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LDR Consumer Mobility


Last Day Revision [LDR] Guide

Consumer Mobility

Created By ExamKart


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Sr No


Chapter 1 : Cellular Concepts & Modulation Techniques
Chapter 2: GSM Mobile Communication 2G
Chapter 3: GPRS ,EDGE
Chapter 4: GSM 3G
Chapter 5: RF Planning & Drive Test
Chapter 6: Mobile VAS
Chapter 7: MIN [Mobile Intellegient Network]
Chapter 8: Roaming & International Roaming
Chapter 9: Project Vijay
Chapter 10: Sancharsoft
Chapter 11: Overview of CDMA 2000 1x & EVDO
Chapter 12:WI-FI & Wimax
Chapter 13: Mobile Number Portability
Chapter 14: Earthing & Power Plant
Chapter 15: Charging and Billing in GSM/CDMA
Chapter 16:HSPDA,LTE,LTE-A
Chapter 17:Intelligent Network in Mobile Communication
Chapter 18: Security Features in GSM/CDMA and its Lawful interception

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Chapter 1 - Cellular Concepts & Modulation Techniques

Cell: A cell is the basic geographic unit of cellular system. Cells are base stations
transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as hexagons.

A group of cells is called a cluster. No frequencies are reused in a cluster.

Types of Cell
Macro Cell: is a cell in a mobile phone network that provides radio coverage served by a
high power cellular base station (tower). Generally, macrocells provide coverage
larger than microcell. Macrocell base stations have power outputs of typically tens of
Micro cell :is a cell in a mobile phone network served by a low power cellular base
station (tower), covering a limited small area such as a mall, a hotel, or a transportation
Pico cells :are small cells whose diameter is only few dozen meters; they are used
mainly in indoor applications.It can cover e.g. a floor of a building or an entire building,
or for example in shopping centers or airports,which means that there are several radio
antenna placed within one pico cell.
Umbrella cells:A layer with micro cells is covered by at least one macro cell, which
can cover large areas

Features of Digital Cellular Systems:

Small cells : A cellular system uses many base stations with relatively small coverage
radii (on the order of a 100 m to 30 km).
Frequency reuse: The spectrum allocated for a cellular network is limited. As a result
there is a limit to the number of channels or frequencies that can be used. For this
reason each frequency is used simultaneously by multiple base-mobile pairs. This
frequency reuse allows a much higher subscriber density per MHz of spectrum than
other systems.
Small, battery-powered handsets : enables the use of small, battery-powered
handsets with a radio frequency that is lower than the large mobile units used in
earlier systems
Performance of handovers: In cellular systems, continuous coverage is achieved by
executing a handover (the seamless transfer of the call from one base station to
another) as the mobile unit crosses cell boundaries.

Cells using the same channel set are called co-channel cells

Cell clustering :Radio channels can be reused provided the separation between cells
containing the same channel set is far enough apart so that co-channel interference can
be kept below acceptable levels most of the time.


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Reuse Factor: The number of channel sets is called K. K is also called the reuse factor.
Thus K is the number of cells in a group where there is no re-use of available frequency
resources and also all the available frequency resources have been exhausted such a
group of cells is called a cluster.
Valid values of K can be found using equation (where i and j are integers): K=i+j+i*j

As long as the ratio, Frequency reuse distance / Cell radius = D/R is greater than some
specified value, the ratio Received radio carrier power / Received interferer radio carrier
power =C/I will be greater than some given amount for small as well as large cell sizes when
all signals are transmitted at the same power level

Relationship between K and D/R

Relationship between K and Network Performance

If K increases, then the co-channel interference decreases, and so the performance

Relationship between K and Cell Capacity

If K increases, the number of frequencies per set (and so per cell) decreases, and so the
call capacity per cell.

Capacity/Performance Trade-offs

If K increases, then performance increases

If K increases, then call capacity decreases per cell

Techniques to reduce interference and enhance spectral efficiency

Power Control
Use if directional Antennas (3 sector configuration)
Mobile Assisted Handover (MAHO).

Imp Modulation Techniques

a. Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
b. Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
c. Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
d. Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) : MSK is a special form of binary CPFSK. The signal has a
constant envelope. MSK is attractive because it has relatively compact spectrum and
its out-of-band performance is better than FSK.

Bandwidth efficiency ()
If a digital link transmits R bits/s utilizing BW Hz of RF bandwidth then the bandwidth
efficiency () is measured by the channel throughput defined as follows:
= R/BW bits/s/Hz


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Two level Modulation system 1 bit/s/Hz

Four level Modulation system = 2 bit/s/Hz
Eight level Modulation system = 3 bit/s/Hz

Comparison of Macro Cellular and Micro Cellular systems


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Chapter 2 - GSM 2G

GSM Frequencies
1. GSM-900 mobile system
A. Uplink Frequency (mobile station to BTS) : 890 MHz - 915 MHz
B. Downlink (BTS to mobile station): 935 MHz - 960 MHz.
C. Duplex Spacing:45 Mhz
2. GSM-1800 mobile system

A. Uplink Frequency (mobile station to BTS) : 1710 MHz- 1785 Mhz

B.Downlink (BTS to mobile station): 1805 MHz - 1880 MHz
C.Duplex Spacing: 95 MHz.
A GSM system comprises of three major subsystems
1. Network subsystem
2.Radio subsystem
3.Operation support subsystem
GSM Network Structure
In the GSM system, the network is divided into the following partitioned areas.
GSM service area: is the total area served by the combination of all member countries
where a mobile can be serviced.

PLMN service area: There can be several PLMN area within a country, based on its size.

MSC service area: In one PLMN there can be several MSC/VLR service areas.

Location area: There are several LAs within one MSC/VLR combination. A LA is a part of
the MSC/VLR service area in which a MS may move freely without updating location
information to the MSC/VLR exchange that control the LA

Cells: LA is divided into many cells. A cell is an identity served by one BTS.

Mobile Station [MS]

The MS includes radio equipment and the man machine interface (MMI) that a
subscriber needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM PLMN.
Functions of MS
Transmit and receive voice and data over the air interface of the GSM system.
Signal processing function of digitizing, encoding, error protecting, encrypting, and
modulating the transmitted signals.

SIM Card
GSM subscribers are provided with a SIM card with its unique identification at the very
beginning of the service. The SIM is a removable SC, the size of a credit card, and contains
an integrated circuit chip with a microprocessor, random access memory (RAM), and read
only memory (ROM).


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International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) :An IMSI is assigned to each authorized
GSM user. It consists of a mobile country code (MCC), mobile network code (MNC), and
a PLMN unique mobile subscriber identification number (MSIN).

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) :A TMSI is a MSC-VLR specific alias that
is designed to maintain user confidentiality.

Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN): The MSRN is allocated on temporary basis
when the MS roams into another numbering area. The MSRN number is used by the HLR
for rerouting calls to the MS. It is assigned upon demand by the HLR on a per-call basis.

International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) :The IMEI is the unique identity of the
equipment used by a subscriber by each PLMN and is used to determine authorized
(white), unauthorized (black), and malfunctioning (gray) GSM hardware. An IMEI is
never sent in cipher mode by MS.
White List: contains those IMEIs that are known to have been assigned to valid MSs. This
is the category of genuine equipment.
Black List: contains IMEIs of mobiles that have been reported stolen.
Gray List: contains IMEIs of mobiles that have problems (for example, faulty software
and wrong make of the equipment).

Base Station System [BSS] :The BSS is a set of BS equipment (such as transceivers and
controllers) The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells. A BSS
may consist of one or more Base Station.

Base Transreceiver Station [BTS]: is a network component that serves one cell and is
controlled by a BSC.
Functions of BTS
The primary responsibility of the BTS is to transmit and receive radio signals from a
mobile unit over an air interface.
Transcoding to bring 13-kbps speech to a standard data rate of 16 kbps and then
combining four of these signals to 64 kbps is essentially a part of BTS, though, it can be
done at BSC or at MSC.

Transcoder/Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU): The TRAU is the equipment in which coding
and decoding is carried out as well as rate adoption in case of data.

Base Station Controller [BSC]:The BSC is connected to the MSC on one side and to the
BTS on the other.
Function of BSC: The BSC performs the Radio Resource (RR) management for the cells
under its control.


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Switching Subsystems:
Mobile Switching Center
The basic switching function is performed by the MSC
Functions of MSC
The main function of the MSC is to coordinate the set up of calls between GSM mobile and
PSTN users. Specifically, it performs functions such as paging, resource allocation,
location registration, and encryption.

Home Location Register [HLR]

The HLR is a database that permanently stores data related to a given set of subscribers.
The HLR is the reference database for subscriber parameters. Various identification
numbers and addresses as well as authentication parameters, services subscribed, and
special routing information are stored.

Visitor Location Register [VLR]

The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is
needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers.

Authentication Center [AuC]

Authentication information and ciphering keys are stored in a database within the AUC,
which protects the user information against unwanted disclosure and access.

