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UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO

NETWORKING

LEARNING OUTCOME

Student should be able to:

1. List

networked

computing relative to standalone

computing.

advantages

of

2. Differentiate between peer-to-peer

networks and client/server networks

3. Differentiate Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network

(MAN), Wide Area Network (WAN)

WHAT IS NETWORKING?

Networking is the practice of linking two

or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data.

Networks are built with a mix of computer

hardware and computer software.

A network is nothing more than two or

more computers connected to each other

so that they can exchange information, such as email messages or documents or

share resources, such as disk storage.

CHARACTERISTIC OF

COMPUTER NETWORK

CHARACTERISTIC OF COMPUTER NETWORK http://www.functionx.com/networking/Lesson01.htm

http://www.functionx.com/networking/Lesson01.htm

NETWORKING

Advantages

A

user

can

logon

to

a

computer anywhere on the

network

and

access

their

work

files

from

the

file

server.

Computers can be managed

centrally - with the same software installed on each one.

Time - it is much faster to

install an application once on a network - and copy it across the network to every

workstation.

Disadvantages

If

something

goes

wrong

with

the

file

server

the

whole

network.

The

technical skills

needed to manage a network are much

higher than working on

stand-alone

computer.

a

http://www.ictgnvq.org.uk/unit10/advantages_and_disadvantages.htm

NETWORK VS STAND ALONE

Advantages

Sharing printers, plotters,

modems etc saves money

and time.

Security - the Network Manager can allocate usernames and passwords

to all users to try to prevent

unauthorized access.

I is easy and convenient to monitor users for example websites visited or

documents printed this can

be done using software running on the server.

Disadvantages

It can be frustrating to print to

a printer in another room and

then find after a long trek that

there is no paper in the printer!

Users may use up too much

of the storage space and this

may cause problems on the network.

too much

Users may use

bandwidth for example when

or

watching video clips preventing others from using the network facilities properly.

listening to music files

http://www.ictgnvq.org.uk/unit10/advantages_and_disadvantages.htm

PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS

(P2P)

PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS (P2P)

PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS

(P2P)

1. The simplest form of a network.

2. Traditional p2p networks typically consist of two or more general purpose

personal computer, with modest

processing capabilities.

3. By default, no computer on a peer to

peer has more authority than another.

be

configured to share only some of its

resources and prevent access to other

4. However,

each

computer

can

resources.

PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS

(P2P)

1. Each computer holds its files and resources.

Other computers can access these resources but a computer that has a particular resource must be turned on for other computers to

access the resource it has. For example, if a

printer is connected to computer A and computer B wants to printer to that printer,

computer A must be turned ON.

2. A Peer to peer capable network operating system, such as Windows 95, Windows 98 and

Windows for Workgroups are usually the best

choices for home and small office networks.

ADVANTAGES AND

DISADVANTAGES OF P2P

Advantages

Network

is

fast

and

simple

to

setup

and

maintain.

 

Less

expensive

to

set

up

and

maintain

than

other

types

of

networks.

 

No

need

for

network

administrator.

Disadvantages

Not secure enough. In

simple installations, data

and other resources shared by network users can be easily discovered and used

by unauthorized people.

Not

practical

computer.

for

larger

Not flexible as network grows larger, adding or changing significant elements of the network may be difficult.

CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS

CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS
CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS

CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS

A network that uses a server to enable

clients to share data, data storage space, and devices is known as a client/server

network.

Another way of designing a network is to use a central computer, known as a

server, to facilitate communication and

resource sharing between other computers on the network, which are

known as clients.

http://www.functionx.com/networking/Lesson06.htm

CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS

Every

computer

on

a

client/server

network acts as a client or a server.

(It is

possible,

but

uncommon,

for

some computers to act as both.)

Clients

on

a

network

can

still

run

applications from and save data to

by

their local hard

connecting to a server, they also have

the option of

applications, data, and devices.

disk.

But

using

shared

CLIENT-SERVER NETWORKS

Clients do not share their resources directly

with each other, but rather use the server as an intermediary through connectivity devices such as switches or routers.

Client-Server network operating systems, such as Windows NT and Novel NetWare are better for larger scale organizations that require fast network access for video, publishing, multimedia, spreadsheet, database, and accounting operations.

ADVANTAGES OF CLIENT-

SERVER NETWORKS

User logon accounts and passwords

for anyone on a server-based network can be assigned in one place.

Access to multiple shared resources

(such as data files or printers) can be centrally granted to a single user or

groups of users.

