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GMAT Overview

Analysis of an Issue topc = 30 mins

Analysis of an Argument topic = 30 mins
5 mins break
Quantitavie Section = Data Sufficiency + Problems = 37qs & 75 mins
5 mins break
Verbal Section = Reading Comp + Sentence Correction + CR = 41qs & 75 mins

8 correct
16 incorrect

2 mins per question; 25% of questions are experimental

spend the most time on the first 15 questions

Bin 3 Princeton Quant, Nov 10

17 correct
9 incorrect

Verbal Section
Critical Reasoning = 12 qs
Reading Comp = 14 qs
Sentence Correction = 15 qs
Quantitative Section
Problem Solving = 22 qs
Data Sufficiency = 15 qs
Arithmetic 50%, Algebra 25%, Geometry 15%, Logic, Graphs

Practice Tests
Kaplan CR practice test, Oct 30
13 correct
7 incorrect
Kaplan SC practice test, Oct 30
17 correct
11 incorrect
Kaplan RC practice test, Oct 30
12 correct
1 incorrect
Kaplan PS practice test, Oct 30
21 correct
4 incorrect

18 correct
8 incorrect

Bin 4 Princeton Quant, Nov 10

17 correct
9 incorrect
Cambridge Arco, Nov 5
Total = 660 to 700
GMATPrep 1, Nov 18
Quantitative = 44 (9 incorrect)
Verbal = 37 (12 incorrect)
Total = 660
Kaplan 1, Nov 19
Quantitative = 36
Verbal = 38
Total = 620
Princeton Online, Nov 23
Quantitative = 42 (11 incorrect)
Verbal = 33 (10 incorrect)
Total = 610
PowerPrep 1, Nov 24
Quantitative = 47 (86%)
Verbal = 41 (93%)
Total = 710 (95%)

Princeton 1, Nov 25
Quantitative = 40 (10 incorrect)
Verbal = 45 (10 incorrect)
Total = 690
Kaplan 2, Nov 26
Quantitative = 37 (12 incorrect)
Verbal = 30 (12 incorrect)
Total = 560
Princeton 2, Dec 2
Quantitative = 46 (7 incorrect)
Verbal = 37 (11 incorrect)
Total = 670

OG 11 RC Review = 24 questions (141 total)

2; 4; 6; 11; 16; 18i; 25; 33; 47; 51; 61; 76; 78; 86; 102; 110; 113; 114; 119; 127; 130; 132; 133; 140
OG 11 CR Review = 17 questions (124 total)
3; 6; 15; 16; 22i; 43; 51; 53; 57i; 77i; 82; 85; 89; 98; 99; 116i; 123
OG 11 SC Review = 26 questions (138 total)
3i; 4i; 14; 27i; 31; 37; 59i; 60; 62i; 69; 73i; 75; 80i; 81i; 88; 92; 97; 105; 112i; 116; 117; 121; 127; 132; 133; 136

OG11 DS Eval, Dec 19

Excellent (22 correct, 2 incorrect)
OG11 RC Eval, Dec 19
Excellent (16 correct, 1 incorrect)
OG11 CR Eval, Dec 19
Above Avg (11 correct, 6 incorrect)
OG11 SC Eval, Dec 19
Excellent (16 correct, 2 incorrect)

Kaplan Paper, Dec 3

Quantitative = 42 (6 incorrect) 88%
Verbal = 39 (9 incorrect) 89%
Total = 660 (90%)

GMATPrep 2, Dec 23
Quantitative = 48 (12 incorrect, 1 incomplete)
Verbal = 37 (14 incorrect)
Total = 690

Kaplan 3, Dec 9
Quantitative = 35 (11 incorrect)
Verbal = 34 (13 incorrect)
Total = 570 (67%)

GMATPrep 1 again, Dec 24

Quantitative = 47 (15 incorrect)
Verbal = 40 (11 incorrect)
Total = 710

Kaplan 4, Dec 10
Quantitative = 38 (8 incorrect)
Verbal = 31 (14 incorrect)
Total = 570 (67%)

PowerPrep 2, Dec 26
Quantitative = 49 (93%) 4 incorr
Verbal = 44 (97%) 3 incorrect
Total = 750 (99%)

