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TREND TIMELINE FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

 

Traditional Education

Emergent T echnology

The “micro” - web

Technology as the “snack”

Emerging Integration

Innovation and

Revolution

Elaboration

 

Teachers had experience with course content and shared their knowledge with students . Drill and Practice.

Technology existed as a tool to assist with some basic skills (eg calculators and simple computers with educational software )

The advent of th e “internet” provided the ability to access information, though somewhat limited and untrustworthy

Technology was accessed by students for the purpose of research, word process or graphic presentations

Technology improvements provided access to vast amount s of content (widely available and more rigorously vetted) . Learning if available through on - line environments

Technology tools are used seamlessly along with instruction to explore and provide opportunities to demonstrate higher order critical thinking

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Access to information

Access to information was limited. Textbooks and other print sources prevailed . In the earliest stages of traditional education , only the privileged would have access to this information.

Information was accessible but not easily. On ly some content was available digitally usually in the form of CD ROM or library databases.

Information was available digitally, but the content often lacked depth and academic rigor . Information became easier to retrieve, as databases were digitized and more widely available. Research still required a visit to the library

An enormous volume of reliable information is available in computer labs or on CD libraries and generally used for research purposes . Technology permitted growing access to information. But, the focus still remained on the gathering of information and the memorization of facts.

Information is widely available and includes multiple source articles that are well vetted as well as vast amounts of information with questionable authority . At - h and devices allowed for immediate retrieval of facts to answer simple questions. Some begin to question the value of information. What is the point of knowing anything if you can look it up?

Information is immediately at hand and is a powerful tool for the advancement of learning. Some information includes personal profiles representing the individual’s on - line presence . Easily accessible information becomes a tool to facilitate new modes of exploration and discovery. Foundational skills are the focus of n ew education plans.

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Student

Engagement

Discipline was often used to attempt to foster student engagement

Novelty of technology captured some student interest and software often allowed for some personalization of learning

Some ground - breaking educators take advantage of technology improvements and utilize to enrich learning.

Technology introduces new challenges as the entertainment and social media aspect of technology beg ins to grow exponentially.

Inquiry driven learning and problem - based models are implemented as an effort to improve student engagement. Technology devices become an increasing distraction to regular classroom instruction.

In the ideal model through the implementation of technology students are always engaged in a critically minded educational experience.

Personalizatio n of Learning

All students were instructed in a large group setting . Experience was generally not interactive. Question/Answer period was utilized

Software tools could often be tailored or respond to student performance

Students had access to content that allowed for some exploration of personal interests

Technology tools could be used creatively in course work to produce visual displays of learning

Educators attempt to seamlessly integrate technology and other classroom practice. However, the full extents of technology’s value is hardly realized

Education is fully customizable and adaptable to student experience, ability and interest . Biofeedback mec hanisms respond to the students and alter the program.

Inherent value of knowledge

Knowledge was considered extremely valuable since those who “knew” had the advantage

Gaining knowledge remained the main purpose for education

Information begins to grow exponentially and a method of organizing and accessing it is increasingly necessary. “Learning” is still defined as knowing rather than doing.

Information retrieval still remains important since assessment is largely based on this. As a result there is a t ension growing between the need for change and the tendency to stay the same.

With widespread access to free information it becomes difficult to justify the need for education as content delivery or for the purpose of sharing facts for students to learn.

E ducation focuses on the process of learning rather than knowledge. Achievement is measured as one’s ability to think critically and to innovate.

Role of the

Educator ”

Teacher in role of “stand and deliver” . When feedback was provided it was usually delayed and often infrequent due to teacher workload

Teacher provides instruction in the use of the technology , but mainly as a tool for practice and rote memory.

The role of teacher remains quite similar since they still hold the balance of information. O ften, the answer key is the only thing keeping them ahead of the students.

Students essentially have the same access to information as the teacher. They could look up the answers to standard homework questions or produce an essay on the spot by copying som eone else’s. It

Feedback is responsive, immediate, and constructive . Role of teacher begins to shift to that of co - learner. The teacher effectively is learning while guiding the student. The focus begin s to shift away from memorized information.

Teacher facilitates learning. Instruction is often self - directed or in flipped classrooms. Some students may eventually have access to augmented reality experiences wherein technology allows for students to experience their learning.

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becomes clear that something is going to change soon.

 

Role of the “S tudent”

Student was generally passive recipient of knowledge Students generally worked individually in their own seat

Student is still passive recipient , but some time was spent using software programs to improve their experience

Student has opportunity to use educational software that is both entertaining and instructive. There is some personalization as software adapts to the student’s ability

Student uses readily available information to supplement their learning experience

Student regularly uses technology as a tool to research, create and enrich thei r learning.

Students engage in metacognitive, self - directed inquiry. Students worked collaboratively in the classroom AND globally

The problems and questions that are raised:

How exactly do we measure student engagement? Must they be doing what we expect them to do? What does the appropriate use of technology look like? Are our views limited by our personal bias? What about the social side of education ? How can technology address these concerns if we are out - sourcing the teacher’s traditional role? What knowledge remains the essential “everyone must know this”, component of education?

SOURCES

Bates, Tony, “A Short History of Educational Technology”, On -line and Distance Education Resources, 10 December 2015. Web 16 May 2015 ,

http://www.tonybates.ca/2014/12/10/a- short - history- of- educational- technology/

BC’s Education Plan: Focus on Learning, update January 2015, BC Ministry of Education

http://www.bcedplan.ca/assets/pdf/bcs_education_plan_2015.pdf

Bedford, Jason, “Is Technology Changing the Role of Teachers?”, Dreambox Learning, 11 July 2013. Web 16 May 2015

http://www.dreambox.com/blog/technology- changing - role- teachers

Finley, Sandra, “Instructional Coherence: The Changing Role of the Teacher”, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, September 2000,

http://www.sedl.org/pubs/teaching99/changingrole.pdf

Heick, Terry, “5 Problems With Technology in Classrooms”, Te@chthought, 31 July 20 12. Web 16 May 2015, http://www.ncsu.edu/meridian/jan98/feat_4/apps.html

Leinonen, Teemu, “(Critical) History of ICT in Education -- and Where We Are Heading”, FLOSSE Posse, 23 June 2005. Web 16 May 2015 http://teemuleinonen.fi/2005/06/23/critical - history- of- ict - in - education- and- where - we- are - heading/

Martorella, Peter, “Urge nt Emerging Issues Related to Technology Applications in Schools”, Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Northwest Carolina State University, http://www.ncsu.edu/meridian/jan98/feat _4/apps.html

Myer, Robinson, “Why Tech Still Hasn’t Solved Education’s Problems” The Atlantic, 12 August 2014. Web 15 May 2015

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/08/why- tech - still - hasnt - solved- educations- problems/375879/

Peters, Robert, “Difference Between Traditional and Progressive Education”, Schools of Quality, National Association of Independent Schools, 2012. Web May 16 May 2015, http://www.wingraschool.org/who/progressive.htm

Watson, John. “Time to Retire the Phrase, “Guide on the Side”” . Keeping Pace with K -12 Digital Learning , 21 May 2014. Web 15 May 2015

http://www.kpk12.com/blog/2014/05/time- to- retire- the - phrase - “guide- on - the - side”/