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Piranesi's "Parere su L'Architettura" Author(s): Rudolf Wittkower Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of

Piranesi's "Parere su L'Architettura" Author(s): Rudolf Wittkower Reviewed work(s):

Source: Journal of the Warburg Institute, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Oct., 1938), pp. 147-158 Published by: The Warburg Institute

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PIRANESI'S "PARERE SU L'ARCHITETTURA"

By Rudolf Wittkower

The

engravings reproduced

turning-points

general

pages

on

plate

27 illustrate one of the most

After 1761, when

development.

impor-

he was in his

Behind it

review shortly

tant

in Piranesi's career.

to be

a

early forties, there appears

lie issues of

the whole situation. In 1761 Piranesi published his

a book with 200

in a

English writer published in

published much the more

the West the Greek architecture of

In the text is a Greek Romans are

creation,

de la Grice

crisis in his

interest, which make it worth while to

Della Magnificenza ed

plates.

It

of text and 38

an

Architettura de'Romani,

an

contains his view on art

anonymous

polemical

form directed against two works :

in

1755,1

1758 by

important

essay by

plus

and Les Ruinesdes

beauxMonuments The latter was home to

bring

effect.

the Frenchman Le

Roy.

adversary, for he was the first to

his

Athens, an event of far-reaching

accompanying

engravings

all

Le Roy explains that architecture

Roman

As the

buildings decadent compared with

derive.

by

the

lived

English writer,2 in

a purely

satirical

violence.

from which

only that of the Greeks. These

awakened

archaeological

or criticism.

consists of three different

arguments. that the Etruscans are an older race than the

the arts to that for a

second point

emphasises

invented and

the technical arts.

proved by as the water-works of the Lake of Albano, the Cloaca

circuses, road-building,

aesthetic

style

part

mainly of the ornaments,

copyists, their architecture is

similar to those formulated

Hitherto

he

principles,

Piranesi's opposition.

world,

and

had

had

not

attempted any speculative theorising

It

the historical field he claims

But now his answer burst forth with

In

Greeks, that they developed

really began and

His

He

They

a high degree of perfection

long period they

is

were

before the Greeks

the sole masters of the

Romans.

gifts that they were much more talented

brought

to

perfection sculpture,

This is

etc.

His last

concerned with the natural

of the Etruscans. than the Greeks.

and

such

Maxima, aquaducts, still more

extravagant

the Etruscans did not adorn their buildings; their grand

Greeks for their

style; they thought

but not of the architecture

painting, mathematics,

constructions,

their remarkable

point

stresses a

theory in architecture is adhered to a vain

:

whole;

they

took

comparable

Egyptian. and not to

details,

that

to the

The

prettiness of the treatment of

a grand

they

as

later Roman

a

almost all the liberties

Empire, when reason was replaced by

wanted.3

In the

caprice, architects

1

(2nd

The

ed.

Investigator.

1762).

A Dialogue

author

is

on

the

Taste

The

painter

Walpole

Allan Ramsay.

Societyxxv,

of

properly dealt with,

material

Piranesi,

Cf. J. L. Caw in The

p. on art have

67

ff.

The

although

in

1936-7,

problems

never been

Piranesi's theories

can

much valuable

books

on

Piranesi,

be found

various

chiefly in A. Giesecke, G.-B.

ff.

("Meister

1912, p. 20

der Graphik" vol. 6)

and in

H. Focillon,

Ramsay

but

:

"I

G.-B. Piranesi, Paris 1918.

is

only

Greci

agli

2 Allan

of the

a

champion

not

Greek

62

also of the

subdivisioni

Gothic.

3 Chap.

ornamenti,

agl'intagli,

vana

gravita."

di

farvi

coll'applicarsi

delle

alle

hanno

e

ad una

per a poco la liberth

alla

parti,

altro

atteso forse troppo

ma

poco

"poco

used

quel

che

volevano."

leggiadria,

They

tutto

I47

148

RUDOLF

WITTKOWER

accepted many things

many

from the Greeks, but even then they corrected a great

be understood on

of the Greeks' faults.'

