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Jeremy Harrison

Angielski
P h ra sa l V erb s
Czasowniki zoone

proste
Tumaczenie: Olszyna Hryczuk

W Y D A W N IC T W

eremis
Warszawa 2004

Wydawnictwo Eremis, Warszawa 2004


This edition of Phrasal verbs" is published by arrangement with Zastrugi Books,
P.O. Box 2963, Brighton, BN1 6AW, UK. Copyright 1999 by Jeremy Harrison

Wydawnictwo Eremis, 03-808 Warszawa, ul. Miska 25


00-987 Warszawa, skr. poczt. 144
eremis@rm.com.pl
www.eremis.com.pl

Redaktor prowadzcy: Mirosawa Szymaska


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tej ksice. Jednake nikomu nie udziela adnej rkojmi ani gwarancji.
ISBN 83-89622-06-8
Wydanie I
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Spis treci
Wprowadzenie........................................................................................................................... .
Rozdzia 1

VIII

Czasowniki zoone z up (1)......................................................................................1


1.1. Porusza si do gry............................................................................................ 1
1.2. Zwiksza.............................................................................................................. 2
wiczenia...................................................................................................................... 2

Rozdzia 2

Czasowniki zoone z up (2 )......................................................................................5

Rozdzia 3

Czasowniki zoone z up (3)...................................................................................... 9

wiczenia...................................................................................................................... 6
3.1. Ulepsza................................................................................................................. 9
3.2. Przymocowywa/zamyka.............................................................................. 10
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 10
Rozdzia 4

Czasowniki zoone z up (4)....................................................................................13


4.1. Koczy................................................................................................................ 13
4.2. Uszkadza............................................................................................................ 14
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 14

Rozdzia 5

Czasowniki zoone z out (1)...................................................................................17


5.1. W ychodzi........................................................................................................... 17
5.2. Znajdowa si na zewntrz lub poza dom em ...............................................18
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 18

Rozdzia 6

Czasowniki zoone z out (2).................................................................................. 21


6.1. Pobiera/wyklucza........................................................................................... 21
6.2. Eliminowa, wygasa, koczy s i ..................................................................22
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 22

Rozdzia 7

Czasowniki zoone z out (3)...................................................................................25


7.1. Koczy................................................................................................................ 25
7.2. Rozprowadza..................................................................................................... 26
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 26

Rozdzia 8

Czasowniki zoone z out (4)...................................................................................29


8.1. Dokonywa selekcji............................................................................................ 29
8.2. By w niebezpieczestwie/zwraca uw ag...................................................29
8.3. Dowiadywa si.................................................................................................. 30
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 30

Rozdzia 9

Czasowniki zoone z off (1)...........................

33

9.1. Zaczyna.............................................................................................................. 33
9.2. Usuwa................................................................................................................. 34
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 34
Rozdzia 10 Czasowniki zoone z off (2)................................................................................... 37
10.1. Zatrzym ywa/odwoywa.............................................................................37
10.2. Zapobiega................................................................
38
10.3. Zmniejsza......................................................................................................... 38
wiczenia.................................................................................................................... 38

Czasowniki zoone z off (3)...................................

.41

11.1. Koczy; uzupenia.........................................


11.2. Osiga................................................................
11.3. Oddziela............................................................
wiczenia.....................................................................
Czasowniki zoone z in (1 )....................................

.41
.41
.42
.42
.45

12.1. Wchodzi.............................................................
12.2. By w domu........................................................
wiczenia................. ...................................................

.45
.46
.46

Czasowniki zoone z in (2 )....................................

.49

13.1. Przenika/wchania.........................................
13.2. W cza........... ...................................................
13.3. Uczestniczy.......................................................
wiczenia.....................................................................

.49
.50
.50
.50

Czasowniki zoone z in (3 ).....................................

.53

14.1. Zaczyna..............................................................
14.2. W ypenia............................................................
14.3. Wali s i ...................... ........................................
wiczenia......................................................................

.53
.53
.54
.54

Czasowniki zoone z on (1)....................................

.57

15.1. Przymocowywa/ubiera/dodawa..............
15.2. Zaczyna..............................................................
wiczenia......................................................................

.57
.58
.58

Czasowniki zoone z on (2)....................................

.61

16.1. Kontynuowa......................................................
16.2. Zachca...............................................................
16.3. Przedstawia........................................................
wiczenia......................................................................

.61
.62
.62
,63

Czasowniki zoone z down (1)..............................

,65

17.1. Porusza si w d/je i p i ...........................


17.2. Zmniejsza si/redukow a..............................
wiczenia......................................................................

66

65
66

Czasowniki zoone z down (2)..............................

69

18.1. Odnosi porak/upada/niszczy...............


18.2. Nie dziaa/ponosi klsk..............................
18.3. Rejestrowa/przypisywa co komu............
wiczenia......................................................................

69
70
70
70

Czasowniki zoone z about, around oraz round

73

19.1. Nie mie celu.......................................................


19.2. By w szdzie.......................................................
19.3. Obraca si..........................................................
19.4. Odwiedza..........................................................
wiczenia......................................................................

73
74
74
74
74

Czasowniki zoone z away (1)...............................

77

20.1. Odchodzi/ wycofywa s i ..............................


20.2. Usuwa, pozbywa si......................................

77
78

wiczenia....................................................................................................................78
Rozdzia 21

Czasowniki zoone z away (2)............................................................................. 81


21.1. Przechowywa/ukrywa................................................................................81
21.2. By nieobecnym/ podrowa....................................................................... 81
21.3. Wykonywa co gorliwie i nieprzerwanie.................................................. 82
wiczenia....................................................................................................................82

Rozdzia 22

Czasowniki zoone z over (1)..............................................................................85


22.1. U pada...............................................................................................................85
22.2. Zmienia/przenosi.........................................................................................86
wiczenia....................................................................................................................86

Rozdzia 23

Czasowniki zoone z over (2)..............................................................................89


23.1. Dokadnie rozwaa.........................................................................................89
23.2. Przykrywa/ukrywa......................................................................................90
23.3. Koczy..............................................................................................................90
23.4. Odwiedza k o g o .............................................................................................90
wiczenia....................................................................................................................90

Rozdzia 24

Czasowniki zoone z b ack ...................................................................................93


24.1. Porusza si do ty u ....................................................................................... 93
24.2. Powraca do punktu pocztkowego............................................................ 93
24.3. Odpowiada/ odwzajemnia......................................................................... 94
wiczenia...................................................
94

Rozdzia 25

Czasowniki zoone z apart oraz through......................................................... 97


25.1. Rozkada na czci..........................................................................................97
25.2. Rozdziela..........................................................................................................98
25.3. Koczy/sumiennie w ykonyw a................................................................. 98
25.4. Kontaktowa si przez telefon....................................................................... 98
wiczenia....................................................................................................................98

Powtrzenie...................................................................................................................................... 101
Klucz do w icze.............................................................................................................................107

Wprowadzenie
0 ksice
Tematem niniejszej ksiki s czasowniki zoone, tzw. phrasal verbs, a dokad
nie, czasowniki zoone z partykuami przyswkowymi. Omwione zostay naj
czciej wystpujce partykuy przyswkowe oraz sposb, w jaki zmieniaj one
znaczenie czasownikw.
Przedstawiono wiele przykadw, ktre ukazuj kontekst oraz typowe struk
tury gramatyczne, w jakich wystpuj czasowniki zoone. wiczenia pozwalaj
utrwali zdobyte wiadomoci.
Ksika ta nie zajmuje si czasownikami zoonymi z partykuami przyimkowymi, gdy maj one najczciej znaczenie idiomatyczne i najlepiej jest si ich uczy
na pami.
Jaki jest najbardziej efektywny sposb korzystania z tej ksiki?
Radzimy, aby zacz od przeczytania wyjanie, a potem wykona wicze
nia dotyczce omawianego zagadnienia. wiczenie 1 w kadym rozdziale powin
no by robione jednoczenie z wiczeniami 2, 3 i 4. Zalecamy korzystanie z dobre
go sownika, tj. takiego, ktry zawiera przykady. Uatwi to wykonywanie zada
1 pomoe w zapamitaniu czasownikw zoonych.

Pi wanych pyta dotyczcych czasownikw


zoonych wraz z odpowiedziami
1

Co to jest czasownik zoony?

Czasownik zoony jest to kombinacja czasownika z partyku, ktra albo mo


dyfikuje znaczenie czasownika, albo je uzupenia.
2

Czym jest partykua?

Partykua jest przyswkiem lub przyimkiem. Okrelenie partykua" stosowa


ne jest dlatego, e ten sam wyraz moe peni obie wspomniane funkcje. Popatrz
my na up w nastpujcych przykadach:
2A John ran up the stairs, (up jest tu przyimkiem)
2B John picked up his hat. (up jest przyswkiem)
Nastpujce wyrazy s zawsze przyimkami:
against, among, as, at, beside, for, from, into, like, of, onto, upon, with.

Nastpujce wyrazy s zawsze przyswkami:


ahead, apart, aside, away, back, forward, forwards, home, in front, on top, out
(w brytyjskiej angielszczynie), together.
Poniej wymienione wyrazy mog by albo przyswkami, albo przyimkami:
about, above, across, after, along, around, by, down, in, off, on, out
(w angielszczynie amerykaskiej), over, past, round, through, under, up.
W tej ksice omwiono wszystkie przyswki zaznaczone kursyw. Zostan
one przedstawione w kolejnoci od najczciej do rzadziej wystpujcych.
3

Co to s czasowniki zoone z partykuami przyimkowymi?

Wiele czasownikw wystpuje razem z okrelonymi przyimkami, jak w poni


szych przykadach (on i about s przyimkami):
3A She insisted on buying a new carpet. (Ona nalegaa na kupno nowego dywanu.).
3B I dreamed about you last night. (niem o tobie ostatniej nocy.).
Jednake powysze czasowniki nie s czasownikami zoonymi, gdy przyimki, chocia konieczne, nie zmieniaj normalnego znaczenia czasownikw insist
i dream (patrz punkt 1, powyej).
Czsto przyimki dodane do czasownikw nadaj im szczeglne znaczenie, tak
jak after i into w przykadach poniej:
3C Will you look after my bag for me? (Czy zaopiekujesz si moj torb?)
3D She came into a fortune on his death. (Odziedziczya majtek po jego mierci.).
Czasowniki w zdaniach 3C i 3D mog by zdefiniowane jako czasowniki zoo
ne z partykuami przyimkowymi. Naley je odrnia od czasownikw zoonych
z partykuami przyswkowymi.
4

Czym si rni czasowniki zoone z partyku przyimkow od czasownikw


zoonych z partyku przyswkow?
Rnica jest tylko gramatyczna - dotyczy szyku wyrazw.

Miejsce dopenienia czasownika z partyku przyimkow w zdaniu jest zawsze


po przyimku. W istocie jest to raczej dopenienie przyimka ni czasownika.

4A Who is
4B Mary is

czasownik

przyimek

dopenienie

looking
looking

after
after

the children?
them.

@ Miejsce dopenienia czasownika z partyku przyswkow w zdaniu jest za


partyku (jak w 4C) albo przed ni (jak w 4D i 4E).

4C John

4D John
4E John

czasownik

partykua
przyswkowa

dopenienie

picked

up

his hat.

czasownik

dopenienie

partykua
przyswkowa

picked
picked

his hat
it

up.
up.

Oczywicie czasownik zoony z partyku przyswkow moe by czasowni


kiem nieprzechodnim. W takim przypadku nie posiada dopenienia.

4F John

czasownik

partykua przyswkowa

ran

away.

Uwaga!

k T a,
Gdy

dopenienie w zdaniu zaw ierajcym czasow nik zoony z partyku

przyim kow jest zaim kiem (me, you, him, her, it, one, us, them), musi ono
w ystpow a w zdaniu po przyimku (jak w 4B).
G d y dopenienie w zdaniu z czasow nikiem zoonym z partyku
przysw kow jest zaim kiem (me, you, him, her, it, one, us, them), musi ono
w ystpow a w zdaniu przed partyku (jak w 4E ).

Jak stwierdzi, czy czasownikowi zoonemu towarzyszy partykua przyimkowa czy przyswkowa?
Dobre sowniki zamieszczaj t informacj. Stosuj przy tym rne oznaczenia.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English stosuje oznaczenia v prep


i v adv.

Collins Cobuild Dictionary stosuje oznaczenia v + prep i V + ADV. Sownik


ten zamieszcza rwnie informacj dotyczc pozycji dopenienia w zdaniu.

Niektre sowniki stosuj oznaczenie nierozczne" (czasowniki z partyku


przyimkow) i rozczne" (czasowniki z partyku przyswkow).

porusza si do gry

zwiksza
Jedn z najczciej spotykanych partyku w czasownikach zoonych jest up.

1.1. Porusza si do gry


Podstawowe znaczenie up to porusza si do gry, jak w poniszych przyka
dach:
He picked up his coat and left the room.
Podnis swj paszcz i wyszed z pokoju.
Susanna put up her hand to ask the teacher a question.
Zuzanna podniosa rk, eby zada nauczycielowi pytanie.
Stosujemy rwnie up w sensie przenonym - moemy podnie" temat w dys
kusji, jak w wyraeniu bring up a subject:
I'm glad you brought up that point. It's very important.
Jestem zadowolony, e poruszye ten temat. To jest bardzo wane.
Czasowniki z up mog mie rwnie znaczenie 'wy dosta na powierzchni'.
Po zakopaniu koci pies moe j wykopa (dig up a bone). W sensie przenonym
dziennikarz moe chcie odkopa" przeszo polityka (dig up his past).

1.2. Zwiksza
Partykua up moe rwnie nada czasownikowi znaczenie 'zwiksza', jak
w poniszych zdaniach:
Tum up the radio - I can't hear what he's saying.
Nastaw goniej radio - nie sysz, co on mwi.
Children build up a resistance to germs as they grow older.
Z wiekiem u dzieci wzrasta odporno na bakterie.
Hurry up, or we'll miss the train.
Popiesz si, bo spnimy si na pocig.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

wychowywa (dzieci)
wykopywa
wstawa
wzrasta (o cenach)
podnosi wzrok, patrze
podnosi (co)
stawia (konierz)
podnie (temat)
wzmacnia
rosn
podgrzewa
pieszy (si)
mwi goniej
nastawia goniej (radio)
podgrzewa

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring up (*2)
look up
1
2
3
4
5

dig up
pick up

get up
put up

go up
turn up

Martha_____a plate and threw it at George.


H e _____the corner of the carpet, to see the maker's name.
I coughed loudly but the woman behind the desk didn't__
One day Mario_____an old Roman knife in his garden.
If you know the answer,_____your hand.

lift up

6
7
8
9
10

'It's cold/ he said an d ____ the collar of his coat.


I'm glad that you _ _ _ that question.
What time do you want t o _____tomorrow?
The cost of livin g_____every year.
Then he _ _ the embarrassing subject of money.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

brighten up
hurry up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

bring up
speak up

build up
turn up

grow up
warm up

Martha_____the volume so that she could hear the music in the bathroom.
She put some flowers on the table to _____ the room.
The doctor told him to eat plenty of protein t o _____his strength.
If I have children, I want t o _____them _____ in the country.
I'm a bit deaf. Could y o u _____, please?
I _____in a big city, but I like the country best.
We'll be late if w e don't
.
She moved near the radiator t o _____her feet.
You can _____this sou p _____ , or drink it cold.

10 A five kilometre walk before lunch will___an appetite.


Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-6 with the words and phrases A -H .

bring up
build up
3 get up
4 put up
5 turn up
6 work up
1
2

heat up
work up

A a question
B an appetite
c children
D in the morning
E the volume
F your collar
G your hand
H your strength

zblia si/przybywa

W jzyku angielskim go i come to podstawowe czasowniki wskazujce na ruch.