Equipment Identify Register [EIR]

EIR is a database that stores the IMEI numbers for all registered ME units. There is
generally one EIR per PLMN.

Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC): The OMC provides alarm-handling functions
to report and log alarms generated by the other network entities. The OMC also keeps
track of the different software versions running on different subsystem of the GSM.

GSM Interface
1. Air interface or U m interface : [ Between BTS and MS]

Universal use of any compatible mobile station in a GSM network

A maximum spectral efficiency
2. A bis -interface [Between BSC and BTS]

Voice-data traffic exchange
Signaling exchange between the BSC and the BTS
Transporting synchronization information from the BSC to the BTS
3. A-interface [Between BSC and the MSC]


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Types of Logical Channels

1.Traffic channel
2.Broadcast channels
3.Common control channels
4.Dedicated control channels
1. Traffic channels: The traffic channels are used to send speech or data services.
There are two types of traffic channels.
TCH/F (Traffic Channel Full rate)
The TCH/F carries information at a gross bit rate of 22.8 kbit/s (after channel coding).
The net (or effective) bit rate at the TCH/F is for speech 13 kbit/s and for data 12, 6
or 3.6 kbit/s (before channel coding).
TCH/H (Traffic Channel Half rate)
The TCH/H carries information at a gross bit rate of 11.4 kbit/s. The net bit rate at the
TCH/H is for speech 5.6 kbit/s and for data is 6 or 3.6 kbit/s.
2. Broadcast Channels: The broadcast channels are point-to-multipoint channels which
are only defined for the downlink direction (BTS to the mobile station).
BCCH (Broadcast Control Channel)
Via the BCCH, the mobile station is informed about the system configuration
parameters (for example Local Area Identification, Cell Identity and Neighbor Cells. The
BCCH is also known as beacon.
FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel)
The FCC transmits a constant frequency shift of the radio frequency carrier that can be
used by the mobile station for frequency correction.

SCH (Synchronization Channel)

The SCH is used to time synchronize the mobile stations. The data on this channel carries
the TDMA frame number and the BSIC (Base Station Identity Code).
CBCH (Cell Broadcast Channel)
The CBCH is used for the transmission of generally accessible information (SMS) in a cell,
which can be polled by the mobile station.
3. Common Control Channel
PCH (Paging Channel)
The PCH is used in the downlink direction for paging the mobile stations.
AGCH (Access Grant Channel)
The AGCH is also used in the downlink direction. A logical channel for a connection is
allocated via the AGCH if the mobile station has requested such a Channel via the RACH.
RACH (Random Access Channel) : The RACH is used in the uplink direction by the
mobile stations for requesting a channel for a connection.


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4. Dedicated Control Channels Dedicated control channels are full-duplex, point-topoint Channels .
SACCH (Slow Associated Control Channel) :The SACCH is a duplex Channel which is
always allocated to a TCH or SDCCH. The SACCH is used for transmission of signaling data,
radio link supervision measurements, transmit power control and timing advance data.
FACCH (Fast Associated Control Channel) :The FACCH is used as a main signaling link
for the transmission of signaling data (for example handover commands).
SDCCH (Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel) :The SDCCH is a duplex, point-topoint Channel which is used for signaling in higher layers. The SDCCHs are used for
service requests (for example Short Message Service), location updates, subscriber
authentication, ciphering initiation, equipment validation and assignment to a TCH.
Channel Combination
7. SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8

Frame Types
1. TDMA frame
A TDMA frame consists of eight timeslots (physical channels). The length of a timeslot is
0.577 ms. The length of a TDMA frame is therefore 4.62 ms.
2. 26-TDMA multiframe
This multiframe is defined as a succession of 26 TDMA frames, and corresponds to the 26
x 8 BP or 120 ms cycle used in the definition of the TCH/F and TCH/H.
3. 51-TDMA multiframe
This multiframe is defined as a succession of 51 TDMA frames, and corresponds to the
51 x 8 BP cycle
4. Superframe
The superframe is a succession of 51 x 26 TDMA frames (6.12 sec),
5. Hyperframe
It is 2048 x 51 x 26 x 8 BP long, or 3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds and 760


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Chapter 3 - GPRS & EDGE

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM
mobile phones. It is often described as "2.5G", that is, a technology between the second (2G)
and third (3G) generations of mobile telephony.
GPRS is packet-switched which means that multiple users share the same transmission
channel, only transmitting when they have data to send.

Key User Features of GPRS

Rich Media Applications
Internet on the mobile
Always on

GPRS Advantages For Operators

More Revenue
Huge Potential Market for Data Services
Fast Roll-out and Continuous Network Expansion
GPRS uses excess voice capacity for data

Typical GPRS Services

Value added services - Information services, games, e-commerce.
Location-based applications - Navigation, traffic conditions, airline/rail schedule
Vertical applications - Freight delivery, fleet management, sales-force automation.
Location sensitive Advertising - A user nearing a cinema hall or a restaurant receives
flashes of advertisement
GPRS System Architecture
These elements are:
Packet Control Unit (PCU)
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN): the MSC of the GPRS network
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN): gateway to external networks
Border Gateway (BG): a gateway to other PLMN
Intra-PLMN backbone: an IP based network inter-connecting all the GPRS
Charging Gateway (CG)
Legal Interception Gateway (LIG)
Domain Name System (DNS)


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GPRS architecture
Packet Control Unit (PCU) :The PCU separates the circuit switched and packet switched
traffic from the user and sends them to the GSM and GPRS networks respectively. It also
performs most of the radio resource management functions of the GPRS network

Channel Codec Unit (CCU) :The CCU is realized in the BTS to perform the Channel
Coding (including the coding scheme algorithms), power control and timing advance

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) : The SGSN of the GPRS network is equivalent to the
MSC of the GSM network.

SGSN functions
Authentication, Authorization

GTP tunneling to GGSN

Mobility Management

Session Management

Interaction with HLR, MSC/VLR

Charging & statistics

NMS interfaces

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) :The GGSN is the gateway to external networks.
GGSN functions
Interface to external data networks

Encapsulate in GTP and forwards end user data to right SGSN

Routes mobile originated packets to right destination

Filters end user traffic

Collects charging and statistic information for data network usage

Domain Name Servers :These devices convert IP host names into IP addresses.

Firewalls :A firewall protects an IP network against external attack (for example, hackers
from the mobile users or from the Internet).. The firewall can also include NAT (Network
Address Translation).

Border Gateway :The Border Gateway (BG) is a router that can provide a direct GPRS
tunnel between different operators' GPRS networks. This is referred to as an interPLMN data network.

Charging Gateway :GPRS users have to be charged for the use of the network. In a GSM
network, charging is based on the destination, duration, and time of call.

MS Class
Type A :GPRS and Speech at the same time

Type B :GPRS and Speech (not at same time) (Automatically switches between GPRS


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and speech modes)

Type C :GPRS only (or manually switched between GPRS and speech modes)

EDGE, or the Enhanced Data Rate for Global Evolution is the new name for GSM 384. The
technology was named GSM 384 because of the fact that it provided Data Transmission at a
rate of 384 Kbps.
One Symbol for every 3 bits. Thus, EDGE Rate = 3x GPRS Rate.

EDGE benefits
Short-term benefits:
Capacity and performance
Easy implementation on a GSM/GPRS network

Cost effective

Increase the capacity and triples the data rate of GPRS

Enabling new multimedia services

Long-term benefit: Harmonization with WCDMA

EDGE Applications

Streaming Applications

Very high speed downloads

Corporate Intranet connections

Quicker MMS

Video Phone

Vertical corporate applications Video Conference, Remote presentations.


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Chapter 4 - GSM 3G

Wireless Generations
1 G - First Generation - Analog - Only mobile voice services - AMPS, NMT-450, TACS etc.
2 G - Second Generation - Digital - GSM, CDMA(IS-95), DAMPS(IS-136), ETDMA, PDC etc
3 G - Third Generation Digital- W-CDMA
4 G Fourth Generation - Digital- LTE ,LTE-A

Limitations of 2G Systems

Multiple Standards - No Global Standards

No Common Frequency Band

Low Data Bit Rates

Low Voice Quality

No Support of Video

Various Network Systems to meet Specific Requirements


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3rd Generation (3G) Communication

3G networks use IP connectivity, which is packet based.

Specifically, 3G wireless networks support the following maximum data transfer rates:
2 Mbits/second to stationary devices.

384 Kbits/ second for slowly moving devices, handset carried by a walking user.

128 Kbits/second for fast moving devices, such as handset in moving vehicles.

Characteristics of 3G services
Always-on connectivity.

Multi-media service with streaming audio and video.

Email with full-fledged attachments such as Power Point files.

Instant messaging with video/audio clips.

Fast downloads of large files such as faxes and Power Point files.

Access to corporate applications.

Advantages Of 3G

New radio spectrum to relieve overcrowding in existing systems.