The plates accompanying

Many

grandeur,

Piranesi's text can

of them

only for they do not bad

represent

the background of his theoretical views,

approved. to reason and

of plates one finds

and

capitals to demonstrate the

of which he

only show examples specimens opposed

On a number

Thus bases, columns

in order

sharpness of his other

compared with a great

from

examples

and are criticized in the text.2

work.3

with those of

of the Roman.

plate XX,

engravings after Le Roy's

are compared

from Greece

Rome, always

superiority sarcasm becomes evident on

from Le Roy, the Ionic capital

number of Roman

Le Roy

superieur

Piranesi the two rows of Roman

of the greater wealth and beauty of the Ionic

them he

l'on voit

The full

where, amongst

of the Erechtheion is

capitals. "Chapiteau Ionique

aux

The Greek capital bears

a quotation aucune id6e et

de cet ordre." For

the Greek one are witnesses

:

dont on n'a eu jusqu'ici

plus beaux chapiteaux

capitals framing

"Les

a plusieurs egards

'

quotes

style in Rome. But above

chapiteaux Ioniques que

from the same author :

Rome paroissent pauvres et defectueux."

In their historical

of

theory artists and writers Greek

Pan-Grecian

conceptions Le Roy and Piranesi

tendencies of

the

developed

in

are only exponents

I8th

century.

The

For

A few

important

Sciences,4

two

much

discussed general

was first

France, Le Roy's country.

indisputable

axiom.

superiority illustrate the trend of ideas.

became an

quotations may books of the mid-half I8th

the name of the Greeks calls forth romantic enthusiasm :

Greeks that architecture has

entireness which are able to charm

all the beauties of which the art of

may say

theory,

The Greeks carried the Arts

briller autrement

la

from Greece to Rome

banner of the arts has been carried from one

way its character was changed.

In one of the most

century, Goguet's Originof Laws,

received that

our eyes

building

regularity,

We owe

is

capable.

architecture."

Artsand

that

in a

"It was from the

order, that

word,

this sense we

Caylus lays down a

to them,

In

that Greeks have invented

the influence of which can be traced in many minds all

que par

des

over Europe :5

sans

contre

decline

background to the next and on its

Egyptian art is "grandeur";

"a la plus grande perfection; a Rome, avoir

secours, apres

les

lutti quelque temps This

debris de

l'Empire." a much wider

empire

:

oii

Barbarie,

ils s'ensevelissent dans

appears

against

the

The essence of

1 Chap.

Greeks

62

:

".

a ricever

gli architetti

.

.

per

legge

The

capriccio

il

58.

il

And:

Romans

in

Romans

The

"stando

e

molti

ritrovarono

inco-

capriccio

minciarono

de'Greci." Chap.

the

della

ressero

moltissimi,

de'Greci."

use

luogo

"cor-

i

ragione."

molti

che

difetti,

infra

nell'architettura

nell'architettura

2E. g. chap. 67 about dolphins in capitals :

"Qual

coda,

essendo

cosa mai posson questi sostenere colla

o che luogo

la

loro

hanno

abitazione

eglino

nel

ne'capitelli,

mare.

Tali

cose, ed altri di simil genere,

relazione

tavole

che hanno poco

nelle

al

vero,

si

17,

posson

19."

vedere

14,

15, 16,

3 By means of an

"Les plus beaux

and

4 First

from Engl.

the

quotation

French

ed.,

illusionistic device a

Monuments

from

edition

Le

1758.

1761, II,

1752-1767,

page fixed on Piranesi's

:

de la Gr&ce,"

Roy's

text.

Quotation

p. 201.

I,

from Le Roy is, so to speak,

plate and is clearly marked by the heading

Edinburgh

5 Recueil d'Antiquitis,

Paris

pp.

IX,

I19

f.,

etc.

PIRANESI'S"PARERESU L'ARCHITETTURA"

149

passes to the Etruscans, who add to this grandeur

"des parties de detail"; from the Etruscans it reaches Greece where, building

"la plus noble

accepts the historical views of the great age

6l1gance."'

on the achievement of earlier civilizations, artists attain

from Egypt the tradition

Even

Caylus, therefore,

of Etruscan civilisation, which the

a nationalist endeavour to show the

of culture on Italian soil.

saw in the art of Etruria the

it as a mere preliminary stage,

may appear, research on Etruscan art begins with the work of a Scotsman,

Thomas Dempster.2

Italian scholars were attracted

places

the

scholars in this fight for the rehabilitation of the Etruscans were A. F. Gori,

Dempster, lived in Rome until

Clement

Guarnacci's scholarly work4 actually appeared a few years after Piranesi's

Della

known.3

like

by academies and museums were founded;

Etruscologists put forward, partly as

antiquity, importance, and continuity

But he differs from them in that, whereas

they

high point in the development, he regards

far excelled by Greece.

Curious though it

I8th century

more and more

Etruscan

of their ancestors.

