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418,288 A19, 23 c1.i3a 1.130 ci.6a catia 2.28 C2038 2,30 2.68 2.60 A SUPPLEMENT To ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF FLIGHT VEHICLE STRUCTURES William F, HeComba ‘TABLE OF CONTENTS Article and Main Topic Page Article and Main Topic Page Bean-Colusns Beam-Column Formulas Beam-Column Deflections Bean-Colun Formulas Margins of Safety ‘Truss Analysis Tangent Modulus wMultispan ‘Boan-Colums Approximate Zuckling Formula Plastic Torsion Beam Deflections Numerical Analysis Moment Distribution Stittness/Carry Over Factors Moment Distribution Pactors ‘Truss Analysis ‘Truss Analysis Curved Beans Columa Analyst: Column Analysis Torsional Buckling Column/Bean-Column Data Material Properties Bib Crushing Loads Margins of Safety Dealing With Tolerances Combined Stresses Colum Curve Construction Free-Ended Columns Shear Effect on Buckling wultispan Columns Stepped Columns Numerical Column Analysis Initially ent Coluzns Column Design Data Column Elastic Supports Need for Successive Trials Column Elastic End Restraint Tangent and Effective Moduli Buckling Load Data ind Friction Effects References for Chapter C2 Plastic Bending Data Plastic Bending Example Plastic Bending Procedure Complex Plastic Bending Shear Stress: Yield Stress Bending Modulus Residual Stress After Bending Beam-Column Analyses Plastic Torsion Apparent Margins of Safety Flat Plate Shear Buckling Flat Plate Bending Buckling Unequal Angle Leg Thicknessea crippling Method Three Torsional Buckling 2 Frame Stiffness Criteria 610,15 Thick-Web Beam Analysis ‘tn Plastic Range32| 33) 33) 34 38| 39] 39) to 4a ut 012.298 Tension Field Beam Holes C11. 2%0 Rivet Desian G11.31a Stringer Construction Diagonal Tension = Stringers Stringer System Allowables Stringer Construction Example Diagonal Tension - Longerons Longeron System Analysis Longeron Construction Example Diagonal Tension Summary Problems for Part 2 Problems for Part 1 Monocoque Sheil Buckling Data Shell Arial Comp, Buckling Effect of Internsl Pressure Shell Bending Buckling Effect of Internal Pressure External Hydrostatic Pressure Shell Torsion Buckling Effect of Internal Pressure Combined Loads Buckling Conical Shell Buckling Buckling of Spherical caps Fitting Design pitting Margins of Safety Factors of Safety Bolts Obliquely Loaded Ings Biveted Splices ‘Thread Design and Strength Piller (Shim) Erfects Curved Beam Data Tension Clip Allowable Date Flush Bivet Joints Blind Bivet Joints Bolt Strengths Design Check List Margins of Safety Tension Clips Preload Torque Factors for Bolts Rockwell and Brinell Hardness Data Minimum I for Stiffeners Stress-Strain Curves Sheet and Other Buckling Data Material Properties Fastener Joint Désign Notes Fastener/Joint Allowable Data Yut/Collar Tension Allowables Bolt Allowable Bending Moments Beaa Formulas Additional References Bulkhead, Frame and Arch analyses rin 47| ‘Column Elastic Support Design Operating Devices Doubler and Splice Design Oi, wimniae Fy econta PREFACE The widely used and recommended ‘college/industry textbook “analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures” by Dr, E.F. Bruhn has had only one revision since its. inception. in 1965.. That was the 1973 edition in.which Chapter A23 was revised and expanded; Chapter Ci3 was completely rewritten by another author. anda few-minor, changes were made in Chapter 11,. Aside from these the book remains in its original form, - me purpose of this Supplement is to increase: the séope and usefulness, of the textbook in numerous specific aréas of analysis, These include columns, beam-columns,, bending strength, margins. of safety, tension field analyses, fastener/ joint data, arches,;bulkheads and numerous others, |The practical use,of ‘the Supplement is discussed in the Int¥oduction, ‘Only: one or two. applications of the Supplement's contents .can. be worth much more than its cost, ’ The ‘Siipplenient- fay be expanded in some fut: So any stiggestions for this, or for corrections or changes in its current text will be.appreciated.. Those readers who wish to. be, informed © of any future-revisions or who have suggestions can contact the author at P.O. Box 763576, Dallas, TX 75376-3576 (Tet. 214° 337-5506). The author is\one.of the coauthors of the textbook, His career includes over forty. years,of experience .in,,structural analysis and design of numerous aircraft and missile.projects in the aerospace industry; Also included-are:technical: papers and.the preparation and teaching of practical courses in’ structural design and analysis for engineers working in the asrospass. and other industries, a William F, MeCombs FOREWORD I am pleased: to‘have the opportunity to recotinend’ this Supplement to my late, father's widely used college/industry textbook -"Analysis and..Design of Flight Vehicle Structures", I hope its practical applications willbe a benefit to. all who have the textbook, The additional data contained tn this Supplement can be applied to both'the study and the work of structural design and analysis. The Supplement should also be of interest: to, and eventually benefit, those; who may be considering purchasing the textbook. Patricia Bruhn Beachler ay INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Supplement 1s to increase the scope and usefulness of the widely used and recommended college/industry textbook "Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures" by E.F.Bruhn. As such it is by no means a revision of that book. Rather, it is, an expansion and clarification of numerous topics and data in the book, along with the introduction of additional topics and data. For best coordination with the textbook the following has been done, Where an existing article such as, for example, Art. Cl.13 has been expanded or otherwise changed or corrected, the Supplement includes it as Art. Cl.13a, the letter indicating @ change or addition. wWnen a new topic is added to a chapter it is given.an article number which is subsequent to the last article number in that chapter and includes no letter. For example, the last article in Chapter C3 is art. 03.14. Two additional topics, "Yield Stress Bending Modulus" and "Residual stresses Following Plastic Bending" have been added, so they have been given article numbers (3.15 and 03.16 respectively with no letters. The same thing has been done with figure numbers and table numbers. Where a figure has been changed or added to, it retains the same figure number with an added letter. For example, Figure 2.27 has added information go it has the designation Fig.2.27a in the Supplement. When a new figure is added it is given a number which is subsequent to the last figure number in the chapter, so no letters are used with its number in the Supplement. This procedure also applies to tables. Although the Supplement provides an Index, for most usefulness the textbook wust be marked in such a manner as to guide the reader directly to revised, corrected and new topics, figures, tables and references in the Supplement. A highly recommended scheme for doing this 1s provided later. Structural design and analyses are based.on theory, empirical methods and data, various assumptions and individual Judgement. The assembled structure is a result of various specific manufacturing methods and procedures. Because of these things and also the possi- bility of inadvertent calculation errors, it 13 always necessary to prove the adequacy and safety of the completed structure by means of @ sufficient test program before it is put into use. Such tests must demonstrate the structure's adequacy as to ultimate and yield strength, fatigue life, fracture and stiffness. The test results must be properly evaluated since the test article's materials usually have properties in excess of the minimum required values. Procuring agencies such as the military, the airlines and other government and private. organizations usually specify the design and test requirements and other criteria which-must be-Used‘or met. aad 100: tion of the Supplement and t! xxtbook* In order to easily guide the reader from the textbook to the Supplement, the following marking of the textbook is recommended, 1. On.the textbook's Table of Contents place an asterisk, in red ‘ink, after. "Contents" and add the following footnote at the bottom of the page: * A red asterisk preceding any article or figure number inthe textbook means that additional material is available in the same article or figure in the Supplement, 2, Bor each textbook: article listed’ inthe Supplement's Table of Contents, place a large asterisk, in red ink, just to the left of each corresponding article number in the textbook (e.g.'° #Al1.2). 3. The 12 articles in the Supplement's Tablé of Contents not having a letter in the article number are new articles. (e.g.» C3,18 Beam-Column Andlydes),” Their nuubers and titles shouldbe written in at the end of their chapters, with a-red asterisk just to the left of their article numbers, 4, The following figures in.the textbook should have an asterisk, in’ red ‘ink, placed just to the left of their figure numbers, to indicate ‘that a revision or additional data is in the Supplementi : ASe1, 02.17 2,26 5,14 08,45 08.28 C1147 A18,8.. 02,48 --¢2,27 ¢B,Ba 68.29 C11 4B c1,8 62,19 C327 68,21 610.15. 