You are on page 1of 51

Nuclear Chemistry

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus


Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
Mass Number
Atomic Number

A
ZX

Element Symbol

proton
1p
1H
or
1
1

neutron
1n
0

electron
0b
0e
or
-1
-1

positron
0b
0e
or
+1
+1

a particle
4He
4a
or
2
2

-1

+1

23.1

Diagram showing penetrating ability

www.epa.gov

Balancing Nuclear Equations


1. Conserve mass number (A).
The sum of protons plus neutrons in the products must equal
the sum of protons plus neutrons in the reactants.
235
92 U

+ 10n

138
55 Cs

96
37 Rb

+ 2 10n

235 + 1 = 138 + 96 + 2x1

2. Conserve atomic number (Z) or nuclear charge.


The sum of nuclear charges in the products must equal the
sum of nuclear charges in the reactants.
235
92 U

+ 10n

138
55 Cs

96
37 Rb

92 + 0 = 55 + 37 + 2x0

+ 2 10n
23.1

212Po

decays by alpha emission. Write the balanced


nuclear equation for the decay of 212Po.
4
alpha particle - 42He or 2a
212Po
84

4He
2

+ AZX

212 = 4 + A

A = 208

84 = 2 + Z

Z = 82

212Po
84

4He
2

+ 208
82Pb

23.1

23.1

Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay


Beta decay
+-10b + n

14C
6

14N
7

40K
19

40Ca
20

Decrease # of neutrons by 1

+ -10b + n
1n
0

Increase # of protons by 1
1p
1

+ -10b + n

Positron decay

++10b + n

Increase # of neutrons by 1

++10b + n

Decrease # of protons by 1

11C
6

11B
5

38
19K

38Ar
18

1p
1

1n
0

++10b + n

n and n have A = 0 and Z = 0

23.2

Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay


Electron capture decay
+n

37Ar
18

+ -10e

37Cl
17

55Fe
26

+ -10e

55Mn
25
1p
1

Increase # of neutrons by 1

+n

Decrease # of protons by 1

+ -10e

1n
0

+n

Alpha decay
212Po
84

4He
2

+ 208
82Pb

Decrease # of neutrons by 2
Decrease # of protons by 2

Spontaneous fission
252Cf
98

1n
2125
In
+
2
49
0

23.2

n/p too large


beta decay
X

Y
n/p too small
positron decay or electron capture
23.2

Nuclear Stability

Certain numbers of neutrons and protons are extra stable

n or p = 2, 8, 20, 50, 82 and 126

Like extra stable numbers of electrons in noble gases


(e- = 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 86)

Nuclei with even numbers of both protons and neutrons


are more stable than those with odd numbers of neutron
and protons

All isotopes of the elements with atomic numbers higher


than 83 are radioactive

All isotopes of Tc and Pm are radioactive

23.2

Nuclear binding energy (BE) is the energy required to break


up a nucleus into its component protons and neutrons.
BE + 199F

911p + 1010n

E = mc2
BE = 9 x (p mass) + 10 x (n mass) 19F mass
BE (amu) = 9 x 1.007825 + 10 x 1.008665 18.9984
BE = 0.1587 amu

1 amu = 1.49 x 10-10 J

BE = 2.37 x 10-11J
binding energy
binding energy per nucleon =
number of nucleons
2.37 x 10-11 J
= 1.25 x 10-12 J
=
19 nucleons
23.2

Nuclear binding energy per nucleon vs Mass number

nuclear binding energy


nucleon

nuclear stability
23.2

Kinetics of Radioactive Decay


N

daughter

DN
rate = Dt

rate = lN

DN
= lN
Dt
N = N0exp(-lt)

lnN = lnN0 - lt

N = the number of atoms at time t


N0 = the number of atoms at time t = 0
l is the decay constant

ln2
l =
t
23.3

Kinetics of Radioactive Decay


ln[N] = ln[N]0 - lt

ln [N]

[N]

[N] = [N]0exp(-lt)

23.3

Radiocarbon Dating
14N
7

+ 01n

14C
6

14C
6
14N
7

+ 11H

+ -10b + n

t = 5730 years

Uranium-238 Dating
238U
92

206Pb
82

+ 8 24a + 6-10b

t = 4.51 x 109 years

23.3

Nuclear Transmutation
14N
7

27Al
13

14N
7

+ 24a
+ 24a
+ 11p

17O
8

+ 11p

30P
15

+ 01n

11C
6

+ 42a

Cyclotron Particle Accelerator


23.4

Nuclear Transmutation

23.4

Nuclear Fission

235U
92

+ 01n

90Sr
38

1n + Energy
+ 143
Xe
+
3
0
54

Energy = [mass 235U + mass n (mass 90Sr + mass 143Xe + 3 x mass n )] x c2

Energy = 3.3 x 10-11J per 235U


= 2.0 x 1013 J per mole 235U
Combustion of 1 ton of coal = 5 x 107 J
23.5

Nuclear Fission
Representative fission reaction
235U
92

+ 01n

90Sr
38

1n + Energy
+ 143
Xe
+
3
0
54

23.5

Nuclear Fission
Nuclear chain reaction is a self-sustaining sequence of
nuclear fission reactions.
The minimum mass of fissionable material required to
generate a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction is the
critical mass.

