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1. a) Explain fully original sin. Give its scriptural foundation by citing three
passages in the Old Testament and explaining them.
b) Explain fully personal sin. What are the three factors which determine
the gravity of a sin. Give examples.
Personal sins are acts committed when we reject God, our own true selves, and
others. Factors which determine the gravity of a sin are: the nature of the act,
whether it is intrinsically evil, the intention of the doer, and the circumstances
relevant to the sin committed.
2. Explain fully the three senses of conscience. Give one concrete example to
show how it works.
a. the basic sense of responsibility that characterizes the human person,
the drive to do the good;
b. the exercise of moral reasoning as a person searches for objective moral
values, formation of conscience, magisterium of the Church;
c. the judgment by which we evaluate a particular action, determined by
the second sense of conscience.
i. There are three senses. The first sense = everyone has that!
Everyone wants to do the good, it is basic for humans, part of
human nature
ii. Formation. Magisterium of the Church helps us determine
proper things to do, so we know what is the good. Many times
people do not know what the good. Invincibly ignorant? -> no
blame. Ignorant? -> can be blamed.
1. What do we call this? Formation of conscience
2. Many Catholics are ignorant on biostuff.
a. Ex. test tube babies unethical, because they
use them for other purposes, AIH, AID: AID is
unethical, AIH: mixed
b. Homosexuality immoral only in sexual
i. They can even live together!
ii. Cant get married
iii. Are they denied sexual activity? Difficult
iii. Judgment in evaluating particular action
1. We need to have a judgment

3. a. Discuss Pope John Pauls definition of social sin which he calls

structures of sin.
a. In his encyclical, Sollicitudo Re Socialis, On Social Concerns, (nos. 3537) issued in 1987, John Paul II declared that these structures of sin
can be traced back to the personal sin of individuals, the result of the
interrelated actions of many people, not just one person, and their roots
are the all consuming desire for profit and the thirst for power,
b. Discuss Hormis Mynattys concept of social sin, and relate it to
Philippine society. Give specific and concrete examples.
a. Hormis Mynatty presents many helpful insights on social sin. He defines
social sin as the conscious and willful participation of a group or society in
cooperating with sinful social structures, maintaining and perpetuating
them, and failing to do anything to change them when possible. From the
perspective of a fundamental option based on the Kingdom of God, it is
the refusal of the community to cooperate in the History of Salvation.
There is a need to move beyond an individual, personal, or private
understanding of sin. The social, economic, political, cultural, and
religious structures are the concrete realities where sin and grace are made
manifest. Insofar as they foster love, justice, and liberation, they reveal the
presence of grace and the presence of the Kingdom of God. Structures
cannot be thought of apart from human responsibility. An institution or
social structure never exists in and of itself, independent of the individuals
composing it. Both individuals and groups contribute to the maintenance
and perpetuation of sinful structures as they take advantage of them or
neglect to change them when possible. People are not only the victims but
also the agents of sinful social structures. While participation in them need
not be sinful in every instance and in the case of every person, we must be
careful we do not benefit nor promote these sinful structures. We may
seem powerless to be able to do anything about the situation. Yet we
cannot remain apathetic. He believes the key lies in responsible communal
activity for social transformation.
i. Homis mynattys definition is true in Philippines, everyone turns a
blind eye on corruption
1. License renewal story of sir: Php 1600 for easy license
2. Religious sister who had millions of Php. Goes to dept of
natural resources to get necessary licenses, 10 days, nothing
happens You have to pay 10% for them to work on it.
Christmas gifts before permits were secured

4. Explain fully the Freedom of Excellence. Show how it is essential to

counteract the effects of original sin and to live a fully moral life. Why is conaturality with the good such an important quality to have?

4. Explain fully the Culture of Life and the Culture of Death which John
II proposed in Evangelium Vitae, The Gospel of Life. Give concrete
examples of each from Philippine society.
Pope John Paul II presents penetrating insights about this reality of social sin
his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, The Gospel of Life. (To get to) the deepest
roots of the struggle between the culture of life and the culture of death
we have to go to the heart of tragedy being experienced by modern man:
the eclipse of the sense of God and of man, typical of a social and cultural
climate dominated by secularism . When the sense of God is lost, there is
also a tendency to love the sense of man, or his dignity and his life (#21). This
culture of life must be developed with skill and serious commitment through
education for social transformation. The soul of a society is presented in its
cultural values. It reveals its fundamental option its response to the innate
human desire for God and to Gods offer of love in Christ. This is present as
the social ethos or value system that pervades the whole social life,
supporting, legitimizing and sustaining the social structures and institutions.
a. Difference between Culture of Life and Culture of Death
i. Culture of Life
1. Opposite of CoD
ii. Culture of Death
1. Ex: Abortion in Phils: 600,000 per year
2. Sirs example of being happy with premarital sex, kids
3. Materialism, secularism, ______ <consumerism> are
the causes.
5. The Sacred Scriptures offer guidance so that we may enter into full
communion with God and with each other and witness to Gods saving
acts: A People of the Covenant; The Reign of God and Justice; Called to be
Disciples in Community; Poverty, Riches, and the Challenge of Discipleship;
and A Community of Hope.
Cite and explain two specific biblical passages for each of the five Biblical
Perspectives .Give the book of the bible, chapter, verses, and explanation of the
passage and how it promotes justice.

