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# POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND

CONTROL
LAB

M.TECH
1st year
POWER SYSTEMS
3141604

PROGRAM 1
% ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH USING OPTIMIZATION TOOLBOX
% USING FMINCON % USE ACTIVE SET ALGORITHM
c = [561 310 78];
b = [7.92 7.85 7.97];
a = [0.0016 0.00194 0.00482];
% c = [459 310 78]; % for 0.9 fuel cost of unit 1
% b = [6.48 7.85 7.97];
% a = [0.00128 0.00194 0.00482];
pmin = [150; 100; 50];P0 = [400; 300; 150];
pmax = [600; 400; 200]; pd = 850 ;
ngen = length(a);Aeq = [1 1 1];Beq = 850;
Bl = [0.00003;0.00009;0.00012];
options = optimset('Algorithm','Active-Set');
% Following command gives ED solution WITH LOSSES taking account of
% @(P)eldcon(P,pd)
[x3, fval3, flag3,output3,lambda3] = fmincon(@(P)eld(a,b,c,P),P0,[],[],[],
[],pmin,pmax,@(P)eldcon(P,pd),options)
Ploss = Bl(1)*x3(1)^2 + Bl(2)*x3(2)^2 + Bl(3)*x3(3)^2 ;

## % Following command gives ED solution WITH OUT LOSSES taking account of

% Aeq Beq
[x2, fval2, flag2,output2,lambda2] = fmincon(@(P)eld(a,b,c,P),P0,[],
[],Aeq,Beq,pmin,pmax,[],options)

% Following command gives ED solution WITH OUT GENERATOR LIMITS & WITH OUT
% LOSSES BASIC ED WITH ONLY POWER BALANCE
[x1, fval1, flag1,output1,lambda1] = fmincon(@(P)eld(a,b,c,P),P0,[],
[],Aeq,Beq,[],[],[],options)
function [c, ceq] = eldcon(P,pd)
c = [];
Bl = [0.00003;0.00009;0.00012];
ceq = [1 1 1]* [P(1);P(2);P(3)] - pd - [Bl(1) Bl(2)
Bl(3)]*[P(1)^2;P(2)^2;P(3)^2] ;
function [f, df, d2f] = eld(a,b,c,P)
f = 0;
for i = 1:3
f = f + a(i)*P(i)^2 + b(i)*P(i) + c(i);
end

for i = 1:3
df(i,1) = 2*a(i)*P(i) + b(i) ;
end
d2f = [2*a(1) 0 0;0 2*a(2) 0;0 0 2*a(3)] ;

RESULT
ED_OPT
Local minimum possible. Constraints satisfied.
fmincon stopped because the predicted change in the objective
function
is less than the default value of the function tolerance and
constraints
are satisfied to within the default value of the constraint
tolerance.
<stopping criteria details>
No active inequalities.
x3 =
430.9312
302.9153
132.0759
fval3 =
8.3517e+03
flag3 =
5
output3 =
iterations:
funcCount:
lssteplength:
stepsize:
algorithm:
search'

11
44
1
1.7493e-04
'medium-scale: SQP, Quasi-Newton, line-

firstorderopt: 1.1177e-06
constrviolation: 3.4584e-09
message: [1x772 char]
lambda3 =
lower:
upper:
eqlin:
eqnonlin:
ineqlin:
ineqnonlin:

[3x1 double]
[3x1 double]
[0x1 double]
9.5458
[0x1 double]
[0x1 double]

## Local minimum possible. Constraints satisfied.

fmincon stopped because the predicted change in the objective
function
is less than the default value of the function tolerance and
constraints
are satisfied to within the default value of the constraint
tolerance.
<stopping criteria details>
No active inequalities.
x2 =
388.1584
338.1784
123.6632
fval2 =
8.2002e+03
flag2 =
5
output2 =

iterations:
funcCount:
lssteplength:
stepsize:
algorithm:

7
28
1
0.0049
'medium-scale: SQP, Quasi-Newton, line-

search'
firstorderopt: 1.4674e-05
constrviolation: 1.1369e-13
message: [1x772 char]
lambda2 =
lower:
upper:
eqlin:
eqnonlin:
ineqlin:
ineqnonlin:

[3x1 double]
[3x1 double]
9.1621
[0x1 double]
[0x1 double]
[0x1 double]

## Local minimum possible. Constraints satisfied.

fmincon stopped because the predicted change in the objective
function
is less than the default value of the function tolerance and
constraints
are satisfied to within the default value of the constraint
tolerance.
<stopping criteria details>
x1 =
388.1584
338.1784
123.6632
fval1 =
8.2002e+03
flag1 =