Non-critical

Critical

23.5

Schematic Diagram of a Nuclear Reactor

23.5

Nuclear Fission
Annual Waste Production

35,000 tons SO2


4.5 x 106 tons CO2

3.5 x 106
ft3 ash

1,000 MW coal-fired
power plant

70 ft3
vitrified
waste

1,000 MW nuclear
power plant

23.5

Nuclear Fission

Hazards of the
radioactivities in spent
fuel compared to
uranium ore

From Science, Society and Americas Nuclear Waste, DOE/RW-0361 TG

23.5

Chemistry In Action: Natures Own Fission Reactor

Natural Uranium
0.7202 % U-235 99.2798% U-238

Measured at Oklo
0.7171 % U-235

Nuclear Fusion
Fusion Reaction
2
2
3
1
1 H + 1H
1 H + 1H
2H
1

+ 13H

6Li
3

+ 12H

4He
2

+ 10n

4He
2

Energy Released
6.3 x 10-13 J
2.8 x 10-12 J
3.6 x 10-12 J

Tokamak magnetic
plasma
confinement

23.6

Radioisotopes in Medicine

1 out of every 3 hospital patients will undergo a nuclear


medicine procedure

24Na,

131I,

t = 14.8 hr, b emitter, thyroid gland activity

123I,

t = 13.3 hr, g-ray emitter, brain imaging

18F,

t = 1.8 hr, b+ emitter, positron emission tomography

99mTc,

t = 14.8 hr, b emitter, blood-flow tracer

t = 6 hr, g-ray emitter, imaging agent

Brain images
with 123I-labeled
compound
23.7

Radioisotopes in Medicine
Research production of 99Mo
98Mo
42

+ 10n

99Mo
42

Commercial production of 99Mo


235U
92

99Mo
42

99mTc
43

+ 10n

99Mo
42

99mTc
43

99Tc
43

+ other fission products

+ -10b + n

+ g-ray

Bone Scan with


99mTc

t = 66 hours
t = 6 hours

23.7

Geiger-Mller Counter

23.7

Biological Effects of Radiation


Radiation absorbed dose (rad)
1 rad = 1 x 10-5 J/g of material
Roentgen equivalent for man (rem)
1 rem = 1 rad x Q

Quality Factor
g-ray = 1
b=1
a = 20

23.8

Chemistry In Action: Food Irradiation

Dosage

Effect

Up to 100 kilorad

Inhibits sprouting of potatoes, onions, garlics.


Inactivates trichinae in pork. Kills or prevents insects
from reproducing in grains, fruits, and vegetables.

100 1000 kilorads

Delays spoilage of meat poultry and fish. Reduces


salmonella. Extends shelf life of some fruit.

1000 to 10,000 kilorads

Sterilizes meat, poultry and fish. Kills insects and


microorganisms in spices and seasoning.

Half-lifes
The rate at which a particular radioisotope decays is
described by its half-life.

The half-life is defined as the time that it takes for


one half of a sample of a radioactive element to
decay into another element.
The half-life of a radioisotope is dependent only on
what the radioisotope is.

Table N provides us
with a list of various
nuclides, their decay
modes, and their halflifes.
Using Table N, what is
the decay mode and
half-life for Radium226?

Using Table N
Table N indicates that Radium-226 undergoes alpha
decay.

Based on this we can write a balanced nuclear equation to


represent this reaction:

This tells us that for every atom of Radium that


decays an atom of Radon is produced.

Using Half-life
Table N also tells us that Radium-226 has a half-life of
1600 years.
Starting with a 100g
sample, after 1 halflife (or 1600 years),
50g remain.

After another 1600


years, half of the
50g will remain
(25g).

Carbon-14 Dating
The age of objects that were once alive can be
determined by using the C-14 dating test. In this test,
scientists determine how much C-14 is left in a sample
and from this determine the age of the object.

From Table N we can determine that C-14 undergoes


b decay:

Where does the Carbon-14 come


from?
C-14 is created in the
atmosphere by
cosmic rays.
It becomes part of living
things through
photosynthesis and the
food chain.
When the plant or
animal dies, the C-14
begins to decay.

Using C-14 to Age Objects


By comparing the amount of C-14 left in a sample to the amount that
was present when it was alive, and using the half-life of 5700 years
(Table N), one can determine the age of a sample.

Uranium-238 Series
The Uranium-238 Decay Series is used to determine the age of
rocks.
In this series, the
ratio of the U238 to the Pb206 is used to
determine the
age of the rock.

Parent-daughter Relationship

Aging moon rocks


NASA astronauts have retrieved
842 pounds (382 kg) of moon rocks
(in many missions), which have
been closely studied. The
composition of the moon rocks is
very similar to that of Earth rocks.
Using radioisotope dating, it has
been found that moon rocks are
about 4.3 billion years old.

Sample Half-life Problem 1


A 10 gram of sample of Iodine-131undergoes b decay, what
will be the mass of iodine remaining after 24 days?

From Table N, the life of iodine is determined to be


approximately 8 days.
That means that 24 days is equivalent to 3 half-lifes.
The decay of 10 grams of I-131 would produce:

1.25 grams of I-131 would remain after 24


days.

Sample Half-life Problem 2


A sample of a piece of wood is analyzed by C-14 dating. The
percent of C-14 is found to be 25% of what the original C-14
concentration was. What is the age of the sample?
First, lets analyze how many half-lives have taken place.

Two half-lives have gone by while the sample decayed from


the original C-14 concentration to 25% of that concentration.
Based on Table N, the half-life of C-14 is 5730 years,
so

Your turn!
On a sheet of paper, answer the following questions
from your textbook. Indicate how you arrived at your
answer and turn in your work for a homework/quiz
grade.
Page 670

Questions 34 (a and b), 36, 37, 38, 41, 42.


Page 671
Questions 50, 58, 59

The End
This is the end of the first slide show on
nuclear reactions. You may continue
learning about nuclear reactions by viewing
the second show:

Nuclear Chemistry:
Fission and Fusion