1.15 62.2, 2,20: 03.28 c8113 11.43 02.16 2,25 5,11 C8, 14 cia. ub 5.The..additional references shown on p, 30 (for Chapter C2) and. on. p.A21.. (for Chapters: C3," C4,- C7: and’ C11) should be written in at the end of the list. of réferences for these chapters, : : 6, Put.a black asterisk after "RINGS"’on the title of p,a9.1 and. at the. bottom of the right hand column add the footnote * See Appendix B of the Supplement for alternative analyses of bulkheads, frames, arches and’ bents, To increase the scope’ and usefulness of other such textbooks, put appropriate asterisks in their texts with footnotes saying which article to see in the Supplement, iv ‘A SUPPLEMENT 10 “ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PLIGHT VEHICLE STRUCTURES" 45.238 Introduation AAd_the following at the end of Art. 05.23. For a discussion of all types of beam=colunns, including non-unifora men bers, with nuserous exanple problens see "Engineering dolunn Analysis” described an Art.Al6.27a. AS.2ha Effects of Goabined Axial and Lateral Loade Add the following at the end of art. 5.24 beans in tension are svailable in the book described in Art. A16.27a, 3 Equations for & conpresnive 15-050 Frat with Buiforsiy Baateanuted Leak tt Aad the following at the ond of Art. £5.25. Toe deflection, y, at any bean station ean be caloulated'as follons.¥ Mg + Up = Mg + Fy therefore posits Regative (downward) deflection. the moment due to the lateral loa and Mis the final moment. fo calculate the slope at any sta~ tim oaleulate the deflection at a point very slightly to the left of the station and then very slightly to the right, the same smount, AL, The slope 4a then slope = (y ~ yy)/2d 45.268 Formulas for Other Single Span Leadings™* Table 45-la presente numerous addt~ tional cases of ingle span loadings.** ‘The case of a beam-colun with a varying BI or a varying axial loading re- quires a nunerical analysis, just as doce @ colum of this nature. The numerical anslysis procedure is presented in 03.26.| 45.270 Gombinettons o acon, Margine of Sireap aad desececy of Galsalartene For a bean-column the true margin of| safety must be calculated as discussed in] Art, 04.238, The allowable streases or bending moments are calculated as dis cussed in Art. 03.18, 15,280 Beample Frobleae In Example Problem 2 menber BD is considered to be pinned to ABC at Joint 5) Thie 1s why 1t doos not pick up any of th 36,000 in Lb bending moment at joint B. 25.298 streaten Above Proportional Linit Stress If 2 colum curve 1a not avallable = See feotnate on 7.37, taf. cotuen Formulas and example problems for} 1 for the beam material, the axial streas, Pk, 48 caloulated, f ts calculated Pig. G2.165 1s entered with this value and i in obtained. Then Ey = E(E4/z). E" An Art. 45,29 18 actually Et. 45.314 Beas-Colums 3n Gontinuous structures aultispan bean-colums require @ no- aent distribution analysis to determine ‘the end moments acting on each span. Once these are known the applicable singi span formulss in Table 45.1 and 45.1a can be used to determine the bending moments ‘at any station witnin a span, ‘nis is aiscuased in Art. 03.18, 45.32 Approxinate Formula for Bean-Qolusns For preliminary sizing when there are no ond moments the following formula can be used to determine the final bend~ ing moment at any station Me o/(1 - P/Pen) where 4g is the moment due to the trane- verse loada only and Por is the critical load aa a colum (Chapter 2). This ie most accurate for a uniform lateral load and least accurate for a concentrated load, Per 16 calculsted assuming the Member has @ stable cross-section even Af this ts not the case. For a beam in Yension the negative sign in the formula 48 replaced with @ positive eign (ten- sion makes the bending moment smaller). Absa Torsion of goldd Hon-cirewar shapes All of the previous formulas are based on the shear stresses being in the elastic range. With ductile materials failure (rupture) does not ocour until the shoar deformation has gone well in- to the plastic range (similar to the plastic bending ¢ ‘The torsional moment at wnich rupture oceurs can be predicted as discuased in Art. Ci.20a. For the special ease of tubes ha- ving @ olroular cross-section the failing torque ean be caloulsted as discussed in Arts G4.20 and ite associated Figures c4.i7 to 04.30 and in the example prob- leas of Art. O4.21. Ata tatrosuotten, For practical purposes the deflec- tion and slopes of beams arc calculated ap discussed in Art. A7.12a, standard formulas being ueed for unttora besne, and. for varying section beans using tablea such ae Table 03.3.and the "ind Fixity" dlocussion. AT-128 Deflection and-Anguise 2 of jana by Method of *Euaatio Netgnte" For beama of uniform section def lections and elopes are most easily cal~ a SINGLE-SPAN BEAN-COLUNN FORMULAS MS Cystnx/J + Coeosx/) + fC) age] nim Seer & oe eee BFan vam | FSP hegre ee 2 esr | Table A5.1a Continuation of Table 45.1 E 7 ee Hectnin ss | ten | [es fata] ___Lsseges ees a7sawenyagces Wy | “BH SANS Ste 2d i AE niddpen g : ° Ton ues Sepe tae swam ws u SAF Sian was ‘ St basen =o 3 ar mann few: [Vitagua | vam | premegey «eeu BEEP ° of mae, we |ee poet FE soar ongs sows Qf) feena =| contnarttet wont 1a ee oe tae pte EM ye |e oe ve ew van] 7 eb J A “ ne Ee ~ | Ee [sven] mage de 1 fins EF (psec cntgueamc Te sofas ude casey Make Ue a at oy eee cr catgipate "me aa) OTe [mnasaved Beate tim wae snd = Rugg MAE le Wi WEA D/Je08E/ maint /peeina/ jveinb/ job is08b/: Helio eae e ie bore but i Myiox = Wistna/3 [eosb/J-sinb/s(1#008L/4)/sinL/ eet th Reshyscsinh/ Catena etal’ Mnis.ig svsuperposition:of Cases ¥ MOMENT DISTRIBUTION WITH AXIAL LOAD culated by using beam deflection ana slope formulas widely available in the structural literature, These forgulas are based on bending stresses only and are accurate unless the web 1a very thin or otherwise quite flexible due to holes etc., in which casos there may be signi- ficant additional deflection due to shean For beam-columng the deflections and the slopes at any station can be calculated as discussed in Art. A5.25a. For beans with a varying BI a nus erical analysia 16 necessary to deter mine the deflections and slopes. Ths can) be done ag discussed and illustrated in art. flections due to the transverse Loads on-| ly and Tables 03.4 and 03.5 snow the ad- aitional deflections due to the axial loads, the final bending aoents being Ar] Table C3. The deflections are obtained using the data in the tables and the seo- Retric series, 7.35, as was done’ in Table €3.6 for aonents, Tablea for end fixity aro discussed in Art. 03.18, With any elastic ond restraint a aonent distribu- tion snalysta 19 required to determine the end moaents on the bean eto. cussed in Ref. 3 (Art, A18.278). A21.28 Defiottions and Derivations of Terme Add the following at the end of the article, ‘In the moment distr: cedure, where adjacent spans aupport) there ia assumed to be a "joint" even though the member may be continuous across the Joint. “The sketsh in Fig. Al1.92 "shows the direction of (+) and (-)} Moments as they act upon the spans ond, upon the Joint, moments act clockwise on the apan and gounterclockwise on the Joint. different from conventional beam sign convention where a (+) moment produce; compresaion in the "upper" aurface — P= NJoint* % Fig. Al1.92 Sign Convention” AL See Beanple Problon The stiffness factor, K, as used tn Art, 411.5a and subsequently, is a ative” factor rathe: Tt has the value EI/L for the far end fixed and .75 EI/L for the far end pinned. such ':t applies only when there is no ex-| ternal elastic restraint, &.(inelbs per radian)at the ends or at'any joint, and whoa there ie no axial load in the spans, In auch cases “correction factors" fuat be applied to it, ae shown in Art.All.14 for sxample. In general, to avoid inad- ‘Sone books use an opposite ciga convention. ay Fl vertent calculation errors it 1s beat to Use the truo value of the stiffness fac- tor, SF, which te in in-lbs per radian and'is . ASCEI/L F where SC 1s the stiffness coefficient, ana can be obtained from Fig. All.47 (as "c") or calculated per art. All.13a. Doing this eliminates the need for introducing the correction factors otheraise needed. The carry over factor, COF, can be ob- tained from Fig. A11.46 or’ calculated per Art. Al1.13a, In doing moment distribution calou- tions, unless the “far end" of a span ie pinned (or free) it is assuaed to be fixed for determining the values of the stiffness and carry over factors. 222,256 Fixed Bat Monent Gerry Over Pastors for Boats Geithoe of Constant: Greas-ectica Sometimes 1t 1s necessary to use the values of the SC and the COF art. All.Saa) for larger values of L/j than are given in Fig, Al1.46, A11.47°and 411.56 (for 2f-«). Those Values can bo calculated as follows for compression members* SC (far end pinned) = 3/44 ay EEE aS BRD ade waere 4 = 6(Feosee4~ 2)/(L/3F B= 31 - Foor /(1/3))? For members in tension the same formulas can be used, but the trigononetric functions are replaced with the hyperbo- lic functions, cosech and coth. Exten- give tables of the 3¢ and COF values (to 6 ‘significant figures) from L/) = 0 to 2 for compression meabers and’ from 0 to 50 for tension members are in the book Geseribed in Art, A18.27a.4% ALL.A5e secondary Bending Meaents in ‘Briaeee with Rigid Joaate Art. 411,25 gives a procedure for eraining the secondary bending moments juch trusses but no illustrative exen- is provided. The following tllus- tes the procedure except thst in step one one finds the relative rotation of eh mombor using the method of virtual work, step 2 ts omitted ana in step 3 "itg’relative rotation" te used in place of "tn displacements". That io, due jd loads the tras joints move, and therefore the menbers owes in Fig ALLB6 3 at wan be ent panes thay [2 - § Gate) Alie ebltselle from ore ip. Bua and BUF 4 SECONDARY BENDING Fotate relative to each other, These ro- tations generate fixed end momenta at their ends (just ae a bean with unequal~ ly deflecting support will undergo an angular rotation and develope fixed end monents). The following i1lus- ‘urates the procedure using the truss shown in Fig.Al1,92. ae poe fo" ig. A11.92 applied and Internal 1s For the applied loads’ thé resulting internal. loads.in the members are de- bermined as shown in the figure. 