In the course of the

the

history fieldwork was undertaken in

Volterra,

treasures of what

Corneto, Chiusi;

innumerable volumes appeared filled with

to

be

Etruscan art.

The

outstanding

mainly quotes

He

Gori and

Rezzonico,

later Pope

Piranesi are

well

an enormous wealth

purported

G. B. Passeriand M. Guarnacci.

Piranesi

but Guarnacci seems to be his real stimulator.

1757,

and before 1743 was in the service of Cardinal

XIII,

whose

close

relations with

Magnificenza, but one finds

its creative

in

it, supported by

of material, all the artist's axioms about the great antiquity of Etruscan

civilization,

its

it is evident that he was

the latter's

style-but

conception belonging

Vasari's

as an ascent from

the dark Ages, right up

perfection

Etruscan

the

Egypt through Greece and Rome, and, with a gap for

interpreted the development of art

in the arts, crafts and technical sciences and

with

Caylus'

works.

He

elegance

of Greek

art is

power over Greek culture.

priority

Piranesi'saesthetic

categories,too, are not his own.

accepts

supremacy to the arsenal of national Italian historians ever since

a

From many quotations

well acquainted

grandeur

analysis

reverses the valuation.

of the

of Etruscan and the

The

of Roman

days.

The latter had already

to modern times.

For him the

early stagesprepare

of Roman art. but it does not

Vasari is even conscious of the peculiarity of

yet find a final place in his system.5

was not limited to Italian authors

is animated by the same hatred

art, The axiom of

Roman superiority

and artists.

of the Greeks as Piranesi,

Sir William Chambers, who

summarizes the situation :6

1 Caylus

historians,

simply of the arts

who

has

de-

a formula long familiar

adapted

to

the

velopment

to

man

regarded

of world

the evolution

monarchies.

of

as a succession

The

Rome

Voyage

p.

Paris

to the

view

of

a

for

decline

from

in

Greece

M.

i771,

to

Guys,

appears littiraire de la

3

ff.,

in J.

I771,

p.

instance

Grice,

Paris

II,

F. Blondel,

44

Cours d'Architecture,

preface

iff, or in Stuart's

Antiquities of Athens.

2 De Etruria Regali, Florence,

3

4

H.

Focillon,

Italiche

o

Etrusche,

Liber

5

7.

6A

I767-I 772.

1723-6.-

A comprehensive chapter on the history of

Etruscology in Justi,

Jahrhundert,3rd ed.,

Winckelmannund sein

I923, II,

op. cit., p.

p.

73

283 f.

fft

siano Memorie Istoriche-

mainly

vol.

II,

Cf.

Origini

Cf.

Vite, ed. Milanesi, "Proemio," I, p. 220 ff. Treatiseon the DecorativeArt of Civil

150

RUDOLF WITTKOWER

All

that has been said, respecting the superiority of the Roman

was written a

when the Grecian

ago, repute; and structures were erecting in different

Fortunately, the sight of these

after a few ineffectual

after Attick designs.

the

Roman

There

and these

were

But latterly, the gusto Grecohas again ventured to

What therefore was

manner obtained

a

complete victory.

for the second edition of this work

(1768),

has been judged necessary to insert

camps in which Le

principal

surface there

Roy

and Piranesi stand are

and the

the

barriers between them seem to be

are

very important

two

and

considerable time

architecture,

had been extolled into

parts of England,

first specimens excited no desires for more :

struggles,

seemed, at that time, no farther necessity to fight its cause;

observations intended

then suppressed.

peep forth, and once more, threaten an invasion.

omitted in the second edition, it

in this, as a caution to stragglers.

Although the different

thus

insurmountable,

contact.

necessity, truth,

of the classicistic doctrine of the

have their roots. the Abb6

Lodoli3

on him

rationalistic

certain

from wood

and plates of Della Magnificenza follow Lodoli's

as illogical, unreasonable,

clearly defined,

points of

Both of them believe in objective laws, both fight for reason,

These are the central points

below

and simplicity in architecture.

Le

Roy whereas Piranesi was

Age of Enlightenment, in which the

CordemoyI

seems to derive his ideas from

certainly

Laugier,2

spell of the decisive

under the

of Padre

influences

Piranesi's

(1690-176I), his

during

who must have been one

in Venice.

early years

From him comes not

general,

instance that of the

only but also the way in which

development

pages

approach

to architecture in

problems presented themselves, for

to

stone construction in Greek architecture.

and

Certain

ideas in showing this process

opposed to nature.