More bandwidth, security and reliability.

Interoperability between service providers.

Fixed and variable data rates.

Backward compatibility of devices with existing networks.

Always-online devices, 3G will use IP connectivity.

Rich multimedia services.

Spectrum Allocation For IMT-2000

The following spectrum allocations are made for IMT-2000 by ITU till today:

1885-2025 MHz and 2110-2200 MHz (Core band for IMT-2000)

1710-1885 MHz and 2500-2690 MHz (Additional band).

806-960 MHz (Additional band)


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Technologies For IMT-2000

3G Network Architecture
The 3G network basically comprises of following three elements:
1. Core Network
2. Access Network
3. Terminal or User Equipment.
1.Core Network (CN)- The basic function of core network
Switching and routing
Call Control
Mobility Management (MM)
Managing the Subscriber Information


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Main Nodes in Core Network

Media Gateway (MGW)
2. Access Network (AN)- Access network in 3G system is called RAN (Radio Access Network).
Node-B (Equivalent to 2G BTS) , RNC (Equivalent to 2G BSC) are the main nodes of RAN.
3.User Equipment (UE) It is the combination of User equipment and USIM. User equipment
may be laptop or mobile phone and SIM of 3G Systems is referred as USIM.

Migration path


For CDMA :One cdma2000 (MC-CDMA)


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Chapter 5 - RF Planning & Drive Test

Objectives Of Radio Frequency Engineering

Adequate coverage :Contiguous coverage of the required areas without appreciable

holes Adequate depth of coverage (i.e. outdoor or indoor, 1 W or 8 W mobiles) to meet
the companies marketing plans.

Traffic handling capacity :Accommodating traffic in the busiest hour with only a
low probability of blocking

Quality of Service (QOS) :Adequate service quality across the required areas (
drop, congestion, setup success rate, voice quality levels) to meet the companies
marketing plans.

Network growth accommodation: Extension of coverage to new areas -Expanding

the network capacity so that the quality of service is maintained at all times.

Cost effective design: Lowest possible cost over the life of the network while meeting
the quality targets.

Constraints of Radio Planning

The license requirements

GSM system specific parameters (e.g. GSM Rec. 05.05)

Manufacturer-specific features and parameters

Radio communication principles and fundamentals

Budgetary factors

RF planning: Three main goals

Quality in the uplink and downlink direction
Capacity requirements.
Site Configuration
3sector sites for (sub)urban areas
2sector sites for road coverage
Omni sites for rural areas.

Radio planning methodology

Define design rules and parameters

Set performance targets
Design nominal plan
Implement cell plan
Produce frequency plan
Optimize the network
Expand the network.


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Drive Test Tool (TEMS Products)

TEMS offers solutions for planning, development, optimizing, troubleshooting and
expanding mobile networks. TEMS Optimization Solutions provides every tool needed in
order to maximize the Quality of Service and get the most out of the network investment.

TEMS Cell planner Universal

TEMS Cell Planner Universal is Ericssons tool for mobile radio network planning.
TEMS Cell Planner Universal helps the user to roll out and expand mobile radio networks,
and optimize radio network regarding service availability and service quality. It assists the
user in a number of complex tasks, including network dimensioning, traffic planning,
site configuration, and frequency planning.
TEMS CellPlanner Universal provides support for WCDMA, GSM 850, GSM 900, GSM 1800,
GSM 1900, iDEN, CDMA, CDMA2000 1xRTT, TDMA/AMPS, NMT 450, NMT 900, TACS, and
E-TACS. TEMS CellPlanner Universal also provides support for GPRS and EGPRS (EDGE),
implemented in GSM system

TEMS Investigation
TEMS Investigation is an air interface test tool for real-time diagnostics. It lets you
monitor voice channels as well as data transfer over GPRS, circuit-switched (CSD) or
high-speed circuit- switched (HSCSD) connections. It also measures radio parameters,
assesses speech quality, and decodes air interface messages efficiently and easily.

Process of Radio Network planning

Collection of the input parameters like requirement of capacity, coverage and quality
Pre planning is done (which involves calculation of no. of BTSs with the objective to
obtain maximum coverage at minimum cost.)
Site survey involves selection of candidate sites based on feasibility study of
constructing by Civil engineers
Frequency allocation is done on the basis of Cell to Cell channel to interference ratio(C/I)
Parameter planning is done which involves channel configurations, power control and
network specific parameters
The final radio network plan involves rest of the parameters like power budget
calculations and considering path loss calculations.

Optimization involves monitoring, verifying and improving the performance of the

radio network.

Traffic in the network is given in terms of erlangs. One erlang ( Erl) is defined as the
amount of traffic generated by the user when he or she uses one traffic channel for one

Commonly used Erlang tables are Erlang B and Erlang C.

Erlang B assumes that if calls cannot go through then they get dropped (i.e. no queuing
Erlang C considers that if a call does not get through then it will wait in a queue.


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Propagation models
Okamura-Hata model( for Macro Cell)
Walfishikegami model( for Micro Cell).

Radio resource management (RRM):The management of radio resources, functions

related to mobile location update, communication management issues such as handover
and roaming procedure handling,come under radio resource management (RRM).

Procedure of Drive Test

When the drive testing starts, two mobiles are used to generate calls with a gap of few
seconds (usually 15-20 s).
The third mobile is usually used for testing the coverage. It makes one continuous call,
and if this call drops it will attempt another call.
The purpose of this testing to collect enough samples at a reasonable speed and in a
reasonable time.
If there are lots of dropped calls, the problem is analysed to find a solution for it and to
propose changes.


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Chapter 6 - MVAS

M-VAS (Mobile Value Added Services) is a well established and rapidly growing set of mobile
applications beyond basic voice and messaging services.

Characteristics of M-VAS
Standalone in terms of profitability
Stimulates incremental demand for core or basic services
Do not cannibalize core or basic service
May be sold at premium price
Provides operational synergy with core or basic services

Types of M-VAS
Independent or standalone:This is not required to be coupled with a basic service.
Example- Mobile Advertising is not dependent on voice calls.
Dependent or non-standalone: This is required to be coupled with a basic service.
Example- In Voice Mail service, re-direction of call is dependent on basic services.

Necessity of M-VAS
To maximize revenue
To increase ARPU (Average Revenue Per User)
To survive in competitive environment
To satisfy the growing demand of customers
To improve loyalty
To continue expansion
Effect of M-VAS
M-VAS is very much effective for:
Mobile Telecom Service Providers
Value Added Service Providers
Content aggregators

BSNL M-VAS Solution

BSNL implements M-VAS through SDP (Service Delivery Platform)
SDP addresses the needs of both Operators and Content Providers
BSNL SDP manages and delivers contents like- Music, Mobile TV, Videos,Games etc.
BSNL SDP is capable to supports different formats requested by different Terminals

Availing of BSNL M-VAS

STK (SIM Tool Kit)
USSD (Unstructured Service Supplementary Data

M-VAS display through Cellone

My Portal


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TV schedule

M-VAS Pricing

USSD Features
Session oriented
A menu based service
Flexible to design dynamic menus
Accessible directly from phone screen
Extremely user friendly
Almost seven times faster than conventional SMS
A message of a maximum of 182 characters
USSD has a dialogue concept but no store & forward

USSD Benefits
No clogging inbox since there is no storing mechanism
Non intrusive alerts can be received without filling SMS box

BSNL Live is a WAP (Wireless Application Part) Portal which offers one stop shop for
all Information, Entertainment and Communication related requirements. It is a gateway
for M-VAS.


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Through BSNL Live one can access:

Streaming vs. Downloading
Streaming content is sent in compressed form over Internet in a continuous stream and
displayed on the compatible Mobile Set of the user in real time without getting stored in the
memory of the Mobile set. Usually, Movies are streamed.
Downloading allows to store the content into the memory of the compatible Mobile Set
and it can viewed as many times as the user wants. Contents like Video clips, full track
songs etc can be downloaded.
Charges for BSNL Live Services
Two types of charges are applicable:
1. Surfing/downloading charges as per plan chosen by the customer.
2. Whenever customer wants to buy any content , he will have to pay the price of the content. The
price would be displayed before downloading/streaming.
Handset configuration for 3G Services
1. APN settings through SMS
2. APN settings through Internet
3. application settings
APN settings through SMS
APN stands for Access Point Name. Presently four APNs are being used by BSNL:


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Chapter 7 - MIN (Mobile Identification Number)

The mobile identification number (MIN) or mobile subscription identification number

(MSIN) refers to the 10-digit unique number that a wireless carrier uses to identify a mobile
phone, which is the last part of the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI).

In CDMA mode, the MS is identified using either MIN or IMSI.

The MIN is a 10-digit (34-bit) number and consists of two parts

MIN1 corresponds to the least significant seven digits (24-bits) of MIN.
MIN2 corresponds to the most significant three digits (10-bits) of MIN

Unlike the IMEI, the MIN is not an attribute of the physical phone. The MIN is stored in a
database that the cellular provider manages and can be changed at any time.