Princeton 3, Dec 16
Quantitative = 45 (8 incorrect)
Verbal = 35 (10 incorrect)
Total = 650
Princeton 4, Dec 17
Index out of range :-)

KEY QUESTIONS
OG 11 PS Review = 39 questions (249 total)
5; 9i; 22; 53; 63; 68; 85i; 88; 95; 99; 105; 113i; 116i; 126; 127; 129; 137; 175; 176; 180i; 181i; 191; 195i; 204i; 207; 208; 209i; 216; 217; 218; 220i; 225; 228i; 234; 239; 240; 241; 248
OG 11 DS Review = 29 questions (155 total)
4; 9; 56; 65i; 69i; 80; 82i; 83i; 101; 102i; 104i; 110i; 114; 119i; 120; 124; 125; 131i; 132; 137; 138; 139; 140; 141; 145; 146; 147; 150; 154

OG11 PS Eval, Dec 18

Excellent (20 correct, 4 incorrect)

Critical Reasoning Approach

Passage is divided into: Conclusion + Premises + Assumptions
Assumptions usually aren't stated, the Conclu. And Premises are
Structure = prem+prem+prem+conclu or conclu+prem+prem+prem
8 CR question types
1) Assumption Qs - hit the conclusion
2) Strengthen the Argument Qs - hit the conclusion
The best strengthen answers provide new information
3) Weaken the Argument Qs - hit the conclusion
4) Inference Qs - hit the premise
very basic, very narrow and have little to do with conclusion
5) Parallel the Reasoning Qs
A then B, if not A then not B, if always A then always B
6) Resolve-Explain Qs
7) Evaluate the Argument Qs
8) Identify the Reasoning Qs
2) and 3) ask to find the unstated premise and support or
weaken the conclusion
3 types of Assumption Questions
1) Causal Assumption - is there another reason
2) Analogy Assumption - are these situations comparable
3) Statistical Assump - are the stats representative
Assumptions aren't stated, if an answer is stated it's not correct
If negating an assumption doesn't kill the argument, it's not assumption
Ad hominem - to the man flaws of argument
7 basic principles of Critical Reasoning
1. Understand the structure of the argument
conclusion + evidence (support for conclusion)
because, for, since precede evidence
therefore, hence, thus precede conclusion
2. Preview the Q before reading the stimulus
3. Paraphrase the author's point
4. Judge the argument's persuasiveness, be an active reader
5. Answer the Q being asked - be very specific
6. Try to prephase the answer
7. Focus on the scope of the argument
watch out for all, always, never, none - they are rarely accurate
zero in on usually, probably, sometimes - they are often accurate
CR Question Types
1. Assumption Qs - a piece of support is required for the conclusion
to remain valid. Deny or negate the statement and see if the argument
falls apart. Use the Denial Test
2. Strengthen/Weaken Qs - reveal the author's assumption to be
unreasonable. The most common on the GMAT. Weaken doesn't
mean disprove
3. Inference Qs - the conclusion doesn't depend on the inference
but on the assumption. Something that must be true if the
conclusion is true. This is an extension of the argument, not a
part of it. The Denial Test works here also.

Sentence Correction Approach

Never read choice A
Scan all answers for differences
Eliminate an answer as soon as you see 1 error in it
Don't worry about punctuation
Don't read the directions
Make sure verbs agree
a modifier should be as close as possible to the word
it modifies
the - present. Using only when action is continuing
Only animate objects are "able" to do anything
20% of the SC choices are fine the way they are
1) Pronoun errors
2) Misplaced modifiers - should immediately follow
3) Parallel Construction
4) Parallel Comparision
5) Tense
6) Subject verb agreement
7) Idioms
8) Quant. Words

SC Examples
Neither this nor that IS
Majority + audience = is
This ... in addition to = is
This as well as that HAS
hopefully = NEVER USE
Sweden is but one of a number
of nations that ARE accepting
Unlike Tom and his program
Mark didn't = NO; Unlike Tom
whose program Mark didn't
= YES
Of the people who did this, the
best known IS (not one) Mary
Still harvest as they HAVE DONE
(not did)
The reason was because = WILL
NEVER BE CORRECT
I provide you with a fuller picture
than DOES she
Very unique = BIG NO NO
Try to fix - it could be said
they, as a rule, are = NO NO
they are, as a rule, .. = yes
Mary and I told him
he told Mary and ME
whether this or whether that
just as he can so he can
strong grounds for opposing of the
generate growth in industries like = no
generate growth in industries such as = YES
who might once have died in childhood
in spite of his arm crippled, he = no
his arm being crippled, he = YES
this is a hazard for the Romans, as it is