Problems

on

the

network

can

be

monitored, diagnosed, and often fixed

from one location.

ADVANTAGES OF CLIENT-

SERVER NETWORKS

Servers are optimized to handle

heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients, enabling faster response time.

Because of their efficient processing

and larger disk storage, servers can

connect more than a handful of

computers on a network.

TYPES OF NETWORKS

TYPES OF NETWORKS

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

Supplies networking capability to a

group of computers in close proximity to each other such as in an

office building, a school, or a home.

A

resources like files, printers, games

or other applications. A LAN in turn often connects to other LANs, and to

the Internet or other WAN.

LAN

is

useful

for

sharing

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

Most

local

area

networks

are

built

with

 

relatively

inexpensive

hardware

such

as

Ethernet cables,

network

adapters,

and

hubs. Wireless LAN and other more

advanced LAN hardware options also exist.

Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network.

For example, most flavors of Microsoft

Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN

resources.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

The

refers to a

multiplayer gaming event where participants bring their own computers

and build a temporary LAN.

term

LAN

party

to a multiplayer gaming event where participants bring their own computers and build a temporary LAN.

METROPOLITAN AREA

NETWORK (MAN)

METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN)

METROPOLITAN AREA

NETWORK (MAN)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is

a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a

high-capacity backbone technology,

such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area

networks (or WAN) and the Internet.

METROPOLITAN AREA

NETWORK (MAN)

The IEEE 802-2002 standard describes a MAN

as being :

A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of

buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend

on communications channels of moderate-to- high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually

will be used by many individuals and

organizations. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. They will often provide means for internetworking of local

networks.

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)

WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN)

computer

network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross

metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries).

A

wide

network

(WAN)

area

is

a

This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus

area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area

networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan

area (e.g., a city) respectively.

LEARNING OUTCOME

Student should be able to:

1. Explain client, server, workstation,

network interface card, network

operating system, node, connectivity

device, backbone, segment, topology

and transmission media.

network

topologies : bus, ring, star and hybrid.

2. Distinguish

the

computer

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Client Transmission Media
Client
Transmission
Media
Server Topology Workstation ELEMENT Connectivity Device Network Interface Card Network Backbone Operating System
Server
Topology
Workstation
ELEMENT
Connectivity
Device
Network
Interface Card
Network
Backbone
Operating System
Segment
Node

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Client

A computer

request resources or services from

another computer on a network.

the

network

that

on

Server

A computer

manages

client.

on

shared

the

network

that

resources

among

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Workstation

A computer on which a person performs everyday regular assignments. A

workstation is primarily a personal

computer (PC). It can also be a laptop. Almost any modern PC can be

used as a workstation and participate to a

network.

Network Interface Card (NIC)

The

device

inside

the

computer

that

connect a computer to the network.

http://www.functionx.com/networking/Lesson02.htm

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Network Operating System (NOS)

The software that run on a server and enables the server to:

i. Manage data and other resources for a number of client.

ii. Ensure that only authorized users access the network.

iii. Control which type of files a user can open and read.

iv. Restrict when and from where users can access the network.

v. Dictate which rules computer to communicate.

vi. Supply application to clients.

A software that allows multiple computers to communicate, share files and hardware devices with one another.

Examples of network operating systems include Novell

NetWare, Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2008

Server, Sun Solaris, Linux.

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Node

 

A

client,

server

or

other

device

that

can

communicate

over

the

network

and

that

is

identified by a unique number,

known

as

its

network address.

Segment

A part of network. Usually a segment is

composed of a group of nodes that use the same communications channel for all their

traffic.

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Backbone

The part of a network (connection) to

which segments and shared devices

connect. A backbone is sometimes referred to as “a network of network”

because its role in interconnecting

smaller parts of LAN or WAN.

ELEMENT IN CLIENT-SERVER

NETWORKS

Connectivity Device

A specialized device that allow multiple networks or multiple parts of the networks to

connect and exchange data. Examples :

repeater, hub/switch, bridges, router, gateways.

Topology The physical layout of a computer networks.

Transmission Media The means through which data is transmitted and received. Examples : coaxial cable, STP, UTP, fiber optic.

Network Topology

BUS STAR RING HYBRID
BUS
STAR
RING
HYBRID

BUS

BUS • Each node (workstation, server, switch and etc) is connected to a single cable. •

Each node (workstation, server, switch and etc) is connected to a single cable.

A signal from the source travels in both directions to all

machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient.

If

the machine address does not match the intended

address for the data, the machine ignores the data.