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Chapter 8 - Roaming & International Roaming

There are two operating modes for PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) selection
available in the MS, automatic and manual.

In both automatic and manual modes, the concept of registration on a PLMN is used.

An MS (Mobile Station) successfully registers on a PLMN if:

The MS has found a suitable cell of the PLMN to camp on; and a LU (Location Update)
request from the MS has been accepted in the LA (Location Area) of the cell on which the
MS is camped.
When the PLMN has been successfully registered in the MS, the PLMN identity is
stored on the SIM card.

National roaming is allowed and activated on a LA [location Area] basis.

Agreement should be Bilateral so as to have both In & Out Roaming.

BSNL has CMTS (Cellular Mobile Telephone Service ) Licences for 21 Service Areas out of
total 23 Service Area. i.e. whole of India except Delhi and Mumbai

BSNL has installed a solution provided by M/s Roamware, USA. This basically enables to have
one nodal network in BSNL and all the remaining networks can piggy back on the nodal

W.B Circle is the nodal circle in BSNL and all other BSNL networks piggy back on W.B.Circle
for International Roaming.

IMSI format - Digits- MCC-MNC-Subs./MSC identity

No. of Digits - 3 2 - 10 digits ( Total 15)

Dual IMSI has 2 IMSIs. IMSI of subscriber pertaining to his home network and dummy
IMSI Sponsor Network.

With W.B.Circle as nodal circle, the SIM card for Roaming abroad would require W.B.Circle
like IMSI. This would require TRIPLE IMSI SIM Cards. i.e. a SIM card with Home IMSI,
sponser Spice like IMSI( Not used now ) and W.B.Circle like IMSI. BSNL now introduce
Triple IMSI SIM cards for International Out Roaming

Presently Subscribers of foreign Operators not Permitted to Roam in Assam, J&K and N.E.
However, Post paid Subscribers of these Service areas can Out Roam in foreign operators

Financial Settlements with Foreign Operators is done by West Bengal Circle for whole of
BSNL. West Bengal Circle is responsible for Reconciliation and Financial settlements.


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LDR Consumer Mobility

International Roaming agreement documents

AA 12 This is the basic legal framework document for bilateral international roaming
relationships, inter-alia, defining law with which the agreement would be governed,
period of validity, liabilities of parties, definitions etc.
AA-13 - This is operational document containing practical principles and procedures,
the parties agree to implement on international roaming. It inter-alia, contains billing &
accounting procedures, settlement procedures, testing and fraud prevention
AA - 14 - This document basically contains the list of services being offered by BSNL to
In-roamers, tariffs and taxes imposed by BSNL on In-roamers, Bank A/c details of
BSNL, contact details of various officers in BSNL with regard to international
IR-21 - The IR-21 document gives technical details of the BSNL Network i. e. the
Network Codes, MSRN Series, IMSI Series, GT Addresses, etc.

Procedure for selecting International Roaming option in the SIM card

Insert the BSNL International Roaming SIM card in the mobile handset.
Switch on the handset.
Go to Cellone menu and select it.
Then go to Network menu under Cell one menu and select it.
Finally select International Option out of the two options available,namely National and

Roaming Terminology
Bilateral : Foreign as well as BSNL subscribers can roam in each others network.
In Roamers : Only foriegn subscribers can roam in BSNL network in India and not vice
Out Roamers : Only BSNL subscribers can roam in Foreign network and not vice versa.

BSNL is providing International Roaming services in 476 Networks in 195 countries

If someone encounter any difficulties while roaming abroad, one can book complaint at OR Call +919434024365


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Chapter 9 - Project Vijay

Objectives of Project Vijay

Expand reach ensure availability of BSNL products at more than 95% of telecom
retail outlets
Capture significant share (25-30%) of retailer's counter sales (increase extraction)
Build distinctive channel management capabilities Nurture and build strong and viable
channel partner network

Key terms used in Project Vijay

FoS [ Feet on street] : Franchise's employees
who will visit retailer shops,
deliver material and
collect CAF (Customer Application forms ) forms

Primary Sales:Sales of product from BSNL to franchise

Secondary Sales:Any sales from franchise unit to retailer

Tertiary sales:Product sales from retailer to end-customer.

Reach:Reach defined as the ratio of telecom retail outlets (multi-brand telecom outlets)
that sell BSNL products to the total number of telecom retail outlets in a particular
geographical area.

Extraction:Extraction defined as the share of BSNL sales in the total sales of a particular
multibrand telecom outlet

MBO: multi-brand telecom outlets

Revised structure of Franchisee channel

Primary sales will be made from BSNL SSA to Franchisee.

Franchisee will make the sales to Sub Franchisee and also to MBO retail

Outlets through FoS.

Sub Franchisee will also make sales to MBO retail Outlets in its area.

MBO retail Outlets will make the sales to customers.

Categories of retailers
The category of retailers are different according to the characteristics which depends on
number of SIMs sold per month or amount of Recharge sales per month.

Class A:The Retailers who sold more than 100 SIMs per month or Recharge sales more than Rs. 3

lakhs per month come under this category. For examples large multi-brand telecom
outlets comes under this category.

Class B:The Retailers who sold between 50-100 SIMs per month or Recharge sales between Rs.1-

3 lakhs per month come under this category. For examples large kirana shops, medium
multi-brand telecom outlets, STD/ PCO shops, etc. comes under this category.


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Class C:The Retailers who sold less than 50 SIMs per month or Recharge sales Between Rs. 0.51 lakh per month come under this category. For examples medium kirana stores, small

multi-brand telecom outlets, etc. comes under this category.

Class D:The Retailers who sold negligible (mostly nil; may sell 10-30 SIMs per month) or

Recharge sales less than Rs. 50,000 per month come under this category. For examples
small kirana stores, paan shop, tea stall, etc. comes under this category.

Franchisee Structure


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Franchisee Team Members

Franchisee Manager is expected to manage up-to 2 Franchisees and visit them every alternate
day; Franchisee Manager is also expected to visit each sub franchise once a month.
Retailer Manager Coordinators expected to manage up to 15 Retailer Managers and does 1
inspection visit per Retailer Manager per month.
Each retailer manager is typically assigned 200-300 retailers, depending on area geography
and is expected to visit each retailer 2 times a month.


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In case of a tie, the award amount may be equally split.

In order to qualify for an award, the Franchisee Manager or Retailer Manager coordinator
must meet a minimum of 10% achievement on Primary sale (# of SIM and Recharge
value), Similarly in, order to qualify for the award, the Retailer Manager must meet a
minimum of 30% achievement on no. of retailers visits done as a proportion of the total
no of retailer visits assigned.
The final decision on awards at the circle levels should be made by the PGM/GM
(Consumer Mobility) at circle level at the end of the month, after taking in to the account
the average score on KPAs received from SSAs


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Chapter 10 - Sancharsoft

Sancharsoft :Sancharsoft is a SIM Inventory Management Application is jointly

designed and maintained by IT Cell Chennai Telephones and ITPC Hyderabad. SIM
Inventory Management is a web based application for integrated management of O&M and
Sales & Distribution Channels

Application is hosted on Zonal WEB server with oracles 8i server at back end

Sancharsoft Features
Procurement, allotment, distribution and sale through online transactions.
Enabling/Activation of SIM based on sale, CAF data
CAF monitoring can provided alert to Franchisee, Retailers and customer through SMS
Reconciliation of Sold inventory v/s stock by Scheduled Synchronization/querying of IN
and HLR
Integration of Franchise and commission calculation based on SIM activation info as per
Access to Franchisee for monitoring retailers Sales if SIM card activation of SIM
commission, Invoices, CAF submission status

Sales Modules, Invoice Cancellation & discount Module: -Sales modules supports sale
of SIMs, recharge vouchers, FLPP etc to customer, Franchises, DSA, PCO and other
channels like circle DSA or Business associate or EPIN vendor etc.

Plan and product addition Module: - By this module new plan and products can be

Prepaid SIM Module:

1. Inventory Loading: - Prepaid SIM cards have to be loaded into the system.
2. CAF Data Entry and Activation: - SIM allotted to CSC, DSA and PCO etc (other than
franchisee) can be activated through CSC user login
1. CAF Submission: Franchisee can generate CAF list to be submitted to SSA and also CSC
can generate similar list to submit to central storage in case of Bigger Cities/SSAs.
2. CAF data to Billing and Call Center: System will capture CAF data before activation it
can be updated in billing system at the end of the day.
3. Reports
At CSC/Franchisee: Daily Sales List.
At SSA/Circle Level: Activation Report, Franchisee Purchase, Analysis of SIM sales up
to last minute sales etc.

Postpaid SIM Module: Postpaid SIM inventory consists of dummy SIM cards and
MSISDN number.