Piranesi's

Mariette

polemical

will

book could not be left unanswered by the 'Grecians'

taking up

the

the

In

pen.

GazetteLittiraire

with that

of his

all

Greek

colonists;

by

and nobody

I764

be astonished to find a Frenchman

published

point

a letter

against Piranesi in

de l'Europe.4 His

compatriot

Roman art had its

slaves, and declined under Roman

essentially

But for him the Etruscans are Greek

of view is

identical

Caylus.

origin

in Greece, was mainly executed in Rome

patronage :

Architecture, London Lawrence's article in

1

p. 26. Cf. Miss

issue,

Nouveau Traiti de toute l'Architectureou

I791,

this

p.

136.

l'Art de

bastir, Ist

ed.,

Paris 1706.

2

3 Although

Essai sur

l'Architecture, Paris 1753. Lodoli never wrote a line his

than

that

of

v.

Schlosser, Die

that

Laugier

Kunstliteratur,1924,

is

in

but

as

many

Frenchman

a

against

influence seems to have been more

personal

any architectureof the 18th century. It is known

(cf. J.

respects

he turns

the Romans and declares

dependent on Lodoli,

p.

vital

other theorist of

567)

the Greeks to be

Francesco Milizia, the

cist theorist

based on Lodoli's ideas.

was summarized

d'ArchitetturaLodolianaossia l'Arte del Fabbricare

con solidith scientifica e con eleganza non capricciosa.

Libri due.

perfect.

most

end

The

views

of

important

century,

classi-

are

system

of the

of the

The latter's

by

Andrea

1834-

Memmo, Elementi

Zara

* Cf. Mariette's

published

correspondence

in Bottari's Raccoltadi

withBottari,

Lettere, Milan

1822,

vol.

V,

no.

157,

162,

I67.

Mariette

asserts that the letter in the Gazette litteraire

was

published

without

his knowledge.

PIRANESI'S

"PARERE SU L'ARCHITETTURA"

I5i

II n'est alors aucune production qui

d'ceuvre.

maniere

ne se

charge

d'ornements

superflus,

et absolument hors

a

la

fin

partisan

On sacrifice tout au luxe, et l'on se rend

qui

ne tarde pas a devenir

ridicule

et

"une belle et noble

simplicite."

and

once. It appeared in 1765 and

actual title-page The

greater part For Piranesi the Tuscan

of the Greek orders.

originality and merit

'Grecians'

simple

d'une

barbare.

Greek art on the other hand

pursues reversal of Piranesi's view about the styles of

an answer at

plates.

The

attack.

This is a

complete ornate architecture.

Piranesi, in a fury, prepared

learned

may

example

seem to

consisted of a title-page, 23 contains

(P1. 27a) already of it is filled with an

order is an invention of

Peculiar as it

of the Tuscan order was of central

and 'Romans.' For Le

was a

The

pages of text and 9

a programme

and an

of the Tuscan order.

the Etruscans, independent the discussion about the

us,

importance

Roy

in the battle of the

and architects like J. F. Blondel the Tuscan

divided.

Hamilton

for instance,

degenerate Doric order.

D'Hancarville,

But the camps are not rigidly

who

published the

Collection in 1766,' though

a 'Grecian,' accepted a great deal of the 'Roman'

assumed the antiquity and inventiveness of Etruscan

Etrusco-Roman

believed that the

by tradition and as an admirer of Winckelmann

He not only

the

development, but he applied this view to architecture, and

asks :

not the Doric order be nothing more than the Tuscan to which Greece

theory. civilization and

He

Tuscan order was

the model for the Doric.

different ?"2

friend of

"May

added ornaments which make it

Robert in Rome he

only three orders "for as to the

and

for him

Ionic, without

appear

hand,

a

Adam, on the other

certainly acquired

Doric." And the

Piranesi,3 in whose circle

education, acknowledges

more than

purely of the Corinthian and

a

bad

Roman order-is

topical

on the left hand

had a

letter to the Gazette

much of his historical

a

Tuscan, it is, in fact, no

Composite-also awkward mixture

imperfect

a

Thus,

Above

under

"very disagreable and

either

for

which

grace or beauty."4

every contemporary onlooker, Piranesi's title-page

was increased

by

two enigmatical

hand,5

writing

hoc."

Mariette's

"aut cum

designs

the

quality,

side.