Wikszo innych czasownikw oznaczajcych ruch, opisuje sposb poruszania si,
na przykad walk znaczy 'porusza si pieszo', drive 'porusza si samochodem',
creep (crept, crept) 'porusza si wolno i ukradkiem'.
Partykua up modyfikuje te czasowniki, nadajc im znaczenie 'zblia' i 'przy
bywa'. Zwrmy uwag na uycie przyimka to po czasowniku z up. Najlepiej jest
uwaa up to za poczenie nierozczne, jak w poniszych przykadach:
Susan went up to the tennis player and asked him for his autograph.
Susan podesza do tenisisty i poprosia go o autograf.
John is not very tall. He only comes up to his brother's shoulder.
John nie jest bardzo wysoki. Siga swojemu bratu tylko do ramienia.
Zwrmy uwag na przenone znaczenie come up to:
The match didn't come up to expectations.
Mecz nie speni oczekiwa.
Wyraenia measure up to i live up to wystpuj w znaczeniu przenonym i tu
maczy si je jako 'spenia oczekiwania'.
Czasowniki oznaczajce ruch uywane s czsto bez wskazywania na miejsce
przeznaczenia, jak w zdaniu B poniej:
A

A man in a mask drove up to the bank.


Mczyzna w masce podjecha do banku.

B A man in a mask drove up.


Przyjecha mczyzna w masce.

Jednake, jeli wskazujemy na miejsce przeznaczenia, musimy uy up to, jak


w zdaniu A. Zdanie He drove the bank up jest wic niepoprawne. Regua ta doty
czy wszystkich czasownikw oznaczajcych ruch, uytych z up to.
Poniej przedstawiono podobne czasowniki zoone. Zwrmy uwag na przyimek with wystpujcy po up. Te czasowniki to: catch up with someone czy catch
someone up, ktre tumaczy si jako 'dogania kogo' oraz keep up with someone
(ale nie *keep someone up), tumaczone jako 'dotrzymywa kroku'.
Show up jest wyraeniem potocznym i oznacza 'przybywa tam, gdzie (ci)
oczekuj'.
Turn up oznacza 'przybywa nieoczekiwanie', 'pojawia si'.
Snuggle up to someone wyraa uczucia i oznacza 'przytuli si do kogo'.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

dogania kogo
spenia czyje oczekiwania
podjeda
stawia komu czoo
nada z prac
prowadzi do domu
przybywa (gdy jeste oczekiwany)
przybywa niespodziewanie (pojawia si)

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

catch up
show up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

come up
snuggle up

drive up
turn up

face up
walk up

You're walking too fast. I can't_____with you.


With your long legs, you'll so o n _____u s _____ .
S h e_____to him and whispered something in his ear.
An avenue of lime trees_____to the castle.
- What's the time?
- It's_____to half-past six.
As I came out of the bank, a car_____. It was Sebastian.
We need t o _____to reality.
Jack alw ays_____when you least expect him.
We expected him at 10 o'clock, but he didn't_____.
Martha ju st___ to George and hit him in the face.

keep up

lead up

Exercise 3
Complete the passage with the correct form of five phrasal verbs from the box.

drive up
catch up

face up
come up (x2)

keep up
lead up

show up (x2)
creep up

London. December. Very cold. Greg waited for Ginger at the end of the short road that
(1)_____to the prison. From time to time people (2)_____ to him. A man in an expensive
coat wanted a match for his cigarette. A girl with green eyes asked him the way to the
prison. Greg was nervous. An hour passed. Suddenly the two men from the nightclub
(3) ____ in a black Mercedes.
'Are you waiting for Ginger?' asked the driver.
'Yeah, but he hasn't (4)_____', said Greg. 'He said he'd be here at four. It's (5)_____ to
five o'clock now and he hasn't (6)_____.'
"That's because he's not coming, my friend. Ginger has gone to Spain and he's not
coming back. Get in the car.'
Greg climbed in.
'Listen, my friend. You need to (7)_____to the reality of the situation. You're not going
to see Ginger again - or your money.
Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-6 with the phrases A-F.

1
2
3
4
5
6

catch up
come up
coming up
face up
keep up
turn up

A
B
c
D
E
F

out of nowhere
to the truth
to midnight
to expectations
with someone
with your work

ulepsza

przymocowywa/zamyka

3.1. Ulepsza
Partykua up uyta z niektrymi czasownikami modyfikuje je i nadaje im zna
czenie 'ulepsza'. Jest to w pewnym sensie zblione do znaczenia 'zwiksza', kt
re zostao omwione wczeniej (patrz 1.2, str. 2).
Dodanie partykuy up do czasownika tidy (posprzta) powoduje, e nabiera
on znaczenia 'posprzta, by doprowadzi do wymaganego standardu/poziomu'.
Up czsto uywane jest w tym znaczeniu z czasownikami oznaczajcymi sprzta
nie, jak w pierwszym z poniszych przykadw i w sensie przenonym, jak w przy
kadzie drugim:
I really must tidy up my bedroom.
Naprawd musz posprzta mj pokj.
Before I go to New York I must brush up my English.
Zanim wyjad do Nowego Jorku, musz podszlifowa mj angielski.
The actor took three hours to make up for the part of Dracula.
Trzy godziny zabrao aktorowi robienie makijau do roli Drakui.

3.2. Przymocowywa/zamyka
Partykua up dodana do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'przymocowywa' lub 'zamyka'. Na przykad w zalenoci od rodzaju
butw (boots) jakie mamy, zamykamy" je na nogach, korzystajc z zamka byska
wicznego (a zip), lub sznurowade (a lace) czy guzikw (buttons). Daje to nastpu
jce moliwoci w jzyku angielskim:
zip
lace
button

up

your boots

Dodatkowe moliwoci pojawiaj si, gdy mwimy o uywaniu sznurowade,


a take paskw, sznurka czy tasiemki. Moemy wtedy uy czasownika tie (wi
za): tie up your boots.
Czasownik do up moe by uyty z nazw jakiejkolwiek czci ubrania: do up
your boots/your shirt.
Powysze przykady ukazuj typowe zjawisko: czasownikowa cz czasowni
ka zoonego opisuje sposb wykonania. Zauwamy, e w tym konkretnym przy
padku, wyraz okrelajcy zamknicie" (lace, button, zip itd.) jest rzeczownikiem,
ale peni funkcj czasownika.
Dodajc przedrostek un- do powyszych czasownikw, tworzymy czasowniki
o przeciwnym znaczeniu: undo your jacket, unzip , unbutton . . . , untie. . . itd.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

odnawia dom
podszlifowa angielski
zapina na zamek byskawiczny
dodawa otuchy
zmywa naczynia
przywizywa konia
stroi si na przyjcie

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

brush up
1
2

clean up

cheer up

do up

It's not a formal party. There's no need t o _____for it.


If w e _____the house, we'll get a better price for it.

dress up

wash up

3
4
5
6

I need t o _____my English before I go to India. It's useful there.


Please_____the saucepans when you've finished cooking.
I m ust___ _ the kitchen a bit, before my mother arrives.
Catherine was a bit depressed about her exam results, so w e took her to see a film to
_____h er_____ .

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

board up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

do up (x2)

tie up (x2)

zip up (x3)

He had eaten so much that he couldn't_____the buttons on his jacket.


He bent down t o _____his shoes.
T hey_____ _ the empty house to keep out tramps and squatters.
It's OK, Mum, I can_____my shirt without your help.
She put her camera under a pullover an d _____the bag.
He _ _ _ his leather jacket, unzipped it, th en_____it ____ . again.
Clint_____his horse then walked slowly towards the six men.

Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-6 with the phrases A-F.

1
2
3
4
5
6

button up
tie up
brush up
Cheer up!
dress up
tidy up

A
B
c
D
E
F

a dog
Life's not so bad.
for a formal occasion
your shirt
the flat
your English

koczy

uszkadza

4.1. Koczy
Partykua up czsto modyfikuje czasownik, nadajc mu znaczenie 'koczy'.
Co zostao zakoczone. Czasownik use oznacza 'uywa' (jak w przykadzie 1A
poniej), ale use up znaczy 'zuywa cakowicie' (jak w przykadzie IB).
1A He used travellers cheques to pay for the car.
On skorzysta z czekw podrnych, eby zapaci za samochd.
IB He used up his travellers cheques to pay for the car.
On wykorzysta wszystkie swoje czeki podrne, eby zapaci za samochd.
Partykua up nadaje znaczenie spenienia" takim czasownikom, jak tear
(drze), bum (pali), use (uywa).
Wyraenie idiomatyczne give up oznacza 'zaniecha':
Why don't you give up smoking? I gave up a year ago.
Dlaczego nie rzucisz palenia? Ja rzuciem rok temu.
Partykua up uywana jest z wieloma czasownikami, ktre wyraaj zakocze
nie. Nie ma istotnej rnicy midzy fill a fill up (napenia) czy cover a cover up
(przykrywa, ukrywa). W takich przypadkach dodanie up niczego nie modyfiku
je, jedynie podkrela fakt zakoczenia.

4.2. Uszkadza
W jzyku potocznym partykua up jest czsto uywana z czasownikami suge
rujcymi pewnego rodzaju zniszczenie. Na przykad blow up (wysadza w powie
trze), smash up (rozbija, rozwala). Mess up a room znaczy 'robi baagan w po
koju'. Mess up uywa si take w znaczeniu przenonym, na przykad: mess up
someone's day oznacza po prostu 'zepsu komu dzie'.

WICZENIA
Exercise I (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

sta si w kocu prezydentem


napenia paliwem
tai, ukrywa bd
drze list na kawaki
podstawia komu nog
wysadza budynek w powietrze
pi piwo do koca
zamyka sklep

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

burn up
1
2
3
4
5
6

drink up

dry up

eat up

I _____my last 1 coin on a parking meter.


The program w ill_____ 20 megabytes of your hard disk.
This river usually_____ in summer.
S he_____the letter and threw it in the bin.
T hey_____their beer and left the pub.
Running is a good way t o ____ calories.

tear up

use up

E x ercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

cover up
1
2
3
4
5
6

end up

fill up (x2)

shut up

wash up

H e'll____ _ in prison, if he doesn't stop cheating people.


Don't bother t o _____those pans_____ . I'll do them later.
S h e______the car _ _ _ _ with petrol.
Anita decided to _____the shop for a week and go on holiday.
There was no way she cou ld _____her mistake.
She used t o _____her days with shopping and telephoning friends.

Exercise 4
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

blow up
1
2
3
4
5

mess up

shake up

smash up

trip up

I'm sorry to _____your plans but I'm afraid I can't lend you the car.
The terrorists tried t o _____a police station with a home-made bomb.
The football fans_____all the cafes on that side of the street.
Campbell threw himself, feet first, and _ _ _ _ _ the Italian player.
The accident_____m e _____ more than I expected.

wychodzi

znajdowa si na zewntrz lub poza domem

5.1. Wychodzi
Partykua out wystpuje czsto z czasownikami oznaczajcymi ruch i nadaje tym
czasownikom znaczenie "wychodzi (na zewntrz)". Czasownik wskazuje na sposb
opuszczenia jakiego miejsca, natomiast partykua out niesie informacj, e ten ruch
skierowany jest na zewntrz. Zatem go out znaczy 'wyj z miejsca, w ktrym si
znajdujemy"; come out "wyj z jakiego miejsca w naszym kierunku", za run out
znaczy 'opuci miejsce biegnc". Popatrzmy na nastpujce przykady:
Come out with your hands up!
Wyjd z rkami do gry!
Don't go out without a raincoat.
Nie wychod bez paszcza.
When he opened the cupboard, a skeleton fell out.
Gdy otworzy szafk, wypad z niej szkielet.
Aby pokaza, w jaki sposb wynosimy co na zewntrz lub wyprowadzamy
kogo na zewntrz, stosujemy czasowniki takie jak push (pcha) i puli (cign)
z partyku out:
I squeezed out the last bit of toothpaste.
Wycisnem resztk pasty do zbw.
Stand out w znaczeniu przenonym oznacza 'wyrnia si".

5.2. Znajdowa si na zewntrz lub poza domem


Partykua out uywana jest czsto w znaczeniu 'znajdowa si na zewntrz lub
poza domem', co ilustruj ponisze przykady:
Grandma doesn't go out much since Grandpa died.
Od mierci dziadka babcia nie wychodzi zbyt czsto z domu.
The door blew shut in the wind and I was locked out
Podmuch wiatru zatrzasn drzwi przede mn. (= i zostaem na zewntrz)
Stay out late oznacza 'by poza domem do pna'.
Partykua out moe by uywana z czasownikami ask oraz invite i nadaje im
znaczenie 'zaprasza kogo'. Uywajc ask someone out sygnalizujemy, e ta oso
ba jest naszym gociem w restauracji czy w kinie. Take people out oznacza, e pa
cimy za zaproszon osob. Gdy mwimy o chodzeniu" z dziewczyn czy chopa
kiem, uywamy wyraenia go out with someone.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

ucieka z wizienia
wyprowadza si
zaprasza kogo (kino, teatr, restauracja)
wypuszcza kota
by poza domem do pna
wyciga chusteczk
nie wpuszcza kogo, zamykajc drzwi

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

break out
put out
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

fall out
rim out

jump out
stand out

let out
stick out

pull out
take out

He took a deep breath an d _____of the plane.


At 4 o'clock, all the children_____of school.
H e _____a large, yellow handkerchief.
As he pulled out his handkerchief, a packet of cigarettes____ of his pocket.
Two prisoners_____of Brixton Prison early this morning.
It's your turn t o _____the d o g _____ for a walk.
I alw ays_____the cat_____ at night.
D on't_____the cat_____ when you open the door.

9
10

The director had a big cigar___ of his shirt pocket.


A sa manager, she really___ from the crowd.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

ask out
lock out
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

call out
move out

go out
stay out

invite out

Jack telephoned Valerie t o _____h er_____ .


- Could I speak to Valerie, please?
- I'm afraid she h a s_____. She'll soon be back.
Jack's father forgot that Jack wasn't at home a n d _____h im _____ by mistake.
- Are you going t o _____all night?
- No, I'll be back at about 2 a.m.
Uncle Jim has been staying with us for more than a year now. I don't know when he's
going t o _____.
I think she likes you. Why don't y o u _____h er_____ ?
I don't want to _____the doctor_____ in the middle of the night.

Exercise 4
Match 1-5 with A -E.

1
2
3
4
5

When did the tenants . . .


pull o u t . . .
ears which . . .
ask someone out to . ..
stay o u t .. .

A a restaurant
B stick out
c late
d move out?
E a handkerchief

pobierag/wy kluczc

eliminowa, wygasa, koczy si

6.1. Pobiera/wyklucza
Partykua out uyta z czasownikami take i puli nadaje im znaczenie 'wyciga'
lub 'pobiera':
Students may only take out five library books.
Studenci mog wypoyczy z biblioteki tylko po 5 ksiek.
I can take out 100 a day with my Visa card.
Mog pobiera tylko 100 dziennie na moj kart Visa.
The dentist took out my wisdom teeth.
Dentysta wyrwa mi zby mdroci.
She spent the morning pulling out weeds.
Ona spdzia poranek na wyrywaniu chwastw.
Out czsto nadaje czasownikom znaczenie 'wyklucza':
Private. Keep out.
Teren prywatny. Wstp zabroniony.
The bouncers threw him out.
Ochroniarze wyrzucili go.
- 'He has an alibi, so we can rule him out,' said the detective.
- On ma alibi, wic moemy go wykluczy - powiedzia detektyw.

6.2. Eliminowa, wygasa, koczy si


Partykua out nadaje niektrym czasownikom znaczenie 'eliminowa':
Put out a fire.
The fire goes out.
Stamp out a fire.

Zga ogie.
Ogie ganie.
Zadepcz ogie.

Przenone znaczenie stamp out crime tumaczy si jako 'wykorzenia zbrodni'


Niektre czasowniki z out maj znaczenie 'wygasa' ub 'koczy si':
Time is running out.
Run out of cigarettes.

Czas upywa.
Koniec (brak) papierosw.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

wyrzuca (niechciane rzeczy)


wyrywa chwasty
wyrzuca, wypuszcza, eksmitowa, wydala
gasi papierosa
przestawa je maso
koniec (brak) pienidzy
chroni przed zimnem
nie wchodzi
wyklucza
gasi ogie
wyrywa zb
wypoycza ksik z biblioteki

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

cut out
shut out
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

keep out (*3)


take out

miss out
throw out

rule out

- Where are my blue trainers?