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Product Conversion Module: This tool is for reclassification of inventory in the event
of any plan is withdrawn or expires

Fixed line products (FLPP/CALL Now/Sancharnet/ITC) Module: These products

can be sold through Sancharsoft thus consolidating all prepaid products under single
inventory package.

Management Login Module: This module is used by senior officers of BSNL to

monitor the sales activities.. Following reports are available to head of the SSA and
Sales team.
Activation Reports: Total SIMs activated using SMS facility, Data entered into
the system, CAF submitted etc.
Franchisee Reports: List of Franchisee in any SSA, total purchase by
franchisee, unsold stock with all sales outlets.
DSA/STD-PCO Reports: Available List of DSA/STD-PCO.
Retailer Sales Report: List of retailer in any SSA, Sales information from all
SSAs, Detailed sales report of any Franchisee.
Sales Report: All types of products like SIM, Recharge, FLPP, CTOP etc.

Sysadmin Login Module: This module is used for the following functions:
Add/Edit/View of the following activities
All India Packages (Plans)
Regional Packages
Service Packages
Workflow in Sancharsoft
1.Creation Order
2.Purchase Order
3.Deliver of Inventory
4. Enable/Pairing (Auth) Order
5. Allotment from MKTG
6. Allotment to SSA


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Chapter 11 - Overview of CDMA 2000 1X & EVDO

CDMA 2000 is a family of 3G mobile technology standards, which use CDMA channel
access, to send voice, data, and signaling data between mobile phones and cell sites.

CDMA 2000 1X (IS-2000), also known as 1x and 1xRTT, is the core CDMA2000 wireless
air interface standard. The designation "1x", means 1 times Radio Transmission
Technology, indicates the same radio frequency (RF) bandwidth as IS-95 i.e a duplex pair
of 1.25 MHz radio channels.

CDMA Architecture
The CDMA cellular mobile communication system consists of four independent
1.Mobile Station (MS)
2.Base Transceiver Subsystem (BSS)
3. Mobile Switching Subsystem (MSS)
4. Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMM)
The above CDMA subsystems are same to that of GSM subsystems .We will not discuss
them in detail here. Students can refer Chapter 2 GSM -2 G for the same

Fig: CMDA Architecture


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LDR Consumer Mobility

CDMA Interfaces

Air or Um interface [Between MS and BTS]

grants compatibility to MSs from different suppliers and networks of different operators
enables MSs to roam
ensures the frequency efficiency of the cellular system,
adopts a series of anti-interference technologies and interference preventing measures.
A interface [between BSC and MSC]
It transfers information for MS management, BTS management, mobility management and
connection management.
Abis Interface [Between BSC and BTS]
provides signaling control information for BTS configuration, monitoring,and testing and
service control.
B interface [Between VLR and MSC]
B interface is used by the MSC to request the current location information of the MS
from VLR or notify the VLR to update the location information of the MS.
C interface [Between HLR and MSC]
C interface transfers information for route selection and management. Once a call is
required to a MS, the Gateway MSC (GMSC) will request the roaming number of the called
MS from the HLR of the called side.
D interface [Between HLR and VLR]
D interface exchanges information related with MS location and user management. It
ensures that the MS can establish and receives calls within the entire service area.
E interface
E interface can be used to exchange related handoff information to activate and
complete handoff and thus to complete the cross-cell channel handoff process without
interrupting the communication.
N interface
N interface is used to transfer route information related with the called subscriber
between MC and HLR.
Q interface [Between MS and MSC]
Q interface is used for transferring short messages.

CDMA Channels

Forward channels : communication from base station to mobile station

Forward pilot channel (F_PICH): The base station uses this channel to transmit the pilot
signals that identify it and guide the mobile stations to access the network.


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Forward sync channel (F-SYNCH): The base station sends the system time and frame
synchronization information to the mobile stations via this channel to keep timing and
synchronize with the system.
Forward paging channel (F-PCH):The base station transmits paging, command, and
traffic channel allocation information to the mobile stations via this channel.
Forward quick paging channel (F-QPCH):It is used by the base station to quickly instruct
the mobile station from which time slot to receive the control message on F-PCH or FCCCH.
Forward broadcast control channel (F-BCCH):It is used by the base station to deliver
system messages to the mobile station.
Forward common power control channel (F-CPCCH):When the mobile station sends
data in R-CCCH, the base station transmits reverse power control bit to the mobile
station via this channel.
Forward common control channel (F-CCCH):It is used by the base station and the
mobile station to exchange control messages and short impulsive data when the mobile
station has not set up a traffic channel yet.
Forward dedicated control channel (F-DCCH):When the mobile station is in traffic
channel state, it is used by the base station to transmit messages or low-rate packet and
circuit data services to the mobile station.
Forward fundamental traffic channel (F-FCH):This channel is used to carry signaling,
voice, low-rate packet service, circuit data services or auxiliary service when the mobile
station enters traffic channel state.
Forward supplemental channel (F-SCH):This channel is used to carry high-rate packet
data service on the forward link when the mobile station enters traffic channel state.
Forward power control sub-channel (F-PCSCH): It is used for reverse power control.

Reverse Channels : communication from mobile station to base station.

All Reverse channels are similar to forward channels in function only difference is that
they provide communication from mobile station to base station


EV-DO in CDMA2000 1x EV-DO is an acronym for Evolution Data Optimized or

Evolution Data Only.

At the same narrowband CDMA frequency bandwidth, 1x EV-DO provides the highest data
transmission up to 3.1 Mb/s.


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EVDO System Features

Forward channel features

Data rates range from 38.4 Kb/s ~ 3.1 Mb/s.
Forward channels transmit full power without any power control.
According to the forward channel C/I measurement, AT selects the best service
sector and applies for the highest data rate that the current forward channel can
All users belonging to the same service sector share unique data service channel in the
TDMA mode.

Reverse channel features

Data rate can reach at most 307.2 Kb/s.
Reverse channels follow soft handoff.
Reverse channels follow Dynamic power control.
Use of Rate control enables reverse link load adjustment.

In 1x EV-DO system, there is no forward link power control because forward link
power is constant

Reverse Link Power Control :Reverse link power control aims to control output power of
ATs while minimizing interference, maintaining high reverse data link quality.

Reverse Link Rate Control:In 1x EV-DO standard, AT can adjust reverse rate ranging
from 9.6 Kb/s to 307.2 Kb/s.

Adaptive Modulation Coding Technology:According to forward RF link transmission

quality, the AT can request nine data rates. The lowest rate is 38.4 Kb/s, and highest
rate is 3.


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Chapter 12 - Wireless-Fidelity (WI-FI) & Wi-Max

Wireless-Fidelity refer to any type of 802.11 network. Initially the term "Wi-Fi" was
used in place of the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard

A wireless Access Point combines router and bridging functions, it bridges network
traffic, usually from Ethernet to the airwaves, where it routes to computers with wireless

Wi-Fi Network Configuration

1. Wireless Peer-To-Peer Network: This mode is also known as ADHOC mode.At its most
basic, two PCs equipped with wireless adapter cards can set up an independent network
whenever they are within range of one another. This is called a peer-to-peer network
2. Client and Access Point:This is known as INFRASTUCTURE mode and is normally
employed. In this mode, one Access Point is connected to the wired network and each
client would have access to server resources as well as to other clients

Access Points have a finite range, of the order of 500 feet indoor and 1000 feet

Wirelssss LAN Standards

802.11b :802.11b transmits at 2.4 GHz ISM band and can handle up to 11 megabits per
second. Wi-Fi reaches only about 7 Mbps of throughput due to synchronization issues,
ACK overhead etc.
802.11g: data rates up to 54 Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band.
802.11 a: operates in the 5GHz band. 802.11a has a smaller range.The major advantage
is it's speed: the spectrum of 802.11a is divided into 8 sub-network segments or
channels of about 20 MHz each.
802.11e: support for Quality of Service.Its applications include transport of voice, audio
and video over 802.11 wireless networks, video conferencing, media stream distribution,
enhanced security applications and mobile & nomadic access applications.
802.11d : receive the regulatory information required to configure itself properly to

operate anywhere on earth.

Configuring Wi-Fi

SSID: Generally by default it is wireless router manufacturer name. One can set it to any

Channel:Default -channel 6. Can use any channel between 1 and 11

WEP key: The default is to disable Wired Equipment Privacy (WEP). If you want to turn
it on, you have to enter a WEP key and turn on 128-bit encryption .It should be enabled
to secure the network against eavesdropping and hacking.


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Benefits of Wi-Fi
Mobility: Wi-Fi systems can provide LAN users with access to real-time information
anywhere in their organization. This mobility supports productivity and service
opportunities not possible with wired networks.
Installation Speed and Simplicity: Installing a Wi-Fi system can be fast and easy and
can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings.
Installation Flexibility: Wireless technology allows the network to go where wire
cannot go.
Reduced Cost-of-Ownership: While the initial investment required for Wi-Fi hardware
can be higher than the cost of wired LAN hardware, overall installation expenses and
life-cycle costs can be significantly lower.
Scalability: Wi-Fi systems can be configured in a variety of topologies to meet the
needs of specific applications and installations.

