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Local Residence Preparation toward Implementation of New Public Transport

Muhammad Faiz bin Ahmad Shafi


School of Environmental Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi
3, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia.
muhammadfaizbinahmadshafi@gmail.com
Abstract
This study aims to identify the readiness of local residence toward the implementation of the new public
transport and the factors that influence the use of public transport. The method was using in this study are
secondary and primary data. The study was conducted was select 190 respondents to determine their readiness
for new public transportation. Overall we found the people positive with the efforts made by government to
improve public transport facilities in which 100% of respondents agreed the new public transport will make the
city more organized and 83.2% of respondents agreed that "the new public transport will reduce the use of
private vehicles. Results the study found that users of commuter and Light Rail Transit was the highest among
the respondents, 32.1% and 29.5%. While the ticket price was the main factor emphasized by people with a total
of 42.6% of respondents chose this reason. The study concludes with some recommendations for future
improvements to the public transport planning more effective.
Keyword: Public Transportation, Mass Rapid Transit, Bus Rapid Transit, Mode of Public Transport, Customer
satisfaction

INTRODUCTION
Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur is the capital
and largest city in Malaysia. It covers a land
area of 244 square km (Junaidi Awang Besar,
2014). As a cosmopolitan city by a large multiethnic local communities and the international
community, Kuala Lumpur has an advanced
public transport systems compared to most
places around the country of Malaysia. This
globalization era, the use of public
transportation can reduce traffic congestion,
save money and reduce the rate of road
accidents in our country. This is so because the
use of public transport has received attention
and attracts Users in this country. High travel
demand in large part by private transport,
particularly private cars has resulted in
congestion and a serious deterioration of travel
speed on main roads in many places in Kuala
Lumpur, especially at the area of city centre,
and also at around the city, stemming from
main roads operating at or above capacity
during peak hours (Ismail and Said, 2015). Low
vehicle occupancy has worsened this problem.

There is little overlap and duplication in the


functions of the agency responsible for the
transport network of Kuala Lumpur, which
sometimes gave rise to conflicting policies or
programs. This makes it difficult to formulate
policies of public and private transports are
consistent(DBKL, 2015).
The existence of public transportation
such as LRT, Monorail, and RapidKL still
cannot meet the number of users increases
every day. In addition, costs or fare quite
expensive. Passenger fares for taxis and LRT
are considered expensive, especially for those
with low incomes (Almselati et al., 2011). The
main issues to be highlighted are the public's
willingness to accept the existence of MRT and
BRT as a new public transport in Kuala
Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur was the capital of
Malaysia who experiencing urbanization
process, to achieve a comfortable city; we need
to find people's perceptions on the issue of
public transport in Kuala Lumpur.

DEFINITION AND HISTORY OF PUBLIC


TRANSPORT
Definition of public transport by
(Almselati et al., 2011) stated that public
transport was a system of vehicles such as
buses and trains that operate at regular times on
fixed routes and are used by the public. Public
transport play important rule of the efficiency
of the city with it bring large number people
from one destination to other destination. In the
city of Kuala Lumpur, there are most modern
public transportation system in this country
consist LRT (Light Rail Transit), airport
express rail link, Monorail and commuter rail
(Schwarcz, 2003). According to studies by
(Walters, 1979) state that public transport was
all multiple occupancy vehicle services that
designed to transport customers on local and
regional routes. It was transportation by bus,
rail, or vans or other conveyance, whether
privately or publicly owned. That transport
providing to the public general or special
service. The first public bus services in
Malaysia has been introduced systematically in
1935 by "The Ipoh General Transport
Company". Penang then start its own public bus
transportation systems by Lim Seng Omnibus
company, this also followed by state of
Selangor by Foh Hup Omnibus, Toong Fong
Bus and Len Bus (Francis and Ganley, 2006).
MASS RAPID TRANSIT, MRT

MRT (Mass Rapid Transit) is an urban


transportation system has three main criteria,
mass (large carrying capacity), rapid (faster
travel time and high frequency), and transit
(stops at many stations in the urban main point)
(Mathur and Papadkar, 2014). My rapid transit
or mass rapid transportation system (MRT)
Malaysia was launched at the Kuala Lumpur
Convention Centre on July 8, 2011. The main
objective of the MRT to encourage the public to
use public transport more saves time and fuel
costs. MRT and LRT significant difference was
capacity of passengers that can be carried. Use
MRT allows train to accommodate two times
the number of passengers than LRT trains now.