- I _____them _____ . They were disgusting.
A notice on the gate said 'private - _____'.
The prime minister_____the possibility of a referendum.
It's ridiculous t o _____w om en_____ of the top jobs.
I'm wearing this enormous coat t o _____the cold.
The doctor advised me t o _____sugar and butter.
_____all thoughts of failure.

8
9

- January, February, March, May, June,. . .


- Y ou_____April.
You're allowed t o _____three books at a time from the library.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

die out
sell out
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

go out
squeeze out

knock out
stamp out

put out
stub out

run out (x2)


wipe out

If you leave a cigarette in an ashtray, it doesn't_____, but a cigar does.


If the police managed to _____all crime, they wouldn't have a job.
Many species of birds_____every year because of pollution.
The fire service fought all night t o _____the fire_____ .
Can I _____my cigarette_____ on this plate?
Myxomatosis is a disease that can _____the entire rabbit population.
Only thirty seconds to go! Time i s _____.You must answer the question.
I've_____of cigarettes. Where can I buy a packet?
Manchester U nited_____Juventus in the semi-final of the UEFA Cup.
Giant supermarkets are_____all the small shopkeepers.
I'm sorry we h ave_____of bread. But w e can sell you some cakes.

Exercise 4
Match the two parts of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

The government passed a law to


The possibility of rain cannot be
Before entering, all cigarettes must be
You really should
This tooth needs to be

A
B
C
D
E

ruled out.
taken out.
keep out immigrants.
put out.
throw out those old boots.

Rozdzia 7

Czasowniki zoonl z out (3)

koczy

rozprowadza

7.1. Koczy
N iektre czasow niki z out oznaczaj, e czynno zostaa zakoczona, w y k on a
na od pocztku do koca, e zosta osignity jaki rezultat:

She typed out her essay.


N apisaa na m aszynie cae w ypracow anie.

He wrote out a list of all her qualities.


Sporzdzi list w szystk ich jej cech.
W p ierw szym przykadzie pow yej cae jej w yp racow an ie jest napisane na m a
szynie.
N iektre czasow niki zo o n e z out pochodz od p rzym iotnikw , na przykad:

clean out, tidy out, clear out, even out, flatten out, level out, hollow out, straight
en out.
He cleared out the cellar.
U prztn piw nic. (= oprni j, pozb y si niepotrzebnych rzeczy)
R ezultatem czynnoci w yraon ych tym i czasow nikam i jest to, e co stao si
czyste (clean), uporzdkow an e (tidy), w o ln e od obcie (elear), rw ne (even) itd.

7.2. Rozprowadza
Niektre czasowniki zoone z out maj znaczenie 'rozprowadza1234567(jak w pierw
szym przykadzie poniej) lub 'wydziela' (jak w drugim przykadzie), czy 'rozka
da jak wachlarz':
Her job is to give out samples of perfume in a department store.
Jej praca polega na rozdawaniu prbek perfum w domu towarowym.
That fire gives out a lot of heat.
Ogie wydziela duo ciepa.
She opened out the fan.
Ona rozoya wachlarz.
The policemen spread out across the field to look for clues.
Policjanci porozchodzili si po caym polu w poszukiwaniu ladw.

WICZENIA

Exercise i (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)


Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

wyprbowywa przepis
znajdowa sposb na co
rozwizywa problem
wyczerpywa, mczy kogo
rozdawa ulotki
wydziela ciepo
wysya komunikat
wypenia formularz
sprzta pokj

E xercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

check out
test out
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

clean out
tire out

fill out
try out

sort out
write out

spread out
print out

First, you will have t o _____this application form.


He asked me t o _____a cheque for 500.
The man says he was at the Paradise Club. Can y o u ____ his alibi, Tom?
Before marketing these shampoos, th e y _____them _____ on animals - rabbits usually.
My essay is on disk. I've just got to _____i t _____ .
Come to lunch on Sunday. I'm going t o _____a new recipe.
We sent the wrong goods to this customer. Will y o u _____the problem_____ , Mr
Smith?

8 This table is too small. I'll_____the m ap_____ on the floor.


9 I think the walk from the station h a s_____your grandmother____ .
10 I m ust___ this cupboard. It's really dirty.
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

give out (x2)


1
2
3
4
5
6

go out

hand out

put out

send out

- What's your job?


- I _____leaflets in the street for a travel agency.
Susan, will y o u _____ these photocopies, please? One to each person.
We are going t o ____ an invitation to all our customers.
This radiator_____a lot of heat.
The public relations department_____a press release to calm people's fears.
Language programmes_____on the BBC in the middle of the night.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5
6

If you
If you
If you
If you
If you
If you

work something out,


sort a problem out,
check something out,
try things out,
give things out,
fill out a form,

A
B
C
D
E
F

you
you
you
you
you
you

make enquiries to see if it is correct.


use them to see what happens.
think about it until you understand it.
distribute them.
do something to solve it, or eliminate it.
leave nothing blank.

dokonywa selekcji

by w niebezpieczestwie/zwraca uwag

dowiadywa si

8.1. Dokonywa selekcji


Dodanie partykuy out do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'dokonywa selekcji'. Point at something (wskaza co) oznacza po pro
stu 'kierowa palec (w kierunku czego)'. Point something out znaczy 'zwraca na
co uwag', niekoniecznie wskazujc palcem. Pick something out znaczy 'wybie
ra co spord innych rzeczy':
The woman at the agency picked out Chloe's best photos and sent them to the
client.
Kobieta w agencji wybraa najlepsze zdjcie Chloe i wysaa je do klienta.
I would just like to point out that Scotland is not part of England.
Chciabym jedynie zwrci uwag na fakt, e Szkocja nie jest czci Anglii.

8.2. By w niebezpieczestwie/zwraca uwag


Partykua out uywana z niektrymi czasownikami nadaje im znaczenie 'uwaa':
Watch out!
Mind out!
Look out!

Uwaaj!
Miej si na bacznoci!
Uwaga, ostronie!

Czsto mwimy o jakim niebezpieczestwie . . .


Watch out for bits of broken glass on the bathroom floor.
Uwaaj na kawaki rozbitego szka na pododze w azience.
. . . ale niekiedy nie ma adnego niebezpieczestwa:
I'm coming to your town tomorrow. I'll look out for you.
Przyjedam jutro do twojego miasta. Bd ci wypatrywa.
Zwrmy uwag, e we'll look for you oznacza 'bdziemy rozglda si za to
b', natomiast we'll look out for you znaczy po prostu 'bdziemy ci wypatrywa'
Watch out for i listen out for mog by uywane w podobny sposb.

8.3. Dowiadywa si
Niektre czasowniki zoone z out maj znaczenie 'dowiadywa si':
I see her every day. How can I find out her name?
Widuj j kadego dnia. Jak mog si dowiedzie, jak si nazywa?
This is her signature, but I can't make out the name.
To jest jej podpis, lecz nie mog odczyta jej nazwiska.

Exercise

WICZENIA
(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

wybiera spord kilku


wypatrywa
zwraca uwag
dowiadywa si
wyrnia jednostk
zrozumie, wnioskowa
uwaa na co
wyta such

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

listen out
point out (x2)
1
2
3

look out
single out

pick out
watch out (><3)

He went to the bookshelf a n d _____a yellow book. 'Take this/ he whispered.


During the interview, h e _____Picasso as the greatest influence on his work.
I would just like t o _____that intelligence is no substitute for hard work.

4 _____! There's a car coming.


5 _____for pickpockets! They love crowds like this.
6 _____! You're going to knock over that glass with your coat.
7 After the traffic-lights, turn left a n d ____ _ for a pub called the Green Dragon.
8 She sat in b ed _____for the sound of his key in the door.
9 He stopped from time to time t o _____an interesting piece of architecture.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

figure out
1
2
3
4
5
6

find out

make out (x2)

work out (x2)

Where can I _____the time of the last train?


I can't_____where I have seen you before. But I recognize your face.
His writing is terrible. I can't_____this word.
She's trying t o _____how much money she needs to go to Thailand.
He could just_____the silhouette of the statue in the fog.
I'm no good at arithmetic. I can never_____sums like that.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

If you listen out for the telephone,


If you point something out,
If you look out for something,
If you can just make out what
someone says on the telephone,
If you single someone out,

A you just manage to understand them.


B you stay alert so that you hear it when
it rings.
c you choose that person alone for special
attention.
D you pay attention so that you don't
miss it when it appears.
E you direct someone's attention to it.

zaczyna

usuwa

9.1. Zaczyna
Partykua off dodana do niektrych czasownikw nadaje im znaczenie 'zaczy
na': set off znaczy 'rozpoczyna podr'; take off znaczy 'startowa (o samolo
cie)'. Start off oznacza zwykle pocztek sekwencji pewnych wydarze. Porwnaj
my ponisze zdania:
The men's 10,000 metres starts at 10 o'clock.
Bieg mczyzn na 10 000 metrw zaczyna si o godzinie dziesitej.
The days events start off with the women's javelin.
Dzisiejsze konkurencje zaczynaj si od rzutu oszczepem kobiet.
Jak to czsto bywa z czasownikami zoonymi, pierwsza ich cz (sam czasow
nik) wskazuje na sposb, w jaki co si odbywa: kick off znaczy 'rozpocz mecz
piki nonej'; back off znaczy 'wycofywa si'; (back off czsto uywane jest w sen
sie przenonym w znaczeniu 'powstrzyma agresj'). Podobnie spark off w prze
noni oznacza 'zainicjowa konflikt' (a spark to 'iskra'), za kick off w znaczeniu
przenonym moe oznacza pocztek rnego typu aktywnoci, jak w przykadzie
poniej:
I want to kick off with a report of last week's meeting.
Chc rozpocz od sprawozdania z zebrania, ktre odbyo si w zeszym tygodniu.

9.2. Usuwa
Wiele czasownikw z off oznacza 'usuwa'. Podobnie jak to byo omawiane
uprzednio, czasownik wskazuje na sposb usunicia czego. Popatrzmy na poni
sze przykady:
With a brush (szczotk), you brush something off.
With a knife (noem), you cut something off.
The storm blew the roof off.
Burza zerwaa dach.
Zwrmy uwag, e partykuy on i off s czsto sobie przeciwstawne:
I put my glass on the table. Who took it off?
Postawiem szklank na stole. Kto j zabra?
There are no arms on this statue. Somebody broke them off.
Ten posg nie ma rk. Kto je odama.
Keep your hat on. If you take it off, you might lose it.
Nie zdejmuj kapelusza - mgby go zgubi.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

wyrusza wczenie
rozpoczyna mecz piki nonej
zaczyna ktni
zaczyna prac od stanowiska sekretarki
odsya gracza z boiska
darzy kogo szacunkiem, podziwem
zdziera farb
(co) oderwao si w moich rkach
wyniszcza
zwalnia pracownikw
spaca dug
przyjmowa na siebie zobowizania, ktre s ponad nasze siy

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

back off
set off

go off
spark off

kick off (x2)


start off (x2)

send off
take off

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

If we want to arrive before lunch, w e will have t o _____at 10 o'clock.


The flight to Los A ngeles_____at 10.15 a.m.
A terrorist bomb was discovered outside the palace but it didn't_____.
The referee held up the red card a n d _____the player_____ .
When the woman pulled out a gun, the two m en _____immediately.
A mother_____as the most important person in a child's life.
S he_____as a secretary but ended up as the President of the company.
Yesterday's match_____late because of the snow.
The meal was wonderful. W e_____with a delicious soup.
The incident___ a terrible argument between the two brothers.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bite off
kill off
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

break off
lay off

brush off
pay off

come off
strip off

I _____my hat to people who work and study at the same time.
A huge television audience saw Mike T yson_____a piece of the other boxer's ear.
Paula_____a piece of chocolate and gave it to John.
Before painting a door, you need t o _____the old paint.
You've got some dust on your shoulder. Let m e _____i t _____ .
She's going t o _____the legs of her jeans to make a pair of shorts.
He tried to open the door but the handle_____in his hand.
Last year, pollution in the river_____all the fish.
For economic reasons the factory had t o _____three hundred workers.
I borrowed 1000 from the bank. I agreed t o ___ the debt_____ in six months.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

cut off
take off

He did a very good job;


A cold winter will kill off
I have bitten off
She brushed off
He had to pay off

A
B
c
D
E

his daughter's debts.


the fly on her nose.
I take off my hat to him.
most insects.
more than I can chew.

@ zatrzymywa/odwoywa

zapobiega

zmniejsza

10.1. Zatrzymywa/odwoywa
N iektre czasow niki z off oznaczaj ''zatrzymywa' lub czasam i 'rozcza'.
Partykuy on i off czsto nadaj p rzeciw staw ne znaczenie, jak na przykad: switch
on (wcza) i switch off (w ycza). W sensie p rzen on ym break off m o e ozn a
cza 'zrywa':

The two countries broke off diplomatic relations.


Te d w a kraje zerw ay stosunki dyplom atyczne.

Ring off tum aczy si jako 'od oy suchaw k telefoniczn, koczc rozm ow '.
Call it off znaczy 'od w oa co', np. spotkanie, wakacje, strajk:
- Sorry, Jack. I'm afraid I have to call off out meeting.
- Przepraszam , Jack, ale n iestety m u sz o d w oa nasze spotkanie.

The union leaders have called the strike off.


P rzyw dcy zw i zk o w i o d w o a li strajk.

10.2. Zapobiega
Dodanie off do niektrych czasownikw nadaje im znaczenie 'odrzuca' czy
'zapobiega':
The old man fought off his attackers with his stick.
Stary czowiek odpar lask atak napastnikw.
If you burn this candlelit will keep the mosquitoes off.
Zapalenie wiecy odstraszy komary.
Stave jest rzeczownikiem i znaczy 'dugi patyk'; poczenie stave off uywane
jest tylko w sensie przenonym:
He ate berries to stave off hunger.
Jad jagody, eby oddali gd.

10.3. Zmniejsza
Partykua off dodana do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'zmniejsza'. Najczciej w ten sposb wyraa si proces stopniowego
ustawania czego:
The pain is easing off now.
Teraz bl si zmniejsza.
The effect is wearing off.
Dziaanie ustaje.

WICZENIA
Exercise I (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

wycza wiato
zrywa rozmowy
koczy rozmow telefoniczn
odcina dostawy
odwoywa spotkanie
odstrasza owady
nie dawa si przezibieniu
ustawa (o dziaaniu)
pozbywa si zbdnych kalorii

break off (x2)


ring off
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

call off
switch off

cool off
turn off

cut off
wear off

drop off
work off

Don't forget t o _____the light when you go to bed.


'I have never . . . ' John_____in the middle of the sentence.
The peace talks w ill____ tomorrow if the nationalists refuse to compromise.
Parents need to know when t o _____the TV.
This phone call is getting very expensive. I'd better_____.
If you do not pay your bill within seven days, w e w ill_____your electricity supply.
My grandmother became very ill so w e _____our holiday.
I'm waiting for the rain to _____before I leave.
The effects of the injection are beginning t o _____. I can feel my lip now.
He went for a two kilometre run t o _____a few calories.
The tea is very hot. Better wait for it t o _____.
Sales of ice cream_____in December.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

fight off
1
2
3
4
5

hold off

keep off

stave off

warn off

Eating plenty of Vitamin C will help t o _____colds and flu.


This cream is guaranteed to _____insects.
She was trying, without much success, to _____ a cold.
Farmers hang dead birds on a tree t o _____other birds.
The men tried t o _____the enemy, while the women escaped.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

ease off

We staved off
Apparently, this plant keeps off
We had to call off
The pain wore off
She rang off

A
B
c
D
E

the match because of snow.


without waiting for an answer,
hunger with a bag of crisps.
after a few hours.
mosquitoes.

koczy; uzupenia

osiga

oddziela

11.1. Koczy; uzupenia


Niektre czasowniki po dodaniu partykuy off nabieraj znaczenia 'uzupenia'
lub 'koczy'. Czasowniki zwizane z pracami rcznymi, takie jak polish (polero
wa) czy round (zaokrgla) czsto uywane s z off w sensie przenonym do wy
raenia zakoczenia kocowej fazy". Poniej podano typowe przykady:
I just want to polish off this work.
Po prostu chciabym zakoczy t prac.
We had some peaches and cream to round off the meal.
Na deser zjedlimy brzoskwinie ze mietank, koczc tym posiek.
Do wyraenia popiechu podczas robienia czego, na przykad gdy mwimy,
e popiesznie napisano list czy ugotowano danie, stosujemy: dash off a letter lub
dash off a meal.