Limitation of Wi-Fi networks

Coverage: A single Access Point can cover, at best, a radius of only about 60 metres.
For 10 square kms area roughly 650 Access Points are required, where as CDMA 2000
1xEV-DO requires just 9 sites.
Roaming: It lacks roaming between different networks hence wide spread coverage by
one service provider is not possible, which is the key to success of wireless technology.
Backhaul: Backhaul directly affects data rate service provider used Cable or DSL for
backhaul. Wi-Fi real world data rates are at least half of the their theoretical peak rates
due to factors such as signal strength, interference and radio overhead .Backhaul
reduces the remaining throughput further.
Interference: Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum, which mean no regulator recourse
against interference.
Security: Wi-Fi Access Points and modems use the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
Standards, which is very susceptible to hacking and eavesdropping. WEP( Wired
Equivalent Privacy) is not very secure. WPA (WIFI Protected Access) offers much
better security with the help of dynamic key encryption and mutual authentication.


WiMAX offers broadband wireless access at data rates of several tens of Mbit/s (up to
75 Mbit/s per base station) and within a range of several tens of kilometers (up to 50

However 75 Mbit/s is achievable with a 20 MHz channel.

50 km is achievable only under optimal conditions and with a reduced data rate (a
few Mbit/s). Typical coverage will be around 5 km with indoor CPE (NLOS) and
round 15 km with a CPE connected to an external antenna (LOS),


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LDR Consumer Mobility

WiMAX Standards

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is the common name

associated to the IEEE 802.16a/REVd/e standards. These standards are issued by the
IEEE 802.16 subgroup that originally covered the Wireless Local Loop (WLL) technologies
with radio spectrum from 10 to 66 GHz.
Bridge the digital divide by delivering broadband in low-density areas
Connect enterprises and residential users in urban and suburban environments where
access to copper plant is difficult
Make portable Internet a reality by extending public WLAN hotspots to city hot zones
Further expand hotzones to metropolitan area coverage for mobile data-centric service


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Chapter 13 - Mobile Number Portability

Mobile Number Portability is a facility which allows a mobile subscriber of a mobile

operator to retain his mobile telephone number when he switches from one mobile
operator to other, irrespective of the mobile technology.

India has been divided into 23 Licensed Services Areas. Presently, Mobile Number
portability is permitted only within the boundaries of Licensed Service Areas (LSA) as
defined by Department of Telecommunications, Govt. of India.

Donor Operator: Donor operator is the present service provider from where subscriber
is getting services.

Recipient Operator: Recipient operator is the operator where subscriber wants to port

MCHA: MCHA stands for Mobile Number Portability Clearing House Administrator.
MCHA acts as an interface or mediation agent to facilitate porting process between
donor operator and recipient operator.

Ported-in (imported) numbers : Number ported into BSNL network from another
operators network

Ported-out numbers : BSNL mobile numbers ported out to another operator network

Porting :Porting means the process of moving mobile number from one Service
Provider to another Service Provider or from one mobile technology to another of the
same or any other Service Provider with in the same LSA.

Inter technology porting is also possible i.e. a CDMA customer may come into GSM
network and vice-versa without changing its present mobile number.

Both pre-paid & the post-paid subscribers of 3G, GSM or CDMA networks can avail the
MNP facility.

A subscriber can port his number more than once. A new subscriber can make a porting
in request only after completion of 90 days of service period with the present service

After receiving clearance from donor operator, MCHA shall fix date and time of porting
such that the porting happens within 36 hrs of the clearance from the Donor Operator or
on non receipt of any communication from the Donor Operator. For J & K, Assam and
North East service area, date and time for porting to be fixed shall be within 10 days
from the date of receipt of clearance from the donor operator


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LDR Consumer Mobility

The Customer may, within 24 hours of making a request for porting, withdraw such
request by informing the BSNL in writing

The porting process will take at least 7 days in all LSA except Assam, NE & J&K.

In MNP, only number is ported not the services. The subscriber can not be guaranteed
to enjoy the existing services after the porting. The subscriber shall be treated like a new
connection in the recipient operators network. The subscriber shall have to choose the
services available with the recipient operator at the time of making application for porting.

The pre-paid subscriber cannot carry forward the balance amount of talk time, if any, at
the time of porting the balance amount of talk time shall lapse.

BSNL is not charging any porting fee from subscriber for mobile number portability.
However, cost of SIM card shall be charged as per the plan opted by the subscriber.

The UPC once allocated to a subscriber shall be valid for a periods of 15 days from the
date of request or such time till the number is ported out, whichever is earlier, for all
service areas except Jammu & Kashmir, Assam and North East licensed areas where
the validity for the UPC shall be for a period of thirty days from the date of request or till
such time the number is ported out, whichever is earlier, irrespective of number of request
the subscriber makes.


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LDR Consumer Mobility

Chapter 14 - Earthing & Power Plant

Power plant Classification

1.Based on Capacity

Power plants

Small exchange
power plants

Paralleling of

Single Phase
Not possible

power plants
Single Phase
Only manual
paralleling is

Large exchange
power plants
> 50A
Three Phase
Auto paralleling
is possible

Power plant comprises 3 parts

1. Float Rectifier
2. Battery Charger
3. Switching Cubicle.

1. Float Rectifier
The function of the Float Rectifier is to receive three phases 440 V AC and to give
a constant 51.5 Volts D.C without AC ripples.
The steps involved to achieve the function are
a) Step-down
b) Rectification
c) Filtering of A.C. ripples.
d) Regulation.
Regulation is done
1. By Transductor or saturable reactor or magnetic amplifier method.
2. By varying the secondary of the main transformer automatically depending on
output voltage.
3. By SCR method.
4. SMPS method.
Four main parts of a Float Rectifier
a) 3 phase step-down transformer
b) Rectifying circuit
c) Smoothening or Filtering circuit
d) Control circuit.
2. Battery Charger
Functions of Battery charger.
To Initial charge a battery set:- For initial charging, the battery charger capacity should
be at least 14% of AH capacity of battery set.
To normal charge the battery set at 10 hour rate.


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To use as Float rectifier during emergency condition by suitable links.

To charge the sick cell.( provision exists in some power plants only).
3.Switching Cubicle
The Switching Cubicle essentially provides for the termination of:
i. The paralleled output from the Float Rectifiers connected with the Exchange load.
ii. The paralleled output from the Battery Chargers.
iii. The positive and negative bus bar risers for the batteries.
iv. The positive and negative bus bar risers for the exchange.
v. Arrangement for manual operation of the knife switches for floating of either all
batteries or any one battery. The knife switches are so arranged and interlocked that
except for the battery on charge, other batteries remain connected across the exchange
during or after any switching operation.

All the knife switches are of the single pole double throw slow to break type, one each
for every battery.

Another classification of power plant is

1.Single unit type :Float Rectifier (FR),Battery charger (BC) and switching cubicle (SWC)
will be in single container .Eg: 5/12A PP
2.Two unit Type :One unit is FR/BC/SWC and another unit is FR
3. Three Unit Type: FR/BC/SWC are all in individual units

Nowadays mostly 2 units p/p are used with maintenance free batteries and all
transmission power plant are 2-unit type only. The latest being P/P of SMPS with VRLA


Earth Electrode System For Telephone Exchange

To provide an earth connection to the battery circuit to stabilize the battery
potential of the lines and equipment with respect to earth, thus reducing the risk
of cross talk due to lines and equipments assuming an indefinite voltage with respect
to earth, and enabling single pole switching to be used on the exchange power plant.
To provide a direct connection with earth for lightning protective apparatus.
To provide protection to persons and plant against leakage from station power
wiring to metallic apparatus, frames etc.

To provide a means of earthing electrostatic screens on apparatus and of earthing

lead sheaths of cables.
To complete the circuit of telephone systems, employing a common earth path for
signaling purposes.


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Standards for resistance of earth electrode systems

The resistance of the earth electrode system should be as low as possible and in any case
should not normally exceed 2 ohms at any time for the year.
The worst condition occurs in winter when specific resistively of soil increases sharply
with temperature near or below 0 C, where it exceeds 2 ohms
The earth resistance of Earth electrode system for Electronic exchanges should be less
than 0.5 Ohms.