According to the name, Mass Rapid Transit or


MRT, which means a mass quantities, often
rapid turn means, of course MRT able to carry
passengers and large quantities more frequently.
Indirectly passenger dispersal system can be
done in a short time and efficiently (Hulme et
al., 1989). Masss Rapid Transit (MRT) not only
significantly improve the existing railway
network is inadequate but also will serve to
integrate the existing rail network and reduce
bad traffic congestion in the metropolitan area
(MYMRT, 2015). Proposal was announced in
June 2010 and was approved by the Malaysian
government in December 2010. Construction of
the first line began in July 2011. This project is
also one of the initial projects identified for the
economy Valley "National Key Economic
Areas Klang" under the Transformation
Program economy by the Malaysian
government. The Mass Rapid Transit
Corporation Sdn Bhd (MRT Corp) formed in
September 2011 and was appointed by the
government as the official owner of the project.
BUS RAPID TRANSIT, BRT
BRT as a mass transit system has
typically been characterized by high running
speeds, frequency, passenger capacity and the
operating on an exclusive right-of-way (ROW)
(Nor et al., 2011). Type of bus rapid transit
(BRT) system has gained the trust the whole
world as a cost saving alternative to urban rail
investments. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a new
concept in public transport in Malaysia. BRT
systems using buses instead of trains to
transport passengers to quickly used the paths
that are only used by special buses along 5.4
kilometers. Sunway BRT will operate for 18
hours a day with a frequency of bus arrivals
every five minutes. This means that each bus
will be able to pick up passengers at any station
of 216 times a day. More than 500,000 people
in Bandar Sunway and Subang Jaya USJ will
benefit from the project Bus Rapid Transit
(BRT) in the country which is expected to
commence operations in mid 2015 (Myrapid,
2015). However, some question the city-

shaping potential of BRT, in part due to a belief


it delivers fewer regional accessibility benefits
than rail, but also to the social stigma some
assign to bus-based forms of mass mobility.
Notwithstanding the successes of cities like
Curitiba and Ottawa at integrating BRT and
land development doubt remains over BRTs
ability to promote less car-dependent, more
sustainable patterns of urban growth in rapidly
motorizing and suburbanizing cities.
COSTUMERS SATISFACTION
The position of customer satisfaction
with public transport is described to define the
last part of the market context: profitability. The
Harvard service-profit chain clarifies the
position of customer satisfaction with services
(Heskett et al., 2004; Heskett et al., 2008).
Employee satisfaction influences the service
value, which is defined as what employees have
to offer to customers. The better the employees
meet the customer's needs, the customer
satisfaction is higher, and again the higher the
revenues will become. So, customer satisfaction
is part of a loop, which influences revenues and
profitability. Concluded from the loop can be
satisfied employees serve customers better.
OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The aim for this study is to discover the


perception of Kuala Lumpur citizen toward the
implementation of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
and Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) as a new public
transport in order to determine the issue about
the public transport.
The objectives of this research such as:
1) To evaluate the willingness of people
to used new public transport.
2) To investigate factors contribute people
to used public transport.
3) To
determine
the
facilities
implementation on new public
transport.

METHODOLOGY
The research obtains data on the
weaknesses, interests and willingness of the
public on new public transport. For this study
more used by the questionnaire. Collecting
primary data and secondary data use to get all
contact information for this study. First the key
data was collected through data collection by
using
observations,
interviews
or
questionnaires. While secondary data we
usually get through a literature review on the
internet, journal or magazine articles. This
descriptive study is to obtain quantitative data
related to the research topic of the public
transport sector. Descriptive research describes
a phenomenon that is happening or gets
information about events and data about the
issues raised by the study questionnaire
.Determination of the number of samples is
based on the formula (Krejcie and Morgan,
1970).
This research is to evaluate the
willingness of people to use new public
transport and to identify the method to improve
public transportation system in order to
promote people to using it. Data collected
throughout the questionnaire survey via semi
structured interview session to public on three
case study sites which are in KL Sentral,
Sunway City, and Terminal Bersepadu Selatan
(TBS) were analyzed. The study was conducted
select 190 respondents to determine their
readiness for new public transportation. Data
was analyzed using the "Statistical Package for
Social Science" (SPSS). The respondents
consisted of 116 men and 74 women from the
age group 18 to 57 years. The techniques
adopted for the analysis of questionnaire survey
were frequency analysis, descriptive and
percentages together with the general
conclusion on the respondent statements. The
techniques adopted for the analysis of
questionnaire survey were frequency analysis
and percentages together with the general
conclusion on the respondent statements.