5
output1 =
iterations:
funcCount:
lssteplength:
stepsize:
algorithm:

7
28
1
0.0049
'medium-scale: SQP, Quasi-Newton, line-

search'
firstorderopt: 1.4674e-05
constrviolation: 1.1369e-13
message: [1x772 char]
lambda1 =
lower:
upper:
eqlin:
eqnonlin:
ineqlin:
ineqnonlin:

[3x1 double]
[3x1 double]
9.1621
[1x0 double]
[1x0 double]
[1x0 double]

PROGRAM 2
Economic load dispatch using Lambda iterative technique

a = [561 310 78]; % a = [459 310 78]; % for 0.9 fuel cost of unit 1
b = [7.92 7.85 7.97]; % b = [6.48 7.85 7.97];
c = [0.0016 0.00194 0.00482]; % c = [0.00128 0.00194 0.00482];
pmin = [150 100 50];
pmax = [600 400 200];
ngen = length(a);
% calculating maximim and minimum incremental costs
ICmin = 10^6; ICmax = 0; % initialisation of maximum and minimum incremental
costs of the system % IC is Incremental Cost
for i = 1:ngen
icmin(i) = b(i) + 2*c(i)*pmin(i);
icmax(i) = b(i) + 2*c(i)*pmax(i);
if(icmin(i) < ICmin)
ICmin = icmin(i);
end
if(icmax(i) > ICmax)
ICmax = icmax(i);
end
end
icrange = ICmax - ICmin ;
icdel = icrange/2 ;
icinitial = ICmin + icdel ;
lambda = icinitial ;
pg = 0 ; % total generation initial
totalcost = 0;
pd = 850; tol = 0.01; iter = 0;
while (abs(pg - pd) > tol)
pg = 0;
totalcost = 0;
for i = 1:ngen
if lambda < icmin(i)
p(i) = pmin(i);
elseif lambda > icmax(i)
p(i) = pmax(i);
else
p(i) = (lambda - b(i))/(2*c(i));
end
pg = pg + p(i) ;
totalcost = totalcost + a(i) + b(i)*p(i) + c(i)*p(i)^2;
end

if pg < pd
lambda = lambda + icdel ;
icdel = icdel/2 ;
end

end

if pg > pd
lambda = lambda - icdel;
icdel = icdel/2;
end
iter = iter + 1;

disp(' p1
disp([ p(1)

p2
p(2)

p3
p(3)

Lambda ');
lambda ]) ;

Result

p1
388.1640

p2
338.1765

p3
123.6644

Lambda
9.1621

PROGRAM 3
Economic Load dispatch using Newton method

## % ELD USING NEWTON METHOD

a = [561 310 78]; % a = [459 310 78]; % for 0.9 fuel cost of unit 1
b = [7.92 7.85 7.97]; % b = [6.48 7.85 7.97];
c = [0.0016 0.00194 0.00482]; % c = [0.00128 0.00194 0.00482];
ngen = length(a); pl = 850;
% initial lambda Linit
Linit = input(enter initial guess of lambda); delP = 10; cc = 0; iter = 0;
while abs(delP) > 0.01
for I = 1:ngen
P(i) = (Linit b(i))/(2*c(i)) ;
end
delP = pl sum(P) ;
for I = 1:ngen
cc = cc + 1/(2*c(i)) ;
end
Vell = delP/cc ;
Linit = Linit + Vell ;
iter = iter +1 ;
disp([P(1)
P(2) P(3) delP
Linit]);
end

RESULT
enter initial guess of lambda 6
1.0e+03 *
p1
Lambda

p2

-0.6000
0.0092

-0.4768

388.1617
9.1621

338.1746

p3

delP

-0.2044

2.1312

123.6636

-0.0000

EXPERIMENT 4
AIM
To determine the frequency deviation of an isolated single area
system with respect to changing load, without considering the
governor effect.

Data
Turbine time constant 0.5 sec
Generator and load time constant 10 sec
Change in load is 0.2 pu
Regulation coefficient is 1/20

Result

EXPERIMENT 5
AIM
To determine the frequency deviation with the load change
including the governor effect

Data
Turbine time constant 0.5 sec
Generator and load time constant 10 sec
Change in load is 0.2 pu
Regulation coefficient is 1/20
Governor time constant 0.2 sec

Result

EXPERIMENT 6
AIM
To determine the frequency deviation with respect to change in
load demand with the effect of PI controller in the feed back loop

Data
Turbine time constant 0.5 sec
Generator and load time constant 10 sec
Change in load is 0.2 pu
Regulation coefficient is 1/20
Governor time constant 0.2 sec
Integrator gain 7

Result