Classes of Earthing Systems :Two major categories

(a) Service Earthing Systems
(i) switching equipment earth
(ii) transmission equipment earth
(iii) measuring equipment earth
(iv) A.C. power supply earth
(v) Corrosion mitigation earth
(vi) Miscellaneous equipment earth (e.g. telegraphs).
(b) Protective Earthing System
(i) Power system earth to provide protection against excessive current;
(ii) Lightning protective earth to provide protection against excessive voltage

Types of earth electrode systems

1. Spike earth electrode system

The present standard for spike earth-electrode system consists of twenty 25.0 mm or
38.00 mm diameter G.I pipes, each of 275 or 375 cm length. Each pipe is used as an
earth spike driven to its full length into the ground, the spacing between any two being not
less than 375 cms. In practice a spacing of 375 cms is found adequate and in no case
should this spacing be permitted to be less than 250 cms
2. Lead Strip Electrode System

This consists of a lead strip 1 mm wide and 6 gms/square cm buried at a depth of from
60 to 90 cms. The strip should be preferably laid in one continuous length of 2450 cms.
Otherwise two lengths of 1225 cm should be laid at least 250 cm apart and overlapped by
at least 152 mm, the two electrode being parallel at the M.D.F earth bar.

3. Earth plate electrode system

This consists of four galvanized iron plates of 145 SWG 76 cms square.These four plates
are placed vertically and at diagonally opposite in an excavation 185 cm square and of a
depth sufficient to reach damp soil. The depth should never be less that about 250 cms
and need not be greater than 500 cms


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Conditions determining the type of earth electrode system to be used.

a) Spike earth electrode system: This system is generally used at all new auto
exchange installations where adequate space is available around the exchange
building and where subsoil suitable for driving in pipes to the prescribed depth exists.
b) Lead strip electrode systems: This is used when adequate space around the
exchange building is available but where rock is encountered at a depth less than
375 cm below ground level.
c) Earth plate electrode system: This is employed when the layout of the exchange site
is such that adequate space is not available to install an earth electrode system of
types (a) and (b) mentioned above.

SMPS means Switch Mode Power Supply. This is used for D.C to D.C conversion. This
works on the principle of switching regulation. The SMPS system is highly reliable, efficient,
noiseless and compact because the switching is done at very high rate in the order of several
KHz to MHz.

Application of SMPS:The SMPS regulators are used in B.S.N.L at various locations like CDOT,
E10B Transmission systems etc. Power plants upto 2000A capacity have been developed
using SMPS principle.

Specification of SMPS Power Plant

1) Input Voltage: 320 V to 480 V
Frequency :45 Hz TO 65 Hz
2) Output Voltage
in Float Mode: -54.0 0.5 V. adj range -48 V to -56V
in charge mode : -55.2 V 0.5V
3) Input power factor >0.95 Lag with 25% to 100% load at nominal input.


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Chapter 15 - Charging and Billing in GSM/CDMA

Billing and customer care system is an Integrated Customer Care, Billing and
accounting platform which provides provisioning of wide range of GSM services like Teleservices Bearer services, supplementary services, GPRS, WAP, IN services etc. B&CCS takes
care of activation, deactivation, suspension and change in the subscriber services.

Functions of B&CCS
The major functions of B&CCS include.
Collection of Call Detail Record (CDR) from Mobile Switching Centers.
Timely and accurately invoicing of call details.
Providing different Billing cycles for different category of subscribers with a support of
differential Tariff.
Support of charging for various types of existing and new services.
Provisioning of services for mobile subscribers.
Customers care for services requests and bill inquiry.

Customer Care Nodes (CCN) Connectivity: For extending Provisioning & Customer Care
facility to all the Customer Care Nodes (CCN) of a Billing Zone are connected to The B&CCS
through Level1 router via an E1 link. The Level Routers are connected in a Ring
Network. Each E1 link from CCN sites of a Billing Zones is backed up with one ISDN BRI
connectivity. Depending on their physical location, the CCN may have connectivity to the
Ring Network via a Level-2 router.

MSC Connectivity
Each MSC location is connected to B&CCS with E1 link & ISDN BRI backup.
The E1 link is connected to the MSC router and than connected to X.25 router.
All the MSC locations from MSC router are connected to a Central Router at Billing
The Central Router is connected to the Billing Servers where all the CDRs are sent
for BILL processing.

Components of Billing & Customer Care System

1. Mediation Device: Mediation Device in the BCCS performs three main functions
1. Collection of (Call Data Record- CDRs)
2. Mediation of CDRs
3. Distribution of CDRs.
2. Billing & Customer Care Module (B&CCM):B&CCM is a system for processing CDRs from
Mediation Device and to do customized billing
B&CCM Sub-Modules
1. Customer Services Module: It provides Man-Machine interface to handle multiple types
of services, administer customer services, process and distribute applicable exchange and
field orders, etc.


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Order Management Module:

Order entry for new or existing account, including account creation.
Reply to the query from CSR on existing orders and actions performed on the order.
Update the number inventory databases including MSISDN, MIN, IMSI, SIM Cards
and IMEI.
Update the billing once the order is completed successfully.
Interface SIM card manufacturers for the ordering and allocation of SIM cards and
update of SIM card inventory.
3. Service Provisioning Module: It provides a flow though provisioning from an
order entry or billing system to the network component like Home Location Register,
Voice Mail Service, Short Message Service etc. It performs the functions like creation of
subscriber, Mobile Number assignment, and assignment of supplementary services

Call Detail Records (CDR) in Billing System:

Whenever a call is switched in the GSM network a CDR file is generated and stored in
the Switching System (MSC).
Types of CDRs generated are
1. Mobile Terminated Call (48 - 52 %)
2. Mobile Originated Call (20 - 25 %)
3. Roaming (4-5 %)
4. Short Message Service (18 20 %)

SIM and Inventory Management System


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Chapter 16 - HSDPA ,LTE,LTE A

HSDPA [High-Speed Downlink Packet Access]

HSDPA is a packet based technology for W-CDMA downlink with data transmission rates
of 4 to 5 times that of current generation 3G networks (UMTS) and 15 times faster than

The latest release boosts downlink speeds from the current end-user rate of 384 kbps (up
to 2 Mbps according to standards) to a maximum value according to standards of 14.4
Mbps. Real life end-user speeds will be in the range of 2 to 3 Mbps.

HSDPA only handles the downlink while the uplink is handled by a related technology
called HSUPA. The combination of both technologies is usually called HSPA.

HSDPA Features:

Adaptive modulation and coding schemes: Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and
16QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) retransmission protocol.
Short transmission time interval (TTI)
Fast packet scheduling controlled by the Medium Access Control - high speed (MAC-hs)
protocol in Node B.

HSPDA and CDMA2000 1xEV-DV Comparison


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LTE [Long Term Evolution]

Commonly marketed as 4G LTE
The main goal of LTE is to provide a high data rate, low latency and packet optimized
radio access technology supporting flexible bandwidth deployments.

Advantages of LTE

High throughput: High data rates can be achieved in both downlink as well as uplink. This
causes high throughput.
Low latency: Time required to connect to the network is in range of a few hundred
milliseconds and power saving states can now be entered and exited very quickly.
FDD and TDD in the same platform: Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division
Duplex (FDD), both schemes can be used on same platform.
Superior end-user experience: Optimized signaling for connection establishment and
other air interface and mobility management procedures have further improved the user
experience. Reduced latency (to 10 ms) for better user experience.
Seamless Connection: LTE will also support seamless connection to existing networks
such as GSM, CDMA and WCDMA.
Plug and play: The user does not have to manually install drivers for the device. Instead
system automatically recognizes the device, loads new drivers for the hardware if needed,
and begins to work with the newly connected device.

LTE - Network Architecture

The high-level network architecture of LTE is comprised of three main components
1.The User Equipment (UE) - Mobile
2.The Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN).-Access Network
3.The Evolved Packet Core (EPC)- Core Network

Figure: Overview of LTE

1. The User Equipment (UE)

The mobile equipment comprised of the following important modules:

Mobile Termination (MT): This handles all the communication functions.
Terminal Equipment (TE): This terminates the data streams.
Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC): This is also known as the SIM card for LT E
equipments. It runs an application known as the Universal Subscriber Identity Module


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2. The E-UTRAN (The access network)

The E-UT RAN handles the radio communications between the mobile and the evolved
packet core and just has one component, the evolved base stations, called eNodeB or eNB.
Two main functions supported by eNB
The eBN sends and receives radio transmissions to all the mobiles using the analog and
digital signal processing functions of the LTE air interface.
The eNB controls the low-level operation of all its mobiles, by sending them signalling
messages such as handover commands.

Figure: E-UTRAN (Access Network)

3. Evolved Packet Core (EPC) (The core network)
Home Subscriber Server (HSS): component has been carried forward from UMT S and
GSM and is a central database that contains information about all the network operator's
Packet Data Network (PDN) Gateway (P-GW) :communicates with the outside world ie.
packet data networks PDN, using SGi interface. Each packet data network is identified by
an access point name (APN).
PDN gateway: has the same role as the GPRS support node (GGSN) and the serving GPRS
support node (SGSN) with UMTS and GSM.
Serving gateway (S-GW): acts as a router and forwards data between the base station and
the PDN gateway.
Mobility management entity (MME): controls the high-level operation of the mobile by
means of signalling messages and Home Subscriber Server (HSS).