11.2. Osiga
Niektre czasowniki (come, go, bring, pass, carry) uywane s z off w znacze
niu 'dokona czego' lub 'osign co':

His attempt to break the record didn't come off.


Jego prba pobicia rekordu si nie powioda.
The Italian jockey brought off the incredible feat of winning all seven races in
one afternoon.
Woski dokej dokona niewiarygodnego wyczynu, ktrym byo wygranie jedne
go popoudnia wszystkich siedmiu gonitw.

11,3. Oddziela
Czasowniki takie, jak close i shut (zamyka) uywane s cznie z off w znacze
niu oddziela (czsto sugeruj te uniemoliwienie dostpu):
They closed off the road because of a gas leak.
Zamknli drog z powodu wycieku gazu.
Niektre czasowniki uyte w tym znaczeniu wskazuj na sposb, w jaki co
zostao oddzielone. Typowe czasowniki uywane w ten sposb pochodz od rze
czownikw; s to: partition (dzieli, parcelowa), cordon (tworzy kordon), rope
(wiza) i fence (ogradza potem). Rwnie czsto uywane s cut (ucina) oraz
block (blokowa):
They partitioned off the old ballroom to make three classrooms.
Podzielili star sal balow i zrobili z niej trzy sale lekcyjne.
The village is often cut off by snow in winter.
W zimie wioska jest czsto odcita od wiata z powodu niegu.

WICZENIA
Exercise (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

osiga co
koczy co
popiesznie pisa list
udao si, dobrze wypado
koczy jak prac
przedziela duy pokj
by odcitym od czego

bring off
go off
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

come off
polish off

dash off
round off

finish off

John_____the last few chips in one mouthful.


In spite of his fears, the w edding_____without any problems.
Before leaving the house, h e ____ a letter to his bank and ran to the post office.
And finally, an apple tart t o _____the meal.
Give me fifteen minutes. I just want t o _____my homework.
It was a difficult movement but the gym nast_____i t _____ to perfection.
She hoped to persuade her father to pay for the tickets, but her plan didn't____

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

block off
1
2
3
4
5

cordon off

cut off

fence off

partition off

The police have____the pavement in front of the building because of the danger.
She decided t o ____ part of the field in order to make a garden.
They parked their car sideways across the road t o _____his escape route.
H e _____part of his enormous garage and put in a snooker table.
On that remote island, Robinson w a s_____from all contact with the world.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

If you dash off a letter or a note to


someone,
If a place is cut off,
You rope off an area so that
If something doesn't come off,
When you finish something off,

A people don't go into it.


B you do what is necessary to
complete it.
c it is isolated.
D you write it very quickly.
E it means it fails.

wchodzi

by w domu

12.1. Wchodzi
Dodanie partykuy in do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'wchodzi'. W tym przypadku partykua in znaczy 'do rodka', a cza
sownik wskazuje na sposb wchodzenia: walk in tumaczymy 'wchodzi pieszo',
rush in to 'wchodzi w popiechu', drive in to 'wjeda samochodem'. Zarwno
go in, jak i come in znacz 'wchodzi' - wybr jednego z nich zaley od tego, po
ktrej stronie drzwi znajduje si osoba mwica.
Bring in oraz take in oznaczaj 'wchodzi z kim lub czym':
Take your boots off. Don't bring in all that mud.
Zdejmij buty. Nie wno tego caego bota.
The secretary took in some coffee for the managers.
Sekretarka wniosa kierownikom kaw.
Get somebody in znaczy 'wprowadza kogo':
The exhibition was 'by invitation only', but Charles got me in.
Wejcie na wystaw byo tylko za zaproszeniami, lecz Charles wprowadzi mnie.
Czasowniki check in oraz sign in oznaczaj 'zapisywa si':
Check in your bags at the airport.
Odpraw swj baga na lotnisku.

Sign in a visitor.
Zarejestruj gocia.
Key in a password.
Wprowad haso.
Write in your name znaczy 'wpisa swoje nazwisko na formularzu'.

12.2. By w domu
Dodanie partykuy in do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje ii
znaczenie 'w domu'.
Only very rich people have servants who live in.
Tylko bardzo bogaci ludzie maj sub, ktra mieszka w ich domu.
Wait in for a phone call.
Czekaj w domu na telefon.
Drop in znaczy 'przyj do kogo bez uprzedzenia'.
Pop in jest odpowiednikiem 'wpa do kogo'.
Move in tumaczy si 'wprowadzi si do kogo'.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6

nada baga
wprowadzi kogo
wpisa numer
wczy radio do prdu
wprowadzi si do kogo
czeka w domu na kogo

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring in
key in
1
2
3
4
5

check in
plug in

come in
rush in

drive in
sign in

get in
take in

There was a knock at the door.'_____, Angus. It's not locked/ said Jules.
'But don't_____that d o g _____ . I don't want hairs all over the carpet.'
'Sit here,' Angus said to the dog. 'Jules won't let m e _____y o u _____ .'
The dog made a noise that sounded like 'Why?' A ngus_____alone.
Go over to the British Airways desk a n d _____your bags.

go in
walk in

6 Members may invite two guests but they m u st_____th em _____ first in the
Visitors' Book.
7 First insert your bank card, th en ____ your personal identification number (PIN).
8 It's a 'drive-in' cinema, so let's_____.
9 The tickets for the concert are very expensive, but my cousin ca n _____u s _____ free.
10 'Fools_____where angels fear to tread.'
11 They were sitting in the restaurant when two m en _____with guns.
12 That radio hasn't got a battery. You'll have t o _____i t _____ .
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

drop in
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

live in

move in (x2)

pop in

stay in

wait in

I've got a lot of work to do, so I'm going t o _____tonight.


I can't meet you tomorrow morning. I've got t o _____for an electrician.
They had only been married three weeks when her mother decided to _
You can_____with us until your flat is ready.
My next-door neighbour som etim es_____for a cup of coffee.
They have a housekeeper w h o _____.
You m ust____ some time. We'd love to see you.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

If you pop in to the bank,


If you move in with someone,
If you have urgent news to give someone,
If you drop in on a friend,
Before boarding a plane,

A
B
C
D
E

you
you
you
you
you

start living in their house.


arrive unexpectedly.
usually have to check in.
go in to do some quick business.
might rush in to tell it to them.

przenika/wchania

wcza

uczestniczy

13.1. Przenika/wchania
Dodanie partykuy in do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'przenika'. Przykadem moe by jedna z piosenek Beatlesw, zaczyna
jca si od sw:
'I'm fixing a hole where the rain gets in /
atam dziur, przez ktr przenika deszcz.
Niektre czasowniki z in maj zblione znaczenie, wyraaj 'wchanianie'. Na
przykad take in moe znaczy 'wchon, poj umysem':
On arriving, she took in the situation at a glance.
Po przybyciu natychmiast zorientowaa si w sytuacji.
Czasownik sink (ton) z partyku in oznacza, e co powoli wchaniane jest
przez nasz umys (analogicznie do cukru dodanego do kawy cappuccino, ktry
przez jaki czas zatrzyma si na piance, nim zostanie wchonity):
It finally sank in that she had gone for ever.
W kocu dotaro do mnie, e odesza na zawsze.
Breathe in (wdycha) jest przeciwiestwem breathe out (wydycha).

13.2. Wcza
Niektre czasowniki po dodaniu partykuy in nabieraj znaczenia 'wcza' czy
'zawiera':
You have to add in the time it takes to get to the airport.
Musisz doliczy czas potrzebny na dotarcie do lotniska.
And of course, we have built in all the latest safety devices.
Oczywicie, dodalimy wszystkie najnowsze zabezpieczenia.
Throw in znaczy 'dorzuci co gratis w transakcji'.
Fit something in znaczy 'znale na co czas w (napitym) rozkadzie zaj'.

13.3. Uczestniczy
Niektre czasowniki zoone z in znacz 'uczestniczy' czy 'angaowa (si)':
Music? Theatre? I don't go in for that sort of thing.
Muzyka? Teatr? Nie zajmuj si takimi rzeczami.
She sang the first verse, then everyone joined in.
Zapiewaa pierwsz zwrotk i wtedy wszyscy si wczyli.
If you're going to play cards count me in.
Jeli macie zamiar gra w karty, pamitajcie i o mnie.
Rope someone in w znaczeniu przenonym tumaczy si jako 'namwi kogo, by
przyczy si do czego' (w dosownym znaczeniu rope in to 'schwyta na lasso').
Get sucked in znaczy 'zosta pochonitym, wessanym przez co'.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

chon umysem (zrozumie co)


wdycha
miesza, aby si poczyo
dopasowywa
przycza si
przystosowywa si
da si wcign w co
interesowa si

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

add in
count in
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

breathe in
sink in

build in
stir in

come in
take in

drink in
throw in

fit in

I opened the window an d _____the fresh, morning air.


I looked at my feet in the bottom of the boat. Water w a s_____fast.
He said nothing but his e y e s_____everything.
The importance of this piece of news didn't_____at first.
She stood in the middle of the forest a n d _____the magical atmosphere.
If y o u _____the cost of the petrol, it's not cheaper to go by car.
If you're going to see the new film at the Ritzy, you can_____m e _____ .
Melt the butter an d _____the flour_____ carefully.
If you buy this car, I'll_____a radio and CD player for the same price.
The architect h as_____a giant TV screen on the sitting-room wall.
Our delivery man is in your area today. I'm sure he can _____y o u _____ .

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

cash in
join in
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

come in
rope in

draw in
settle in

fall in
suck in

The woman in red started to shout at the politician, then everybody_____.


At university h e _____with a group of poets.
They tried to _____m e _____ for a game of football, but I told them I wasn't fit.
I'm sure Jane w ill_____very quickly at her new school.
John and Martha were arguing like cats. When they tried t o _____m e _____ , I went
home.
We've got a syndicate for the National Lottery. Do you want t o _____on it?
Mercedes were hoping t o _____ on the new market for small cars.
A lot of people were taking drugs. I didn't want to g e t_____.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

When the significance of something


sinks in,
If you cash in on something,
When you settle in somewhere,
If you don't take in what you arereading,
If you get roped in for something,

you begin to feel at home.


B you get involved slightly against your
will.
c you take advantage of it for profit,
D you finally understand it.
E you don't register it mentally.
a

zaczyna

wypenia

wali si

14.1. Zaczyna
Dodanie partykuy do niektrych czasownikw modyfikuje je i nadaje im zna
czenie 'wprowadza' czy 'zaczyna':
The fashion for jeans came in after the war.
Po wojnie zacza si moda na dinsy.
The new manager brought in a more attacking style of play.
Nowy trener wprowadzi bardziej ofensywny styl gry.
Phase something in to 'wprowadza co stopniowo'.
Czasownik set in uywany jest, gdy mwimy o pocztku czego nieprzyjem
nego, na przykad choroby, brzydkiej pogody, depresji. Tuck in znaczy 'je ap
czywie'.

14.2. Wypenia
Niektre czasowniki z in nios sens wypeniania". Oto przykady:
Fill in a form.
Colour in a drawing.
Brick in a doorway.

Wypenij formularz.
Pokoloruj rysunek.
Zamuruj wejcie.

Fill someone in moe by uywany w znaczeniu przenonym, jak w przyka


dzie poniej:
I'm not up to date with the sales figures. Can you fill me in?
Nie znam biecych wynikw sprzeday. Czy moesz zapozna mnie z nimi?

14.3. Wali si
Wana grupa czasownikw zoonych z in oznacza 'wali si1234567 lub 'poddawa'
The floor gave in under the weight of the machine.
Podoga zawalia si pod ciarem maszyny.
The walls of the tunnel suddenly caved in.
ciany tunelu nagle si zapady.
Zwrmy uwag na przenone znaczenie:
OK. Tell me the answer. I give in.
W porzdku, poddaj si. Jaka jest odpowied?

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6

nastaje okres brzydkiej pogody


wprowadza co stopniowo
pokolorowa rysunek
wprowadza nowy system
wypenia formularz
ustpowa komu

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

brick in
phase in

bring in
plaster in

colour in
set in

come in
tuck in

fill in (x2)

1 Short skirts first_____in the 1920s, then again in the sixties.


2 The company w ill_____a new accounting system starting on 1st January.
3 The government planned t o _____the use of nuclear power over a period of twenty
years.
4 He used to_____to a hearty breakfast every morning at 5 o'clock.
5 My grandfather used to play a game of golf every morning until his illness_____.
6 Would you be so kind as t o _____this form?
7 They gave the children some drawings of clowns t o _____.

8 I'm going to talk to the directors about Far Eastern sales. Can y o u _____m e __
Korea?
9 T hey_____the side windows in the 19th century to avoid paying window tax.
10 H e ___ the gap between the door frame and the wall.
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

cave in
1
2
3
4
5

fall in

give in (*2)

kick in

If you don't open this door, we're going t o _____i t _____ .


Two men were trapped when the tunnel_____.
There was a cracking noise, then suddenly the roof_____.
Everybody laughed and stamped their feet. I was afraid the floor m ight___
His wife was the dominant partner. He often found it easier t o _____to her.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

If you fill a person in (on something),


If you phase in a new system,
When you plaster in a gap,
When something gives in,
When winter sets in,

A you fill it with plaster.


B it collapses under pressure,
c you give them the latest relevant
details.
D you call this the 'onset' of winter.
E you introduce it by stages.

przym ocow yw aA ibieraA iodaw a

zaczyna

15.1. Przymocowywali!biera/dodawa
D odanie partykuy on do niektrych cza so w n ik w m odyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'ubiera s i ' ...
P u t on a jacket.
K eep your hat on.

W marynark.
N ie zdejmuj kapelusza.

... lub przym ocow a:

Screw a handle on tum aczy si jako 'przym ocuj u ch w yt rub', czyli 'przykr
uchw yt'.

Glue the nose on tum aczy si 'przyklej nos'.


All the contestants must p in their numbers on.
W szyscy zaw od n icy m u sz przypi sw oje num ery.
On jest czsto u y w a n e z czasow n ik am i w zn aczen iu 'dodaw a'.
The bill was expensive after they a d d ed on my phone calls.
Rachunek by w y so k i p o dod an iu m oich ro zm w telefonicznych.
Don't ta k e on too much work. You won't have time to do it properly.
N ie bierz na siebie zbyt w iele pracy. N ie b d ziesz m ia czasu dobrze jej w ykona.

15.2. Zaczyna
Wiele czasownikw z on oznacza 'rozpoczyna co':
Put on the lights.
Wcz wiata.
The fashion for paper dresses didn't catch on.
Moda na papierowe sukienki si nie przyja.
What brought on all that sneezing?
Co spowodowao cae to kichanie?
I've got flu coming on.
Bierze mnie grypa.
Oto dwa popularne idiomy z on:
What's going on? Co si dzieje?
I get on well with my mother-in-law.
yj w zgodzie z moj teciow.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6

zakada sukienk
nie zdejmowa butw
bra na siebie zbyt duo pracy
wcza radio
to spowodowao przezibienie
przymierza marynark

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

add on
1
2
3
4
5
6

keep on

put on

take on (x2)

try on

Martha_____a red shirt with a blue and green skirt. She looked terrible.
This is a very nice suit, sir. Would you like t o _____the jacket?
It's cold in this classroom. I suggest y o u _____your coats_____ .
The food is quite cheap but, when y o u _____the wine and the tip, it's an expensive res
taurant.
Looking after somebody else's children is a big responsibility to _____ .
It's difficult to say no. But I don't want t o _____more work than I can do.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring on
1
2
3
4
5
6

catch on

come on (x2)

put on

turn on

Atchoo! Atchoo! I think I've got a cold_____ .


