surat al-Nisa, verse 1).[24]
In al-Qummi's tafsir on the Garden of Eden, such place was not
entirely earthly. According to the Qurn, both Adam and Eve ate the
forbidden fruit in a Heavenly Eden (See also Jannah). As a result, they
were both sent down to Earth as God's representatives. Each person
was sent to a mountain peak: Adam on al-Safa, and Eve on al-Marwah.
In this Islamic tradition, Adam wept 40 days until he repented, after
Painting from Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful
which God sent down the Black Stone, teaching him the Hajj.
Animals), depicting Adam and Eve. From
According to a prophetic hadith, Adam and Eve reunited in the plain of
Maragheh in Iran, 129499
Arafat, near Mecca. They had two sons together, Qabil and Habil.
There is also a legend of a younger son, named Rocail, who created a
palace and sepulcher containing autonomous statues that lived out the lives of men so realistically they were
mistaken for having souls.
The concept of original sin does not exist in Islam, because Adam and Eve were forgiven by God. When God orders
the angels to bow to Adam, Ibls questioned, "Why should I bow to man? I am made of pure fire and he is made of
soil." The liberal movements within Islam have viewed God's commanding the angels to bow before Adam as an
exaltation of humanity, and as a means of supporting human rights; others view it as an act of showing Adam that
the biggest enemy of humans on earth will be their ego.[25]

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Adam is seen as a Manifestation of God. The Adam and Eve narratives are seen as symbolic, but
are also seen as having mythical features. In Some Answered Questions, 'Abdu'l-Bah rejects a literal reading and
states that the story contains "divine mysteries and universal meanings" and that one of these meanings is that Adam
symbolizes Adam's heavenly spirit, Eve his human soul, the tree of good and evil symbolizes the human world and
the serpent worldly attachment.[26] After the 'fall' of Adam, humanity has been conscious of good and evil.

Adam and Eve

Scientific criticism
See also: Relationship between religion and science
The story of Adam and Eve contradicts the scientific consensus that humans evolved from more primitive species of
hominids. It is also incompatible with the current understanding of human genetics. In particular, if all humans
descended from two individuals several thousand years ago, it would require an impossibly high mutation rate to
account for the observed variation.[27] These incompatibilities have caused many Christians to move away from a
literal interpretation and belief in the Genesis creation narrative, while others continue to believe in what they see as
a fundamental doctrine of the Christian faith.

Y-chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve


The names Adam and Eve are used metaphorically in a scientific context to designate the patrilineal and matrilineal
most recent common ancestors, the Y-chromosomal Adam and the Mitochondrial Eve. Those are not fixed
individuals, nor is there any reason to assume that they lived at the same time, let alone that they met or formed a
couple.[28] A recent study on the subject estimates that the Y-chromosomal Adam lived 120 to 156 thousand years
ago, while the Mitochondrial Eve lived 99 to 148 thousand years ago. Another recent study places the
Y-chromosomal Adam 180 to 200 thousand years ago.

Art and literature


Adam and Eve were used by early Renaissance artists as a theme to represent female and male nudes. Later, the
nudity was objected to by more modest elements, and fig leaves were added to the older pictures and sculptures,
covering their genitals. The choice of the fig was a result of Mediterranean traditions identifying the unnamed Tree
of knowledge as a fig tree, and since fig leaves were actually mentioned in Genesis as being used to cover Adam and
Eve's nudity.
Treating the concept of Adam and Eve as the historical truth introduces some logical dilemmas. One such dilemma is
whether they should be depicted with navels (the Omphalos theory). Since they did not develop in a uterus, they
would not have been connected to an umbilical cord like all other humans. Paintings without navels looked unnatural
and some artists obscure that area of their bodies, sometimes by depicting them covering up that area of their body
with their hand or some other intervening object.
John Milton's Paradise Lost is a famous 17th-century epic poem written in blank verse which explores the story of
Adam and Eve in great detail. As opposed to the Biblical Adam, Milton's Adam is given a glimpse of the future of
mankind, by the archangel Michael, before he has to leave Paradise.
American painter Thomas Cole painted The Garden of Eden (1828), with lavish detail of the first couple living amid
waterfalls, vivid plants, and attractive deer.[29]
Mark Twain wrote humorous and satirical diaries for Adam and Eve in both Eve's Diary (1906) and The Private Life
of Adam and Eve (1931), posthumously published.
John William "Uncle Jack" Dey painted "Adam and Eve Leave Eden" (1973), using stripes and dabs of pure color to
evoke Eden's lush surroundings.

Adam and Eve

Adam and Eve


depicted in a mural in
Abreha wa Atsbeha
Church, Ethiopia.

Adam and Eve by Titian.

Depiction of the Fall


in Kunsthalle
Hamburg, by Master
Bertram

Adam and Eve by


Albrecht Drer

Eve giving Adam the


forbidden fruit, by
Lucas Cranach the
Elder

Adam and Eve


from a copy of the
Falnama (Book of
Omens) ascribed to
Jafar al-Sadiq, ca.
1550, Safavid
dynasty, Iran.

