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Просмотров: 119 стр.Performance analyzis of an inovative bracing system for seismic protection

May 18, 2015

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Performance analyzis of an inovative bracing system for seismic protection

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Performance analyzis of an inovative bracing system for seismic protection

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Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1020, 1044 (2008); doi: 10.1063/1.2963720

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2963720

View Table of Contents:

http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1020?ver=pdfcov

Published by the AIP Publishing

This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions.

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SCBF Bracings

Rasoul Mirghaderi^ and Sanaz Ahlehagh^

"Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

^MSc. Student, Civil Engineering Department, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, ahlehagh@yahoo.com

Abstract. Energy dissipation in concentrically braced frames is achieved by successive cycles of

inelastic buckling in compression and yielding in tension and force controlled elements, such as

beams, columns and connections should remain elastic to ensure the gravity load resistance of

the frame. Braces are usually designed for compression which results section areas that are more

than required by tension, while due to tension action of brace the connections and other members

should be designed for tensile strength of brace element. In chevron braced frames, the beams in

bracing frame should possess adequate strength to resist the unbalanced vertical forces due to

unequal axial capacity of braces in tension and compression. This result in very big size beams,

much stronger than would be required for other brace configurations. In this paper effect of

Reduced Brace Section on behavior of displacement control braces, which intend to decrease the

difference between tensile and post-buckling strength of braces, is described. Decreasing area of

the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will result in a reduction in tensile

yielding capacity of the brace while it's buckling load and post buckling behavior is not affected

significantly. Tensile yielding force is related to the reduced area of the brace while its post

yielding tensile capacity is also related to the length of the reduced section. Minimum change in

buckling and post buckling response was derived from the proposed arrangements of reduced

sections. Linear and nonlinear response of the reduced section braces in tension and compression

is studied by analytical methods under monotonic and cyclic loading. Braces with reduced

section are considered as a type of balanced bracing which results smaller design forces for

gusset plates and beams in chevron bracings.

Keywords: Special Concentric Braced Frame, Buckling, Post buckling. Brace local buckling,

Pushover analysis.

INTRODUCTION

Currently Special Concentrically Braced Frames (SCBF) are considered as

effective structural systems to resist lateral loads due to earthquake. Braces are the

main source of energy dissipation in these structural systems. Energy dissipation of a

brace is achieved by excessive cycles of inelastic buckling in compression and

yielding in tension. Therefore the governing failure modes shall be yielding in tension

and global buckling in compression (ductile failure modes) and shall occur prior to

brittle limit states such as net section rupture and local buckling of elements. Brace

hysteretic behavior exhibits unsymmetrical properties in tension and compression and

typically shows significant strength deterioration when loaded into the inelastic range

in compression.

CP1020, 2008 Seismic Engineering Conference Commemorating ttie 1908 l\^essina and Reggio Calabria Earttiquai<e,

2008 American Institute of Physics 978-0-7354-0542-4/08/$23.00

1044

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All other components of the braced frames, such as columns, beams and their

connections are force control elements that are designed to remain elastic while braces

go through inelastic cycles buckling and tensile yielding. Braces are usually designed

for compression which results section areas that are more than required by tension,

while due to tension action of brace the force controlled elements shall be designed for

tensile strength of brace element. The braced bay beam in chevron braced frames is a

force controlled element which has significant effect on the overall behavior of the

braced frame and shall be designed elastically for maximum credible action in braces.

The unbalanced vertical force which usually governs the design of braced bay beam in

chevron braced frames happens when one brace has yielded in tension and the

compressive brace has experienced significant loss of capacity due to entering the post

buckling range. This unbalanced vertical force cause a great increase in height of this

beam.

Many of the potential performance difficulties associated with concentrically

braced frames rise from the difference between the tensile and compression capacity

of the brace, extensive research has been devoted to reduce this unbalanced force and

develop braces with more ideal inelastic behavior. Buckling Restrained Braced Frames

(BFBF) are one of the systems developed to improve the seismic behavior of braced

frames. In BRBFs, the unbalanced force is diminished by eliminating buckling of the

brace, i.e. increasing the compressive capacity.

In this paper the idea of reducing the unbalanced force by decreasing the tensile

capacity of the brace by means of reducing brace area in a limited length is studied.

Decreasing area of the steel section in a limited length and at a specific location will

result in a reduction in tensile yielding capacity of the brace while it's critical buckling

load and post buckling behavior is not affected significantly. Tensile and compressive

behavior of braces with reduced brace section is studied by means of analytical

methods and the effect of their implementation on global behavior of a braced frame is

shown.

