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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons

= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons

Mass Number

Atomic Number

A

ZX

Element Symbol

proton

1p

1H

or

1

1

neutron

1n

0

electron

0b

0e

or

-1

-1

positron

0b

0e

or

+1

+1

a particle

4He

4a

or

2

2

-1

+1

23.1

www.epa.gov

1. Conserve mass number (A).

The sum of protons plus neutrons in the products must equal

the sum of protons plus neutrons in the reactants.

235

92 U

+ 10n

138

55 Cs

96

37 Rb

+ 2 10n

The sum of nuclear charges in the products must equal the

sum of nuclear charges in the reactants.

235

92 U

+ 10n

138

55 Cs

96

37 Rb

92 + 0 = 55 + 37 + 2x0

+ 2 10n

23.1

212Po

nuclear equation for the decay of 212Po.

4

alpha particle - 42He or 2a

212Po

84

4He

2

+ AZX

212 = 4 + A

A = 208

84 = 2 + Z

Z = 82

212Po

84

4He

2

+ 208

82Pb

23.1

23.1

Beta decay

+-10b + n

14C

6

14N

7

40K

19

40Ca

20

Decrease # of neutrons by 1

+ -10b + n

1n

0

Increase # of protons by 1

1p

1

+ -10b + n

Positron decay

++10b + n

Increase # of neutrons by 1

++10b + n

Decrease # of protons by 1

11C

6

11B

5

38

19K

38Ar

18

1p

1

1n

0

++10b + n

23.2

Electron capture decay

+n

37Ar

18

+ -10e

37Cl

17

55Fe

26

+ -10e

55Mn

25

1p

1

Increase # of neutrons by 1

+n

Decrease # of protons by 1

+ -10e

1n

0

+n

Alpha decay

212Po

84

4He

2

+ 208

82Pb

Decrease # of neutrons by 2

Decrease # of protons by 2

Spontaneous fission

252Cf

98

1n

2125

In

+

2

49

0

23.2

beta decay

X

Y

n/p too small

positron decay or electron capture

23.2

Nuclear Stability

(e- = 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 86)

are more stable than those with odd numbers of neutron

and protons

than 83 are radioactive

23.2

up a nucleus into its component protons and neutrons.

BE + 199F

911p + 1010n

E = mc2

BE = 9 x (p mass) + 10 x (n mass) 19F mass

BE (amu) = 9 x 1.007825 + 10 x 1.008665 18.9984

BE = 0.1587 amu

BE = 2.37 x 10-11J

binding energy

binding energy per nucleon =

number of nucleons

2.37 x 10-11 J

= 1.25 x 10-12 J

=

19 nucleons

23.2

nucleon

nuclear stability

23.2

N

daughter

DN

rate = Dt

rate = lN

DN

= lN

Dt

N = N0exp(-lt)

lnN = lnN0 - lt

N0 = the number of atoms at time t = 0

l is the decay constant

ln2

l =

t

23.3

ln[N] = ln[N]0 - lt

ln [N]

[N]

[N] = [N]0exp(-lt)

23.3

Radiocarbon Dating

14N

7

+ 01n

14C

6

14C

6

14N

7

+ 11H

+ -10b + n

t = 5730 years

Uranium-238 Dating

238U

92

206Pb

82

+ 8 24a + 6-10b

23.3

Nuclear Transmutation

14N

7

27Al

13

14N

7

+ 24a

+ 24a

+ 11p

17O

8

+ 11p

30P

15

+ 01n

11C

6

+ 42a

23.4

Nuclear Transmutation

23.4

Nuclear Fission

235U

92

+ 01n

90Sr

38

1n + Energy

+ 143

Xe

+

3

0

54

= 2.0 x 1013 J per mole 235U

Combustion of 1 ton of coal = 5 x 107 J

23.5

Nuclear Fission

Representative fission reaction

235U

92

+ 01n

90Sr

38

1n + Energy

+ 143

Xe

+

3

0

54

23.5

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear chain reaction is a self-sustaining sequence of

nuclear fission reactions.

The minimum mass of fissionable material required to

generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction is the

critical mass.