6. Define and explain each of the Five Principles of the Filipino National
Tradition, strengths and weaknesses of each. Why are they not being fully
actualized in the Philippines today.
Pagsasarili - to make up his mind, etc. to own ourself. We put high priority on
this because we were deprived of it for too long, (colonialism). Pagsasarili to
ourself, being ones own man. Rejects abolition of private property, and capitalism.
These deprive people of human dignity. Personalist principle in our national
tradition. Develop ourslves as a responsible human being.
Fr: I noticed that many filipinos dont stand on their own, they stand with their
barkada. I find that a WEAKNESS. You have to belong to a group cant stand on

your own Pagsasarili is very important, move it too far, you become selfish and
individualistic, and you dont care for others. The real problem seems to be in
ACTUALIZING IT. I dont think Ateneans have the problem though.
Pakikisama represents value and goal, maintains getting along with others.
Yielding to popular opinion, sugar coating. We respect athority. We prefer a
between. To avoid the disappointment, we would make an ambigous statement,
smile, etc. We may find it hard to reject and disagree especially to someone with
authority. Equitable shaing of goods and service of those who helped. Ideal of the
give and take. We owe our well being to society, we have added our own nuance.
Makisama vs Makialam helping vs meddling. In being an archipelago, we can
only hope that pakikisama may help us
Fr: linked with pagsasarili. If you cant stand on your own, you wont be your own
person, youll be tossed around. In the context of Phil society, emphasis on smooth
interpersonal reletionship, pakikisama helps have a good life together. It would
help if pagsasarili is strong. Join together, but have their own mind.
Pagkakaisa National unity, being one for all. Freedom is central to this value,
because pagkakaisa cannot be imposed to the people. It is this freedom which
allows us to choose which is good for decision. Freedom must always be in
harmony with reason.
Fr: Pagkakaisa is very important, but very difficult to do because of regionalism
and factionalism, separation because of the island, languages. This is seen in
elections: people will vote for the candidate of their region. Wheres the national
identity? Its strongest when the Philippines is threatened by, ex: when Singapore
was going to execute a Filipino worker, it was strong against Singapore. However,
it should be strong even without an outside enemy. It is a difficult process. Also,
Cebuanos and Tagalog: conflicts in language.
Pakikipagkapwa-tao Not mainly maintaining smooth relations. Kapwa. Treat
others as an equal human beings. All men are equal regardless of skin.
Pakikipagkapwa tao will lead to development of mankind. We give others what is
due and just, respecting dignity of human beings. We become more truly hyman
Fr: We see in Phils: emphasis is on family relationships, but they dont usually go
beyond that, if they do, its usually only to their barkada and region. It becomes
actualized in disaster: Yolanda, Ondoy, etc. Filipinos share with the victims. But
when things are normal, there is lack of concern for each other. This is what has to
developed further.
Pagkakabayani Pakikipagkapwa tao complements. Pagkabayani is perhaps
patriotism. Being heroic broad phrase. So what does being a hero mean? Who
are the people who come to mind? Del Pilar who fought in Tirad Pass, Rizal who

fought with intellect despite risk. Everything they have in common is love for their
country and willingness to fight for it despite risks. Patriotism: love for country.
Learning from the criticisms of others and not blindly defending. Idea of
pagkabayani may be outdated? But in internationalism, finding love for country is
even more important. Our nationali identity is still unrealized. Patriotism isnt
necessarily dying for our country, but for us, it can be staying with our country
instead of going abroad.
Fr:: Example: Ondoy: soldier kept leaping in the water to save drowning people,
and did not come out by the 20th. Meant to strengthen the country. Look in the
context of popes visit: It was better due to the rainstorm! Those seated in Luneta
werent poor, they were AB, but they sat there and waited. The faith of the Fil
people came out so strongly. So many people made so many sacrifices just to see
the pope: put up with cold, etc.. It was a good presentation to the world about our
7. Catholic social teaching rests on ten basic principles: Human Dignity,
Respect for Human Life, Association, Participation, Preferential Protection for
the Poor and Vulnerable, Solidarity, Stewardship, Subsidiarity, Human Equality,
and the Common Good.
Intro (just for notes): 10 building breaks down key principles of social