2. Monbér BO 1a afbitrartly selected as ‘the "base member" from which the {ations of all other members. are ‘cal- culated. 3. For each other menber (one at.a,tine) 2 clockwise 1 in-1p moasnt inthe fora of couple losde (2/L) at, ite enda te applied and-reactea with @ counter Glockwise couple at the ends: of the Dase nenber BC. The resulting loade in the truss members are. then deter~ mined. See fig. 411.95 and note that only a fen (3 of 4) members are load- in this procedure. Then tor each loaded momber.,the-quan- {ity SuL/AE tp caloulated end. the 7 sults sulned,to obtain the relative Fotations €,, of the. member. to wich {fe oleckwise couple was appited. 5. steps (3) snd (A) are repeated tor. fers to get AlL.4 present: Table A11.5 alismarizes, the ‘calow Table A11.5 Galoulation MOMENTS: IN TRUSSES ‘abla Allvd Basle bate BAe | F ine Bie oes See Set SBBBEBer Page 411.93 Rarstive Rotation Loads For, each of the above members® the fixed end moments are calculated ae : FEM -6810/1(24 - ot) where 2 =o 18 obtained from Fig. A11.56 and accounts for the effect of the axial.-load,, 8, -1n the mombor. “A positive, (clockwise) relative -rotation, &, produces negative (oounterclockwisd FEW’s (per Example. 2 sketoh on”p.All.2) hence: the, minus ‘signin the. formulas Ifa menber has.one end pinned a fixed end moment occurs only at the other end, and 1s calculated as FEM=:-GEIO(1 ~ COF)/L( 28 - «) where OOF is from the pinned end to , f4xed end, Table A11,5 summariz: calculations for thé values of 0. u 6. The fixed ondmoments at all truss jJointe are row known and the momont istribution. procedure can be carried out as illustrated in Fig. A11.43 to obtain. the final moments at the ends of each member, Then soe Art, A5.Ziar- of Relative Rotations, © at, Jor at [tations ae OD. Gouple at_ GE] ie star a fask/abl a 1USLZae As Tr0B5] =593 =1285 o rd 0577] -594 ~ 289 °o o 0289} 593 = 593, 592 593 0. oO oO 1183 1183 2 | 9 ° ~ 592 2367 2} 8 8 é 2 2 | 3 ° 8 SEE = z rr gett r Wote: Multiply each @ by 10%. DE doesn Soap.BN. for the etitical (tickling) loafing esleslation and 8 [Sno = 1183. ‘t rotate since it is held by the supports. 18 for gusset plate data, SECONDARY BENDING MOMENTS IN TRUSSES 5 5 of Taoroasea intern? ‘BRAG he Bere Eotas on Seoendary Sencing Mouents Althouga the secondary bending mon- ente in the truss of art. All.15a were relatively small, they can become quite large as the internal axial loads in the trusé members incre: ‘As the applied loading on the truss approaches tho crit- koal loading these moments will approach infinity. This is why the theoretical oritical loading for a truss can never be attained; bending failure ‘The following example, rigid Joint truss illustrates thi: tye = 27.3", erg = 5108 AFZ07 Typ = 50.0%, Bip = 5x08 12007 Figs ALLA Rigid Joint Truse with Piniet mde Aiea rigid Joint and ends 3 and ¢ are pinned. Asauting A to be a pinned Joint only to determine the axial loads in AC and BG, ‘they are ao shown in the figure With the axial loads known this siple {ruse can be analyzed for stability (Sucking) as a two-span column with pinned ends, a ‘is illustrated and ais~ Guaeed in At, 02.3, Example 2. By suc cessive trial oalgulations, when P 01700 Ibs, Pap = 88072 and’ Pag = 50850. (L/3)aB =30/-V5 * 10788072 =3.9816 S0gp = -1.5428 SFqg = 4(71.5428)(5 x 10°)/30 1028500 (L/3)ac =17+3/V5 x 10/50850 =1. 7446 Stag = «89059 8Fag =4( .89059)(5 x 10/17.3 = 2029600 Hence, at Joint A ESF = 1029600-1028500% 0} go 101700 is the buckling (critical) load| for the truss.” If A were Assumed to be a Plmed Joint then an applied toad of ony 3515 would oause AB to buckle as a pin- fended coluin, since for pinned ends P, for AB ie 54831 and «866% 63315 = 54885, To illustrate the effects of applicd| loadings near the critical loading on secondary bending mo: assune that (90000 and find the resulting moments ‘Friown Ber at any joint $0 thare 14 no renstance te petation sos einicasae wouane sir eauee rotation tod Teokires Let AG be the base momber, apply a 1 in- ip couple on AB and react it with an op posite couple on AC as in Pig. 412.95. Fig. al1.95 virtuel work Loads < ¥ ‘The relative rotation of meuber AB is then calculated as follows. |Meaber] xe s u Sul/ae] aT [sD00o 1730) 380] AB [12435 }-85600| ‘The only FEM is at A since ond B 1 pinned (and AG has no relative rotation). FEMap= ~6( .5x10®){-5803x10% )(1~ 2.323)/ 30(1.44) = “699i in lbs Doing the moment distribution for the final moments at 4 wR 8c 888i |-2.396 SP toi7i00 |-932670 ‘uo SP Br 10.877 /°5.277 pees mon BE HES Fig. 421,96 Nonent otatriution ‘Tho oxtromely large final moments are, of course, unacceptable since bending fail- ure would occur (if P were 101700 the mo- ments vould be infinite). ‘Therefore, when the applied loading on a truss is near the critical loading bending failure will ocour (and prevent the critical loading from being reached), due deflection of the truss Joints un¢ Repeating the above calculations for successively smaller values of the app- lied loading, P, results in the final mo- ments shown in Table All.6. Nete that as the applied leading decreases from near the critioal loading the final momenta decrease very rapidly at first. When the loading decreases to the value which is ‘the oritical value aesuming pin ‘joints 4+ Te vertiue tenting tn AB 19 97,840 ances, scouring 18.3" Pita h Ginine Geae'2 in Bable 25) 6 CURVED BEAMS Table 411.6 Variation of Final Moaenta with Applied Loading Applied | % of | Final Loading | critical| Moments | Loading | At A 101700 | 100,0 oe 100000 | 98.4 | 57985 99000 | 97.3 | ~24983 98000 | 96,4 | -20522 g5000| 93.4 | ~ 8876] 63315 | 62.3 ° 40000 | 393 60 (63315) the final momenté”are relatively, small; Tate 1s wey an seaumed ping joint analyaig wnich ignores the, sesoidary’ moa- ents, 4 \denmon-precedure,.in-unlikely te reault in strength failures, Fatigue life migat-be a cofeern for very light structures. If a truas member 1a subject te a lateral loading, that causes an add- itional, type of secondary moment te occur and additional beam-colum’ effects. aitHough thd 1itustrative oxsable s only the simplest type of rigia int truss, the results ould be sixiler & conventional type of truss. ‘The analysis would, of cours dious. More about truss nentioned in Are.Al6.278 (and Fig. 423.11a Gurved Boise tions the bean ge instability ef- Therefore, with duc- For compact cro: % subject te f) (Qnapter 7). atrength oan be Caléulated as Alecuased in Chapter 03, ignoring the curvature. When the’ cross-section: has relative- 2a, and therefore suléing in bi Tt’also generates bending stresses. in the flanges| in, @ direction normal to. the. plane, of, the| curved Beam Section Bending Fig.At3.220 jections the cir- sat any point For, synmetrical croa: cumferential bending st: Sebo Section aay" So"ealniatted be ee kB Gey) where de Avid of gros destin ReRedius of curv centroidal axt M= Applied -aoment, tension in the and vieo-versa ys letanoe from centrdtddl axis, being + outward fron thie axis and-= if inw a Te Tes whore w = cross-sectional width at distance y positive tor outer fibers Table A13.4° presents formulas for 2 for geverai qross-sections. here a flange width 1g required, tig not the actual width, by but rather an effective sidth, Uerra.ds to the deflection show in Fig. aljtdea, Tits can be calculated as dett.= Orb, whore G, 4a obtained from Fig. A23.220. for determining 4 and 2 Being, 26 Pig.A13.22b Carved Beam Bending Coefficients i ! ‘Te transverse where Gg 1s obtained from Fig.A13.22b and fp fe, the stress calculated previ ousiy”ualiig 01. Again» thle dsousaion applies only to. syauetrioal cross- sections as in Fig. Al3.22a. When weight 15 important and rela- tively thin flanges result in high stresaes, the stresses can be reduced by using thin, closely. spaced,.machined in place "bulkheads" between the-flanges, or Denesth a T-nenber's flangs. ‘This reduas CURVED BEAMS. the flange deflection and therefore 7 reduces the beam bending stresses and the flange's transverse bending stresa. Un- fortunately, there 1s apparently no de~ sign oriteria for this, go one aust rely on Judgement and tests’as to, both, lin it and ultimate load adequacy. Unaymmetrical cross-sections should be avoided in fittings and hooke with large curvature since there are no formu- as or data for prodicting bending stress in such flanged members (teata required). Finally, much curvature with flanged " Gause significant compressive 90% thinner the web the worse the effect. These are generated as discussed for Fig. 3.28 and stiffeners are needed as illus- there to prevent crushing or buckling. Tae machined pulineada also do this in dn’ the case discussed for machined items. 418,50 Buckling Loads of Goluans Equation 16(b) applies only when the, axial stress 1s in the elestic range and when the cross-section of the coluan re~ mains stable:(i.e., no local buckling oc- ours before Por 18 attained). When these Hot exit the oritical load’ by Eq. 16(b), Add the following st the end of Art. 18.8. 