It's getting dark. Shall I _____the light __ ___?
The central heating w ill_____by itself at six o'clock.
Every time I _____the radio, I hear that song.
It was sitting by the open window that _ _ my cold.
It's a clever invention but I don't think it will

Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-6 with the phrases A-F.

1
2
3
4
5
6

take on
switch on
try on
add on
stick on
get on

A
B
C
D
E
F

the service charge


a stamp
a lot of work
clothes
the light
with my mother-in-law

Rozdzia 16

kontynuowa

zachca

przedstaw ia

16.1. Kontynuowa
D odanie partykuy on do niektrych cza so w n ik w m odyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie 'kontynuow a'. D obr o d p o w ied n ieg o czasow n ik a w skazuje, co jest kon
tynuow ane, czasam i w yraen ie m a sens przenony:

'Play on' said the referee.


- Gra dalej - p ow ied zia sdzia.

The memory of that day lived on for many years.


Pam i tam tego dnia przetrw aa w ie le lat.

Go on i carry on tum aczym y r w n ie jako 'kontynuow a':


He just went on reading the book as if nothing had happened.
O n nadal czyta ksik, jak gd yb y nic si n ie stao.

Keep on trying znaczy 'prbow a dalej'. Hold on oraz hang on tum aczy si
'poczekaj chw ilk'.

Stay on at school or university zn aczy 'k ontynuow a nauk p on ad w y m a g a


n e m inim um '.

Get on with something zn aczy 'k ontynuow a po przerw ie' lub 'rozpoczyna
(co) po w ykrtach i kam stw ach'.

Get on m oe oznacza 'kroczy do przodu'.


'Get on with it! We haven't got all day!'
N o, dalej! N ie m am y d u o czasu!

How are you getting on? Are you nearly ready?


Jak ci idzie? Jeste ju praw ie gotw ?

U w aga!
artykuy on w znaczeniu kontynuowania nie uyw a si z czasownikam i
przechodnimi, czyli takimi, ktre maj dopenienie. M oem y powiedzie:

They played on. (czasownik nieprzechodni, bez dopenienia).


Natom iast niepoprawne jest: *They played on the game, (z czasow nikiem
przechodnim).
W takiej sytuacji kontynuacj m ona w yrazi nastpujco: They carried on
lub They w ent on playing the game.

16.2. Zachca
Partykuy on u y w a si z niektrym i czasow n ik am i w zn aczen iu 'zachca':

The spectators urged the runner on with cheers and shouts.


W id zow ie d op in gow ali biegacza okrzykam i i w iw atow an iem .

Come on Liverpool!

N ap rzd Liverpool!

16.3. Przedstawia
Partykua on u yw an a jest z kilkom a czasow nikam i w zn aczeniu 'na scenie' lub
'na boisku', jak poniej:

Put on a play.
Bring on a substitute.

W ystaw ia sztuk.
W prow adza rezerw ow ego.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

prosz poczeka!
prbuj dalej!
kontynuuj swoj prac!
no, dalej!
kontynuujcie to!
wystawi sztuk
co graj (w kinie, teatrze)?

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

carry on
keep on

get on
live on

go on (x2)
play on

hang on
stay on

hold on

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

He said good morning an d _____reading the newspaper.


Stop talking, please, Terry, a n d _____with your work.
I'll_____ringing the bell until he opens the door.
Most people_____at school after the age of sixteen.
I'll just see if she is in her office. Will y o u _____, please?
'Sudden death' means the two teams have t o _____until someone scores a goal.
The minister_____: 'And there will be no immediate rise in taxation
The film _____too long, in my opinion.
The person who can help you will be here soon. Can y o u _____for another five
minutes?
10 Duke Ellington is dead, but his music w ill___ for ever.
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

be on
go on (*2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

bring on
put on

cheer on
come on (x2)

At rugby and football matches the spectators shout:'_____, England!'


Spectators stood on both sides of the road t o _____the marathon runners.
The Opera House recently_____Puccini's 'La Bohhme'.
In the last five minutes of the match, the trainer decided t o _____a substitute.
W hat_____at the Apollo Theatre at the moment?
The 'curtain call' is when the actors_____at the end of a play and the audience ap
plauds.
I don't know w h at_____behind closed doors, but they look very happy to me.
There are hundreds of people standing outside the supermarket. W hat's_____?

E x ercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

She stayed on
The music lives on
The National Theatre puts on
I must get on with
Keep on

A
B
C
D
E

trying.
at university.
my homework.
in my memory.
six plays a year.

porusza si w d l/je i pi

zm n iejsza si/red u k ow a

17.1. Porusza si w d/je i pi


D odanie partykuy d o w n d o niektrych c za so w n ik w m odyfikuje je i nadaje
im znaczenie 'porusza si w d'. C zsto m a zn aczen ie p rzeciw staw n e d o u p , jak
w przykadach poniej:
sit d o w n (siada)
p u t d o w n (ka)
go d o w n (schodzi)

< >
< >
< >

stand u p (w staw a)
p ick u p (podnosi)
com e u p (w chodzi)

Partykua d o w n u yw an a jest rw n ie z niektrym i czasow n ik am i w yraajcy


m i sposb jedzenia i picia. Poyka co szybko" to g u lp it d o w n , natom iast w o lf it
d o w n znaczy je co arocznie":
H e w a s so hungry, h e w o lfe d d o w n tw o large p izza s.
On by tak godny, e pochon d w ie d u e p izze.
Z w rotu y o u can't k eep it d o w n u y w a si d o w yraenia prob lem w o d k o
w ych.

17.2. Zmniejsza si/redukowa


Wiele czasownikw czy si z partyku down w znaczeniu 'zmniejsza si'
czy 'redukowa'. Na przykad settle down i calm down tumaczy si jako 'stawa
si spokojniejszym'. Bring the price down to 'obnia cen'. Oto inne przykady:
Tum down the volume.
Przycisz, (np. radio)
I want to cut down on cigarettes.
Chc ograniczy palenie.
All problems come down to love or money.
Wszystkie problemy sprowadzaj si do mioci ub pienidzy.
She stopped speaking till the noise died down.
Przestaa mwi i czekaa, a zapadnie cisza.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

ka co
soce zachodzi
ka si
obnia cen
ceny spady
ogranicza spoycie cukru
przycisza (gono)
uspokaja si
miech ucich

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

come down
keep down
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

fall down
lie down

go down
put down

gulp down
wolf down

jump down

I'm terribly tired. I'm going t o _____on the sofa for half an hour.
Mr Brown's office is on the sixth floor. I'll phone and ask him to _____to Reception.
That bag is too heavy for y o u ._____i t _____ . I'll carry it.
At this time of year, the su n _____at about 6 o'clock.
The children stood on the wall a n d _____, one after another.
That tree is completely dead. It's probably going t o _____soon.
M ary_____her coffee and ran out of the house with a croissant in her hand.

8
9

For the first two months of her pregnancy she found it difficult t o _____any food
So she didn't have breakfast.
Until I was about thirty-five I cou ld _____masses of fat and sugar, stay in bed all
and still stay thin.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring down
die down

calm down (x2)


settle down

come down (x3)


turn down

cut down (x2)

1 The temperature w ill_____sharply tonight.


2 That music is rather loud. Could y o u _____i t _____ , please?
3 There were hundreds of customers in the shop earlier this morning, but things
h ave_____now.
4 The children were very excited, so I read them a story t o _____them _____ .
5 Prices usually_____after Christmas.
6 The actor waited for the laughter t o _____before he continued.
7 If sterling is weak, it _____the price of British products abroad.
8 The popularity of German cars_____to two things: good design and good quality.
9 I'm trying to _____on the number of cigarettes I smoke.
10 The doctor advised him t o _____on fat and sugar.
11 The students chatted for a few minutes in the library, then th ey_____to work.
Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-5 with the phrases A -E .

1
2
3
4
5

jump down
come down
cut down
bring down
calm down

A
B
C
D
E

a noisy class of children


on cream and sugar
off a chair
from the top floor
the price

odnosi porak/upada/niszczy

n ie dziaa/ponosi klsk

rej estrowa/przypisywa co komu

18.1. Odnosi porak/upada/niszczy


D odanie partykuy down do niektrych c za so w n ik w m odyfikuje je i nadaje im
znaczenie poraki lub zniszczenia:

We must stop cutting down the rainforests.


M usim y zaprzesta w ycinania la s w tropikalnych.

Accusations of fraud brought down the government.


O skarenia o oszu stw a d o p row ad ziy rzd d o upadku.

Crack down on something i come down heavily on something tu m aczy si ja


ko 'stosow a sankcje', 'bra si za kogo'.
C zasow niki back down oraz climb down oznaczaj 'odw raca si', 'w y co fy
w a si':
His opponents were strong but the chairman refused to climb down.
Jego przeciw nicy byli silni, lecz przew od n iczcy o d m w i zrezygnow ania.
C zasow niki step down oraz stand down tum aczy si jako 'w y co fy w a si',
'ustpow a'.

The Prime Minister stepped down from office after just ten months.
Premier ustpi ze stanow iska ju po d ziesiciu m iesicach.

18.2. Nie dziaa/ponosi klsk


Down dodane do kilku cza so w n ik w nadaje im sen s 'zaprzestaw a funkcjono
w ania' lub 'ponosi klsk':

The computer is down.


K om puter nie dziaa.

My washing machine has broken down.


Moja pralka jest zepsuta.

18.3. Rejestrowa/przypisywa co komu


C zasow niki write down i take down tum aczy si jako 'rejestrowa co':

Quick, write down his registration number!


Szybko, zap isz jego num er rejestracyjny.
W yraenie go down in history zn aczy 'przechodzi do historii'. C zsto u lega
ono skrceniu, jak w przykadzie poniej:

This match will go down as the most important of the season.


Ten m ecz przejdzie do historii jako najw aniejszy w sezonie.
W yraenie idiom atyczne: What do you put it down to? zn aczy 'czem u to
p rzy p isu jesz/co jest p o w o d e m ...'.

WICZENIA
Exercise I (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

psu si
wycofywa si
cina drzewo
rozbiera budynek
zamyka, koczy dziaalno
zapisywa co
odrzuca podanie
ustpowa, wycofywa si

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

back down
knock down

break down
cut down

crack down
shoot down

turn down
step down

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

T hey_____some beautiful villas to build office blocks in their place.


For every tree w e _____, we should plant another.
Tf the door is locked, w e'll_____i t _____ ,' said the policeman.
Saddam threatened to _____the US planes.
The police should_____on the drug dealers, not just the users.
I would be the first person to _____an unrealistic idea.
Seven years as prime minister is enough for me. I w ill_____next month.
Her critics were strong and numerous but she refused t o _____.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

be down
put down (x2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

break down
take down

close down
turn down (x2)

go down
write down

I was driving along the motorway when, suddenly, the car_____.


After twenty-five years, the shop finally_____in April.
I can't give you a copy of the report just now. My computer_____.
I wanted a job as a fireman, but th ey_____my application.
When he came out of prison, he applied for a job as a teacher, but th ey _____
h im _____.
We're counting on you to buy the tickets, so please don't_____u s _____ .
We a ll_____every word the professor said.
H e'll_____in history as the meanest employer who ever lived.
Some people_____his success_____ to intelligence and hard work, but I _____ it
to luck.
If you have a problem with a taxi, you can___ the driver's number.

Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-5 with the phrases A -E.

1
2
3
4
5

let down

go down
turn down
step down
pull down
take down

A
B
C
D
E

as president
a building
in history
someone's address
an application for a job

n ie m ie celu

by w sz d z ie

obraca si

odw ied za

19.1. Nie mie celu


D odanie partykuy about lub around (zam iennie) do niektrych cza so w n ik w
m odyfikuje je i nadaje im znaczenie b ezcelow oci (robienie czeg o , co n ie n iesie za
sob adnej za p o w ie d z i/n a d z ie i sukcesu czy zysku). C zsto spotykane cza so w n i
ki tego typu to: sit around, stand around, lie around, hang around, mess around
(krci si bez celu) oraz fiddle around (baw i si czym b ezw ied n ie). Stick around
zn aczy 'tkw i w miejscu':

They stand around all day outside the underground station.


O ni stoj bez celu przez cay d zie obok stacji metra.

We haven't got time to mess about


N ie m ielim y czasu na to, eb y snu si bez celu.

About u yw an e jest z come w zn aczen iu 'w ydarza si' oraz z bring w zn acze
niu 'p ow od ow a, e co si w ydarzy':
They've split up! How did that come about?
O ni si rozeszli! Jak to si stao?

I don't know what brought about her sudden change in attitude towards me.
N ie w iem , co sp o w o d o w a o n ag zm ian jej stosu n k u do m nie.

19.2. By wszdzie
Around (lub about) u y w a n e jest z n iektrym i czasow n ik am i w zn aczen iu 'by
w szdzie':

Wherever he went, the little dog followed him around.


G d ziek olw iek szed , m ay p iesek p od a za nim .
Partykuy te czsto w yraaj pojcie rozrzucania":

Don't leave your books around. Put them away.


N ie rozkadaj dookoa sw o ich ksiek. P o je na miejsce.

Shop around znaczy 'chodzi p o rn ych sklepach w p oszu k iw an iu czego'.


Hand something around (lub pass something around) znaczy 'p od aw a w sz y st
kim po kolei'.
M ona take p o w ied zie hand round i pass round.

19.3. Obraca si
Round czy around m og by u y w a n e (zam iennie) z niektrym i czasow n ik am i
w znaczeniu 'obraca si'. N a przykad turn round (obraca si), look round (od
wraca si), spin round (w irow a). Win someone round znaczy 'p ozysk iw a k ogo
do sw ojego punktu w idzen ia'.

19.4. Odwiedza
Come round, go round i call round tu m aczy si jako 'od w ied za ssiada w je
g o dom u'.

WICZENIA
Exercise i (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

obija si" (nic nie robi)


chodzi wszdzie za mn
chodzi po sklepach
podawa wszystkim po kolei
nie odwracaj si!
wpadnij po kolacji
wieci rozeszy si

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

follow around
mess around
sit around

get around (x2)


pass round
stand around (*2)

leave around
run around
stick around

shop around

1 On Sundays I always used t o _____doing nothing. Nowadays, I spend most Sundays


working.
2 There were one or two m en _____in the bus station who obviously weren't waiting
for a bus.
3 At a cocktail party you have to _____and make polite conversation.
4 If y o u _____outside the theatre long enough, somebody may buy your extra ticket.
5 Stop_____! There's work to be done.
6 Before my sister's wedding, my mother spent the whole morning_____like a
headless chicken.
7 Photographers_____her_____ wherever she goes.
8 - New York on Monday, Paris on Wednesday. Tomorrow I'm going to Rome.
- You certainly_____.'
9 My little sister alw ays____ her books and clothes lyin g_____ . She's very untidy.
10 To get the cheapest price, you have t o _____.
11 Susanna _____her photos_____ for everyone to see.
12 The n ew s____ _ that she had left her husband.
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

bring round
look round
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

call round
spin round

come round
turn round (*2)

go round
win round

If y o u ____ , I'll brush the back of your jacket for you.


D on't____ just now. I don't want her to know we're talking about her.
They used t o _____locom otives_____ on an enormous disc called a turntable.
How do ballet dancers_____so fast without getting dizzy?
The audience hated him at first but in the end h e _____them _____ .
W e're____ to see Jim. Why don't you come with us?
If y o u ____ after supper, we can do the homework together.
I like it when people_____unexpectedly, so I always keep something extra in the fridge.
He has fallen in love with your sister and wants you t o _____h er_____ to his house one
day.

Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-5 with the phrases A -E.

1
2
3
4
5

shop around
come round
lie around
pass round
spin round

A
B
C
D
E

to my house
doing nothing
for a good price
on your heels
the photocopies

odchodzi/wycofywa si

usuwag/pozbywa si

20.1. Odchodzi/wycofywa si
Podstawowe znaczenie partykuy away to 'odchodzi od kogo lub czego'.
Away czy si z czasownikami wskazujcymi na ruch (walk, run, fly, drive itd.),
by okreli sposb odejcia:
On the green light, the Ferrari accelerated away.
Ferrari wyrwao si do przodu, gdy zapaliy si zielone wiata.
Keep away lub stay away tumaczy si jako 'trzyma si z daleka', natomiast
escape czy get away jako 'uciec'.