Define and explain the Ten Building Blocks of Catholic Social Teaching. Give an
example of each from the Philippine context.
Principle of Human dignity - Genesis 1:26-27: We are created in the image of image and likeness
of Christ. This is where we get it.
Respect for human life Abortion: Fil context. Important, we must respect life from the moment of
conception, to the moment of natural death. Extremes: Life has just begun and life is ending. This is
where we have problems of abortion and euthanasia. In Philippines, euthanasia is not a problem:
strong family ties, etc. However, abortion is a problem, because 400k-600k abortions/yr. Shocking
because we are a Catholic country. Maybe due to the prevalence of premarital sex. There is also a
lot of married women who do not want to have children and cant take it anymore. You dont have
to breed like rabbits: responsible parenting. Also, 6 diff methods of natural family planning. You
dont have to use contraception. Contraception objectifies the woman! There are about 10% who try
to follow the Church. No need for VITALISM keeping person alive no mater what
Principle of Association Pope Francis really promoted the family, was strongly against gay
marriage and other things against the family. Family is threatened today. Church will try to address
that. How to help family lives develop
Principle of Participation Is so essential for well being. We wanna have a say about things that
matter, if we dont we get marginalization. MARGINALIZATION IS THE OPPOSITE. Poor
sometimes have no say. When there are marginalized, they are dehumanized. We want to participate
and have a meaningful
Preferential Protection for the Poor and Vulnerable We already discussed this, an INCLUSIVE
approache through preferential option, there will be a focus on the poor.
The Principle of Solidarity Pakiipagkapwa tao solidarity. It is amazing in disaster.

The principle of stewardship About the environment, ecological awareness. When Pope Francis
came, he was supposed to give a presentation on climate change, but he was awed by the extent of
suffering, so he could only remain silent
The principle of subsidiarity In martial law, Marcos had power over everything. Since then, there
was a move to give power to local government. Power should be exercised by those concerned,
distribute it to the lower levels.
Human Equality Were all equal. In US. There is a big problem with racism with blacks. Due to
historical situation of slavery. Even after abolition, there are still strong differences in both South
and North. In European countries however, blacks and whites live more in harmony. Some of us
may be more talented, but we are still all equal
The principle of the common good Linked also with principle of social justice. Common good
allows us to realize full human potential and dignity.
Matching exercise:

8. Integrate the Five Principles of the Filipino National Tradition with the
Ten Building Bocks of Catholic Social Teaching. Where do they fit
together? Use concrete examples.
(Note: Explain the 5 principles asked in the test and connect)
Pagsasarili: Principle of Human Dignity, Human Equality, Respect for Human Life
Pakikisama: Principle ofAssociation, Principle of Participation
Pagkakaisa: Principle of Subsidiarity, Principle of the Common Good
Pakikipagkapwa-tao: Solidarity, Preferential Protection for the Poor and Vulnerable
Pagkabayani: Principle of the Common Good, The Principle of Stewardship

9. Explain fully the Three Kinds of Justice. Give concrete examples of each
from the Philippine society. (Note: Draw diagrams)
Commutative justice Focus on employer employee relationship. Active principle
in workplace. Fundamental fairness. Labor situation in the Philippines doesnt
have this because so many people have no work. You can get them cheaply since
they need work! Capitalists take advantage of it. Church Teaching: a worker must
receive a living wage, enough to support self and family, with decent comfort.
Even with minimum wage it is difficult. On the other hand, some leftist unions
demand so much from factory owners that eventually they say I cannot pay what
you want, and I have to close down. No more work. Labor code: decent working
conditions, benefits, right to a vacation, right to form a union. Owner should get a
decent days work. Collective bargaining agreement in the Ateneo. Effects of
tension of workers and management: Darwin Yus example: problem was the
collective bargaining agreement. Thats what made him had the heart attack. There
is a lot of tension in collective bargaining

Distributive Justice Horrible in the Philippines. Distributive Justice is not about

everyone being equal. But what it means is the allocation of income and power to
meet the basic needs of the society. Society has the obligation to take care of its
people. The obligation is to make sure basic material needs are met. What are
these? Place to live, food, health, education. Many of the poor do not have these.
So dist. Justice comes from the govt to the people. Govt has the resources of the
nation and it tries to meet the basic material needs of the people. Why cant the
government do this? Due to poor taxation system. (vs. US which has efficient tax
system, and catches people who evade tax). But in here, BIR is corrupt, and it is
also seen in whole system. Government is deprived of the taxes it should be
getting, so it cannot serve the people. Otherp roblem is corruption. All that money
is pocketed when it could be given to the poor.
Social Justice Social Justice is magnificient in the Philippines. NGOs and other
groups are promoting the common good. Why? Government allows people to be
involved, unlike in Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam. Government here handles
everything, and doesnt allow citizens to get involved. It is vice versa here:
Definition: Obliges us to be active and productive participants in the life tof
community and society, to work for the common good. In order for this to take
place, society has to allow this.
10. Explain fully the two basic types of human rights. Give concrete examples
of their presence in Philippine society.
Human Rights:
Civil and Political
o Freedom to speech, worship, assembly
o Strong in phiippines, related to social justice
o Related to dist justice
o Right to food, clothing, shelter, rest, medical care, basic education
January 15, 2015

Fr. Pasquale T. Giordano, S.J.