6b, 30 and 34) aeore: oreases above tho proportional limit (Ey being the slope of the stress-strain ourve), 8 successive trials solution for Por is indicated. ‘That is, Ft must be the value corresponding to Sor, ‘The suc- cessive triais oan be avoided if a column ourve is available as in Fig. Al8.11, en- tering with L/r and reading Ggp on tl ordinate. If a column curve ia not av~ adlable the procedure illustrated in art. 2.10 can be used. Equations 16b, 30 and 34 also do not| apply, nor does thé oolum curve, if any part of the cross-section ta thin enough fo have © local buckling stress which ia smaller than Gor as predicted by the a- dove equations. In thia cage @ special eolum curve witch accounts for this lo- tal instability must be constructed and used as shown in Art. 07-25 and 02,16, TORSIONAL BUCKLING 2 Table Al3,4 Some Formas for Z seal) (EVES zeatcEfemeaenieoo eg Rey) =D om =) oa 418,80 Torsional Buckling ‘The previous discussions are for the conventional fora of general instability involving only a bent (buckled) ‘shape, aluo referred to as bending buckling. There 1¢ another fora of general instabi- lity which can result in smaller values of Yor + Tate form of buckling involves a twleting of the column (even thot ‘there te no applied twisting moment) and 4g oalled “torsional buckling". Depsnd~ upon the croge-asctional ahape, the buck- led shape may be oither a pure twisting or a combination of twisting and bending about one or both Tt occurs for open cross-sections having thin elenents and 4s ueually nore eritical than bend- ing buckling in the short to medium range column range.* Torsional buckling is dis~ cussed further in Art. 0%) and in de- tail in the book described in art.al6.278 Me Sae Big, C792 ‘pregeton, the lower ones being in ‘ten- 8 AIB CRUSHING LOADS. ‘Au6.27~ Comprehensive treateent of Selman Strengths ‘The broad coverage (160 pages) of column design referred to in Art. 18.27 ag boing in an originally planned: "Volund 2" was not included when it was decided to publish only the current single volun rather than tno voluses because of space requirements. However, thia material is available in’ the book ‘ingineering Colum Analysis! by W.F. UcCoubs, Datates , 7.0. Box 763576, Dallas, 1X .75376-3576..."Top= ica inciuds columns, bean-colunna, tru: en, torsional. buck- 1 Srippling buckling “6 on elastie or oth= ervise sagging supports. Both, uniform and varying section menbers are included. 20: 280 dechaliteal and, Payateat Proper * Wise ‘ot ooue Atrofate Matsreais ‘The last paragraphs of Art. -A18.28. refer to @ planned Volume 2 wien wi finally included as Parte B, C and D of the textbook. Therefore, 1¢ 1s Chapters Bl and.82 of the textbook to watch the reference 1s nade* 49,23 Grushing Loss on Bibs us to Wing Bending Chapter A19 provides dethods for ae+| termining ‘the stress in the flanges, shear webs, stringers and skin panols of ‘the wing structure. Chapter A.21 disous-| sea the shear loada and stressesin wing ribs. Neither of these chapters discus- a the arushing loads on. the rib-webs at) airib-atringer Joint which are caused by the bending of the wing'or of any box ‘beam having stringers, supported by, ribs.’ Since the ribs provide’ aiapis support for the stringers in compression, if a rip fails ‘locally its ‘simple support for the and tis stringer willl fail ag a colimn, "When the rib web thin with no-10ea1' reinforcement’ and° the crushing lodds are” large such failure’ can| eecur. The ‘aanner in’ which these orush~ tng leads arise ts\as follows, Fg JANG de shows w front View of a nih in Ute bent form (greatly exaggera- ted) the “upper stringers'belng in con- gion and the load line from rib’ to, rip Shom ty “the broken line. Due to the Sending radius of curvature, 8, the Snela G'Will be O=L/R, a very small fuce A te very args in a practical: win Structure.’ The load, P, in eny stringer fooated at a rib mill have components of fSeilen Ieage fron 'a sentise durplane FACTORS OF SAFETY aéted by the rip ads, An the amowit Qs 2Pein(o/2) = Fo or, Q= PL/R Since R = EI/M @ = Fuu/st If Ly ind'Lp are different, rib spactiigs Q > PUL, + Lg)u/2er Where Qs the crushing load on thé rit web at.the stringer, Mis the bending mont on the wing at the rib. station and EI ig that of, thenig at the rip, station. Teorstiy, dais seetngte itt oid & oltp tothe rib (or its equivalent) which oan pass. tie load @ into the rib web, and.if oad!te Large enough to crush ‘the Pip olip. will also need to ‘be extended ehed Bo as. to serve as a stiffen- rib) to prevent crushing of the 44.2 ahd in G1.13 "through 1.15, but. they do not provide apécific. assostated. nus: bers for factors of safety or method calculating the margin of ‘satety for sen~ bers wider many combined: load ‘system: of the following diecu: fa todo, that, Factors of safety URtimate, toads, also called deat toads, are optained by multizlying the Limit’ 1oads (the actual of expeotea Yoads) by a, factor of safety. For pilo- ved aamashiace vehicles tho, factor of sare~ ty 48 usually. 15, For aigsiles, which are nog. plipsed, the faster of safety 13 is usuaily 1.25 "except for day load cone ition where the safety of people 4s in~ volved where it is 1.5 (eg+, for’ the ej= Naval. airplanes are designed for a very ast" sinictits speedy about 26 fést ver a load parallel to the rib which are re- Trteee wash date ary alts on yoAbeA8 cond, so no safety factor is applied to MARGINS OF SAFETY these loads. However, the landing gear must continue to function after such a landing and the major attach fittings (landing gear to wing or fuselage, wing to fuselage and major fusclage section eplices) must show a margin of safety of +25 for this landing condition. In gen- eral, factors of safety are specified by the procuring agénoy. Margins of Safety. The margin of safety for a structur-| al member subject to 2 single load or stress 1s calculated as Le Load Ultimate Load or stre: or etre in some cases it must have a specified post- tive Value as mentioned for Naval air- and must te zero or more, However, planes and .15 for fittings. ‘This margin| is also required if additional fitting or| casting factors have been specified. For| shear Joints a minimua gargin of safety of «15 is Fequired and for tension joints it is’.50% Also for these. joints there muat be no yielding at limit load.. For r joint, attachnente if thé bearing yield Strength t less than 2/3 of the Ultimate bearing strength, the bearing allowable strength 1s taken as 1.5 tines ‘the bearing yield strength and the joint is said to be "yield critical". For riv-| eted shear and tension Joint allonable date aee Chapter Dl. Also see Appendix Ay ‘The previous simple formula for the M.S. gives the decimal fraction by which the load may be increased and still nave a \M.S. of zero. For example, if M.S.=.20) ‘the applied loads may be increased by @ factor of 1.20. However, the simple for- ula applies only when ail of tne follow-| conditions exist 1. The member 1s subject only to 2 single| type of loading, not to several types such ag shear plus compression eto. a the internal losds vary linearly with applied loads. All applied loads are variable, 1.0.5 none are fixed in magnitude such aa 8 constant pressurization. These conditions are discussed as follow 1. For example a bolt may be subject to shear, bending and tension simulten- ously. In such cases so-called “interaction equations", derived fron vs PoAdy Mares o¢ Sarety tests rather than theory, are used to shon structural adequacy. A typical in~ teraction equation is of the form RL + RE + B+ ----- Khe 0 Mnere Bi=£4/F1+ Rox ta/¥; » R32 f5/F5 and Rat fa/fa, ? being@the“uitinate atreds (Or load)’and F being the allowable stress (or losd), Ris called the stress ratio". When the left side of the equation is 1.0 the M.S. 1a zero. Waen it 1s less than 1.0 the M.S. 18 pos itive but undefined and woen it is more than 1.0 the M8. is negative but unde- fined. Exanpli £1 = 10000 and F1= 30000, so Ry= «335 £2=49000 and Fp= 60000, so Ra= 1687 Interaction Equation: Ry+ B=1.0 +333. + 667° = 778 (<1.0) fience the M.S. 4 positive but undefined. There are tno cases for which the M.S. can be calculated directly using the in- teraction stress ratios, R, as follons. a) When al2 exponente (a, b, os n) have of 1.0 and/or 2.0. In thia case mera far -1.0 b) When all exponents have the same value, ny in which case 4.8.5 QFERPS ST yy oh? For all other oases the M.S. is found by using plots of the applicable interaction equation (discussed later) or by eucc: sive trial calculations. ‘he latter is done by finding, by successive trials, by what conmon factor, A, all of the Loads must be multiplied’to satisfy the interaction equation. ‘The M.S. te -then A= 1.0. or, when (any f+ (ara) (ARs f+ (ary f= 1.0 Ms AW 10 Example: For the previous example Ax 333 + (A x-.667F = 110 20 MARGINS OF SAFETY, __iNTERAGTION EQUATIONS After several trials the equation is’ sat~ defied when A= 1.271, 80 M.S. 2.4 = 1,0 = 1271+ 1.02.17] Since all exponents are 1.0 and/or 2.0 saneg 22 ezponere ore 20 200 Seo sare or a When using, thia formula with other more Jetigthy inbersciion equations, $a6 paren: ys around the term ZR, must be noted and used ER te the auatot all stro Tatios naving'the exponent. 