U w aga!
Away czy si z czasownikami przechodnimi i opisuje sposb odejcia.
Popularna stara rym owanka dla dzieci opowiada, jak panna Muffet przestraszya
si pajka i ucieka z pikniku:

. . . Along came a spider


And sat down beside her
And frig h te n ed Miss Muffet aw ay.

Turn someone away tumaczy si jako 'odprawi kogo'.

20.2. Usuwa, pozbywa si


D odanie partykuy away do niektrych cza so w n ik w m odyfikuje je i nadaje
znaczenie 'usuw a' czy 'p ozb yw a si'. W iele takich cza so w n ik w z o o n y ch m a
znaczenie przenone. T hrow a pair of shoes (rzuci butam i) oznacza d o so w n ie rzu
cenie nim i, ale th ro w the shoes a w a y (w yrzuci buty) m o e oznacza p o prostu w y
rzucenie ich do pojem nika na m ieci.
Give something away zn aczy 'rozda, da n ie otrzym ujc nic w zam ian'. Give
a secret away tum aczy si jako 'w yd a, choby niechccy, sekret'. Oto d alsze p rzy
kady:
T ake that cigarette a w a y l It's making me sneeze.
Zabierz tego papierosa! Przez n iego kicham .

His confidence drain ed a w a y .


Jego p ew n o siebie odpyna.
The crowd soon got bored and d rifte d a w a y .
Z grom adzeni lu d zie szybko zn u d zili si i rozeszli.
Popularny id iom get away with something tum aczy si jako 'w yj szczliw ie
z opresji, gd y zrobio si co nieb ezp ieczn ego'.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

ucieka
odprawia kogo
trzymaj si z daleka
wyrzuca co
odhoowywa samochd
cofa si
ucieka

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

back away
run away (x2)
1
2
3
4

fly away
scare away

get away
stay away

go away
turn away (x2)

keep away

The doormen w ill_____anybody who doesn't have a ticket for the concert.
I know it's closing time but I don't want t o ______ customers___ .
When I opened the window the bird on the tree_____.
The boy stole the lady's handbag an d _____as fast as he could.

5
6
7
8
9
10

An alarming number of children_____from home before the age of eleven.


As I approached the dog it began t o _____, watching me suspiciously as it went.
Farmers put scarecrows in the middle of their fields t o _____the birds_____ .
'I never want to see you again._____, an d _____!' she said.
I've got a terrible cold. You'd better_____from me.
What! You've lost two prisoners? How did th ey___ ?

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

drag away
take away
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

ebb away
throw away (*2)

gamble away
tow away

give away
wash away

If you leave your car there, the police will come an d _____i t _____ .
When I cleared the table last night I _____one of the spoons by mistake.
We live in a society where p eop le_____too many things_____ .
Just leave the bottles outside your door and somebody w ill_____them _____ in the
morning.
H e _____all his m oney_____ on horse races.
Confidence in the government began t o _____.
The police_____the protesters_____ .
A lot of magazines_____free samples of perfume and shampoo.
Heavy rain_____the new paint on the wall.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

If you
If you
If you
If you
If you

turn someone away,


talk the night away,
keep away from something,
give something away,
get away with something,

A you don't go near it.


B you receive nothing in return,
c you don't let them come in.
D there are no unpleasant consequences.
E you talk till morning.

przechowywa/ukrywa

by nieobecnym/podrowa

wykonywa co gorliwie i nieprzerwanie

21.1. Przechowywa/ukrywa
Partykua away czy si z wieloma czasownikami i nadaje im znaczenie 'prze
chowywa' lub czasami 'ukrywa'. W pewnym sensie dodanie tej partykuy suge
ruje, e co znika z pola widzenia. Put something away tumaczy si jako 'odoy
co na miejsce'. Clear something away lub tidy something away tumaczy si jako
'usun co tak, by miejsce stao si czyste (elear) lub uporzdkowane (tidy)':
Put away your things when you have finished.
Od swoje rzeczy na miejsce, jeli skoczye.
The criminal was locked away for five years.
Przestpca zosta zamknity (odizolowany) na pi lat.

21.2. By nieobecnym/podrowa
Be away znaczy 'by nieobecnym (w podry lub z powodu choroby)'. Go
away czsto znaczy 'na wakacjach', get away moe znaczy 'znale czas, by wyje
cha na wakacje'.

We were very busy last summer, but we g o t a w a y for a week in September.


B ylim y bardzo zajci ostatniego lata, lecz zn a lelim y czas, eby w yjecha na
ty d zie w e w rzen io ,

21.3. Wykonywa co gorliwie i nieprzerwanie


Interesujc i do czst funkcj partykuy away jest nad aw an ie czasow n ik om
znaczenia 'gorliw ego i niep rzerw an ego w y k o n y w a n ia czego', jak w p rzyk ad zie
poniej:

When I saw him, he was p o lish in g a w a y at the bonnet of his car.


G dy go zobaczyem , z nam aszczen iem p o lerow a m ask sw ojego sam ochodu.
Partykua away, u yw a n a w tym zn aczen iu , w ystp u je zw y k le z czasow n ik a
m i w czasie cigym lub z keep, ktre rozcigaj czyn n o w czasie". C zasow niki
te s zw yk le zw izan e z w y k o n y w a n iem pracy:

She called him but he just k e p t scribbling a w a y .


W oaa go, lecz on nie przestaw a p o p ieszn ie pisa.
Z w rm y u w a g na u y cie przyim ka at skupiajcego u w a g na w ykonyw anej
czynnoci:

The cat was scratch in g a w a y a t the door post.


Kot cigle drapa w e fram ug drzw i.
W yraenie idiom atyczn e get carried away tu m aczy si jako 'daw a si ponie
em ocjom '.

WICZENIA
Exercise i (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5

odoy troch pienidzy


odoy naczynia na miejsce
jest teraz nieobecny
nie daj si ponie emocjom!
lubi chowa si przed czym

E xercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

be away (x2)
lock away

clear away
put away (x2)

get away
shut way

go away
tidy away

1 If you do the washing-up, I'll dry the things a n d _____them _____ .


2 Before leaving her desk, Jane liked t o _____everything_____ into the drawers.
3 The writer_____him self_____ in his study for eight hours every day until the book
was finished.
4 His grandmother said he should_____some m oney_____ for his old age.
5 It doesn't help children if their parents_____them _____ from the realities of the world.
6 Are y o u _____this Christmas?
7 We didn't_____last summer. We spent the holiday painting our flat.
8 'I'm afraid Mr Jones_____at the moment. He'll be in the office on Friday.'
9 'You're going to China tomorrow! How wonderful! How long will y o u _____?'
10 During the speech, waiters came a n d ___ the dirty plates and dishes.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

flash away
1
2
3
4
5

get carried away

polish away

talk away

work away

A police car passed us with its blue ligh t_____.


The woman from the flat next door was standing on a chair_____at her windows.
John w a s_____at his Maths homework.
The students w ere_____in the classroom.
- We've won! We've won the lottery!
- D on't_____. It's only 20.

Exercise 4
Match the phrasal verbs 1-5 with the phrases A -E.

1
2
3
4
5

put away
tap away
work away
get away
lock away

A
B
C
D
E

at a keyboard
some money (for a rainy day)
for a holiday
your valuables
at a problem

upada

zmienia/przenosi

22.1. Upada
Partykua over w poczeniu z wieloma czasownikami nadaje im znaczenie
'upada' lub 'by rzucanym':
knock something over
fall over
run over
be run over (lub get run over)

przewraca
upada
przejeda, potrca
zosta przejechanym

Inne typowe poczenia to: push something over (popchn i spowodowa


przewrcenie); blow something over (wymierzy cios i przewrci) i topple over
(przewraca si na skutek braku stabilnoci). Turn over oraz tip over tumaczy si
jako 'wywraca si'.
The demonstrators turned over the cars in the street.
Demonstranci wywracali samochody na ulicy.
Don't stand in the boat or you'll tip it over.
Nie stj w odzi, bo wywrci si do gry dnem.

22.2. Zmienia/przenosi
Partykua over czy si z n iektrym i czasow n ik am i nadajc im znaczen ie
'zm ienia' (czsto w aciciela) czy 'przenosi', jak w przykadach poniej:

Mohammed Al Said took over Harrods in 1985?


Mohammed A1 Said przej dom towarowy Harrods" w 1985 roku.
Keep quiet and hand over your money!
Bd cicho i oddaj pienidze!

Jaguar wants to win customers over from Mercedes.


Jaguar chce przej klientw Mercedesa.
The plan was to change over to the Euro in 1999.
Planowano zmian (waluty) na euro w 1999 roku.
Move over. You're taking up too much space.
Posu si. Zajmujesz zbyt duo miejsca.

WICZENIA
Exercise

(wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)

Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5

przewraca kieliszek
zosta potrconym
oddawa pienidze
przejmowa wadz jako kierownik
pozyskiwa kogo

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

blow over (*2)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

fall over (x2)

knock over (x2)

run over (*3)

As she walked past our table, sh e _____a vase with her handbag.
The poor man w a s_____by a bus on his thirty-first birthday.
Every time the little b o y _____, he just laughed and got up again.
The big willow tree in the middle of the field w a s_____in the storm.
The w aiter_____a glass, spilling wine all over the woman's silk dress.
My mother used to say: 'Always wear clean underwear in case you are____ by
a bus.'
There is a noticeboard outside the restaurant, but the w in d _____i t _____ about ten
times a day.
The clown couldn't take three steps w ithout_____.
The parachutist landed in the middle of the airport runway and was immediately _
by a jumbo-jet.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

change over
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

hand over (x3)

take over (x3)

win over (x3)

A financier from London_____their family business two years ago.


H oddle_____from Venables as manager of the England football team in 1997.
I've got a gun in my pocket._____all your money!
On his seventieth birthday, the chairman of the company____ the job_____ to
his son.
At election time, politicians need t o _____as many new supporters as they can.
Our company is losing money. We need t o _____new customers.
I don't like the idea o f _____my children_____ to a nanny while I go out to work.
In 1967, Sw eden_____from driving on the left to driving on the right.
At first, the audience booed and shouted at the actor, but in the end h e _____
them _____.
Many British people were surprised when V W ___ Rolls Royce.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

A new management team


The old oak tree was
On the day he retired, the poor man was
I was taking out a jacket when the wardrobe
In the accident, the car

A
B
C
D
E

turned over.
took over the company.
fell over.
run over by a bus.
blown over.

dokadnie rozwaa

przykrywa/ukrywa

koczy

odwiedza kogo

23.1. Dokadnie rozwaa


Takie czasowniki jak think i talk, czc si z partyku over nabieraj znacze
nia 'dokadnie rozwaa co'. Przykadem moe by powie Juliana Bamesa 'T al
king it Over' (Omawiajc to"), w ktrej protagonici po kolei opowiadaj histori,
prowadzc dialog z czytelnikiem.
T h in k something over tumaczy si jako 'rozwaa co starannie, zwykle przed
podjciem decyzji'. T urn something over in your m ind znaczy 'analizowa co
z kadego punktu widzenia'. Look something over tumaczy si 'przyglda si
czemu krytycznym okiem'.
W e looked over dozens of flats before choosing this one.

Obejrzelimy dziesitki mieszka, zanim dokonalimy wyboru.

23.2. Przykrywa/ukrywa
Niektre czasowniki czc si z over nabieraj znaczenia 'przykrywa' lub
'ukrywa':
The sky clouded over.
Niebo si zachmurzyo.
The artist didn't like the necklace so he painted it over.
Artycie nie podoba si naszyjnik, wic go zamalowa.
We covered the holes over with wallpaper.
Zakrylimy dziury tapet.

23.3. Koczy
Be over znaczy 'by zakoczonym', jak w przykadzie poniej:
The party's over.
Przyjcie jest zakoczone.
Czasownik blow over, przywodzcy na myl burz i przesuwajce si chmury,
uywany jest w sensie przenonym, gdy mwimy o problemach, ktniach i trud
nych chwilach.
Wyraenie to tide him over znaczy, e pomagamy komu przetrwa trudne
chwile, dopki okres problemw finansowych si nie skoczy".
Get something over with tumaczymy jako 'mie co za sob'.

23.4. Odwiedza kogo


Partykua over wystpuje w wyraeniach takich jak invite someone over (za
prasza do odwiedzenia w domu); go over (i do czyjego domu); come over
(przyj do kogo do domu) itd.

WICZENIA
Exercise I (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6

oglda mieszkanie krytycznym wzrokiem


obmyla/analizowa co
omawia co
zaprasza kogo do domu
zamalowywa co
mecz nie skoczy si

7
8

niebo zachmurzyo si
miejmy to za sob

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

cloud over
paint over
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

cover over
talk over

freeze over
think over

look over

Would y o u _____this report_____ before I give it to the manager?


You have twenty-four hours t o _____our proposal_____ . Phone us if you accept
the terms.
I want t o _____th is_____ with my wife before I give you an answer.
When the sky began t o _____, we left the beach and went back to the hotel.
First, the painters_____the tables and chairs_____ with sheets.
In winter, the canal som etim es_____and then w e all go skating on it.
Municipal workers_____the graffitti_____ before the Queen arrived.

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

be over
get it over with
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

blow over
invite over

come over (*2)


tide over

We sometimes have terrrible arguments in our family, but they alw ays_____
very quickly.
Can you lend me a little money t o _____m e _____ until the end of the month?
Take the tooth out now. I'd like t o _____.
You m ust____ and see us some time.
Dad, I've_____some friends_____ on Saturday. Is that OK?
I didn't know what to say when the Princess_____and spoke to me.
When the match_____, the players all exchanged shirts.

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1 The stream always used to


2 These problems will soon
3 Fifty pounds will be enough to
4 The sky is beginning to
5 What time will the celebrations

A
B
C
D
E

cloud over.
freeze over.
be over?
tide me over.
blow over.

porusza si do tyu

powraca do punktu pocztkowego

odpowiada/odwzajemnia

24.1. Porusza si do tyu


W dosownym znaczeniu poczenie czasownika z partyku back oznacza
ruch do tyu, na przykad stand back (cofa si), tie your hair back (wiza wosy
z tyu), push your chair back (odepchn krzeso do tyu). Back czy si rwnie
z kilkoma czasownikami, tworzc wyraenia idiomatyczne jak cofanie si w cza
sie", na przykad:
The Irish problem goes back to the 17th century.
Problem Irlandii siga XVII wieku.
That smell takes me back to my first school.
Ten zapach przypomina mi moj pierwsz szko.
Don't look back.
Nie myl o przeszoci.
Hold back znaczy 'zachowywa dla siebie'.

24.2. Powraca do punktu pocztkowego


Back w poczeniu z wieloma czasownikami wyraa 'powrt do punktu po
cztkowego':

Go back to square one.


Wr do pierw szego kwadratu.

miss you. Come back soon.

Tskni za tob. Wracaj szybko.

IT1 drive to the garage and walk back.


Pojad do stacji obsugi i w rc piechot.
Inne czsto spotykane poczenia to:

give something back (zwraca co)


put something back (odkada na miejsce)
take something back (oddaw a co)
send something back (odsya co z pow rotem )
A take:

Don't lend him any money. You'll never get it back.


N ie poyczaj m u pienidzy. N ig d y n ie d ostan iesz ich z pow rotem .

24.3. Odpowiada/odwzajemnia
Kolejne znaczenie sugerow an e przez back to 'w zajem no' i 'odpow iadanie':

He smiled at her and she smiled back.


U m iechn si d o niej, a ona odw zajem nia um iech.

I'll phone you back in five minutes.


O d d zw on i do ciebie za pi m inut.