SC Idioms
Regard AS
Consider a threat
Prefer TO
Just as SO
Discourage FROM
Convict AGAINST
Closer THAN
As close AS
Don't know how to do thisOR how to do that
No man but would give
As though I WERE = when describing mood
Not onlybut also..
no so much as
defined as
regard as
modeled after
based on
as a result of
agree with
choose from
depend on
seeas
distinguish between..and..
to result in
a debate over
a dispute over
responsibility to
responsible for
different from
consequence of
soas to be
appear to
conclude that
due to
target as
distinguish from
depicted as
as great as
better than
attributed to
credited WITH
according to
because of
contribute to
in order to
think ofas
prohibit from
so largeas to
preference FOR
geared towards
not only ON but also ON
so much THAT AS THAT

SC Examples - part 2
diabetes, together with X, RANKS
The number of citizens declaring blah JUMPED = OK
The # of citizens who declared blah HAS JUMPED = NOT OK
With no predators and expanses of green = NOT OK
With no predators and WITH expanses of green = OK
In addition to her work, Mary contributed through her discovery and through her
documentation = OK
In addition to her work, Mary's contributions include her discoveries and
documentation = NOT OK
The population numbered about 20, 10 times the estimated population of 1 = OK
The population numbered about 20, 10 x that of their population of 1 = NO
To have 5 times the mass of = OK
To be 5 times Jupiter's mass = NOT OK
The symptoms that girls experience are more lively than are those that boys
experience = OK
The symptoms that girls experience are more lively than symptoms of boys
=NOT OK
That no less than a breakthrough is necessary = NO!
That a breakthrough is necessary = YES
Surpassed only by = YES
Only surpasses by = NO
Requires that pay be the same for jobs historically held by women as for jobs
requiring comparable skill that are usually held by men = OK
Requires to pay as much for jobs historically held by women as for a job(!!!)
demanding comparable skills usually held by men (!!!) = NO!
Claim to be able, from 1 page, to assess = OK
Claim the ability, from 1 page, of assessing = NO!
it has and will continue to do = NO
it has continued to do = YES
it leaves some unmoved, while overcoming..
In danger of contracting = YES
in danger to contract = NO!
that are now = YES
now that are = NO!

Identify the topic and scope = topic is large, scope is niche
Identify the author's purpose and structure
Identify the author's voice
Get the gist of each paragraph
Look for the main idea = HUGE
4 types of questions
Global; Inference; Logic; Explicit Detail
Don't memorize details
Structure questions = hypothesis stated & analyzed; proposal
evaluated & alternatives explored; viewpoint set forth and defended
Logic questions = answers discussing content or detail are wrong
Best Method
Attack opening paragraph
Stop to sum up
Attack the questions
3 Passage Types
Social Passage
Science Passage
The answer that is vague and indisputable is usually the correct one
Respect for professionals
Pro US
Moderate emotion answers are usually accurate
Negative tones to diversity are usually inaccurate
GMAT passages rarely resolve anything - be careful

Essay Words to use

For example
Furthermore
Moreover
Surely
Truly
Most important
Certainly
Consequently
I like red gum VS While the majority
of people lean to blue gum,
I firmly believe that red gum
is better