SURVEY

QUESTIONNAIRE

Surveys are often used to measure facts (postbehavioral experience), attitudes (preferences)
and beliefs (assessment of importance and
predictions). It is particularly useful when there
is requirement to collect data on aspects of
behavior or attitudes or belief that are not easy
to observe directly. The survey was done by
distributed questionnaire at the site location to
find the data.

Method using a questionnaire is a method


designed to collect data. It is used as a checklist
to record observations on the behavior of
respondents. The techniques adopted for the
analysis of questionnaire survey were
frequency analysis, descriptive and percentages
together with the general conclusion on the
respondent statements.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Single
(61.1%)
Status

Male
(67.8%)
Gender

< 25
(50.5%)

Age

25 45
(38.4%)
Married
(38.9%)

Female
(32.2%)

45 >
(11.1%)

Someti
me
Usage
(38.9%
Freque
)
ncy
Freque
nly
(61.1%
)

< RM 2000
(16.8%)
RM 2000 RM
3999
Income
(61.1%)
RM 4000 RM
5999
(21.6%)

Work
Place
Selangor

> RM 6000
(0.1%)

Other
(2.1%)

Kuala
Lumpur
(47.9%)
(43.7%)

Putrajaya
(6,1%)

Figure 1: The result of respondents demography in Kuala Lumpur on 2015


Based on data received from a total of 190 respondents, 116 (61%) was male and 74 (39%) of
them was women. while 129 (68%) of respondents are married, and 61 (32%) of the respondents have
been married. A total of 96 (51%) people aged less than 25 years, 73 (38%) people aged between 25 to
45 years and the remaining 21 (11%) were respondents older than 45 years. The study also found that
age among respondents interviewed was between 18 and 57 years old. Research shows that the
frequency of respondents use public transport in urban areas include RapidKL, Monorail, commuter,
LRT Taxi and 61.1% which is higher than stated they regularly use public transport, and the remaining
38.9% said they only occasionally use public transport. Related study found that a total monthly
income of respondents, 32 (16.8%) respondents have been interviewed earn less than RM 2000, a total
of 116 (61.1%) respondents earning between RM 2000 and RM 3999, a total of 41 (21.6%) respondents
earning between RM 4000 and RM 5999, while the remaining 1 (0.5%) respondents only the income of
more than RM 6000 and above. It was found that the numbers of middle-income respondents between
RM 2000 to RM 5999 was a majority of respondents. From a total 190 responses received, 91 (47.9%)
of respondents work in Kuala Lumpur, 83 (43.7%) of the respondents work in Selangor, 12 (6.3%)
worked in Putrajaya and the remaining 4 (2.1%) work outside of this location. Overall, we can describe
the majority of respondents came from those working in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor where the study
was conducted.

Local Residence Perception


180
160
140
120
100
80
60 Strongly Disagree
40
20
0

Disagree

Unsure

Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 2: Local residence perception toward public transport surveys in Kuala Lumpur in 2015
Surveying public perception and satisfaction are essential elements in observing the
effectiveness to providing a better service, efficiently and more effective for customers. Perception
survey used to looking anything that to difficult to measure the value or nature subjective. Perception
studies will be able to see something behind the letter and spirit of the problems and issues raised. A
value is difficult to measure; it would be more objective if using perception. This is because the
perception study will be able to measure something that is not a mathematician. Based on the result,
most of the respondents agreed that government should be improve the facilities of public transport and
make it reasonable cost and flexible to all type users.

Mod of Public Transport


Monorail
Commuter
LRT

female

male

Taxi
Bus
0

10

20

30

40

50

Number of Respondents

Figure 3: Mod of public transport in Kuala Lumpur on 2015

60

70

Refer to the figure 3, explains that already exist differences between the various transport
modes selection among respondents with gender of respondents in the survey. According to Table 4.17,
the study found that the use of commuter and Light Rapid Transit (LRT) is still dominant among both
sexes of (32.1%) and (29.5%) followed by (21.0%) Bus, Monorail by (15.8%) and the least is the Taxi
of (1.6%).LRT and Commuter become famous public transport because of less time travel and less
waiting time. However, bus also was the main choice because of easy excess.

Reason Using Public Transport

Number of Respondent

50
40
30
20
10
0

Below 25

25 to 45

45 Above

Figure 3: Reason used of public transport in Kuala Lumpur on 2015


The study found that from a total of 190 questionnaires were received, feedback from each category
have the tickets are the most respondents emphasized by young and old respondents. The total number
of respondents who chose the ticket price is 42.6%, the comfort factor and reduce travel time is the
second highest and third selected by the respondent of 18.9% and 17.9%. Schedule accuracy factor is
the most marginally by 4.8% while other factors are 15.8%.