BUS

BUS • Alternatively, machine address, the data is accepted. if the data does match the •

Alternatively,

machine address, the data is accepted.

if

the

data

does

match

the

Since the bus topology consists of only one

wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies. However to

manage this network topology require higher

cost.

BUS

BUS • What is the advantages of this topology? • Easy to connect a computer or

What is the advantages of this topology?

Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a linear bus.

Requires less cable length than mesh or star topologies.

It is cheaper than any other topologies.

BUS

BUS • What happen is the single cable fail or damaged? • Additionally, since only one

What happen is the single cable fail or

damaged?

Additionally, since only one cable is utilized, it can be the single point of

failure. If the network cable breaks, the

entire network will be down.

BUS

BUS • Others disadvantages of this topology? • Terminators are required at both ends of the

Others disadvantages of this topology?

Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.

Addition of new devices requires modification or replacement of the backbone.

The managing cost of network is too high.

STAR

Each network host is

connected to a central hub or switch

with a point-to-point

connection.

All

that

traverses the network

passes through the

central hub.

traffic

The

hub

acts

as

a

All that traverses the network passes through the central hub . traffic • The hub acts

STAR

The star topology is considered

the easiest topology to design and implement.

What is the advantages of this

topology?

Easy to install and reconfigure.

No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing

devices.

Easy

to

detect

remove parts.

faults

and

to

Robustness, that is, if one link

fails, only that link is affected,

other links remain active.

parts. faults and to • Robustness, that is, if one link fails, only that link is

STAR

The star topology is

considered the easiest topology to

design and implement.

What is the advantage of this topology?

An advantage of the

star topology is the

simplicity of adding

additional nodes.

the advantage of this topology? • An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of

STAR

What is the disadvantage

if this topology?

 

The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that

the hub represents a

single point of failure.

Requires

more

cable

length

than

a

bus

topology.

More expensive than bus topologies because of the

cost of the hubs and etc.

than a bus topology. • More expensive than bus topologies because of the cost of the

RING

A network topology

that is set up in a circular fashion in

which data travels

around the ring in one direction and each device on the

right acts as a

repeater to keep the signal strong as it

travels.

the ring in one direction and each device on the right acts as a repeater to

RING

Each

incorporates

device

a

receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. The

network is dependent

on the ability of the signal to travel around

the ring.

is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring. http://www.datacottage.com/nch/troperation.htm

http://www.datacottage.com/nch/troperation.htm

RING

What

is

the

disadvantage this topology?

of

The failure of one machine will cause

the entire network

to fail.

of one machine will cause the entire network to fail.

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Advantages_and_disadvantages_of_topologi

HYBRID

Hybrid networks

use a combination of any two or more

topologies in such a

way that the resulting network

does not exhibit one

of the standard topologies (e.g.,

bus, star, ring, etc.).

in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies

HYBRID

A hybrid topology is

always produced

when

two

different

basic

network

topologies are connected. Two common examples

for Hybrid network

are:

star

ring

network

and

star

bus network

are connected. Two common examples for Hybrid network are: star ring network and star bus network

HYBRID

Star Ring Network

HYBRID Star Ring Network Star Bus Network

Star Bus Network

HYBRID Star Ring Network Star Bus Network

HYBRID

Advantages of this topology?

Can

be

designed

in

many

various purposes.

ways

for

Provides better result according to the management.

Disadvantages of this topology?

if

Difficult

to

identify

the

problem

entire system is down.

Learning Outcome

Student should be able to:

1. Identify organization that set standards for networking : ANSI, EIA, TIA, IEEE,

ISO, ITU, ISOC, IANA, ICANN.

2. Explain

source,

destinations.

channel

and

3. Explain rules of communications.

4. Explain message encoding, formatting,

size, timing and patterns.

Information Search

Form group of 3 students.

You will be entering Poster Competition about the standards for networking:

1.

ANSI (American_National_Standards_Institute) fares | faeez

2.

EIA/TIA (Electronic_Industries_Alliance / Telecommunications Industry Association) eynani | leow

3.

IEEE anselm | farhan

4.

ISO (International_Organization_for_Standardization) amirul hakim | az-syafiz

5.

ITU (International_Telecommunication_Union) walid |

syahmi

6.

ISOC (Internet_Society) kugendran | fauzie

7.