Reducing the brace area in a limited length will decrease the yielding capacity of

the brace in tension while it's buckling and post buckling behavior is not affected

much. This kind of bracing is called brace with Reduced Brace Section or Balanced

Bracing in this paper. Several detailing for reducing the area of the brace are

investigated, one of which will be discussed here. Longitudinal profile of this brace,

named RB-5, is shown in FIGURE 1. Total length of reduction is 500 mm, located at

both ends of the brace. Reduced section is also shown in FIGURE 1. Cross sectional

area of the complete section is 2775 mm^ and it reduces to 1875 mm^ in the reduced

sections.

2000

1450

,100, 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50

, n n

f^l

1

.gd

n

(a)

1045

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if

^

35

30

35

r,Td

-+-\L'J\il

(b)

FIGURE 1. Balanced Brace RB-5, a) Longitudinal profile b) cross section

The analysis of the braces are done with the aid of hand calculations using

theoretical formulae, OpenSEES program using frame elements and ABAQUS finite

element program, using quadrilateral shell elements. Yield strength of steel material is

assumed to be 254 MPa.

Reduction in brace area will reduce the tensile capacity of the element, and this

reduction is directly related to the reduced area, but the post yield behavior is also

related to the length of reduced section as shown in FIGURE 2. After yielding of the

reduced section, the strain in the yielded region will increase significantly but the

displacement which is the multiply of strain and length, will not increase much

because the length of the reduced area is limited. The curves shown in FIGURE 2 are

calculated with the aid of strength of material relations. Using the OpenSEES program

with nonlinear beam column elements and fiber section will yield to the same results.

As can be seen in this figure the post yield slope of the curves will reduce with

increasing the length of the reduced area.

Lrecluced=0

-" Lreclucecl=200mm

"-Lreduced=400mm \

'^Lreduced=100mm ,

,

P^

FIGURE 2. Force-Displacement diagram for a brace with reduced section and with different lengths of

reduction.

different reduced areas and total reduced length of 400 mm is plotted. Final difference

between the tensile capacity of a complete and reduced brace is also dependant on the

reduced area of the brace.

1046

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Areduced/A=1

Areducecl/A=0.8

Areduced/A=0.5

Areduced/A=0.3

FIGURE 3. Force-Displacement curve for a brace with different reduced areas and an equal reduced

length.

The amount of reduction in tensile capacity is also dependant on the post yield

stiffness of steel material. In FIGURE 2 and FIGURE 3 the ratio of plastic stiffness (E')

to elastic stiffness (E) is assumed equal to 0.01. Reducing this ratio will increase the

reduction in tensile capacity.

The tension force reduction for brace RB-5, in different axial displacements is

shown in FIGURE 4. It can be seen that by 30% reduction of the area in less than 15%

of the length, the tensile strength will be reduced by about 10%) at displacements more

than 50 mm.

but on the other hand this length shall be limited because the buckling behavior shall

not be affected much.

Compressive behavior of balanced braces is studied in order to identify the effect of

reduced area on critical buckling load, post buckling behavior and possibilities of local

buckling. FIGURE 5 shows the ratio of critical elastic buckling load of balanced brace

to complete brace, when the location of the reduced length changes through the brace.

The curves are calculated with the aid of energy method and assuming a shape

function given in Eq. 1.

w(x) = C,Sin{) + C^Sin{)

1J

1J

(1)

1047

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0.95

0.85

0.75

0.65

The above figure shows that the reduction in elastic buckling load minimizes when

the reduced length is at the ends of the brace. When reducing the moment of inertia by

50%, maximum reduction in elastic buckling load is less than 20%.

To study the global and local buckling behavior of braces with reduced brace

section using finite element programs, an initial imperfection is applied to the model,

which can be obtained from the eigen value buckling analysis. For global buckling

mode, which is the dominant mode for braces without imperfection, the first mode of

eigenvalue buckling, which has the maximum amplitude in the middle of the brace,

gives good estimation of buckling behavior.

In FIGURE 6 the axial force-displacement of RB-5 in nonlinear buckling is plotted.

The response of a complete brace is also included in this figure for comparison. The

diagrams are drawn with the aid of OpenSEES program giving an initial imperfection

with maximum amplitude equal to 1/500 of length at the middle. Therefore if the local

buckling does not govern the response of balanced braces, the buckling behavior does

not change significantly with reducing the area at the ends of the brace.

Amplitude of the initial imperfection in global buckling modes just changes the

critical buckling load and does not affect the post buckling behavior.

