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IUBAT- International University

of Business Agriculture and

Lab report on

Manufacturing a simple object by sand


Prepared for
Md. Abul Bashar
Course Instructor
MEC-238-Manufacturing process Lab

Prepared By
MD. Ismail Morshed
ID# 13307017
Program: BSME
Section: Day

Date of Submission

12th April, 2015

Experiment name:
object by

Manufacturing a simple
sand casting

To study the construction and operations of sand casting.

Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting
process characterized by using sand as the mold material. The term
"sand casting" can also refer to an object produced via the sand
casting process. Sand castings are produced in specialized factories
called foundries. Our assignment was to select a pattern from the
existing set of patterns found in the Manufacturing Lab for this
experiment. We then were to create the mold we were to use for the
sand casting and cast the part using aluminum. Removing the cast
part after it was cooled from the sand was the next step and then our
job was to cut the attachments from the part and grind and polish if
To complete this lab, we had to go back and refer to previous class
lecture notes to review the process of sand casting. We also had to
refer to the book on the correct procedures to follow when completing
this lab. Important safety actions were used in this lab because there
was use of an extremely hot furnace that heated the molten metal
that was to be poured in the pattern.

Design Approach:
Before starting Lab 6, we investigated different aspects of the process
that we are to perform in the sand casting process, we uses sand as
the mold material. Sand grains, mixed with small amounts of other
materials are used to improve the mold ability and cohesive strength.
The sand grains are packed around a pattern that has the shape of the
desired casting. New mold must be made for each casting, and gravity
usually is employed to case the metal to flow into the mold. We
created an opening called a sprue hole is provided through the sand
and connected to the cavity through a system of channels, called
runners. Molten metal is poured into the sprue hole and it enters the
cavity through the runners and an opening called a gate, which
controls the rate of flow. Also the design of the gating system is
important for proper delivery of the molten metal into the mold cavity.
We took in consideration that turbulence must be minimized, air and
gases must be allowed to escape by such means as vents, and proper
temperature gradients must be established and maintained to
minimize shrinkage and porosity. "The design of risers is also
important in order to supply the necessary molten metal during
solidification of the casting. The pouring basin may also serve as a
riser." (p. 297, Manufacturing engineering & tech, by Kaplan)

Theory and Calculations:

Sand casting did not require detail calculations. But instead sand
casting had a few theories that we had to take into consideration to

meet our goals. "Permanent pattern can be made of softwood,

hardwood, plastics, or metals like aluminum". (pg 36 , Processes and
design 2nd edition). We used the aluminum pattern mostly because it
can be used for up to 100,000 molds and does not lose its shape. A
pattern is actually a single copy of the desired casting, but when
employed to produce a desire dimension it must not be an exact
replica of the part to be made because of the many casting defects.
Allowances must be taken into consideration for pattern drafts where
"a taper of about 1 percent should be added to the surfaces
perpendicular to the parting line in order to facilitate removal of the
pattern" (pg 37, Processes and design). The shrinkage allowance
should be of about 1-1.3 percent for aluminum mold. We were to
create pouring basin to minimize any turbulence.

Equipment Used:

Gate Cutter
Hand Rammer
Molding Board
Parting Sand
Molding Sand
Strike off Board
Molten Metal


Before we started the sand casting process, we first had to understand

the fundamentals of Sand Casting. To do this we performed some
research. We found websites with the sand casting process.
Starting the procedure for sand casting:
The drag is placed pin down on a molding board.
Half of the split pattern is placed in the center of the molding
Next we dusted the pattern with fine parting sand.
We then, riddled molding sand a depth of about one inch over
the pattern.
Additional sand is added to fill the drag.
A hand rammer is used to firmly pack and ram sand.
The mold is struck off or leveled with the strike-off bar.
Bottom board is placed on the top of the mold.
The drag is turned over and the mold board is removed.
The cope is placed on the drag pins.
Since we only had a one piece pattern we filled the cope with the
Sprue is cut in the cope (a vertical hole) down to the parting line.
The pouring basin is formed at the top of the sprue
Riser hole is also cut at this step.
Cope and drag are separated.
Runners and ingrates are cut to connect the sprue hole to the
mold cavity.
A draw screw is inserted in the pattern and rapped lightly to
loosen the pattern.
The split patterns are carefully removed from the cope and drag.
Repairs and removal of foreign particles and placement of cores.
Cope is carefully placed on the drag.
Finished mold is taken to pouring area.
Pour molten metal into the runner.
Let the molten metal solidify.
Then break the sand from around the pattern
Agitate the part in water to cool it. Keep it in the water until part
is completely cooled.
Take part and cut off the excess from the part and file where is
Compare the measurements of your finished product with the
pattern that you used and explain the differences.
Discuss the defects that you observe in the finish products and
suggest methods to eliminate them.