1.0 and Z the sum of those having the exponent When plots of interagtién equations allable the M5. can be determine: Graphical construction. This is 11 G4.24a in’ the textbook using Fig. 04.36. However, graphical eo- lutions are not néeded when the prior formulas apply, raction curves are not available. Listing of Interaction Equations: Numerous. interaction equations ap- pear in various-parte of the book por ‘the following listing. Bending, Shear and Compression 03.15 Bonding’and shear op.a2° Bending and Bonding 93.8 Bear-Column Bending & Axiai Load . ch.22 Ubi Bending and Goapression 04.22 Bonaing and. Tension. oh. 238 Bending and Torsion oa. 24 Goupression, Bending and.Torsion C4.2ha Bending and Shear 4.25 Gongression, Bending , shear oh.26 and Torsion Tenaion and Torsion c.27 ‘Hist Shest Bonding and Conpression 5.9 Bending and shear 05.10 Shear and Tension or Compression 05.12 Compression, Bending and Shear 05.12 Monocoque Cylinder (Various) Table 68.1 set 09.5, Compression or Tension and Shear Stiffenea cylinder 09.21 Shear and Coupreasion Torsion and Bending 09.13 Shear and Sending B33 Stringer Primary and 011.338 Secondary Stresses Ring (Frame) Primary and 012.338 Secondary Stresses (for Stringer, system) on Primary and Secondary «11.36. Ring’ (Frame) Primary and 11.368 Secondary Stresees (for Longeron, syatea) : 2. Tuere ‘are cages where the internal Joads ins menber do not vary linearly witn the applied loads. one example {he bean-eoluan where the, bending mom: ent inoreases faster than doos tne ap, plied. loading.,,, Another, example.1s the axial stress ii stringers, dus to ten~ Bion field action. . For alich. cassa the M.S) a5, previously calculates would be aa “apparent” M.S.) not @ true M5. Waether the apparent M.S. is positive on negative, the true M.a, will always Be closer to zero than the apparent ig. te thus M.S. gust be calculated ai folloms. By sudssssive ‘trials find the com mon factor, A, by which the applica loads (which produce the internal losds in the members), must, all be multiplied to give a calculated M.S, of zero, ‘he true M.g. ta then A= 1.0. Por a"boam- solumh the applied loada are the axial Joad, and the transverse loads. Multi- plying these by any factor, F, will generate a bending moment in the bean- column which increases faster than the ooumon factor, F. A ta the value of F for which the calculated M.S. 16 zero, and then the true M.g, to A= This procedure applies for any inter~ action equation taat may be applicable. Note that this requires a greater o! fort than that in (1) previously. ‘This Ag beoduse increasing the applied loads requirdi ariottier analysis to determine ‘the internal loads, since they do not DEALING WITH TOLERANCES. vary linearly with the applied loads. ‘Thia le important because mar- gins of safety are reported for atruc- ‘ural members and are usatto see if tne aembers can withstand an increase dn the applied loade. If the applied loads increased by a factor of, aay, 1.20 and the report showed a M.S. of, +120 1t would be Judged to be ac~ ceptable as an increase, But if this happened to be an apparent M.S. the ‘true M.S. would be smaller snd the in- crease in applied loads would not be acceptable. Hence, the triie values of} the M.S. should be in the report. If not they should ve “flagesd" as being apparent ones go that a proper eval- uation can be made when needed. 3 The intemal loads in a member are due to tho applied loads. Some- ‘the applied loads consist xed" loads waten do not vary, Tor example, constant pres. Burization loads. When such aro pres-| the internal loads or stress: ‘the menber due to thea should no nultipliea by the eommon factor, (1) previously or by the factor, (2) Since they are constant. If were done the calculated U3, would bel conservative (to suall) if these loads were “additive” and vice-versa Af they wore "subtractive". Tats als: applies when the M.S. 4m calculaved by| ‘he formulas in (1a) end (1b), and when, the X.8, 1s determined graphical. Uys watch gakea these calculations no applicable for for euch oases. (the sucosssive trials procedure ts thon needed). Lage Dealing with Tolerances When calculating margins of safety for a structural member nominal (mean) dimensions are used to determine the stress in the momber and ita allowabie load. Ideally, the U.S. 18 zero, gener- ally, However, all drawinge specify the manufacturing tolerance which accompan- ies each dimension such as, for example #,03" and these are considered as Tollov| In aerospace structures 1t te com mon practice to consider only the two worst tolerunoes affecting any dimension and to compute the reduced margin of aafety based on the reduced dimensions. This vill give a negative U.S. when the nominal M.S. is zero. Such negative margins ve acceptable if they do not exceed -.15 for single load path members CONBINED STRESS BQUATIONS 11 or =,25 for redundant members. ‘These are arbitrary limits, some companies allowing more negative values such as -.19 and =+39. respectively, Such negative aargins caused by tolerances are acceptable since ‘the probability 1s quite low that, aimul- taneously, the material will nave uininun Properties, tne tolerances will be as jarge as allowed, the loading condition will be achieved’and the internal loads in the members will ve as large as pre- dicted. If the U.3. had to be zero or more based on such minimum, rather than nominal,dimensions considerable weight would be added to the structure, Woen dimensioning structural members care should be used to prevent the build-up of large tolerances affecting the final din- ension. Unacceptable tolerance effects are most likely to occur when dimension- Ang small machined or cast protuberances or holes, where small internal corner radii are present and for thin machined or chem-milled parts, However; the above should in no way be construed'as sanctioning negative mar- gins based on nominal dimenaiona or e1 dorsing the salvage of parts having le strength than required per the drawing. G60 Conbined strean Hquations For practical calculation purposes ‘the following summary and example problea are helpful. Fig.C1.8a@) shows the posit- ive direction of known or given applied etre Fig. (b) stows the resulting stressea,% andgy , on any plane @ (posi~ tive directions shom), which can be calculated aa follows: Hcy + dy )+ He, cy )00820 + Zyainze a= Hoy -dy ain 26 - %y 20520 is The principle stresses, are cal~ culated ae fonlowas 7? Gy = Udy+ dy 1t VRE Sy PG 2. To plane for the largest prinoiple sefono, Gp ie moasured fran the plane of the larger of dy, ordy and 16 caloulated aa follows. ” A Op = darctan(2%y/ (oy ~dy )) The plane of the smaller principle stress is 90° away from thia plane. ‘The maximum’ shear stress, ety Mieulatea as Selusnse’e? Tmax Tax = Vie ~ Sy + Tage 12 COMBINED STRESSES. 4, The plane on which Tyg, ia located 1a te Sees fare ie way Ray) Sa sc td Ty ane enon iaS8, “Poattive' ae" anown & ina tte postive i shown cos ey PS aa “Fuge 286 sin tn rand sreuned ‘Bxanipt ‘Frobled 4x0 sacgo__| |_ang00 4509 Koo For ‘the stresses. shown in the’ sketch above (note that o) is compressive, henes nogative) what areo and 7 on a plane 2b8 = 60°? What are Ope: Sor Taax and a &_24( 10000 ~' 2000) 8{100004 2000) e08126| 4 ABO0sinied, =" 4897, % 4 #(10000 + 2000)sini 204500000 120” = 6 £ Gix= ¥(20000 - 2000) + YH a000o+2000 F450 | = 11500 ‘and ~3500_ : @,= drctan(2 x 4500/(10000 + 2000)) = 18. 3 Tax =, (20000 + 2000) 45008 = 7500 Gz.2 daPetan( 10000 +'2000/~2( 4500) Oz 1s always AS? away from O;- If any of the above’ calculated values had been negative they would be acting or lo- cated in a direction opposite to that shown in Fig.c.JBa. Usually one is interested only in deter- EREB-ENDED COLUMNS mining the value of the largest aq and of the largest Tpax+ G2.ie Metnode.of Gotu Failures Colum squasiens The Leet “paragraph 15 extended to Snelude the following. ‘Predicting fail- ure due to local instability requires that, the ‘oolum curve op récotietrusted in ‘the short to intermediate ranges. this regpnstrudtion 1s disousedd and i11us- {rated in Ant.¢7.25 through 07.27” 2.20 Free-mitod cotiins™* Figsd2-2 stiows only # spedtal case ended colunt, one end. being fully fixe ‘thie load remaining paral- lel to the axis of the ember in tts straight (unbuckled) form. in general, however, the lead; P,' may be directed eltner t6 or froma given point, "o", as shown in Fig.02,28. " ae aMaeL) (8) Long darseten: trea, ASL Lgl Figs 02-28 Phee-inded ‘Gouin, Fixed mid Aa‘ atiowh" in Ref.4 (Art.a18:272), the pudkling lod is defined by the trans- cendental equation : (L/3)etmt/) 2 - (1/a)" For any given valve!of'm (#1g.02.28), Por is found by. guces ly redliced ‘by Using Fig.c2.2b, entering the figure with mand obtaining (1/})cr- Por 1s thei calculated as Por = (/d Yep 81/1? ) Not’ that when a of l,z00 Lio and Pop = (1/2) (BI/1F ); ‘When, Ooms 0 ahh Per = WA(BI/1F)i when Ly= 0, moe and Per = 0. Taat-is, ao 6 decreases For, inéresses, but.sah, dackeaies Por ecreases. ror Fig. (a) tp elvermace fore fa yaad)» Te REAL Aamoys Gye ws Por Pevecandedbeavestuing fae Art, 270 Donk FREE-ENDED COLUMNS WITH ELASTIC END RESTRAINT 13 Fig. 02.00 ( | iLtr$ | a seu Bastlosty Restrained Bod inevesa of being ful + the ond may be elastionity ragiegineg’ at shown by the "torsion apring", k, in Figs 02.2¢, which has a value in in-lbs/radian ois results in a omaller buckling load than when fully fixed (k=2°), (a) Lond azrected toward "ot ae afar l) (b) Yond dizectea fron *o” a= (Ls Illy Fig. 02.22 Froe~mdea Golunn Having a Hineticaliy Restrained Baa For this case, as shown in Ref.4, tae buckling