Littiraire,

Tuscan

symbol for the scorn of the practising

appears

the motto :

Below is the outline of a

"aut in hoc"-a

column filled with artists' tools and the motto :

artist for the theorist. The first with the title Osservazioni

Piranesi's text consists of three

parts.

1 Collection of

Etruscan, Greek, and Roman

Antiquitiesfrom the Cabinet of the Hon.ble M.

Hamilton, 1766,

I, pp.

52 ff-., 72 ff-., 94,

Io8 ff.

W.

I04,

2 Apart from the aesthetic judgment, the

of the Etruscan style

of the Greek coincides

idea of the

simplicity and the ornateness

with

Piranesi's

view

of I761.

his

Adam

Cf. above

3 Piranesi dedicated

Urbis

to

R.

Campus Martius

(1762)

and

I47.

Antiquae

engraved four plates for his Worksin Archi-

tecture (1778).

4 Worksin Architecture,1774, vol. I, 2, p. 4.

In vol. II, I (1779) the Adams acknowledge

the Etrusco-Roman continuity without Greek

influence.

Ashby

(Burlington Mag.,

XXXIII,

1918,

p. 187) refers

origin

century still

to the fact that the Etruscan

of the Tuscan order was in the 19th

defended by Rivoira, Originof

This might

to the 'sinister' intention of Mariette's

Lombard Architecture.

5 The left hand is represented.

point

letter.

152

RUDOLF

WITTKOWER

di Gio Battista Piranesi sopra la Lettrede M. Marietteis merely a repetition

of his

sentence

by is written in the form of

Piranesi.

sharply,

arguments

in Della

Magnificenza; he tries to refute

part

Mariette

sentence.

The next

with the title Pareresu l'Architettura

certain designs by

they

Piranesi.

a dialogue between a friend and an opponent of

Proto-

are overloaded with ornament.

The discussion

about

begins attacks them because

piro, the rigorist,

He condemns Piranesi as

ornament.

dato a quella pazza liberth di lavorare a capriccio

man,

severity,

sakes.

the classicism of Palladio are

Vitruvius to their

illogical, for in Della Magnificenza he was against

And he concludes that with these inventions Piranesi "si e

designs

with

unexpected

rules are to

be

"

pursued

hut

:

Didascalo, Piranesi's

arguments. He denies that

for their own

Not only Greek architecture, but also the rules of Vitruvius and

If one carries the principles of

defends his

reason and adherence to

logical

rejected.

conclusion the result will be a primitive

senza cornici, senza volte,

"Edifizi senza pareti, senza colonne,

senza tetti."

The Grecians, Vitruvians, rigorists and purists dictate laws of architecture

which are never inherent in it.

imposed

refuted.

In this book, he argues,

with Greek architecture, and that the Romans had

tried to

architecture

to the mason's craft.

as confusion.

has its own laws of

e'l meno

In his final how one should

reducing

To elaborate the possible variations implicit in architecture and to give

way to creative impulse leads according

et barbare."

not only ancient architecture but also what is being

Europe.

actually shown that there was something

laws on architecture in Della

The accusation that Piranesi had

Magnificenza and attacked capriccio is

If one follows the laws of the

Piranesihad

fundamentally wrong

mitigate

its inherent evils.

rigorists, Without variation art is reduced

becomes terribly

But the

monotonous.

liberty

advocated by Piranesi is not the same

The parts should be in harmony with the whole; ornament

gradi, le preminenze, il pii, and

towards Mariette asking him

without

delightful.

gradation and mass ("i

dignitoso") which make the whole appear elegant

words Piranesi turns

keep

directly to "une belle et noble

simplicitC" (Mariette)

architectureto "un vil m6tier oi' l'on ne feroit

que copier" (Le Roy).

to Mariette to "une maniere ridicule

If one thus condemns the wealth of invention, one condemns

produced in modern

new work

large introduction to with the

ne'

thesis of the

his

attempt

In

conclusion Piranesi declares

that he is preparing

a

in which all his ideas will be further

it which follows

title :

antichiis

priority

Della

(and

explained. the work was never

But the

developed beyond this)

Arti in

Europa

to

introduzione e del progresso delle Belle

Tempi

rather disappointing,

of

Italy

over

Greece.

since it merely resumes his old

by

Piranesi's

If one takes care not to be misled

opinions

in

Della

1765 cannot

indispensable

the

bring

different

his ideas

of

unchallenged authority,

Though

as

all

into line with one another, the decisive

Magnificenzta of 1761 and those

be

overlooked.

In

the

break between

in the Parere

expressed

enjoys

criticized.