Essays Approach
Human grader grades 30 essays per hour, 2 mins per essay
Use first, therefore, because, for example
5 mins develop; 20 mins compose; 5 mins proofread
limit the use of there is, there are, in my opinion
always outline essay prior to beginning
always provide insightful examples and support, don't just say because
write as much as you can and @ least 4 paragraphs
digest the issue
select the points you will make
organize and lead in with the better argument
finish strongly
Analysis of an Issue
The issue of is a controversial one. On the one handon the other hand However,
in the final analysis it is clear that
One reason for my belief is that
A chief reson for my view is
A main reason thatis the something
is far better from a standpoint as well
while there are arguments to be made for both sides, it is clear that there are
greater advantages to the
something, something allows for.(what they ask you)
For all three reasons I therefore believe that
Analysis of an Argument
Read and identify the conclusion, assumptions and brainstorm
List as many unstated assumptions as possible
Illustrate how to use these assumptions to make the argument more compelling
First paragraph sums the argument's conclusion
2,3,4 paragraphs attack the argument and the supporting evidence
Last paragraph sums what you have said and states how the argument could be
strengthened
The writer concludes that the present problem of poorly trained will become less
severe in the future because
The writer concludes thatThe argument that would be strengthened considerably
if the author provided the evidence that
The argument that is not entirely convincing because it ignores certain crucial assumptions.
There are 3 serious flaws in the argument
First, the argument assumes that upon the premise of
Second, the argument never addresses
Finally, the argument omits
Thus, the argument is not completely sound. The evidence in support of the conclusion
Ultimately, the argument might be strengthened by
among the most pivotal shortcomings of the argument is its inability to address
the argument in its current state contains a considerable number of defects, the most
blatant of which have been discussed above. Had the argument managed to address the
aforementioned concerns its legitimacy would have been greatly enhanced. However as it

Problems Solving Approach

PICK PICK PICK PICK PICK
Always re-read the problem for 2 seconds twice carefully!
Decipher q stems quickly
Think of alternative methods before powering thru algebra

0 is an integer
xy - xz is less than yz - zx if xz > yz therefore x > y
Prime numbers = 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, ..61,67
2 is the only even prime number
First term means the first number of series

Always use a two by two grid

What is the P that 3 out of 4 tosses will be heads
Total outcomes = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 = 16
Favorable outcomes are 5
P is 5/16 is the answer

Pick numbers when you have to, with common denominators

try all answers when picking numbers

The ratio of employees to non-employees is 20:11; if

we add 7 non-employees, the ratio changes to 3:2
how many people in the group. Answer below:
20x/(11x+7) = 3/2

(a + b) 2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

xa * xb = x(a+b)

(a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab + b2
a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a - b)

xc/xd = x(c-d)
(xa)b = xab

use with variables

use with odd and even questions

If (x + y)/y has a remainder of 4 and x,y are integers

04 = 012 = 01 = 0

Std Dev = Sq Root of (Mean of Squares - Square of Mean)

Guess if you have to - often best for hard Roman numerals
If you divide inequality by a negative number you must

then x/y has a remainder of 4

Perpendicular bisector

reverse the inequality sign

Fractions are identical to percentages

if (a - b)2 = 0, then a = b
If a triangle has a larger perimeter it doesn't mean

For DS Word problems, think - dont crunch

Whatever the number of different variables to solve for
this many numbers of different equations needed
Rounding off is a powerful tool - USE IT OFTEN
Joe's favorite DS answers on hard Qs are C) & E); BEWARE
Data Sufficiency Approach
a) 1 is sufficient, but 2 is not
b) 2 is sufficient, but 1 is not
c) 1+2 together are sufficient, and neither one is suffcnt alone
d) either statement by itself is sufficient
e) 1+2 together are not sufficient, more info needed
DS topics
Ratios 30%, Algebra 25%, Number properties 25%, Geo 15%
The goal is what info you need to answer the Q, not what the A is
60% of the time one statement will be sufficient
3 Steps
focus on question stem
Look at each statement separately

that it has a larger area also

If a2 - 1 is odd, then a2 is even
Distance = Rate * time
Work problem - 1/T = 1/R + 1/G + 1/S
Cubing a number preserves its sign
What is the mean of a & b; 2) a = 520 - b
If 2x is a multiple of y, then y/2x is an integer
45 is what % of 9; 45 = % * 9 => 500%
3/5% = 3/500
If a is even and b is odd, then ab is even
Multiples of:
2 - Last digit is even = 72
3 - sum of all digits is a mult. of 3 = 216
4 - last 2 digits are a mult. of 4 = 3,028
5 - last digit is 0 or 5
6 - number is a multiple of 2 and 3
9 - sum of all digits is a mult. of 9
10 - last digit is 0

of the triangle to the area of the sq. Ans is 4

y = xq + r; q is quotient, r is remainder

/9

2n; 2n+2; 2n+4 etc are consecutive even integers

x is either 2 or 3
If 5x - 2y = -9 & 3y - 4x = 6, how much is x+y
5x - 2y = -9 + 3y - 4x = 6 equals x + y = 3
Linear equation - y = mx + b; m is slope
positive slope slopes from left to right
negative slope slopes from right to left
slope of 0 is a flat line; b is the Y intercept
The third side of a triangle is smaller than the
sum of the other two sides and larger
than their difference.
Sum of interior angles in a polygon with n sides
(n-2) * 180 degrees
1 angle = [(n-2) * 180 degrees] / n
Length of an arc = n/360deg * 2r
Area of a sector = n/360deg * r2
Surface area of a solid = 2 * ( L*H + L*W + W*H)
Diagonal in a rectangular solid - Use Pyth theorem twice