load’1s given by tue equation® ‘roar tynemnya ° Por! 48 found by succeasive trial calou- hen m = 1 the equation becomes singly k ~ zjeant/s + 0 lations aa follows. For a given k and m one assumes a value of P, calculates J jeas Values in'the equation, Por the equation is catiefied. For the spectal case where a or t,t infinity, so that a= 1.0, Pop can be de Yerained directly by entering Fig. (2.4% with KL/EI, obtaining the value of ¢ and ealoulating Pop ai Por = On EI/L Note tnat when k=o° (fully fixed) 6 =.25 ag given in Fig.c2.2. It must be remenbered that in all column calculations £ is EH, watch de- greases as the compressive stress ox- ceeds the proportional limit. Also, when ‘the column has an unstable (thin) crose- section E ia an “effective” modulus! To determine it one finds the buckling gtress froa the modified column curve (art.7.26) and then calculates it ai Bort = Por(L/pf /are For free-ended columns Fig.C2.17 1s ape plicable only when m = 1.0 If the column has lateral loada or an initially bent shape it becones a in Fig.02.2a(a) assuze that _a = 50", L = 350", B= 10.5 x 10% (7075-16 Extrusion, p-81.11), 1 = .191, A= 150 eq in and & stable cross-asction What is Por? m = 30/(30 + 350) = .50. Per Fig.c2.2b for m= 45, (L/J)gr= 2-03. Therefore, Por= 2.0F°(10.5x10* )(.291)/30* = 918: Fer Eee abe g it /50" = 2283 Since Fer< Prop. Limit, Et= = as asaued. Example Py Repeat Example 1 assuming the fixed end ia replaced with an elastic restraint of = 50000, as in Fig.c2.2c. This must be solved by’ successive triala. tril 1: Ai pune Pon = «Sn BL/ Ai? = 4 Then j= -VaPo eee 521.35 and 1/j = 1,405 nue S000 p= AAPL — Taibo 756849 (#0) 2 See Arts 215 14 After several more trials tt te found that when? 18.2622 the equation ts sdt- defied, 2 this ts the critical load, as follow: 4 = VIO x 10°C. 191) 72082 = 27.656 1/3 = 30/27-656 = 1,0848 ae 50000 = eee hater o0r8) AT which 1s essentially sero. 30 this particular elastic restraint has reduoed the oritical load from 9148 for a fully fixed end to"only 2622 los. 2,90 tae erect of, mbit oa Blakaing sisese quiations (1) and (2) of Art.o2.2 conéider only the bending. stiffness-of columns. Wien a beam bends because of applied transverse loads and the reeult- ing bending momenta, the usual defieo- tion formulas consider only the bending moment. Tiere 8, however,.an addition- al deflection due'to shear. For example, a simply supported bean-of uniform BL having 4 load, Q, at mid-span will have a| maximum deflection given by y= @2 /aBBI + nOL/sAg ‘The first term is due“to vending and the second term ie due to shear, where n ta a| form factor which deperids upon ‘the shane This 1 aly negligible, but a6 n increases due to-a thin-or perforated of othernise more flexible web -it oan become significant. For a colum there 1s no applied tranavarse load, but 6 shear load is gen-| erated by the-axial load as the column takes on 8 Dent (buckled) shape, as shown| in Fig,C2,2d Fig, 02.04 Generation of Shear in a-doluan Atcaiy ecation the bending moment. 4 u=Py and the shoar in the menber is v= au/dx = Pay/dx where ay/ax is ‘the slope of the bent ‘Hence, for the uniform simply upported colusn the shear varies from a EFFECT’OF SHEAR OW’ COLUMN BUCKLING. faximum at the ends to zero at thes" MULUISPAN COLUMNS uiddle where dy/ax, the slope, 18 zero. Consequently there is a shear in the mox- ber witch, in effect, makes the oolum nore flexible and taereby reduces the buckling load or stress Aa discussed in Ref.5, for unifora columns the buckling load,’ considering shear, 15 Pop = VEER where Por i the buckling load ignoring shear, nis the fora factor for the cross-section, A is the cross-sectional area and G is’the shear modulus of elas- tlolty (@= £/2(1+ p)) where wis Pola son's ratio. The values of n for several, cross-sections are shown in Table 02.2, able 02.2 Cross-section Form Factors Gross=Section = [Reotangie 1.200 olla Girele 1/100 [Thin Round Tube 22000 [I-Beam or Rectangular Tube} Area/Web Areal n can be calculated for other oro: sections a n= (Wr ) fa ar/o where A 1s croas~sedtional area, Q 1s the static moment of area beyond dA about. the noutral axis aid'> is tho wath at the neutral axts.For-columa having lat ‘ioed struts (trussed ooluins or “batten” plates)-or having perforated weba see Ref. 5. ft 49 when the web becomes thin or, othersise has less shear stiffness ‘that the column buckling load is slgnifi- cantly reduced. 2.3 Multiepan columns Unfortunately, this’ and most’ other textbooks do not alsciids columns having morethan one span. Such columns are e: ily checked for stability by applying a 1 An-1b “couple at any "joint" (support) not having full fixity-ana oarrying out ‘the moment distribution procedure as i cussed and illustrated in Art. All.13 - Alls14 and its exenple problems. if the Successive carry-over aonents at all joints becons ‘sualler (eaiverge) the col~ ium te stable. The larger the axial load the "sioner" ine convergence. If they diverge at any joint the colum is un- stable. The critical load 1s that for which they do neither, found only by ue- cessive trial analyses, varying the axial Joad.uséd, in each. moment, distribution, «= MULTISPAN COLUMNS. 15 ‘There are some helpful techniques for doing this in Ref. 4, including, soe "quick checks" for detecting instability soactises without the above procedure. Ref. 4 algo contains numerous example problens for multispan columns including those on elastic or otuerwise deflecting supports, those having froo-ended meubera| and those having varying loads an¢ ET valuss within the spans. Tae altemstive to doing the aonent distribution analysis ts to conservative: y sasune that each span is simply sup- ported and check each span individually. Tais te accurate only won all spans are identical, tho two eads aro simply sup- ported and the axial load 1s constant. Instability Criterta 1) The following can be done when each span is uniform and the axial load does not vary along the span (j is constant). If any span has a value of I/} greater than shown in Table 02.3 the column 1s known to be unstablé If less than these values it may oF may not be unstable, but a moment di tripution anslysie is required. Table C2.3 Instability criteria’ * ‘Type-of End suport ALY, The ond elastically restrained, one end free IB. Both ends simply ow supported lc. One end simply supported, one elastically reatrained| \c. Both ends olastically restrained, Hlastic restraint 1s provided by an adjacent span in a multispan column or by toraion spring as in Fig.C2.20 2) If at any Joint the sum of the stifr- ness factors, ESF, 1s negative the column is unstable (aes the footnote for Art. Al1.150). The ‘Mo-Span Coluan The following appliea’not only to a two-span column but to any number of spans meeting at a conaon joint (support) IP the outer ends of the meabere are ei- ther simply supported or fully fixeder hee {no elastic supporta) the column is inoma| to be stable if at the common Joint Z5r ia positive. If it is negative the col- umn is Kiowa to be unstable. No moment @lstribution 1,therefore, required eo ‘he analysis is’quite simple. ‘Te oriti- ok AF ertteria, (ators tn a sae Tue Listed 1/5-values axe fur P= For = OfRr/tt cal load is that for which EsF= 0, found by successive trial values of the axial load.” Example Problem 2 Ie the three-span coluan shown in the sketon below stable or unstable? ag Regt edie Dose woh Bie x, oe: Sse BEBER fq EEE) ‘The analysis ie carried out as snom, ap- plying a 1 in-1b couple to the joint at B. Note that the SC, SF and COF are om iited at the ends, A’and D, since they are simply supported and no initial non. ents (FEM's) are present theref “As the moment distribution process shows, the Successive carry over moments (COM's) at all Joints are decreasing. ‘Therefore the column is known to be stable.*** Actually,’ one should almays calculate the compreasive stress, P/A, for each span and use the corresponding value of By. (or eff) in saloulating the value of J. Al- 80, Ref. 4 contains extensive tables giv- the values of SC and COF to six stgnifi~ cant figures (better than Fig.All.45-47). Example Problem 2 Ie the two-span colum shown in the sketca below stable or unstable? 