Non-critical

Critical

23.5

23.5

Nuclear Fission

Annual Waste Production

4.5 x 106 tons CO2

3.5 x 106

ft3 ash

1,000 MW coal-fired

power plant

70 ft3

vitrified

waste

1,000 MW nuclear

power plant

23.5

Nuclear Fission

Hazards of the

radioactivities in spent

fuel compared to

uranium ore

23.5

Natural Uranium

0.7202 % U-235 99.2798% U-238

Measured at Oklo

0.7171 % U-235

Nuclear Fusion

Fusion Reaction

2

2

3

1

1 H + 1H

1 H + 1H

2H

1

+ 13H

6Li

3

+ 12H

4He

2

+ 10n

4He

2

Energy Released

6.3 x 10-13 J

2.8 x 10-12 J

3.6 x 10-12 J

Tokamak magnetic

plasma

confinement

23.6

Radioisotopes in Medicine

medicine procedure

24Na,

131I,

123I,

18F,

99mTc,

Brain images

with 123I-labeled

compound

23.7

Radioisotopes in Medicine

Research production of 99Mo

98Mo

42

+ 10n

99Mo

42

235U

92

99Mo

42

99mTc

43

+ 10n

99Mo

42

99mTc

43

99Tc

43

+ -10b + n

+ g-ray

99mTc

t = 66 hours

t = 6 hours

23.7

Geiger-Mller Counter

23.7

Radiation absorbed dose (rad)

1 rad = 1 x 10-5 J/g of material

Roentgen equivalent for man (rem)

1 rem = 1 rad x Q

Quality Factor

g-ray = 1

b=1

a = 20

23.8

Dosage

Effect

Up to 100 kilorad

Inactivates trichinae in pork. Kills or prevents insects

from reproducing in grains, fruits, and vegetables.

salmonella. Extends shelf life of some fruit.

microorganisms in spices and seasoning.

Half-lifes

The rate at which a particular radioisotope decays is

described by its half-life.

one half of a sample of a radioactive element to

decay into another element.

The half-life of a radioisotope is dependent only on

what the radioisotope is.

Table N provides us

with a list of various

nuclides, their decay

modes, and their halflifes.

Using Table N, what is

the decay mode and

half-life for Radium226?

Using Table N

Table N indicates that Radium-226 undergoes alpha

decay.

represent this reaction:

decays an atom of Radon is produced.

Using Half-life

Table N also tells us that Radium-226 has a half-life of

1600 years.

Starting with a 100g

sample, after 1 halflife (or 1600 years),

50g remain.

years, half of the

50g will remain

(25g).

Carbon-14 Dating

The age of objects that were once alive can be

determined by using the C-14 dating test. In this test,

scientists determine how much C-14 is left in a sample

and from this determine the age of the object.

b decay:

from?

C-14 is created in the

atmosphere by

cosmic rays.

It becomes part of living

things through

photosynthesis and the

food chain.

When the plant or

animal dies, the C-14

begins to decay.

By comparing the amount of C-14 left in a sample to the amount that

was present when it was alive, and using the half-life of 5700 years

(Table N), one can determine the age of a sample.

Uranium-238 Series

The Uranium-238 Decay Series is used to determine the age of

rocks.

In this series, the

ratio of the U238 to the Pb206 is used to

determine the

age of the rock.

Parent-daughter Relationship

NASA astronauts have retrieved

842 pounds (382 kg) of moon rocks

(in many missions), which have

been closely studied. The

composition of the moon rocks is

very similar to that of Earth rocks.

Using radioisotope dating, it has

been found that moon rocks are

about 4.3 billion years old.

A 10 gram of sample of Iodine-131undergoes b decay, what

will be the mass of iodine remaining after 24 days?

approximately 8 days.

That means that 24 days is equivalent to 3 half-lifes.

The decay of 10 grams of I-131 would produce:

days.

A sample of a piece of wood is analyzed by C-14 dating. The

percent of C-14 is found to be 25% of what the original C-14

concentration was. What is the age of the sample?

First, lets analyze how many half-lives have taken place.

the original C-14 concentration to 25% of that concentration.

Based on Table N, the half-life of C-14 is 5730 years,

so

Your turn!

On a sheet of paper, answer the following questions

from your textbook. Indicate how you arrived at your

answer and turn in your work for a homework/quiz

grade.

Page 670

Page 671

Questions 50, 58, 59

The End

This is the end of the first slide show on

nuclear reactions. You may continue

learning about nuclear reactions by viewing

the second show:

Nuclear Chemistry:

Fission and Fusion

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