2n+1; 2n+3; 2n+5 etc are consecutive odd integers

(137 + 147 + 15 7 + 167) / 58 has a remainder of 0
When numbering pages from 1 to 1000, 3 is written
300 times
45 boy-boy handshakes and 105 girl-girl handshakes
mean that there are 150 boy-girl handshakes
First term of geo sequence is 1/2 and common ratio is
1/2, then 1st = 1/2, 2nd = 1/2 * 1/2, 3rd = 1/2 * 1/2 * 1/2
What % of retailers bought PCs
1) 85% of retailers who own their store bought PCs
2) 40% of retailers surveyed own their store
Answer is E - be very careful!!!
Last year the mean salary for 10 employees was \$10,000
What is their salary this year
1) 8 of the 10 empl have 15% greater salary
2) 2 of the 10 empl has the same salary
Answer is E - be very careful!!!

Volume of a cylinder = r2 * H

What is common multiple - break to prime factors

135 = 3 * 3 * 3 * 5
3 & 3 & 5 in common
225 = 3 * 3 * 5 * 5
3 is 1, 5 is 1, 3 * 3 is 9, 3 * 5 is 15, 3 * 3 * 5 is 45
sum 1 + 1 + 9 + 15 + 45 = 61 is the answer
Lowest common multiple of 28 and 42
28 = 2 * 2 * 7 the two numbers share 2 & 7
42 = 2 * 3 * 7
28 * 42 = 1,176; 1,176/2 = 588; 588/7 is 84
84 is the answer
The avg of evenly spaced numbers is the avg of the
smallest and the largest number.
Avg of 1377 is (13 + 77)/2 = 45 is the answer
The number of integers from a to b inclusive is
b-a+1
The sum of consectuive numbers is the avg times

Volume of a sphere = 4/3 * r 3

if Z/3 is an odd integer, then Z is an odd integer
The sum of 4 consecutive integers must always be even
Even if all 4 sides are equal, the quadracep may not
be inscribed in a circle

200 households; 80 use neither B, nor A; 60 use A only;

for each households using both brands - 3 use B only;
how many use both brands - answer is 15
Of the 3 digit integers greater than 700, how many have
2 digits that are equal to each other and the remaining
digit different from the other two
9 * 9 - 1 = 80

Distinct numbers cannot be equal

0.4 = 2/5; 0.6 = 3/5 ; 0.667 = 2/3; 0.8 = 4/5
Fraction is Part 3 divided by Whole 7
Ratio is Part 3 divided by Part 4
\$100, 20% interest, compunded semiannually
@ 6 mos & 10% interest = \$10 so total = \$110
\$110 @ 6 mos & 10 % interest = \$11 interest
\$121 is the final balance
The number insider the square root is called radical
9 girls and 9 boys; pick one 4 times and return
What is the P that a G is chosen at least once
1/2 * 1/2 * 1/2 * 1/2 = 1/16 = P that a G isnt picked
1 - 1/16 = 15/16 is the answer
Sq root of 2 is approx 1.4; sq root of 3 is approx. 1.7
Vertical angles are opposite each other and have the same

the number of terms

sum of 10..50; (10+50)/2 = 30, 50-10+1 = 41
30 * 41 = 1,230 is the answer
Mode is the number that appears most often
Median is the middle number
Range is the difference between the largest
and smallest value
Ratio = of/to
|x - 3| < 2 => (x-3) <2 and -(x-3) <2
e = p and e + q = 180 degrees

meet after 150/80mph = 1.875 hours

Train A has 15 mins headstart going @ 60mph, train B
goes @45mph, they are 281 miles apart, when do they
meet?
15 mins headstart @ 60mph = 15 miles -> S = 266 miles
solve as the other problem above
1.5 hens lay 1.5 eggs in 1.5 days
1 hen lays 1 egg is 1.5 days
1 hen lays 2/3 eggs in 1 day
6 hens lay 4 eggs in 1 day