IANA (Internet_Assigned_Numbers_Authority)

khumuthavalli

EXERCISE

1. Draw a diagram showing three computer

and

other using:

printer

one

a. Bus topology

b. Star topology

c. Ring topology

connecting

to

each

2. One computer wants to send file to

printer. By using the diagram you created in question one, draw the data path/route taken by this file for the three

topology mention above.

PRINCIPLES OF

COMMUNICATION

SOURCE

Channel

Channel

PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION SOURCE • Channel Channel DESTINATION – A distinct communication path between two or

DESTINATION

A distinct communication path between two or more nodes, much like a lane is a

distinct transportation path on a freeway.

Channels may be separated either logically (as in multiplexing) or physically

(as when they are carried by separate

wires).

PRINCIPLES OF

COMMUNICATION

SOURCE

Channel

PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION SOURCE Channel DESTINATION • The sender (source) who creates the message to be

DESTINATION

The sender (source) who creates the

message to be transmitted

A medium that carries the message.

(channel)

The receiver (sink) who receives the

message. (destinations).

RULES OF COMMUNICATION

Establish a link

Issue a command and command qualifier

Send, receive

Acknowledgment of command

Acknowledgement field in Ethernet frame

Dissection messages

Packet, frame

Error detection and correction

 Packet, frame  Error detection and correction  cyclic redundancy check (CRC)  Termination of

cyclic redundancy check (CRC)

Termination of transmission

EXAMPLE

EXAMPLE

TERMINOLOGIES IN NETWORK

1. Message Encoding

Example: Specific Area Message Encoding or SAME is the protocol used to encode the

Emergency Alert System (EAS) and NOAA

Weather Radio in the U.S

2. Message Formatting

Example: ICMP message use in ping, tracert

3. Message Size

Example: Thus smtp2.example.com declares that it will accept a fixed maximum message size no larger than 14,680,064 octets

TERMINOLOGIES IN NETWORK

4.

Message Timing

Example: ttl time to live

5.

Message Patterns

A Message Exchange Pattern (MEP) describes the pattern of messages

required by a communications protocol to

establish or use a communication channel.

Learning Outcome

Student should be able to:

1.

Identify cards on expansion board inside a computer : PIC NIC, PIC Express NIC.

2.

Identify

cards

installed

to

the

computer’s bus externally : PCMCIA adapter, USB port, FireWire, Compact

Flash NIC.

3.

Identify On-board NIC.

 

4.

Identify NIC.

 

NETWORK INTERFACE CARD

(NIC)

Various types of Network Interface Card

:

1. Cards on an expansion board inside a

computer (PCI NIC, PCI Express NIC)

2. Cards installed to the computer’s bus

externally (PCMCIA adapter, USB

port, Fire Wire, Compact Flash NIC)

3. On board NIC

4. Wireless NIC

NETWORK INTERFACE CARD

(NIC)

A circuit board or chip, which allows the

computer to communicate to other computers on a Network for the purpose of sharing resources, information and computer hardware.

This board can be connected to a cable or other

method of transferring data such as infra red.

Utilizing network cards to connect to a network

allow users to share data such as companies

being able to have the capability of having a database that can be accessed all at the same

time, send and receive e-mail internally within

the company, or share hardware devices such

as printers.

PART OF NETWORK INTERFACE

CARD (NIC)

CONNECTORS

Network cards have three main types of connectors. Below is an example of what a network card may look like.

Below is an example of what a network card may look like. • BNC - As
Below is an example of what a network card may look like. • BNC - As

BNC - As illustrated in the above picture, the BNC connector is a round connector which is used for Thinnet or 10Base-2 Local Area Network.

DB9 - DB9 connectors were commonly used before for serial peripheral devices like keyboards, mice, joysticks, etc. In network it used in token ring topology network.

PART OF NETWORK INTERFACE

CARD (NIC)

RJ45 - Today, one of the most popular types

of connections used with computer networks. RJ45 looks similar to a phone

connector or RJ11 connector but is slightly

larger.

connections used with computer networks. RJ45 looks similar to a phone connector or RJ11 connector but
connections used with computer networks. RJ45 looks similar to a phone connector or RJ11 connector but

PART OF NETWORK INTERFACE

CARD (NIC)

LED -The LEDs indicates if it detects a

network; generally by a green light which may flash as it communicates, and then a red light which indicates collisions which will generally flash or

not flash at all.