Detail of a stained glass


window (XIIth century)
in Saint-Julien cathedral Le Mans, France.

Adam & Eve,


illuminated
manuscript circa
950, Escorial
Beatus

Adam and
Eve by
Maarten
van
Heemskerck

Early Christian
depiction of Adam
and Eve in the
Catacombs of
Marcellinus and
Peter

References
Footnotes
[1] Azyumardi. Azra. "TRIALOGUE OF ABRAHAMIC FAITHS; Towards the Alliance of Civilizations". Paper presented at Conference.
"Children of Abraham: Trialogue of Civilizations" Weatherhead Center for International Affairs & Divinity School, Harvard University,
Cambridge, Mass., 2223 October 2007 (http:/ / www. wcfia. harvard. edu/ sites/ default/ files/ Azra. pdf)
[2] Judaisms Rejection Of Original Sin (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ Judaism/ Original_Sin. html) Kolatch, Alfred J. The
Jewish Book of Why/The Second Jewish Book of Why. NY: Jonathan David Publishers, 1989.
[3] Judaism's Rejection Of Original Sin (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ Judaism/ Original_Sin. html Judaism's Rejection Of
Original Sin) While there were some Jewish teachers in Talmudic times who believed that death was a punishment brought upon humanity on
account of Adam's sin, the dominant view was that man sins because he is not a perfect being, and not, as Christianity teaches, because he is
inherently sinful.
[4] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Genesis+ 1%3A26-30& version=ESV
[5] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen. + 1%3A1-2%3A4a& version=ESV
[6] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Genesis+ 5& version=ESV
[7] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Genesis+ 2%3A4b-25& version=ESV
[8] Westermann, Claus. Creation. Fortress Press; First English Edition edition (1974) ISBN 978-0800610722, p.6
[9] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Genesis+ 2%3A4a& version=ESV
[10] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen+ 2%3A23& version=ESV
[11] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen. + 3%3A18& version=ESV
[12] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen. + 3%3A22& version=ESV
[13] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen. + 3%3A24& version=ESV
[14] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen+ 5%3A4& version=NIV

Adam and Eve


[15] First translated by August Dillmann (Das christl. Adambuch des Morgenlandes, 1853), and the Ethiopic book first edited by Trump (Abh. d.
Mnch. Akad. xv., 1870-1881).
[16] Die Schatzhhle translated by Carl Bezold from three Syriac MSS (1883), edited in Syriac (1888).
[17] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Gen. + 2%3A7& version=ESV
[18] Harry Orlinsky's Notes to the NJPS Torah
[19] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Romans+ 5%3A12& version=ESV
[20] http:/ / www. biblegateway. com/ passage/ ?search=Genesis+ 3& version=ESV
[21] Robinson, B.A. "Salvation: Teachings by Southern Baptists and other conservative Protestant denominations". Ontario Consultants on
Religious Tolerance, 2010. Accessed 2 Feb 2013
[22] Manichaean beliefs (http:/ / www. religiousstudies. uncc. edu/ jcreeves/ manichaean_version_of_genesis_2-4. htm)
[23] Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, Adam and Eve
[24] :O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife Hawwa
(Eve), and from them both He created many men and women;
[25] Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan. Lahore: Dar al-Ishraq, 2001
[26] McLean, Jack (1997). Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bah' Theology - Volume 8. (http:/ / books. google. com/
books?id=HWq67XexIHcC) p. 215.
[27] Transcript (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ transcript/ transcript. php?storyId=138957812)
[28] ""
[29] Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas

Bibliography
Mathews, K. A. (1996). Genesis 1-11:26. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN978-0805401011.
Kissling, Paul (2004). Genesis, Volume 1 (http://books.google.com/?id=lotBnvqdmeQC&
pg=PP4#v=onepage&q=In the beginning&f=false). College Press. ISBN978-0899008752.

Further reading
Almond, Philip C. 'Adam and Eve in Seventeenth-Century Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1999, 2008)
Alter, Robert (2004). The Five Books of Moses (http://books.google.com.au/books?id=ZcMhkJ8a708C&
printsec=frontcover&dq=he+Five+Books+of+Moses&hl=en&ei=s7bATsiWFYjHmQX_6LXKBA&sa=X&
oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=he Five Books of Moses&
f=false). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN0-393-33393-0.
Ayoub, Mahmoud. The Qur'an and its Interpreters, SUNY: Albany, 1984
Lewis, C.S. The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe"
Mackie, Adam. The Importance of being Adam - Alexo 1997 (only 2000 copies published)
Murdoch, Brian O. The Apocryphal Adam and Eve in Medieval Europe: Vernacular Translations and
Adaptations of the Vita Adae et Evae. Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-956414-9
Patai, R. The Jewish Alchemists, Princeton University Press, 1994.
Rana & Hugh. Fazale Rana and Ross, Hugh, Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Man,
2005, ISBN 1-57683-577-4
Rohl, David. Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation, 1998
Sibylline Oracles, III; 246. This Greek acrostic also appears in 2 Enoch 30:13.
Sykes, Bryan. The Seven Daughters of Eve