6 +. —__ Beree Beane wh 7 Bf] elo Proceeding as clacuased before for the nocapan column, ie 19 seen that Ear at the season Joint, 3, ta negative. mere Fores the column se"sa0en Co be tnatasie. By succeasive trials.1t 18 found that when the axial load 1s 93040 Iba ZisF = 0, so. that 1 the buckling load, If the axial load were 168750 to 219600 For « fregrended column when a = 1 (Pig,62,2a) fhe Sr fa sPyeant/ 16 stprsp Z5F would-be’ positive, tnatoating: atabil- ‘ty, buy’ this would not be applicable bi aude 1/4, for span BC would exceed the uaximum (4.494) allowed in Table c2.3. Tia is why the Table C2.3 criteria should always be checked firet, before Procesding with any other analyses. In, summary, the moment. distribution BPocedube can be used to check any aulti- span column for stability, . But before © doing this instability canbe detested quickly per the. criteria of Table ¢2.3 and if at any Joint ESF 1s negative. Taen, for any two-span colum if BSF ta Positive st the comaon, joint the Solum ig known to be stable if criteria (1) is met. Unitora Two-séin Golun Foraula For the special case of a untfora member on three: simple supports an ap- proximate formula for the buckling load te Por = fE1(2 ~ b/a)/a® ’ ‘ide ‘the longer span and b is the shorter, span. When 4 = b (=L/2) the for- mula i. ct. When b becomes zero (ive as-a.becomes L) the-error is only 2.44% and ts conservative (one end becom essentially: fixed as a beccmes L), te oy ‘The formula can be verified nunerieally by ealaulations for.a-two-span coluan as prayiously. tllustrated, ‘or ‘theoretioally as 4m the book. "Theory. of Limit Design® by JA, Van Den Broek (J. Wiley and Sons 2.64 stepped dolume are a special case for which formulas (pugeling equations) are svaii~ able as discussed in Ref. 7, Formulas are presented for the cases of simply supported members having one, two and ‘hres steps in EI. For-more than three steps.the formulas become tos lengthy for| practical useage, soa simple tabular alculation form'is presented with. an ex-| aaple problem shown. where Since, the equations.are transcenden-| ih form, a, successive trials proce- dure 16 necdssary to determine the criti- @ai load. This consists of ashuning a value for P (and Ey) ,ealculating any Associated parauctere and uoing theod va. conuiies correspond 16 For, whteh they gusts Singe tt to. possible for more ‘than one "valle of P'tovaatisfy "the equetions (quste dirterent values), 42 18 best. to Use 4 length-nelghted average SI, calcu Late a, corresponding value for Per aa sfEI/I? and use this as the mitieiy as Guned value for°P.” For‘the ‘special cases of one-step and syzmotrical two-atep col ums grapaical plots aro avatlabie in ¥igy 62.21 and 02,22 for a direct detor- mination of Par. I Tate So rs Fig.oo.t04 two-step yssetrienl colin ‘tan(LyVE/eqia) x tan(Le \V/2/Eata/2) Vete/ein ‘Three 1 step. Solum beeper acts a luea in the equations, When the assumed Foie Pay tHe equation will be satisfied. x“ ficetite 2 Ei 35 my ss pee Psgc62. 0b Marwoestep dolumn “Fibeo ecuations are easity sclutage ty senpeees oF aad XAnalezhhation help Fal erie Flan seers os er otis Fh fees citly & “hie ahi STEPPED COLUMNS, Wisk, nd ta = Gly The equations are easily programmed for rapid evaluation using a suitable ealoulator (or computer). The derivation| of the equations is available in Ref. 7. Columns Having More than Three stepa (and also for"? oF 3 stops) the following tabular nunerical procedure, can bo used, as Litustrated in Table 02.4. Tt, too, is a succes trials procedure (auseoasive tables). One assumes a value for ? (and E) as sug- gested later and carries out the tabular Calculations as show. When the assumed >| {a Por the value in Col. 6 for the last, segment, N, will be equal to the value in Goi. 8 Zor’the segnent N-2 multiplied by Any number of segnents can be us lues for ?, the last being 79200 1b. As discussed previously; to start with @ reasonable Yalue for ? & length- Nolanted average G1 gnpuld be Used and EI/LE. “When Col Oy P calculated As less than ~Gol. 6ya7'a larger valuo assumed for tho next for ? should trlal and vice-veraa for 6y > ~8y-1- Te ier Fig:02+20e Date for Table G2,4 Braap! Table 62.4 Stepped Column Analysis cats since Gh ~ -O5, Por = P= 79200 Lbs. Ag discussed for the formulas in art. 2.64, the proper valugs of 2 must be used for each segnent. 2.60 Numertoa Colum Analyeee Except for those oases discussed in art.c2.1 through (2.5, Fig.d2.21 through + Be gheck for gtepiaisy sates 9 etves toads Py s0e that Af Eafias"cbest” oan ‘be nule wich dhe forstia NUMERICAL COLUMN ANALYSIS Methoa" mark, Ref. - 37 02.27 or othor similar type data, a nun- erical analysis ts required to determine the critical load or stress. art.G2.6a ‘pregented a numerical solution for the special case of stepped column: on simple supports. The following pre- sents 4 procedure for any variation in shape and for simple and fixed eupports. These procedures are in tabular form, ra~ ther than as computer programa, since this givea a better understanding of what As being done. ‘The procedures are, of course easily programmable for solution by computer. As before, the critical load 1a determined bysuccossive trial: which means successive tables of cali lations. Example problems illustrate the Prove’ * The basis procedure uses the method aigorete elastic neights (also called jonr'g Method" and the "Conjugate Bean to replace the M/ET diagran and calgulate deflections and 1s due to New ‘The formulas for the are discussed in Ref. agtic weight Simply Supported Column: Referring to Fig.C2.20d and Table 02.5, the procedure is as follows, 1. Divide the column into several ‘equal, length segments, S, at least five or six cogments, but ten or more will. give a more accurate value of Por- Assume (ketch) an initial buckled (@sflected) shape. Any initial shape will do (even two straight lin but the more realistic it 1s the soon- or the effort will be completed. 2 At the station in (2) above which has the largest deflection, y, let its def- lection be taken ac 1", and let the deflections at the other stations be Proportional to thia (per the sketch). Let P be one 1b. Then at any station fn, the bending moment will be la Jhe 0 the values in (3) above are ef= UBtea in Col. 2. Foaitive deflections are upward afid positive bending mom- entg produce compression in the upper Surface, hence the minus sign used in the headings for Gol, 2 and. 4, At each station enter the value of EI in Gol. 3. If there ia a “step” in BI an adjustaent ie made to EI at th station ‘nearest to the step, discussed later, and ite BI is "flaggea" with an asterisk to indicate thie adjustment. ‘Bosse (ant cher) tables are enatiy for fapid toiuelen ty computer or wuttathe saleulaters, VARYING SECTION COLUMNS 18 6. The “equivalent concentrated elastic -* Loads” (elastic weignte") are then « ‘Galeulated per the formulas below the table for each station and are entered in Gols 5. ‘Those formulds are dis cussed an’ met. 4, ‘Tho ‘tabular operations are then car Pied out 23 shown, and a range of Por values ie-optained in Gol. 10, if the| axial oad is below:this range the veo-| lusn ‘svetable, and sf above it the Golumn 1svunstable. An averags value for Pop ta caloulated as showy ¥,150 ibs. “Hote that several checks are” made to detect any errore sade after the Col. 5 data are caloulated. Go: Lum 9 (and 8)-defines a new shape wnich will bo different from Gast aoe suned in Gol. 2. Using the, deflections 4n Gol.'9 orn Anch and get the others by dividtiié’ their deflections by thi largest’ de: flection.” Biter’ these in a aecoid” table's: Col.. 2 and complete the’ table.|’ Repeat (8) as:needed until: the range of Pop values is quite suall, and Por gan then: be taken as the average of the values in Gol. 10s 1O.If at any: station: Pap (=Per/A)/ 40 ate-| ‘nificantly above the proportional 1im-| At-streaa (or above any: local buokling stress), the. valuoof Ey (or Bege): Used in the term EI aust correspond to For (or to the: local buekiing stress), which can require more successive trial tabular calculations (art.¢2.26} Tables. 02.5 though 02.7 illustrate the procedure. Taree or four tables are usually: suffloient. For: the’ exanp: shown Pop = 45000:iba ‘per Table Co:7, ove se (aetually between 44200 and: 45900 lbs). If the applied load were 1eas.than’ 39300 the coluan would know to be stable after only the first table: or, 1f nore than 47600 it would be inowi'to be unstable;"without further ‘effort. Using ten segaents instead of five results in a more aecurate value of Por i= °Hl200:lbs: The values of, and of Eerf at any stress level“aére obtained as diacussed insart.C2.16) Adjustaent for a Step in ET Referring to Fig.02.20e, this 1s done to keep the tabular operations simple. Gol. 8, Let the larged of thess-be’ ono| NuMERiCAL’ COLUMN ALALYSIS Pig.02.200 Adjusteont for a Step Goo ay 1. Let the station neatest to the step b: “n" and that on the other alde of the atep be "a", 2. Calculate 5 ‘ i 4. Caloulate (Entn)ert = Enln + (1-23/3)R Use, (Enin) ore a. Nove thab.df, the vstep:te midway between n and ay (Ealq)ereo= Bain go no adjustaent 13 necessary. Ifa = 0 then (Enlnlert = Elays Bebapte fy For the column in Figsc2.20a station 3 1s nesrost to tha step, waidh is be- ween stations.5 andy a= 3.8% and S = 9-4". Shenefore, EI atatation 3 is adjusted as follows where n=3 and a4 inthe above formulas, "= = 10.5°% 10°. 25 20 i x 6 ag «75 x10" Hos ‘\75(10") = 1.8(40") = ~.75(207) i 2. Egy = 26 3 4 B315er¢ = 145(107) 4 (1-2x3.8/9.4)(~.75) (107) = 1436 010”- Therefore 1.36 x10? 16 entered’ in Table ..c2.5 for ET at station 3. Golvan Fixed at thé Lert End” The following procedure ta used for a column fully fixed at 1t left end. If the right end is fixed, rotate the column 50 that it‘ becomes the left end. The pro- cedure is the sane as before except that a longer table is tieeded to account for the fixed"end moments atthe left end. The table 1s shown as Table 02.6. 5. The data in the table are for the member shown in Fig.¢2.20d"exoept that the left end.ig fully fixed. Therefore, WUMERICAL COTMN ANALYSTS 19 Asouain Defiecyed siape Breen nots SAN = x 307 20: + Fig.d2.204 Biuply supported Varying-deotion Golan pop if bp & bs = nn Hiastie Weights and Reactions Nee No. of Segments = § Se Length of Segment = Table 02.5 Determination of Por (First Trial) Se 1.8 O| ® @ @ ® {o} @ ® ® @ x Gone, | wom. ot | une. { vat | true sf maory [ome] aR] Bh Sone] eae | aie | pet | bert Por vaa | ve | -O/@| @Ouex. | OO | a.-20. | 20, | Ors | -OO Pew [se [ew | ee | =m zr |e La z 3 TE : 75 =, as ae. TE 2 x TEE TET x Te a “See formulas below Ta Bs 4 ea Porgy = Hl "adjusted for step CRay = 4150 21.25 Rye 2@ = Rye ds 20.25 BD Oe -Oxi+On= Fe IV. CONC. EL. LOADS oF CoL.