For our last Brown Team effort we created an Indian Head. In creating
this part we had first hand experience with sandcasting. In analyzing
our part versus the original pattern there are many changes that
First we looked at the percentage of shrinkage of our part. The
average shrinkage of our part was approximately a decrease from the
original part by 1.048%. An aluminum sand casted part should usually
undergo shrinkage of approximately 1-1.30% so, our part fell into a
normal category as far as the percent shrinkage that occured.
To find these calculations we measured the part and the pattern with a
micrometer and a ruler and then divided the results over the
corrections. The following is a list other values we received:
Bottom Thickness:
0.595" / 0.590" = 1.001% decrease from original

Top Thickness:
0.470" / 0.530" = 1.12% decrease from original
0.145" / 0.153" = 1.05% decrease from original
Left side:
0.888" / 0.885" = 1.01% decrease from original

Discussion of Results and Corrections:

When sand casting, there are many problems that can be faced. After
first analyzing the part there are many problems we saw. When we
took the pattern out of the mold we took it out too fast and carelessly.
And thus, resulted in part of the mold not being molded properly. We
noticed that our finished product had sandwash at the bottom of the
part. Sandwash is merely the " rough, irregular, surfaces of casting
that result from the errosion of the sand mold." (pg.68, Wakil)
By viewing the nose and the chin of our casted part you will find some
indentations in the part. Those indentations are hot tears. " Hot tears

can appear on the surface or through cracks that initiate during the
cooling of casting."(pg.68, Wakil )
To correct the sand wash we filled our part. The filling created a
smooth surface for our part. We didn't try to correct the hot tear,
because we were told not to correct the defects to our part. Our part
had jagged edges so we in turn filled the rough edges to make them
Shrinkage occurred in our part and we talked about the percentages of
shrinkage in the previous section of our paper. There are two methods
we could have used to prevent shrinkage. Out of the two, we are going
to discuss the method that we would have suggested. We should have
used a bigger part so that we could compensate for shrinkage. Once
we made a bigger part we could have machined our part to the point
where the measurements would have corresponded to the
measurements of the pattern.
The most noticeable defect in our finished casted part occurred at the
bottom left side of the Indian's head on our part. If you look at the
cavities you will notice that there is a steep incline from the part to the
actual Indian's head. The steep incline is the reason that the
intricacies on the Indian's head didn't cast correctly. In viewing the
right side of the Indian head, you will find that, the parts intricacy was
cast correctly. The reason it casted this side, was because instead of
having a steep cavity, the right sides cavity had and incline. And thus,
the incline made it easier for the part to be cast.

In concluding, the aforementioned sections: Introduction, Design
Approach, Theory and Calculations, Experimental Procedure, Analysis
and Discussion of the Results and Corrections, described in detail, the
processes that we used to produce our final piece. We did as predicted
in the introduction, overcome all trials, tribulations, and obstacles set
before us, yet we still ran into errors. These errors were added to the
write-up in an effort to document all mistakes for learning purposes.
These admissions of error will aid our team in preventing the same
errors from occurring.
Most of the errors occurring in this lab were attributed to the packing
of the sand and the way the molten metal was distributed when it was
poured into the sprue holes.

We learned sand casting, although a fun experience will provide us

with the knowledge needed when we enter the work force. If we do
work in a foundry environment, we will be well prepared. In completing
this lab, we learned several things. Another lasting lesson that we
learned while working on this lab was that teamwork was very
important. We were allowed to notice some of our weaknesses and
strengths and were provided with the opportunity to learn from other


Materials and processes in manufacturing, 6th edition

Processes and design
Manufacturing engineering & tech
various internet sites