Adam and Eve

10

External links
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Bible Genealogy (http://www.Bible-Genealogy.com/)


First Human Beings (http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/world/human.html) (Library of Congress)
The Story of Lilith in The Alphabet of Ben Sira (http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~humm/Topics/Lilith/alphabet.
html)
Islamic view of the fall of Adam (audio) (http://www.islamfrominside.com/Pages/Podcasts/Fall of Adam
podcast.html)
98 classical images of Adam and Eve (http://www.adam-and-eve.org/)
The Book of Jubilees (http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/noncanon/ot/pseudo/jubilee.htm)
Adam and Eve in Medieval Reliefs, Capitals, Frescoes, Roof Bosses and Mosaics (http://www.paradoxplace.
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"Adam and Eve" (http://www.christianiconography.info/adamEve.html) at the Christian Iconography (http://
www.christianiconography.info/) website
Translation of Grimm's Fairy Tale No. 180, Eve's Unequal Children, a German Fairy Tale about Adam and Eve
(http://www.fairytalechannel.org/2007_12_06_archive.html)
Jewish Encyclopedia (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=527&letter=E&search=Eve)
Original Sin (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11312a.htm)
Biblical parallels in Sumerian mythology (http://www.meta-religion.com/World_Religions/Ancient_religions/
Mesopotamia/Epic_of_gilgamesh/biblical_parallels_in_sumerian_l.htm)

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


file:Adam na restauratie.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adam_na_restauratie.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Amadalvarez, GijsvdL, Mattes, Oursana,
Sailko, Wst, 1 anonymous edits
file:Creation of Eve.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Creation_of_Eve.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Barosaul, DenghiComm, FA2010, G.dallorto,
Mattes, Sailko, TTaylor, Wst, Xenophon
File:God judging adam blake 1795.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:God_judging_adam_blake_1795.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Petropoxy
(Lithoderm Proxy), Sadads
File:Temptation Adam Eva.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Temptation_Adam_Eva.jpg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: Jebulon
File:Islamic Adam & Eve.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Islamic_Adam_&_Eve.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abu Said Ubaud Allah Ibn Bakhitshu.
File:Abreha and Atsbeha Church - Adam and Eve 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Abreha_and_Atsbeha_Church_-_Adam_and_Eve_01.jpg License: Creative
Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Bernard Gagnon
File:Tizian_091.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tizian_091.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andreagrossmann, AndreasPraefcke, Balbo, Dmitry Rozhkov,
Escarlati, Hellevoetfotoshoot, Till.niermann
File:Meister Bertram von Minden 009.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Meister_Bertram_von_Minden_009.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Andreagrossmann, AndreasPraefcke, Concord, David Angel, Hellevoetfotoshoot, Jameslwoodward, Leyo, Mabrndt, TUBS
File:Albrecht Drer 002.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albrecht_Drer_002.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andreagrossmann, AndreasPraefcke,
Aristeas, Balbo, Butko, Darwinius, Emijrp, Gaudio, Kilom691, Mattes, Oursana, Sailko, Shakko, 1 anonymous edits
File:Lucas Cranach the Elder - Adam und Eva im Paradies (Sndenfall) - Google Art Project.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lucas_Cranach_the_Elder_-_Adam_und_Eva_im_Paradies_(Sndenfall)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ham,
Jenaesthetics, Mattes, Oursana, Till.niermann, Vincent Steenberg

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:Adam and Eve from a copy of the Falnama.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adam_and_Eve_from_a_copy_of_the_Falnama.jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: BrightRaven, Calame, Grenavitar, Jastrow, Qizilbash, Shakko, 2 anonymous edits
File:Le Mans - Cathedrale St Julien CV 01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Le_Mans_-_Cathedrale_St_Julien_CV_01.jpg License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:Selbymay
File:B Escorial 18.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:B_Escorial_18.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Andreagrossmann, Butko, Claveyrolas Michel,
G.dallorto, JMCC1, Jcb, Mattes, Salix, Till.niermann, Tillman, Vsk, Warburg, 1 anonymous edits
File:M. v. Heemskerck-Muse des Bx-Arts Strasbourg-Gdon-Adam Eve-Ausschnitt 2.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:M._v._Heemskerck-Muse_des_Bx-Arts_Strasbourg-Gdon-Adam_Eve-Ausschnitt_2.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike
3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Ji-Elle
File:Adam & Eve 02.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Adam_&_Eve_02.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Angel, G.dallorto, Lalupa, Leinad-Z,
OrthoArchitectDU, Shakko, Thuresson, Till.niermann, Wst
Image:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: -xfi-, Dbc334, Doodledoo, Elian, Guillom, Jeffq,
Krinkle, Maderibeyza, Majorly, Nishkid64, RedCoat, Rei-artur, Rocket000, 11 anonymous edits
Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Vectorized by , based on original logo
tossed together by Brion Vibber
Image:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Commons-logo.svg License: logo Contributors: Anomie

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
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