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Civil War Parts 1 & 2 Study Guide and Answers

1. Describe the geography and the climate of the northern states.

4 distinct seasons; long, cold winters; hot, humid summers.

Hundreds of bays along the coast to be used as harbors.
2. What is deforestation and why did it occur?

Deforestation: The clearing away of trees. Occurred because

Northerners needed the wood for ship building.
3. Where was there agriculture in the North?
There was some agriculture in the North in the Central Plains.
4. Describe the geography and the climate of the southern states.

Mild winters; long, hot, humid summers.

Fertile lowlands, many marshes and swamps.
5. What was the wide, fertile coastal plains ideal for?

Growing cash crops

6. What were the five major cash crops grown in the South?
Rice, indigo, tobacco, sugar, cotton
7. What was the Souths economy based on and why?
Agriculture, because the geography was perfectly suited for it.
8. What is the definition of agrarian?
Agrarian: A person who favors an agricultural way of life and
government policies that support agricultural interests.
9. Why was slavery beginning to die out in the late 1700s?
Because prices of cash crops had declined significantly.
Why was cotton so difficult to produce?
Because it took a long time to pick the seeds out.
What was the significance of the cotton gin?
It made cotton the Souths most important crop.
What was the name of the man who invented it?
Eli Whitney
What happened to the demand for slaves after the invention of
the cotton gin?
It rose significantly, up 600%
Why were there so few factories and mills in the South?
Because the southerners put all of their money into land and slaves.
What is the definition of the term Industrial Revolution?
The shift from handmade goods to machinemade goods.
Which invention brought the Industrial Revolution to northern
agriculture and what was the name of the man who invented it?
The reaper, invented by Cyrus McCormick.
What were three major results of the Industrial Revolution?
New jobs
Increased production
Increased efficiency
What were most factories in New England located next to?

In the North, which was the fastest, cheapest way to move
goods and people?
Railroads, trains
In the South, what was the main way that people and goods
What were the major inventions or feats of engineering in the
following years: 1807, 1817?
1807, Robert Fultons steamboat
1817, the Erie Canal
What type of system developed in the South as a result of
their slave-based agricultural system?
A rigid social class system
What were the 3 classes of people in the South and in which
order of the social hierarchy do they belong (who was the most
powerful, less powerful, least powerful)?
Rich plantation owners
White farmers
Who were the political leaders in the South?
Rich plantation owners
Why did the North attract more immigrants than the south?
North offered more jobs in mills and factories.
Why were there so many German and Irish immigrants?
Irish immigrants because of the Potato Famine in Ireland; German
immigrants because of a failed revolution in Europe.
Bonus**When immigrants from all over the world come to a large city, the result
is ethnic neighborhoods.
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 do?
Banned slavery in the Northwest Territory; no slavery north of the Ohio
What was the problem with admitting Missouri to the Union?
It wanted to be admitted as a slave state but most of was north of
where the Ohio River would have been if it went that far west.
What question was raised in regards to the problem with
Should slavery be allowed in the Louisiana Territory?
Who controlled more votes in the House of Representatives,
the North or the South?
The North had more in the House.
31.Who had more votes in the Senate?
They had an equal amount of votes in the Senate.
32.What were the main points of the Missouri Compromise ?
Missouri would be admitted as a slave state.
Maine would be admitted as a free state.
The 3630 divided free from slave territory.


What was its major accomplishment?

It quieted the slavery debate for a while.
34.What was the gag rule?
A rule enacted by Congress to ignore the petitions of the abolitionists
to ban slavery in Washington D.C.
What did Southerners compare to helping a slave escape?
Like robbing a bank.
What was the Underground Railroad and who was its most
prominent leader?
Safe routes that escaped slaves would follow to make it to the North,
Canada, Mexico, or Florida.
Harriet Tubman
What were the four main points involved in the Compromise of
CA was admitted as a free state.
Slave trade was banned in Washington, D.C.
New Mexico and Utah Territory was open to slavery.
Strong fugitive slave law
Why was slavery an issue in deciding whether or not to admit
California to the Union?
Didnt want to upset the balance of Free states and slave states.
Which part of the Compromise of 1850 created the biggest
The Fugitive slave law
Who wrote Uncle Toms Cabin? What was it about? What was
the purpose of the book?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
A cruel slaveholder named Legree and his slave named Uncle Tom.
To turn people away from slavery
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
It allowed the Kansas-Nebraska Territories to decide for themselves
(popular sovereignty) if they wanted slavery, despite the fact that it
was north of the 3630.
What led newspapers to speak of Bleeding Kansas in 1856?
Because of the bloodshed that took place there as a result of conflict
between anti-slavery and pro-slavery forces.
Who was Dred Scott and what were the two major outcomes of
the Dred Scott decision?
He was a slave that was taken from Missouri to Wisconsin, and then
returned to MO 2 years later. He then sued for his freedom b/c of the
time he lived in free territory.
Blacks are not citizens and therefore cannot sue in federal court.
Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and slavery would be
allowed in all of the territories.
What did John Brown hope to accomplish in his raid at Harpers
Ferry? How was he viewed by abolitionists?

He hoped to seize weapons and munitions in order to arm slaves in the

South in hopes that they would revolt and win their freedom.
He was viewed as a hero by the abolitionists.
In the Election of 1860, which party nominated Abraham
Lincoln? What became clear by the election of 1860 (the election of
1860 showed how)?
How divided the nation was over the slavery issue.
How did Lincoln feel about slavery?
He was against slavery. He was willing to let the southern states keep
their slaves, but he was totally opposed to letting slavery expand into
the territories.
What turned the secession crisis into a civil war?
When South Carolina began shelling Ft. Sumter.