Area of triangle = 1/2 Base * height

In similar triangles, angles are equal and sides
are proportional

if AD = 6, then radius = 2
12 years from now A will be 40% older than Sarah

number of degrees
Variable raised to an odd power will have only 1 solution
If n/4 gives a remainder of 3, the n is 3 greater than a
multiple of 4
Supplementary angles = 180 sum; complementary = 90 sum
How many positive factors of 42 are not factors of 56
42 = 2 * 3 * 7
56 = 2 * 2 * 3 * 7
3 is off
3 is 1, 3 * 2 is 2, 3 * 7 is 3, 3 * 2 * 7 is 4; 4 is the answer

Pythagorean Theorem - a2 + b2 = c2
Special Right Triangles

Area of paralellogram = base * height

Area of trapezoid = (a + b)/2 * height
Circumference of a circle = 2r

Sell X for 20% gain and receive \$30 => 1.2 * X = \$30
Sell X for 20% loss and get \$30 => 0.8 * X = \$30
Together X & Y can do 4/15 & 7/18 of 11/90 of the job per
hour, which means it takes them 90/11 hours to
finish the job

If the sum of 5 consecutive integers is 265 what are they

x + x+1 + x+2 + x+3 + x+4 + x+5 = 265; x = 51 is the answer
If the range of (3, x, y) is 0, then x = y = 3

Area of a circle = r2
Slope of a line = Rise/Run = Change is Y/Change in X
Simple interest = \$12,000 * 6% + 9/12 = \$540

If -1 < x < 0, then x 3 > 1/x3

If the smallest of 5 consecutive integers is -2, then
their sum is 0

If x is an integer, then x 2 - x - 1 is always odd

In isocseles and equilateral triangles, if you know one side
you have info about the ratios of all sides
Flip a coin 6 times, what is P that tails will come out @ least
twice but not more than 5 times
1) total outcomes = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2* 2 = 64
2) unfavor. Outcomes = 0 tails is 1, 1 tail is 6, 6 tails is 1

Compound interest =

5 marbles in a bag, 2 red and 3 blue. Pick 2 marbles,

what is the P that at least one is red, Answer is 7/10

56 outcomes are OK, then 56/64 = 7/8 is the answer

1 thru 20. You draw 1 number without returning, in order to
ensure the sum of all numbers is even, how many numbers
should you draw.
Worst case scenario = 1. Draw odd number and 2. Draw only
even numbers = 10. The 12th number will have to be odd
If lots of ratios and fractions, solve as a cosmic plug in or pick
A triangle inscribed in a semicircle is always a right triangle
4 character password has 1 letter and 3 different digits. The
letter must be the 2nd or 3rd character. How many possible
1. DLDD = 10 * 26 * 9 * 8 = 18,720
2. DDLD = 10 * 9 * 26 * 8 = 18,720
therefore 37,440 is the answer
2.2 lbs in 1 kg, to the nearest 18th, how many 18ths of a kilogram
are in 1 lb.
2.2 lbs = 1 kg => 1lb = 1/2.2 kg = 5/11 kg
5/11 = x/18 => 11x = 90 => x = 8 is the answer

Number deleted = Original sum - new sum

What is the combined ratio:
a to b is 7 to 3 and b to c is 2 to 5, what is a to c
2 * a/b = 14/6; 3* b/c = 6/15 => a/c = 14/15
How many liters of solution that is 10% alcohol
need to be added to 2 liters of solution that is
50% alcohol to create a solution that is 15% alc.
x -> 10%; 2L -> 50%; x+2 -> 15%
10% * x + 1 = 15% * (2 + x)
x = 14 is the answer
Group 1 + Group 2 + Neither - Both = Total
2! = 1 * 2; 3! = 1 * 2 * 3; 0! = 1
6! = 5! * 6
Fill all spots where order matters = n! (factoriel)
Subset & order matters = permutation
n!/(n-k)!
Subset & order doesnt matter = combination
n!/[k!(n-k)!]