To consider the possibility of local buckling in balanced braces, an initial

imperfection proportional to local buckling modes, calculated in an eigenvalue

1048

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analysis, is applied to the brace. Also the combination of local and global buckling

modes is considered. The results show that the amplitude of local buckling modes has

significant effect on compressive behavior of balanced braces. By increasing the

amplitude of initial imperfection of local buckling modes, local buckling may govern

the compressive behavior of the brace which is not desirable. FIGURE 7 shows the

force-displacement diagram of brace RB-5 in compression with a combination of

local and global buckling modes as initial imperfection with different amplitudes. The

ABAQUS finite element program has been used for this study. When the amplitude of

local buckling mode is equal to 1.5 times the thickness, the local buckling mode

becomes dominant and the maximum lateral displacement occur in the region of

reduced section leading to significant increase in stresses of this region. But for brace

RB-5 and in the range of allowable initial imperfections stated by standards, the global

buckling governs the behavior. As the length of the reduced area increases, local

buckling happens with lower amplitudes of initial imperfection.

FIGURE 7. Buckling behavior of RB-5 for a combination of local and global initial imperfections with

different amplitudes.

Therefore providing special details for the reduced area, the compressive behavior

will not change much by using the idea of balanced braces. This means that the

difference between tensile and compressive strength of braces can be reduced to an

amount of about 10%, resulting use of less steel material for connections and braced

bay beam in chevron braced frames and a better behavior of the braced frame. In

FIGURE 8 cyclic behavior of balanced brace RB-5 is shown, calculated with the aid of

OpenSEES program.

1049

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In this section the behavior of a 6 story SCBF with and without balanced braces are

studied by a pushover analysis. Height of each story is 3 m and width of the braced

bay is 6 m. The structure is designed according to AISC seismic provisions and then

the pushover analysis is performed with OpenSEES. The pushover curves for the

structure with complete braces and with reduced braces are shown in FIGURE 9.

' ^ " " ~ " ^ " ""^

...^,.....

..

,

!

,

^

I

CompleteBrace

FIGURE 9. Pushover curve of 6-story building with and without balanced braces

The axial force of braces in first for stories versus control node displacement is

shown in FIGURE 10 and FIGURE 11 for ordinary and balanced braces respectively.

From these figures, it can be seen that tension yielding of balanced braces occurs in

smaller displacement demands, leading to better behavior of structure, more energy

dissipation and smaller size of connections and beams.

FIGURE 10. Axial force of braces vs. control node displacement of a 6-story SCBF

In chevron braced frames after buckUng of compressive brace, the tensile brace

may not yield significantly in tension until it fractures. This is in part due to flexibility

of the beam which deflects downward in the plane of the frame, and the tensile

capacity of the brace along with the strength of the beam is sufficient to resist

elastically the forces developed by the brace in compression. Using balanced braces,

first yielding of the tensile brace occur in displacement demands near those required

for buckling of the compressive brace.

1050

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In the above figure it can be seen that for example the first story brace buckles at a

displacement of about 40 mm but tensile yielding occur at a displacement of about

70 mm. Using balanced braces these values change to 40 mm and 50 mm respectively.

Story 1-Comp. |

- - Story2-Tensionl

-~ Story2-Connp. I

Story3-Tension|

Story3-Comp. I

Story4-Tension|

Story4-Comp. j

86

ia#

2m

2m

FIGURE 11. Axial force of braces vs. control node displacement of a 6-story SCBF with balanced

bracing

CONCLUSION

Extensive analytical investigation on buckling of balanced braces with different

initial imperfections and different amplitudes has been undertaken. Results show that

the local buckling modes can be prevented by choosing an appropriate length for the

reduced area and special details, thus resulting minor changes in buckling behavior of

balanced braces in comparison to ordinary complete braces.

Use of braces with Reduced Brace Section, reduces the demand on force controlled

elements, by decreasing the tensile capacity of the brace and not changing the

compressive capacity (buckling and post buckling). Yielding of tensile brace in

smaller displacement demands leads to more participation of tensile brace in energy

dissipation and improve the nonhnear behavior of the frame.

REFERENCE:

1. AISC, "Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings including Supplement No.l", AISC-341,

American Institute of Steel Construction, 2005.

2. S. Mazzoni, F. McKenna, G. L. Fenves, OpenSEES Command Language Manual, 2005.

3. P. Uriz and S. Mahin, "Summary of Test Results for UC Berkeley Special Concentric Braced Frame

Specimen No.l (SCBF-1)", Preliminary Observations, University of California, Berkeley,

November 2004.

4. R. Sabelli, S. Mahin, C. Chang, "Seismic demands on steel braced frame buildings with buckling

restrained braces". Engineering Structures, Elsevier, Vol.25, No.5, April 2003.

1051

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