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Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF): is a component is responsible for
policy control decision-making , as well as for controlling the flow-based charging
functionalities in the Policy Control Enforcement Function (PCEF), which resides in the PGW.

Figure: Evolved Packet Core [EPC]

2G/3G Versus LTE

Following table compares various important Network Elements & Signaling protocols used in
2G/3G and LTE. The Network elements functions are same only different naming terminology is
used .For eg: HLR in 2G/3G is named as HSS in LTE,VLR as MME and so on.


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LTE Parameters

LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) is an emerging and, as the name suggests, a more advanced set of
standards and technologies that will be able to deliver bigger and speedier wireless-data
Peak Download Speed of LTE A : 1 Gbits/sec
Peak Upload Speed of LTE A: 500 Mbits/sec


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Chapter 17 - Intelligent Network in Mobile Communication

Intelligent Network: IN is an architectural concept for the operation and provision of

new services quickly, flexibly, economically and efficiently. It supports the provision,
control and management of multiple telecommunication services.

Users & providers of this Service

Network Provider -The company that is responsible for the telephony network
planning and maintenance
Service Provider -The Company or institution that purchases IN services from the
network provider and provides it to Service subscribers. It is the organization which
creates, manages and markets the service.
Service subscriber -The company, institution or individual that purchases IN services
from the Service provider. One who subscribes for the service and registers with the
service provider
Calling Subscriber- Calling party, the person who dials IN number
Called Subscriber- Called Party, the person who answers the IN call.
Advantages to Network Provider
Additional network traffic-IN services stimulate the use of telephone network for
new applications.
Higher call completion rates-IN services target calls to destinations where they
are most likely to be answered.

Advantages to Service Provider

Flexible and rapid deployment of new services
Wide range of services.
New tariffed features.

Advantages to Service Subscriber

Flexible charging.
Call queuing.
Flexibility in who maintains the database

Advantages to IN user
Ease of access.
Facilities of advanced services.

IN Conceptual Model
Distributed Functional Plane
Service Plane
Global Functional Plane
Physical Plane


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Distributed functional frame

CCAF: Call Control Access Function
CCF: Call Control Function
SSF: Service Switching Function
SCF: Service Control Function
SRF: Special Resource Function
SDP: Service Data Function
SCEF: Service Creation Environment Function
SMP: Service Management Function

Physical Plane:Physical Plane contains the PEs and the interfaces between PEs
SCE: Service Creation Environment
SMP: Service Management Point
SCP: Service Control Point
SSP: Service Switching Point
IP: Intelligent Peripheral
SMAP: Service Management Access Point

Global functional plane:

CCF (call control function) - basic call and connection handling in the exchange. It
establishes, manipulates and releases the call.
SSF (Service switching function)-It enables interaction and signaling between CCF and
SCF. It recognizes service control triggers, through which it recognizes IN calls.
SCF (Service Control function) - Directs call control functions during the processing of an
IN call. The SCF is split into two functional entities
1. SDF( Service Data Function) --the database
2. SCF (Service Control Function) Call processing and other logic

Functions of SCF
Collection of traffic and network measurements and sending to SMF
Sending of status and service maintenance messages to the SMF
Network management controls
Sending of Billing Information to the SSF

SRF (Specialized Resource Function) It is used whenever an IN call requires direct

interaction with the calling party in the speech path. It contains the logic and processing
capability to send, receive and convert information

Functions of SRF
Play Announcement
Collect digit
Voice recognition
Voice Back


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SCEF (Service creation Environment Function) This function enables service developers to
develop service logic, create and modify network databases.
The purpose of SCEF is to create Service Packages (SPs).

Service package (SP): is a container for one or more IN Services.

Service logic
Service data and service data schema
Specification of which data and statistics to collect during service execution

SMF (Service Management Function) This function is responsible for provisioning and
managing services created by the SCEF and downloading services & service related data to
the SCF equipment
Applying changes to the global (service wide) or subscriber data
Downloading service logic onto the SCF
Collection of service subscription measurements
Receiving & logging unsolicited status and service management messages from SCF
Producing reports
Service data audits

CAMEL Phase I: introduced improved capabilities as mobile operators could begin to offer
services and features to their customers that could work while roaming. Phase I of CAMEL
does not offer the ability to interact with the Specialized Resource Function (SRF). The
SRF is a functional capability found in Voice Response Units (VRU).

CAMEL phase II: provides all CAMEL Phase I features +support for Specialized Resource
Function (SRF) which allows interaction with specialized network resources such as the
Voice Response Unit (VRU).

In CAMEL Phase-III data charging in prepaid mode is supported.


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Chapter 18- Security Features in GSM/CDMA and its Lawful


Security services provided by GSM

1. Anonymity: Anonymity is provided so that it is not easy to identify the user of the
system.When a user first switches on his/her radio set, the real identity (IMSI 1
number) is used, and a temporary identifier (TMSI 2 number) is then issued.
From all future communication, the temporary identifier is used till end of this
session. Only by tracking the user, it is possible to determine the temporary
identity being used.Thus GSM provides anonymity through TMSI
2. Authentication: Authentication is provided so that the operator knows who is
using the mobile system for authorization and accounting purposes. A random
(RAND) challenge is issued to the Mobile Station (MS), the mobile encrypts the
challenge using the authentication algorithm (A3) and the key assigned to the
mobile (SIM card key [Ki]), and sends a response (SignedResponse [SRES]) back.
The operator can check that, given the key of the mobile, the response to the
challenge is correct.
3. User Data Protection: Encryption is provided so that user data passing over the
radio path is protected. This is provided by A5 algorithm, input to which is a
session key (Kc) and frame number (Fn) and output is the keystream, which is
XORed with the plain text to get the cipher text. Session key is generated by the A8
algorithm, inputs to which are the SIM card key and a random number (RAND) is
sent over by Base Station (BTS). COMP128 is a one-way (hash) function that is
currently used in most GSM networks for A3 and A8.

GSM security issues and their vulnerabilities

1. Eavesdropping:This is the capability that the intruder eavesdrops signaling and
data connections associated with other users. Eavesdropping helps the hacker to
attack at two vulnerable points:
Over-the-air data transfer:Over-the-air data transfers include transmission of
IMSI number, TMSI number, RAND, SRES, cipher text, etc. This information can
be of great help to the attacker as anonymity of the user, one of the basic services
provided by GSM, is lost.
Signaling Network beyond BTS:The transmissions are encrypted only between
the MS and the BTS. After the BTS, the data is transmitted in plain text within the
operators network. If the attacker can access the operator's signaling network,
he will be able to listen to everything that is transmitted, including the actual phone
call as well as the RAND, SRES and Kc.
2. Impersonation
Impersonation leads to mainly one kind of attack called the SIM card cloning


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Of the User :This is the capability whereby the intruder sends signaling and/or
user data to the network, in an attempt to make the network believe they originate
from the target user.
Of the Network:This is the capability whereby the intruder sends signaling and/or
user data to the target user, in an attempt to make the target user believe they
originate from a genuine network.
3. Over-the-air attack:If the signal of the legitimate BTS is over powered by a rogue BTS of
the attacker, the attacker can bomb the target MS with challenges and re-construct the
secret key from these responses.
4. Partitioning attack:Extracting secret key information from SIM cards by monitoring side
channels, such as power consumption and electromagnetic (EM) emanations help in
performing these kinds of attacks.
5. Man-in-the-middle attack:This is the capability whereby the intruder puts itself in between
the target user and a genuine network and has the ability to eavesdrop, modify, delete,
re-order, replay, and spoof signaling and user data messages exchanged between the two
parties. Man-in-the-middle attacks mainly deal with attacking the A5 algorithm.
A5 has three versions:
" A5/1 (Stronger version):Used by USA and European countries
" A5/2 (Weaker version):Export version. Allowed to be used by developing countries
" A5/0 (No Encryption version):Allowed to be used by underdeveloped countries

Authentication and security in CDMA

The authentication for CDMA access has been defined in IS-41 standard. In IS-41,
intermediate keys called Shared Secret Data (SSD) are generated.
1. SSD-A which is used in authentication signatures
2. SSD-B which is used for cryptographic key generation.

There are also three session keys generated from SSD-B

The CMEA key (64 bits)
The Voice Privacy Mask (520 bits)
The DataKey (32 bits)
Data Privacy in CDMA

ORYX, a LSFR-based stream cipher intended for wireless data services is used for
encrypting data over CDMA wireless networks. Vendors can implement any algorithm (like
DES or 3-DES) for data protection

Comparison of Security in GSM and CDMA Technologies

The fact is that due to the inherent design of CDMA Air Interface it has not been possible
for any attacker to successfully capture the CDMA digital packets. This gives an
additional level of security to CDMA technology. GSM data for a particular base station can
be captured over the air and subjected to cryptanalytic attacks, which yet is not possible
in CDMA. So CDMA is somewhat more secure than GSM


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