27 a-3 = 9 2a+4 => 3 3(a-3) = 3 2(2a+4)

Tom reads @ 30 pages/hr; Jan reads @ 40p/hr. Tom
starts @ 4:30p, Jan starts @ 5:20p. When will they
be reading the same page.
Until 5:20p Tom reads 25 pages
Then 25 + 30t = 40x => t=2.5 hours => J will catch T
at 7:50p
Remember that 0 is a multiple of ANY number
What is the greatest possible common divisor of
2 different positive integers which are less than 144.
71 * 2 and 71 * 3 are both less than 144 => 71 is IT
x2 - 2x - 3 = 0 => (x+1)(x-3) = 0
Are q, r, and S consecutive integers if r-q = s-r
The answer is no, this tells you that they are
evenly spaced, not consecutive
With probabilities qs - visualize the different outcomes
It takes W liters of water for every liter of syrup to
make soda. If we have M liters of syrup and soda sells

Look at both statements combined

Sufficient means only ONE value, x2 = 25 is not sufficient
The two statements will never contradict each other
Yes or No questions - needs to a solid YES or a solid NO
NO is as good as YES
Be careful that the two statements aren't identical, if they are
choose D) not A)
If 1 is sufficient, the answer must be A) or D)
If 2 is sufficient, the answer must be B) or D)
If 1 is insufficient, the answer must be B), C), or E)
If 2 is insufficient, the answer must be A), C), or E)

Examples
246 => 6 units (ones), 4 tens, 2 hundreds
Odd * Odd = Odd; Odd + Odd = Even

x2 - 20x + 96 = 0 => (x-8)(x-12)=0 ; The rest is trivial

Square of an integer is 32, 42, 52, etc.
The perimeter of equilateral triangle is equal to the
perimeter of a square. What is the ratio of the area

Balance = Principal(1+rate/c)time*c
where c is the # of times compounded annually
The avg of 5 numbers is 2, delete 1 number and the
avg is -3, what number was deleted
5*2 = 10; 4*-3 = -12 => 10 - (-12) = 22 is the answer
Number added = New sum - original sum

car, how much longer is the road by water

if AB = AC, the AD = BD = DC
Lot of 70 is cut into three pieces, how many pieces are in
the largest lot; 2) largest lot equals the sum of the
other two lots
Don't be fooled by the beginning of a series, look for N
not for examples

A + 12 = 1.4(S + 12)

If s/t = 64.12 and s,t are integers, which of the following

could be the remainder when s divided by t
Ans: 0.12t = s-64t, then 0.12t is the remainder
t=375 and 0.12t=45
The product of all primes less than 20 is closest to which:
product is 9,699,690 thus the answer is 10 7

% increase from 24 to 30 = 6/24

% decrease from 30 to 24 = 6/30
P1 or P2 = P1 + P2 - P1and2
Arithmetric progression = a; a+d; a+2d
n-th member is a+(n-1)d
Geometric progression = a; ar; ar2; ar 3...
n-th member is ar(n-1)
Ratio of women to children is 5 to 2. What is the # of men
1) Ratio of children to men is 5 to 11
2) Number of women is less than 30
solution - if w/c = 5x/2x and c/m = 5x/11x, then w/m = 25x/22x
women are less than 30 and multiple of 25x => w are 25; m=22
ABCD are on the # line. If AB=18 and CD=8, BD=?
1) AC=BC; 2) A is to the left of D
solution-from 1) you know that C is the middle point of AB
therefore AC=BC=9; therefore BD=1 or 17
from 2) you learn nothing new, therefore answer is E
If \$10,000 is invested @ x% simple annual ratefor N years, what
represents the total amount of INTEREST ONLY that will be
earned by this investment in N years; answer=10,000N(x/100)
For how many integers n is 2n=n2
Answer is 2 (n=2 and n=4)
If R & S are positive integers, is R/S an integer
1) every factor of S is a factor of R
2) every prime factor of S is a prime factor of R
For which of the following functions is f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b) for all
positive #s a and b; answer is f(x) = -3x
Does the line with equation y=3x+2 contain the point (r,s)?
1) (3r+2-s)(4r+9-s)=0; 2) (4r-6-s)(3r+2-s)=0
From 1) s =0, r=2 or -9/4. In 2) we eliminate r=-9/4 =>C is answer
Select 2 chairs and 2 tables from a collection that are all different
from each other. If there are 5 chairs and if 150 combinations
are possible, how many tables are there
solution - 5!/(2!3!) * x!/(2!(x-2)!) = 150. You plug and => 6
TRICK QUESTION = rates for typing are \$5/page for the first time a
page is typed, and \$3/page every time a page is revised. If 100
pages of which 40 revised once, 10 TWICE and the rest no
revisions, what is the cost. Answer = \$680
6 countries sent a total of 75 reps to a congress. No 2 countries sent
the same # of reps. Country A sent the second greatest # of
reps. Did country A sent at least 10 reps
1) 1 country sent 41 reps; 2) A sent fewer than 12 reps
Answer is E and you know why
If x & y are positive integers, is the product xy even
1) 5x-4y is even; 2) 6x-7y is even
You have to prove that x and y can't be both odd, plugging in
both equations proves so easily => answer is D
On the # line, the distance b/n X and Y is greater than that b/n
X and Z. Does Z lie b/n X and Y on the # line
1) XYZ < 0; 2) XY < 0; Answer is E and you know why
If X - Y > 10, is X - Y > X + Y
1) x = 8; 2) y = -20; Answer is D = TRICK Question
If X and Y are positive which of the following must be greater than