WICZENIA
Exercise i (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4
5
6

to przypomina mi
przywoywa wspomnienia
odkada co
siga myl wstecz
wraca samolotem
zwraca pienidze

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

drop back
stand back (x2)

go back (x2)
take back

look back
think back

push back
tie back

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

_____, please! Let the ambulance men pass.


It's important t o _____and consider things objectively.
When you work with this machine, you m ust_____your hair_____ .
'Don't talk to me like that/ he said, a n d _____John_____ with the palm of his hand.
The British runner is not doing so well in the race now. H e's_____.
The Minister's friendship with the actress_____to their schooldays together.
A flashback is a scene in which the film _____to an earlier stage of the story.
'Ah, that m usic_____me_____ !' said Grandma. 'Your mother used to play that on the
piano.'
9 'When did you last see the victim?' said the policeman.'_____.'
10 When I ___ on those years, I realize they were the happiest years of my life.
Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

be back
fly back
ring back
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

bring back (x2)


give back
send back

come back (x2)


pay back
write back

put back
go back
smile back

If the goods are not in perfect condition when they arrive,_____them _____ to us.
_____! All is forgiven!
We took the train to Paris but because we were in a hurry, w e decided t o _____.
I'm just going out for a bite of lunch. I'll_____at two o'clock.
You can borrow these books for three weeks, but please_____this o n e_____ tomorrow.
Ah, this m usic_____wonderful memories.
She thought about the chocolates for a few seconds, then_____them _____ on the shelf.
My brother's on holiday at the moment. H e's_____on Saturday.
When are y o u _____to your country?
You can borrow my pen, but please_____i t _____ . It's the only one I've got.
Stay by the telephone. I'll_____y o u _____ immediately.
When you smile at people, they usually_____.
I wrote and asked for an explanation, but the company didn't_____.
I lent him 30, but he never_____i t _____ .

Exercise 4
Match the two halves of the sentences.

1
2
3
4
5

bring back
pay back
go back
push back
call back

A
B
C
D
E

the money you owe


your chair
later
happy memories
to the beginning

rozkada na czci

rozdziela

koczy (^sumiennie wykonywa

kontaktowa si przez telefon

25.1. Rozkada na czci


Dodanie partykuy apart do niektrych czasownikw nadaje im znaczenie 'roz
kada na czci'. Take apart uywane jest w odniesieniu do mechanizmw i ma
szyn:
She took her bicycle apart to clean it.
Rozoya swj rower na czci, eby go wyczyci.
Czasowniki fall apart lub come apart mog by uywane, gdy mowa jest o nie
zamierzonym rozpadzie na czci:
Without the proper glue, the chair will just fa ll apart again.
Bez odpowiedniego kleju to krzeso znowu si rozpadnie.

25.2. Rozdziela
Apart czy si take z niektrym i czasow n ik am i nadajc im znaczen ie 'roz
dziela' lub 'wyrnia':

hate it when we are apart

N ie cierpi (sytuacji), g d y jestem y osobno.

Her quick intelligence always set her apart from the others.
B yskotliw a inteligencja za w sze w yrn iaa j sp ord innych.

25.3. Koczy/sumiennie wykonywa


P oczenie niektrych cza so w n ik w z through nadaje im zn aczen ie 'koczy'
c zy 'sum iennie w ykonyw a'. C zasow n ik i te czsto sugeruj zw i zek z planam i,
projektami, strategiam i, racjonalnym i argum entam i itd. N a przykad carry a pro
ject through znaczy 'p om yln ie dop row ad za projekt d o koca'. Talk something
through tum aczy si jako 'om w i co bardzo szczeg o w o '. N iek ied y czasow n ik i
te u yw an e s w sensie przenonym :

agreed to do it, so Tm going to go through with it.

Z god ziem si to zrobi, w ic zam ierzam to skoczy.

His plan fell through for lack of money.


Jego plan upad z p o w o d u braku p ien id zy.

25.4. Kontaktowa si przez telefon


C zasow niki get through oraz put someone through u y w a n e s w w yraeniach
zw izan ych z rozm ow telefoniczn:

can't get through to my mother.

N ie m og skontaktow a si telefonicznie z moj matk.

The receptionist put me through to the manager.


R ecepcjonista poczy m nie z dyrektorem .

WICZENIA
Exercise I (wykonaj to wiczenie przy okazji robienia wicze 2, 3 i 4)
Znajd angielskie czasowniki zoone odpowiadajce nastpujcym polskim wyraeniom:

1
2
3
4

rozkada na czci
rozpada si na czci
oddali si od siebie
nie rozrniam ich

5
6
7

pomylnie dokoczy projekt


nie mog uzyska poczenia telefonicznego
plan nie powid si

Exercise 2
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

come apart
set apart (x2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

fall apart (x2)


take apart

grow apart
tear apart

pull apart
tell apart

The repairer_____the clock_____ and cleaned all the pieces.


We gave the child a cheap toy car for Christmas, but i t _____when he sat on it.
I'm sorry about your sunglasses. They ju st_____in my hands.
The lion jumped on the antelope a n d _____i t _____ .
After he lost his job, his life began t o _____.
The two boys were fighting in the kitchen. Their mother tried t o _____them ___
A Ferrari w ill_____y o u _____ from the crowd.
Her parents were happy together for a few years, but then they began t o _____.
W hat_____h im _____ from other footballers is his speed in front of the goal.
The twins are identical. Only their mother ca n ___ them _____ .

Exercise 3
Complete the sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the box.

carry through
put through
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

fall through
talk through

get through
think through

go through

It's a wonderful plan, and John o'Connor is the right man t o _____the p lan _____ .
T can't_____with it,' she said. T know I promised, but I can't marry him.'
I accepted a job in Rome, learned Italian and sold my London flat, but the day before
I left England, the job_____.
Before I agree to your proposal, there are one or two points that I would like t o _____
with you.
Before w e ask the bank to lend us money, w e need t o _____our marketing strategy _
_ more clearly.
- Could I speak to Pamela Stone, please - on extension 3452?
- Hold on a moment, please. I'll_____y o u _____ .
- Hello, Pamela. It's Joan speaking. I've been trying t o _____to you all morning.
- Sorry. I've had a lot of calls.

Exercise 4

Match the two halves of the sentences.


1
2
3
4
5

The plan
The receptionist
Nobody can
The old book
They were once friends but they

A
B
c
D
E

will put you through to me.


fell apart in his hands.
fell through.
grew apart.
tell the sisters apart.

Powtrzenie
Czasowniki come, go, bring, take, put i get najczciej cz si z omawiany
mi partykuami, tworzc czasowniki zoone. Zamieszczone w tej czci wiczenia
utrwalajce powicone s tym wanie czasownikom, jak rwnie sowom turn
oraz keep.
Wszystkie zdania w zamieszczonych tu wiczeniach pochodz z wicze za
wartych na poprzednich stronach tej ksiki. W przypadku nieprawidowej odpo
wiedzi naley cofn si do odpowiedniego rozdziau, gdzie dana partykua jest
omawiana i poszuka tego przykadu.
Przy kadym zdaniu w wiczeniach utrwalajcych podany jest numer strony,
gdzie mona znale dany przykad.
W kadym z wicze naley wybra odpowiednie partykuy (spord poda
nych w ramce) i uzupeni nimi zdania.

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z c o m e . . .

Exercise i
about
on (*3)

back (*2)
apart

down
over

off (x2)

1 - Nobody eats meat any more in our house.


- Oh, how did that come_____?
(73)
(66)
2 All problems come_____to love or money.
3 Atchoo! Atchoo! I think I've got a cold coming_____.
(59)
4 Come_____! All is forgiven!
(95)
5 Come_____, Liverpool! Come_____, Liverpool!
(62)
6 I miss you. Come_____soon.
(94)
(35)
7 He tried to open the door but the handle came_____in his hand.
8 His attempt to break the record didn't come_____.
(42)
9 I'm sorry about your sunglasses. They just came_____in my hands.
(99)
10 I didn't know what to say when the Princess came_____and spoke to me.

(91)

Exercise 2
up (x3)
1
2
3
4
5

in (*2)

down (*3)

out

on

I know you're in there! Come_____with your hands up!


(17)
It's coming_____to five o'clock now and he hasn't shown up.
(7)
John is not very tall. He only comes_____to his brother's shoulder.
(5)
I looked at my feet in the bottom of the boat. Water was coming_____fast.
(51)
Mr Brown's office is on the sixth floor. I'll phone him and ask him to come_____to
Reception.
(66)
6 Prices usually come_____after Christmas.
(67)

7 The 'curtain call' is when the actors come_____at the end of a play and the audience
applauds.
(63)
8 The fashion for jeans came_____after the war.
(53)
9 The match didn't come_____to expectations.
(5)
10 The popularity of German cars comes___ to two things: good design and good
quality.
(67)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z go . . . ___________________________________________________
Exercise I
down (x2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

out

off

back (*2)

through

on

'Go_____to square one' means return to the starting point.


(94)
A flashback is a scene in which the film goes_____to an earlier stage of the
story.
(95)
A terrorist bomb was discovered outside the palace but it didn't g o _____.
At this time of the year, the sun goes____ at about six o'clock.
(66)
Don't g o _____without a raincoat.
(17)
He'll g o _____in history as the meanest employer who ever lived.
(71)
He just w ent_____reading the book as if nothing had happened.
(61)
I agreed to do it, so I'm going to g o _____with it.
(98)

(35)

Exercise 2
down

away

in

out (x2)

back

up (x2)

on (x2)

1 I don't know what goes_____behind closed doors, but they look very happy to
me.
(63)
2 T never want to see you again. Go_____, and stay away!' she said.
(79)
3 If you g o _____with someone, that person is your boyfriend or girlfriend.
(18)
4 If you leave a cigarette in an ashtray, it doesn't g o _____, but a cigar does.
(23)
5 Music? Theatre? I don't g o _____for that sort of thing.
(50)
6 Susan went_____to the tennis player and asked him for his autograph.
(5)
7 The cost of living goes_____every year.
(3)
8 The film goes_____too long, in my opinion.
(63)
9 The Irish problem goes_____to the 17th century.
(93)
10 This match will g o ___ as the most important of the season.
(70)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z b rin g . . . _____________________________________________
Exercise i
up (x2)
1
2
3
4
5

in

down (x3)

back

about

round

(69)
Accusations of fraud brought_____the government.
Ah, this music brings_____wonderful memories.
(95)
Don't bring that d o g _____. I don't want hairs all over the carpet.
(46)
He has fallen in love with your sister and he wants you to bring her_____to his house
one day.
(75)
I'm glad you brought_____that question.
(3)

6
7
8
9

I don't know what brought_____her sudden change in attitude towards me.


If I have children, I want to bring them _____in the country.
(3)
If sterling is weak, it brings_____the price of British products abroad.
(67)
If you want to sell something quickly, you bring the price_____.
(66)

Exercise 2
up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

in (x2)

on (*2)

back

off

In the last five minutes of the match, the trainer decided to bring_____a
substitute.
(63)
It was sitting by the open window that brought_____my cold.
(59)
The company will bring_____a new accounting system starting on
1st January.
(54)
The Italian jockey brought_____the incredible feat of winning all seven races in one af
ternoon.
(42)
The new manager brought_____a more attacking style of play.
(53)
Then he brought_____the embarrassing subject of money.
(3)
You can borrow these books for three weeks, but please bring this o n e _____tomor
row.
(95)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z t a k e . . .
Exercise I
off (X2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

on

down

back

out (x2)

in

over(x2)

'Oh, that music takes m e _____!' said Grandma.


(95)
A financier from London took_____their family business two years ago.
(87)
Don't take_____too much work. You won't have time to do it properly.
(57)
Hoddle took_____from Venables as manager of the England football team in
1997.
(87)
I can take_____100 a day with my Visa card.
(22)
I put my glass on the table. Who took i t _____?
(34)
(35)
I take_____my hat to people who work and study at the same time.
If you don't take_____what you are reading, you don't register it mentally.
(52)
If you have a problem with a taxi, you can take_____the driver's number.
(72)
If you take people___ , they are your guests and you pay for them.
(18)

Exercise 2
on (x2)
1
1
3
4
5
6
7

away

back

out(x2)

in

apart

over

It's difficult to say no, but I don't want to take_____more work than I
can do.
(58)
Looking after somebody else's children is a big responsibility to take_____.
(58)
Many British people were surprised when VW took_____Rolls Royce.
(87)
On arriving, she took_____the situation at a glance.
(49)
Students may only take_____five library books.
(22)
Take that cigarette_____! It's making me sneeze.
(78)
That smell takes m e _____to my first school.
(93)

8
9

The dentist took_____my wisdom teeth.


(21)
The repairer took the clock_____and cleaned all the pieces.

(99)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z g e t . . . _________________________________

Exercise I
in
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

on (x2)

around

away

through

back

I'm fixing a hole where the rain g ets_____.


(49)
- N ew York on Monday, Paris on Wednesday. Tomorrow, I'm going to Rome.
- You certainly g et_____.
(75)
Don't lend him any money. You'll never get i t _____.
(94)
Hello, Pamela. It's Joan speaking. I've been trying to g e t_____to you all
morning.
(99)
How are you getting_____? Are you nearly ready?
(62)
I must g e t____ with my homework.
(64)
If you g et_____ with something, it means there are no unpleasant
consequences.
(79)

Exercise 2
up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

in (x2)

on (x2)

away (x2)

over

She doesn't g et_____very well with her mother-in-law.


(58)
Stop talking, please, Terry, and g e t_____with your work.
(63)
Take the tooth out now. I'd like to get i t _____with.
(91)
The exhibition was by invitation only, but Charles got m e _____.
(45)
The tickets for the concert are very expensive, but my cousin can get u s _____
free.
(47)
We didn't g et_____last summer. We spent the holiday painting our flat.
(83)
What time do you want to g e t_____tomorrow morning?
(3)
What! You've lost two prisoners! How did they g e t_____?
(79)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z p u t . . . ______________________________________________
Exercise I
up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

on (x2)

down (x2)

away (x3)

through

Extension 3452? Hold on a moment, please. I'll put y o u _____.


(99)
His grandmother said he should put some m oney_____for his old age.
(83)
If you do the washing-up, I'll dry the things and put th em _____.
(83)
The National Theatre pu ts_____six plays a year.
(64)
Some people put his success_____to intelligence and hard work, but I put it _____ to
luck.
(71)
If you know the answer, put your h and_____.
(2)
Martha p u t_____a red shirt with a blue and green skirt. She looked terrible.
(58)
P u t_____your things when you have finished.
(81)

Exercise 2

up
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

out (x2)

on

down (x2)

back

She thought about the chocolates for a few seconds, then put th em _____on
the shelf.
(95)
Susanna p u t_____her hand to ask the teacher a question.
(2)
That bag is too heavy for you. Put i t _____. I'll carry it.
(66)
The fire service fought all night to put the fire_____.
(23)
The Opera House recently p u t_____Puccini's 'La Boheme'.
(63)
The public relations department p u t_____a press release to calm people's
fears.
(27)
I wonder why he did that? What do you put i t _____to?
(70)

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z t u r n . . .
Exercise i
round

over

up (x3)

on

away (x2)

down

off

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

'It's cold/ he said and turned_____the collar of his coat.


(3)
Every time I turn____ the radio, I hear that song.
(59)
I wanted a job as a fireman, but they turned _ _ my application.
(72)
If you turn_____, I'll brush the back of your jacket for you.
(75)
If you turn som eone_____, you don't let them come in.
(79)
Jack always turns____ when you least expect him.
(6)
Parents need to know when to turn_____the TV.
(39)
The doormen will turn_____anyone who doesn't have a ticket for the
concert.
(78)
9 To turn something_____in your mind means to consider it from every angle.
10 Martha turned ____the volume so that she could hear the music in the
bathroom.
(3)

(89)

C za so w n ik i zo o n e z k e e p . . . _______________________________________________
Exercise I
out (x2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

up

off (x2)

on (x2)

away

'Keep_____trying' means don't stop trying.