TYPES OF NETWORK

INTERFACE CARD (NIC)

Installed on an expansion board inside a

computer

OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • Installed on an expansion board inside a computer – PCI

PCI NIC

OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • Installed on an expansion board inside a computer – PCI

PCI Express NIC

OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • Installed on an expansion board inside a computer – PCI

TYPES OF NETWORK

INTERFACE CARD (NIC)

Cards installed to the computer’s bus

externally

PCMCIA Adapter

USB Network Adapter

FireWire Network Adapter

Compact Flash NIC

PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

is an industry organization best know

for developing a standard network adapter using the PC Card form factor.

The PC Card form factor was designed for thinness, and PCMCIA is therefore

especially well suited for notebook

computers. Most notebooks contain two PCMCIA slots that hold one or two

of these cards.

USB NETWORK

ADAPTER

USB NETWORK ADAPTER FIREWIRE NETWORK ADAPTER

FIREWIRE NETWORK ADAPTER

USB NETWORK ADAPTER FIREWIRE NETWORK ADAPTER

Compact Flash NIC

Compact Flash NIC
Compact Flash NIC

TYPES OF NETWORK

INTERFACE CARD (NIC)

On-board NIC

TYPES OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • On-board NIC

TYPES OF NETWORK

INTERFACE CARD (NIC)

Wireless NIC

TYPES OF NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • Wireless NIC Wireless PCI network adapter Wireless PCMCIA network

Wireless PCI network adapter

CARD (NIC) • Wireless NIC Wireless PCI network adapter Wireless PCMCIA network adapter Wireless USB adapter

Wireless PCMCIA network adapter

Wireless PCI network adapter Wireless PCMCIA network adapter Wireless USB adapter Wireless Compact Flash network adapter
Wireless PCI network adapter Wireless PCMCIA network adapter Wireless USB adapter Wireless Compact Flash network adapter

Wireless USB adapter

Wireless Compact Flash network adapter

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Repeater

An electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer

distances.

To regenerate the signal when the signal received is weak or interference, this device will make a copy of bits to bits by the original signal

strength.

Repeaters work with the actual physical signal, and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the Physical Layer,

the first layer of the OSI model.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Hub

An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub or hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic

Ethernet devices together and making them

act as a single network segment.

Hubs work at the Physical Layer (Layer 1) of

the OSI model

Active Hub is called “multiport repeater”.

participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a

collision.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Switch

A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects

network segments.

The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.

Switches that additionally process data at the Network Layer (Layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer

switches.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Difference between Hub & Switch

A switch learns which devices are connected to its ports and then forwards

on packets to the appropriate port only.

Hubs repeat everything they receive and

resulting unnecessary traffic being sent to

all devices on the network.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

HUB

SWITCH

Hub is broadcasting device.

Switch is point to point communication.

Hub operates at physical layer.

Switch operate at data link

layer.

Hub is not an intelligent service

Switch is intelligent device.

(dummy device).

Hub simply broadcast the incoming.

Switch uses switching table to find the correct destination.

Hub cannot be used as repeater.

Switch can be used as a

repeater.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Bridges

A network bridge connects multiple network segments at the Data Link Layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model.

Used to transmit data between networks that

using the same protocol.

A bridge and switch are very much alike; a

switch being a bridge with numerous ports.

Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the

network

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Router

A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISPs

network. Routers are also located at gateways, the

places where two or more networks connect. Makes decisions on how to manage the contents of the frame based on protocol and network address. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to

determine the best path for forwarding the packets,

and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Router

A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to

the tasks of routing and forwarding

information.

A router has two or more network interfaces, which may be to different physical types of network (such as copper

cables, fiber, or wireless) or different

network standards Works in Layer 3 OSI model

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Gateway

A network gateway is an internetworking system capable of joining together two

networks that use different base protocols.

A network gateway can be implemented completely in software, completely in

hardware, or as a combination of both.

Depending on the types of

protocols they

support, network gateways can operate at

any level of the OSI model.

LAN CONNECTIVITY

HARDWARE

Gateway

Connect two systems using different formatting, communications protocols, or architecture

Repackage

system Operates at multiple OSI Model layers

information

to

be

read

E-mail gateway

Internet gateway

LAN gateway

Voice/data gateway

Firewall

by

another

Learning Outcome

Student should be able to:

1. Install

and

configure

and software.

2. Illustrate

repeater,

NIC

hardware

hub/switch,

bridges, routers, gateways.

Learning Outcome

Student should be able to:

1. Build simple peer-to-peer network using TIA/EIA-568-A or TIA/EIA-568-B

wiring standard.

2. Build simple LAN using two hosts and

a switch.

3. Build network drive to share a file.

4. Assemble

and

configure

a

network

printer in a simple LAN