Answer is II only and you know why

Out of 800 employees, 70% have tenure of 10+ years, if Y of them
were to retire and no other employee changes to occur, what
value of Y would produce a % of 10+ yr employee = 60%
Answer - very tricky, you know why
Is (x-y)/(x+y)>1 ; 1) x >0; 2) y<0
Answer is e) - very tricky, you know why
Remember that ANY number line can have different units of
measurement. IT IS NOT ALWAYS in 1s
Juan bought paperback books that cost \$8 each and hardcover books
that cost \$25 each. If Juan bought more than 10 p. books, how
many hc books did he buy
1) total hc books cost was at least \$150
2) total books cost was less than \$260; Answer is C - TRICKY
Tanya prepped 4 letters and 4 envelopes. If the letters are to be
put in the envelopes @ random what is the P that only 1 letter
will be put in the correct envelope.
solution - P for L1 in E1 = 1/4; then P for L2 in E3 or E4 = 2/3
then P for L3 in E4 = 1/2. When multiplied the combined P for
1 letter = 1/12. For 4 letters, the TOTAL P is 1/3

A circular rim 28 inches in diameter rotates the same # of

inches/second as another rim 35 inches in diameter.
If the smaller rim makes X revolutions per second,
how many revolutions per minute does the larger
rim make in terms of X.
Ps=28pi, Pl=35pi. If the same rotations per s., the
larger rim rotates 28/35*X times per s. => 48X per min.
In how many arrangements can a teacher seat 3 girls and 3
boys in a row of 6 seats if the boys must have the 1st,
3rd, and 5th seats.
3*2*1 = 6 ways could be arranged; 6 ways girls could
arranged => 36 ways combined
Or B1 in 3 seats, B2 in 2 seats = 6 ways a boy can sit
3 boys can sit in 18 ways, and 3 girls can sit in 18 ways
=> 36 ways combined
A clock marks each hour by striking a # of times equal to
the hour, and the time required for a stroke is exactly
the same as the time between strokes. At 6:00 the
time between the beginning of the 1st stroke and the
end of the last stroke is 22 secs. What is that time at
12:00. Solution - 6 strikes+5 intervals = 22 secs
=> 2 secs per strike. At 12:00, there are 23 strikes+intervals => 46 seconds total duration
If OP < PQ, is the area of OPQ greater than 48. TRICKY
1) Coord. Of P are (6;8); 2) Coord. Of Q are (13; 0)
Answer is A) - very tricky

What is the value of X * Y? 1) y=x+1; 2) y=x 2+1

x is either 0 or 1, E is the answer
Sam sold 2 properties for \$30,000 each. Sam sold one of
the properties for 20% gain and the other one for 20%
loss. What was his total \$ gain or loss.
Positive prop => (X-30,000)/X=20% => \$25,000 cost
Negative prop => (30,000-X)/X=20% =>\$37.500 cost
Amy's grade was the 90th percentile of the 80 grades in
her class. Of the 100 grades from another class, 19
were higher than Amy's. Amy's grade was what
percentile of the grades of the two classes
solution - 153 to 180 is like x to 100 => x=85%