Piranesi tries to find a way out by sophistry, he now recommends

earlier book

Vitruvius

in the later the ancient author is

rigorously

those ornaments which he

condemned before.

But above

principles of law, reason and simplicity are now ridiculed.

PIRANESI'S

"PARERE SU L'ARCHITETTURA"

change

in Piranesi's views? simplicite" show the

to

153

The words in This is

What can have caused the

Mariette's letter, "une belle et noble

already the language

conquered Europe since the early sixties.

the fact of the

Roman architecture. contrast to his earlier

Therefore,

condemnation of

simplicity. himself recommends ornate

die Baukunstder The

calls "das

monotony.

essay

way.

antiquity had

longer ignore

of fully developed

of Winckelmann whose

approach Piranesi could no

he tries to

simplicity

of Greek and the ornate character

For the sake of

continuity

in strict

prove,

views,

that even Etruscan architecturewas ornamented.'

admiration for ornate architecture and

curious as it

sound, Winckelmann

: Anmerkungen iiber

of

may In his book

he

switches over to

Alten (1762)

of

And,

architecture.

one finds the source of Piranesi's

and "die Zierlichkeit"

building

without

theory parts which he

:

Winckelmann consists of two

essential)

Wesentliche" (the

(meaning

'Verzierung'-ornament).

building (construction),

of the

building. be monotonous :

tadelhaft werden"

is,

latter

with the

To the the form of

'essential' belong material, the way of

the building (including orders), the parts

But an 'essential'

"das Einerley

(p.

50).

"Zierlichkeit" would

oder die Monotonie kann in der Baukunst

So far Piranesi follows Winckelmann.

He

For the

historically

there are still attitude which

entire development. contain

engravings-the had been

PrimaPartedi Architetturee Prospettive, of

His publications

of volumes of

ever since the

I6th century

but in a

dedicated to his

first

work,

Palladian principles

buildings.

completely His AntichitaRomane

tutelary

of

a

indications

however, blind to the conclusion which Winckelmann draws.

decoration,

although

theoretically desirable, coincides

decline of architecture.2

But,

apart from a desire to vindicate Roman

more

important

understood

reasons for Piranesi's

architecture,

change

of

and

only

by taking into account his

they

consist

of antiquarian book which

In his first

mainly

other

can be

Up till 1761 his activity was primarily archeological.

no aesthetic confession,

type

common in Rome.

1743,

he strives to reconstruct-on

way-the

main

the

antiquarian

types

fantastic

of 1748 consists of a collection

genius,

pedagogic intention are to be found in the title of a work of 1753, Trofei

di

of

1756, a vast is more

explicit known the relics of

he

of ancient

of views of Rome

Bottari.

The

Giovanni

Ottaviano Augusto

utili a PittoriScultoriedArchitetti. In Le AntichithRomane

:

volumes,

that his intention is to make

contained in four

collection of Roman

antiquities he states in the

preface,

Roman greatness for

the benefit of amateurs and architects.

1 Three

text

of

the plates

show

Pira-

had

cham-

underground title of the first of them

accompanying

which

he

nesi's

discovered

bers (P1. 27b).

is : "Essais de diff6rentes

trouvent

anciens

below

blame

in

ornaments

Etruscan

The

dans

pres

Frises ou peintures

les

de

souterrains

des

And

remark : "Pro-

Corneto."

des Tailleurs.

a 6iti l'in- ont

dans

qui

qui

se

it

Etrusques

bears

the

historique

des

Etrusques

de

ces

satirical

a l'avantage

ou des

de

Qui

venteur

6t6 decouvertes par

Grecs

gallons

especes

Piranesi en Toscane

les

cavernes

de

Corneto

et

de

Chiusi."

2 For the ancient

which

conception,

Herculesam

92 and

distinction

Urteilskraft,

origin and history of the

innata"

and "orna-

Winckel-

Idea, I924,

are the

basis of

cf. Panofsky,

Scheidewege,1930,

in

Kant's

p.

74-

Kritik

Kritik

superiority

of

Sch6n-

a priori

two notions "pulchritudo

mentum,"

mann's

p. The

der

was codified

where

the

"reine Sch6nheit"

heit"

argument

is

made

(? 16).

over "anhangende

the

subject

of

an

154

RUDOLF

WITTKOWER

Della

thoroughly pedagogic interest in the demands of actual

character a

Magnificenza,though a historical

work, pursues by

Thus he

virtue of its

polemical

shows an