(62)
A notice on the gate said private- keep _____ .
(22)
I've got a terrible cold. You'd better keep _____ from me.
(79)
If you bum this candle, it will keep the mosquitoes_____.
(33)
It's ridiculous to keep w om en_____of the top jobs.
(22)
Keep your hat_____. If you take it off, you might lose it.
(34)
This cream is guaranteed to keep_____insects.
(395)
You're walking too fast. I can't keep_____with you.
(6)

Klucz do wicze
1

C za so w n ik i zo o n e z u p ( I )

Exercise I
1
2
3
4
5

bring up
dig up
get up
go up
look up

6
7
8
9
10

pick up
turn up
bring up
build up
grow up

11
12
13
14
15

heat up
hurry up
speak up
turn up
w arm up

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

picked up
lifted up
look up
d u g up

5 put up
6 ta m ed up
7 brought up

8 get up
9 g oes up
10 brought up

5 speak up
6 grew up
7 hurry up

8 w arm up
9 h e a t . . . up
10 w ork up

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

turned up
brighten up
build up
b r in g . . . up

Exercise 4
1

A /C 2 H * 3 D " 4 G - 5 E /F * 6 B

C za so w n ik i zo o n e z u p (2)

Exercise 1
1 catch up (with)
2 com e up (to)
3 drive up

4 face up (to)
5 keep up (with)
6 lead up (to)

7 sh ow up
8 turn up

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

keep up
c a tc h . . . up
snuggled up
leads up

5 com ing up
6 drove up
7 face up

8 turns u p /s h o w s up
9 sh o w u p /tu r n up
10 w alk ed up

Exercise 3
1 led u p /le a d s up
2 cam e up
3 drove up

Exercise 4
1 E * 2 D - 3 C - 4 B * 5 E /F 6 A

4 sh ow n up
5 com ing up

6 sh ow n up
7 face up

Exercise 1
1 do up
2 brush up
3 zip up

4 cheer up
5 w a sh up

6 tie up
7 dress up

3 brush up
4 w a sh up

5 clean up
6 c h e e r . . . up

4 do up
5 zip p ed up

6 zipped u p /z ip p e d . . . up
7 tied up

Exercise 2
1 dress up
2 d o up

Exercise 3
1 do up
2 tie up
3 boarded up

Exercise 4
1 D 2 A 3 F 4 B 5 C 6 E

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z u p (4 )

Exercise 1
1 en d up
2 fill up
3 cover up

4 tear up
5 trip up
6 b lo w up

7 drink up
8 shut up

3 dries up
4 tore up

5 drank up
6 b u m up

3 filled . . . up
4 shut up

5 cover up
6 fill up

3 sm ash ed up
4 tripped up

5 s h o o k . . . up

Exercise 2
1 u sed up
2 eat up

Exercise 3
1 end up
2 w a s h . . . up

Exercise 4
1 m ess up
2 b low up

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z out (1 )

Exercise !
1 break out
2 m o v e out
3 invite out

4 let out
5 stay out

6 pull out
7 lock out

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

jum ped out


ran out
pulled out
fell out

5 broke out
6 take . . . out
7 p u t . . . out

8 l e t . . . out
9 sticking out
10 stood out

Exercise 3
1 invite . . . out
2 gone out
3 locked . . . out

4 stay out
5 m ove out

6 ask . . . out
7 c a ll. . . out

Exercise 4
1 D 2 E 3 B 4 A 5 C

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z out (2)

Exercise I
1
2
3
4

throw out
pull out
throw out
stub out

5
6
7
8

cut out
run out
keep out
keep out

9
10
11
12

rule out
put out
take out
take out

Exercise 2
1 threw . . . out
2 keep out
3 ruled out

4 keep . . . out
5 keep out
6 cut out

7 shut out
8 m issed out
9 take out

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

go out
stam p out
die out
p u t . . . out

5
6
7
8

stub . . . out
w ip e out
running out
run out

9 knocked out
10 squeezin g out
11 sold out

Exercise 4
1 C 2 A 3 D 4 E 5 B

C za so w n ik i zo o n e z o u t (3)

Exercise I
1 tr y o u t
2 work out
3 sort out

4 tire out
5 hand out
6 g ive out

7 pull out
8 fill out
9 clear out

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

fill out
write out
check out
t e s t . . . out

5 p r in t. . . out
6 try out
7 s o r t . . . out

8 spread . . . out
9 tired . . . out
10 clean out

Exercise 3
1 give o u t/h a n d out
2 hand o u t / give out

Exercise 4

3 send out
4 gives out

5 put out
6 go out

Exercise 1
1 pick out
2 look out
3 poin t out

4 find out
5 single out
6 m ake out

7 w atch out
8 listen out

4 w atch out
5 w atch out
6 w atch out

7 look out
8 listening out
9 point out

3 m ake out
4 w ork out

5 make out
6 w ork out

Exercise 2
1 picked out
2 singled out
3 poin t out

Exercise 3
1 find out
2 figure out

Exercise 4
1 B 2 E >3 D * 4 A 5 C

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z off ( 1)

Exercise i
1
2
3
4

set off
kick off
spark off
start off

kill off
lay off
pay off
bite off

5
6
7
8

send off
take off
strip off
com e off

9
10
11
12

5
6
7
8

backed off
starts off
started off
kicked off

9 kicked off
10 sparked off

5
6
7
8

b r u s h . . . off
cut off
came off
killed off

9 lay off
10 pay . . . off

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

set off
takes off
go off
s e n t . . . off

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

take off
bite off
broke off
strip off

Exercise 4
1C-2D-3E-4B-5A

10 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z off (2)
Exercise 1
1 sw itch off
2 break off
3 ring off

4 cut off
5 call off
6 keep off

7 fight off
8 w ear off
9 w ork off

1
2
3
4

sw itch o ff/tu r n off


broke off
break off
turn o ff/sw itc h off

5
6
7
8

ring off
cut off
called off
ease off

9
10
11
12

w ear off
w ork off
cool off
dropped off

Exercise 3
1 stave off
2 keep off

3 fight off
4 warn off

5 hold off

Exercise 4
1C-2E-3A-4D-5B

11 C za so w n ik i zo o n e z o f f ( 3 )
Exercise i
1 bring off
2 round off
3 dash off

4 go off
5 finish off

6 partition off
7 cut off

4 round off
5 finish off

6 b r o u g h t. . . c
7 com e off

3 block off
4 partitioned off

5 cut off

Exercise 2
1 polished off
2 w ent off
3 dashed off

Exercise 3
1 cordoned off
2 fence off

Exercise 4
1D-2C-3A-4E-5B

12 C za so w n ik i zo o n e z in (1)
Exercise i
1 check in
2 get in

3 key in
4 plug in

5 m ove in
6 w ait in

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

com e in
b r in g . . . in
t a k e . . . in
w ent in

5
6
7
8

check in
s i g n . . . in
key in
drive in

9
10
11
12

g e t . . . in
rush in
w alked in
p l u g . . . in

Exercise 3
1 stay in
2 w ait in
3 m ove in

Exercise 4
1 D 2 A 3 E 4 B 5 C

4 m ove in
5 drops in / pop s in

6 lives in
7 drop in /p o p in

Exercise I
4 fit in
5 join in
6 settle in

1 take in
2 breathe in
3 stir in

7 get sucked in
8 go in (for)

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

breathed in
com ing in
took in
sink in

drank in
add in
c o u n t. . . in
s t ir . . . in

9 throw in
10 built in
11 fit in

Exercise 3
4 settle in
5 d r a w . . . in
6 com e in

1 joined in
2 fell in
3 r o p e . . . in

7 cash in
8 sucked in

Exercise 4
1D -203A *4E"5B
14

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z in

(3 )

Exercise 1
3 colour i n .
4 bring in

1 sets in
2 ph ase in

5 fill in
6 g ive in

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8

cam e in
bring in
phase in
tuck in

set in
fill in
colour in
f i l l . . . in

9 bricked in
10 plastered in

Exercise 3
1 k ic k . . . in
2 caved in

3 fell in
4 g ive in

5 give in

Exercise 4
1C-2E-3A-4B-5D
15

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z

o n (1 )

Exercise I
1 put on
2 keep on

3 take on
4 sw itch o n /tu r n o n / pu t on

5 bring on
6 try on

3 keep . . . on
4 add on

5 take on
6 take on

Exercise 2
1 put on
2 try on

Exercise 3
1 com ing on
2 p u t . . . o n / turn . . . on

3 com e on
4 pu t o n /tu r n on

5 brought on
6 catch on

Exercise 4
1 C 2 E 3 D 4 A 5 B 6 F

16 C za so w n ik i zo o n e z on (2)
Exercise I
1 hold on
2 keep on
3 get on (with)

4 com e on
5 carry on

6 put on
7 be on

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

carried o n /k ep t on
get on
keep o n / carry on
stay on

5
6
7
8

hold o n /h a n g on
play on
w en t on
w ent on

9 hold o n /h a n g on
10 live on

Exercise 3
1 com e on
2 cheer on
3 put on

4 bring on
5 is on
6 com e on

7 goes on
8 g oin g on

Exercise 4
1B-2D-3E-4C-5A

17 C za so w n ik i zo o n e z d o w n (1)
Exercise I
1 put dow n
2 go dow n
3 lie dow n

4 bring dow n
5 com e dow n
6 cut dow n

7 turn d ow n
8 calm dow n
9 die dow n

4 goes dow n
5 jum ped dow n
6 fall dow n

7 gu lp ed dow n
8 keep . . . dow n
9 w o lf dow n

Exercise 2
1 lie dow n
2 com e dow n
3 p u t . . . dow n

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

com e dow n
turn . . . dow n
calm ed dow n
c a l m . . . dow n

Exercise 4
1 C 2 D 3 B > 4 E 5 A

5
6
7
8

com e dow n
die dow n
brings dow n
com es dow n

9 cut dow n
10 cut dow n
11 settled dow n

18 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z d o w n (2)
Exercise I
1 break d ow n
2 back d ow n
3 cut d ow n

4 p u ll d o w n
5 close d o w n
6 take d o w n

7 turn dow n
8 step d ow n

4 shoot d o w n
5 crack d o w n
6 turn d o w n

7 step d ow n
8 back dow n

Exercise 2
1 knocked d ow n
2 cut d ow n
3 break . . . d o w n

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

broke d o w n
closed d ow n
is d ow n
turned d ow n

5
6
7
8

turned . . . d o w n
l e t . . . dow n
w rote d o w n
go d o w n

9 p u t . . . d o w n / p u t . . . dow n
10 take dow n

Exercise 4
1C-2E-3A-4B-5D

19 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z a b o u t , a r o u n d o r a z r o u n d
Exercise i
1 hang around
2 follow around
3 shop around

4 pass around
5 look round

6 com e round
7 get around

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

sit around
standing around
stand around
stick around

5
6
7
8

m essin g around
running around
follow . . . around
get around

9
10
11
12

leaves . . . around
shop around
passed . . . round
got around

Exercise 3
1 turn round
2 look round
3 turn . . . round

4 spin round
5 w o n . . . round
6 goin g round

7 com e round
8 call round
9 bring . . . round

Exercise 4
1C-2A-3B-4E-5D

20 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z a w a y (1)
Exercise 1
1 run aw ay
2 turn aw ay
3 keep aw ay

4 throw aw ay
5 to w aw ay

6 back away
7 get away

1
2
3
4

tu m aw ay
turn . . . aw ay
flew aw ay
ran aw ay

5
6
7
8

run aw ay
back aw ay
scare . . . aw ay
go a w a y /sta y aw ay

9 keep aw ay
10 get aw ay

Exercise 3
1 to w . . . aw ay
2 threw aw ay
3 throw . . . aw ay

4 take . . . aw ay
5 gam bled . . . aw ay
6 ebb aw ay

7 dragged . . . aw ay
8 give aw ay
9 w ash ed aw ay

Exercise 4
1 C 2 E 3 A 4 B * 5 D

2 1 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z a w a y (2)
Exercise I
1 pu t aw ay
2 put aw ay

3 be aw ay
4 carry aw ay

5 shut aw ay

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

p u t . . . aw ay
tidy . . . aw ay
locked . . . aw ay
p u t . . . aw ay

5
6
7
8

s h u t . . . aw ay
goin g aw ay
get aw ay
is aw ay

9 be aw ay
10 cleared aw ay

Exercise 3
1 flashing aw ay
2 polishing aw ay

3 w orking aw ay
4 talking aw ay

5 get carried aw ay

Exercise 4
1 B 2 A 3 E 4 C 5 D

22

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z o v e r ( I )

Exercise 1
1 knock over
2 run over

3 hand over
4 take over

5 w in over

4 b low n over
5 knocked over
6 run over

7 blow s . . . over
8 falling over
9 run over

Exercise 2
1 knocked over
2 run over
3 fell over

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4

took over
took over
H and over
handed . . . over

5
6
7
8

w in over
w in over
handing . . . over
changed over

9 w o n . . . over
10 took over

Exercise 4
1 B 2 E 3 D 4 C 5 A

23

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z o v e r (2)

Exercise I
1 look over
2 think over
3 talk over

4 invite over
5 paint over
6 be over

7 cloud over
8 get it over w ith

4 cloud over
5 covered . . . over

6 freezes over
7 painted . . . over

4 com e over
5 invited . . . over

6 cam e over
7 w as over

Exercise 2
1 look . . . over
2 think . . . over
3 t al k. . . over

Exercise 3
1 b low over
2 tide . . . over
3 get it over w ith

Exercise 4
1B-2E-3D-4A-5C

24

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z b a c k

Exercise I
1 take back
2 bring back

5 fly back
6 pay back

3 put back
4 look back

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

stand back
stand back
tie . . . back
pu sh ed . . . back

5
6
7
8

dropping back
w en t back
go es back
takes . . . back

9 think back
10 look back

brings back
p u t . . . back
com ing back
g o in g back
g ive . . . back

11
12
13
14

Exercise 3
1
2
3
4
5

sen d . . . back
com e back
fly back
be back
bring . . . back

6
7
8
9
10

ring . . . back
sm ile back
w rite back
paid . . . back

Exercise 4
1D-2A-3E-4B-5C

25 C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z a p a r t o ra z t h r o u g h
Exercise 1
1 take apart
2 fall apart
3 grow apart

4 tell apart
5 carry through

6 get through
7 fall through

1
2
3
4

took . . . apart
fell apart/cam e apart
cam e apart/fell apart
tore . . . apart

5
6
7
8

fall apart
p u l l . . . apart
s e t . . . apart
grow apart

9 sets . . . apart
10 t e l l . . . apart

Exercise 3
1 carry . . . through
2 go through
3 fell through

4 talk through
5 think . . . through

6 p u t ... . through
7 get through

Exercise 4
1 C 2 A 3 E 4 B 5 D

P o w t rze n ie
C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z c o m e . . .
Exercise 1
1
2
3
4

about
d ow n
on
back

5
6
7
8

o n /o n
back
off
off

9 apart
10 over

5
6
7
8

dow n
dow n
on
in

9 up
10 d o w n

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

out
up
up
in

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z g o . . .
Exercise 1
1 back
2 back
3 off

4 dow n
5 out
6 dow n

7 on
8 through

Exercise 2
1
2
3
4

on
aw ay
out
out

5
6
7
8

in
up
up
on

9 back
10 d o w n

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z b r in g . . .
Exercise 1
1 d ow n
2 back
3 in

4 round
5 up
6 about

7 up
8 dow n
9 d ow n

1 on
2 on
3 in

4 off
5 in

6 up
7 back

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z t a k e . . .
Exercise i
1
2
3
4

back
over
on
over

5
6
7
8

out
off
off
in

9 d ow n
10 out

Exercise 2
1 on
2 on
3 over

4 in
5 out
6 aw ay

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z g e t . .

7 back
8 out
9 apart

Exercise i
1 in
2 around
3 back

4 through
5 on

6 on
7 aw ay

4 in
5 in
6 aw ay

7 up
8 aw ay

Exercise 2
1 on
2 on
3 over

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z p u t .

. .

Exercise i
1 through
2 aw ay
3 aw ay

4 on
5 d o w n / dow n
6 up

7 on
8 aw ay

4 out
5 on

6 out
7 dow n

Exercise 2
1 back
2 up
3 dow n

C z a so w n ik i zo o n e z turn

. . .

Exercise i
1
2
3
4

up
on
d ow n
round

5
6
7
8

aw ay
up
off
aw ay

9 over
10 up

C za so w n ik i zo o n e z k e e p . . .
1 on
2 out
3 aw ay

4 off
5 out
6 on

7 off
8 up