@ @nx =o 3) ALEnds, Sia, OLN, ®o=35x@Do + 1:02@,-..8 Oz Oy +382 @Oy+ 4.92 Ona -F# One True slope =Unit slope. x §/12 W At other Statons, 2, Slope at left end = Ry x S/!2 a= @a-r+ 0 *Oa+ Ones Slope at right ond = Ry « S//2 Beam Sign Convention (+) Loads act upward (+) Reactions act downward (+) Deflections are upward (+) Slope 1 up to the right (+) M pute top in compro: (+) axial load is compre: The development of the calculation tables is”shown “in Ref. 4 20 NUMERICAL COLUMN ANALYSIS wrtesaseeows =p Table 02.6 Determination of Por (Second Trial) 151 Langa terme he @ ® @ © fo) @ ® ® © Hq |g. cov." | Mom. of | unt | unt | ewe sm. a | of B ieee | owe | tet | Bet | tn a | va | par |-O/@ @@ | &-2@,'| 2@, | Oxsve | -Q/O Pen aw [aw zr gir Tew | a ws ws re z z z 16 7 or should be used. Many trusses are designed assu= ming pinned Joints which 1s generally conservative as discussed in All,150, ae NON-DIMENSTONAT DATA FOR COLUMNS s 2 nize sop, G2t/oreon 1 fae (eee 2} a7) 4 ery eR eR Cr a We, Fig.C2,16a Dimensionless Tangent’ Nodulus Curves Pattee ARS 2630 32 24 38 [we Fig.C2.17a Non«Dimensional Column Curves Bis also'VFo.7/For where Foy = T*E/(L/p#, E being Youngs Modulus (not Ey) TANGENT AND Ei Example Problem Proceding ag discussed, recaleulate For for member AB of Fig.C2,3# assuning that the loads in the restraining members at ends A and B are due to an applied up- ward load of 3,000 Ibs at Joint b, react ed at Aand 5, The following table shows the caloulations for k at ends A and B. able cece Gantation of atictnne reser feist |) PE | Wa] so] ew ae 4g 35243, ol oc § 8 Se 8 BBP soho] & lsca|t:o7| spajezecece) =k = ase} a:e8]-23] 956080 se, a53, 3 po.oltist| st3|eresood sey | Using Fig.C2,27a, ky = ky (the larger k) and k= ky. KyL/BI = 246300(30)/1,121,000 = 6.59 so whey ‘= .80 and Cia obtained from Fig. 2.270 as 2.2, For this member D/t = 1,25/.058 = 21,6 and per Fig.Cl.9 its crushing (crippiing)| strength is quite high, 67500 psi, There- fore, the column curve of Fig.¢2,3 for AD| can be used without modification, For member AB Ls Wyo = 302.2 = 20.2 Up = Woke 47.9 ‘Then, per the column curve, for meuber A3| For = 53,000, This ts slightly less than obtained ‘per the Art.C2,13 procedure, If pinned ends were assumed for all joints then ¢ = 1.0, L/p = 30/,422 = 71.1 and For = 43,000 (too small), but words about bending failure in Art.ALl,15b also applies here, If the truss has neabers subject to local instability see Art. 02,16, Also if the members’ b/t were large, say 9 or more, and of open section, torsional buckling might be eritical (art.C734)., 62.16 ‘the Use of By and Rare The Tangent Modulus, By As the axtal stress in a column be- comes increasingly greater than the pro- portional limit stress, the tangent nodu- ius which ts the slope of the stress- strain curve becomes successively sualler, ‘This reduction in By ts shown in Fig, Bl, 5 (the curves on the Fight being Et) and also in the following=sketen, As discussed in Art,a18,8, Shanley sPPECTIVE NODULI 2: has shown and experimental data has veri~ fied (Pig,A18,11 and A18,12) that the use of St is justified for determining the buckling stress of columns, It 1s also used for beam-columns having significant axial stresses, Hence, the use of Ey in Art,C2.1 and subsequent articles is un- derstood, However it must be understood that By 4s applicable only for columns of stable cross-sections (reasonably thick flanges etc,), That is, there must be no flange having a local buckling stress sualler than the column's buckling stress If there 4s thon Bt does not apply and an “effective” modulus, Barr, must be. used, instead, Te 1s smaller than Er. ct Bape eis: z ‘The Effective Modulus. Bere When any flange has a local buck- ing stress smaller than For for the col- umnyassuming a stable cross-section, an “effective” value for Ey Zetr, must be used, Zer¢ is obtained as follows, A column curve 1s constructed as @isoussed in Art,C?,25 and illustrated in Art.C7.26, Method i there is. the ‘most frequently used, followed by Method 2, Having this adjusted column curve which accounts for the reducing effect of lo- cal instability, For can be obtained for any value of I”, However, when the buckling stress is aetermined for other than the above Simple caso it 13 necessary to use Eett which can te gotten as follows, For any Yalue of For the value of typ is abtained from the cSfumn curve and Egrr ts caloue lated as See Beet = For(L/py’ /at ~ Proportional Lintt stresa.—) d 7 ee It 4s for cases where For 1s determined using a “constant” which 1s a function of E that Ber must be determined and used, Examples of such cases are Fig.C2.25, 2,26, C2.27, C2. ete; In“these cases a successive trials procedure 1s needed i 26, COLUMNS WITH ELASTIC SUPPORTS, COLUMNS WITH INTERMEDIATE LOAD (Just as would be if Bp were applicable) Hs AGL KE by ‘That 18, one.assumes a value for fort, de-| there tefaines for and thon determines sis "tate| a eG of Eerr corresponding to this For per the | as > above formula, If it is not the same (es-| 2 urn? 2 sentially) as the assumed Eerr another va-| 43> Ep a” Er ine for Eefp te assumed and’ the procedure a 1 1s repeated, ‘Tie ia repeated an nesessn-| - ang exitioat Load donbination, Fy anbll the assuned value ie essentially |iceayat'h, Ea ogee ae te the one the ‘Yalue corresponding to For... This Pro-|.cotis as‘ene apelies loads Ejand fy and coun ie yiailaz te that required when | Ste found ag: tollowsy for the given gens Fa 9 disesesed tn Art.cz_ 00, "Eore| $oeas cnlotiace a © fy/Fp. seein 2 ts Ss not Used with beam-coluans. (only' Be 13) eee ee oe ee iuncestee Sifter ithe Beanccolumn allowable stress "| Tfiais the value of M which satisfies Gonsiders ‘any local buckling ecfect when Method 2 therein is used. However, with’ ag Method 1 Eerpwould be used when local in= a stability is present see arteC3.18+ 7 eiceg aia? iin ly ia et seth g Tis article provides adatttonal HCH a3 buckling load data’ for vartous typee of a columis, It 1s generally self-expiana= 8 \ tory, ‘ 3 =3 ‘at «bet ay, a : SEE iene es ETRE 3 eres e [To [a] ola [ ag ia se i ae i 5 a gg 4 i lee lan {— 1 2 i es § Tea ie 8 7 ie y ihe Fone Zn BH 2 ane aye fee a Lane are i Fig.C2,42 Coluin On Elastic. Foundation je ein fet With @ Distributed Axial Load 4 5 ae 7 gan F z Hon ccs 7 fee Eee Petra aad 5 ae h Fig. ¢2,¥3 Column With Intermediate Load Wote that the intermediate load, Pay. sd ee eee . in Fig,C2.43 must be located at the step? o ——— if one exists.¥ The buckling equation is a8 208 8 “+ ge termi, for stn and suzetnt soak and ‘Ying, Sen Bastien, for mapid eels ‘uneroaa ‘cages and end conditions, COLUMNS WITH ELASTIC END BENDING RESTRAINT 22 Ghe equation and thon calculate a= P;/¥q| portion then the value of Ey aust be used, If af a assume a different value of B2. calling i¢ Pg; and repeat, Repeat as necessary until a'= a, Pi and F2 Shon the 3 BF one margin of M.S. = PL/Py - 1.0 (or ¥2/P2 - 1,0) Ef For is in the plastic range for either! and the value of Ey corresponding to For Bust be the sane , essentially, as the Value used in calculating it, (Successive trials). If local instability 1s present Eger would be used instead of Ey. The procedure 1s, of course, much simpler for the special case where there is no step (BI, = Elg)y or whas Pen 0 Poy = CwtEI/L# pbs aK ot FE so 7 Z eT | 35 "5 | 4 | a1 (en | | + i |_ 4 |_ +} ten ast oN = — i Zc cS Let yep Ye, com x Er Ls zy Hy 4 oe 1.0 1 t L ESE HEL o baat 200 150 200 ne ky 1s the larger of the two springs Fig. C2,27a Constant Section Column Having Elastically Restrained Ends Note that, interpolation for ¢ “between the Lines" 1s non-linear, For an exact value here, or for KiL/Ei > 200, Por can be found by successive trials, as follows 1.Use the figure to get an approxinate value of Cand calculate Por. 2, Get the corresponaus values of j, L/j COF and SF (= 4SCEI/L). 3. Enter the values in the following buckling equation (see. Ret, # derivation of the equation), SF (corP Aly + SF)(k + 7) = 1.0 4,If the left side of the equation for Ty ester ane sonnt dtetrttion proeeare is < 1,0 assune a slightly larger va- lue for Fe and repeat steps (2)=(l4): if > 1,0 agsume a emaller value, $-Repeat steps (2)-(i) until the equation is satisfied and Por 1s as assumed. The value used for E must cor- respond to Ee for For when For is in the plastic range, or to Eerr, To check a column's adequacy under a given load enter its values of SF and COF in the equation, If the left side is <1,0 4 is stable; $f>4.0 it is un- stable, See At/-J3a for SC and COP values, The k/ly curves”in‘the above’ figure wepe generated using the buckling equation.’ STEHT =Foieetty tized) the sgseting equation 2p SF Poo, Ge tor atenahivy Liy< et and eo ov of aureeedy with an error of <2% for the apactal cage where Ei= 22=5 ant waen'ne ip/ty ane ae (ey + 921/22 ete face, pee) BL + Pe 8 COLUMNS WITH DISTRISUTED AXIAL TOADS Table 2,13 UAifofm Column with Distributed Lead ana Md Losd™ 7.1 : t + - ekg ctiicas(SuekuIng Loans, ' jt ¢ q j 4] i wl weg z y 4 v cer] ett [ewes | ose t re phe rhe ta ew | Ec ee matter rita natstnons oStoaue] [Swe tas ta | ne? a taf cathearucttndionce = a vas | ag, The above data are used as follows, For a given P,, the erit~ ical value of q is found. Or, for a given. value of q thé eritical value of P is found. Positive values for the loads act as shown; negative values act in the opposite direction. If P>Fe then qcr Will be negative. If q>Qer (for P=O) then Pop will be negative. For ¢ given q Por 1g found as follows. 1. Compute Py-using the equation in Table 1 (20th row) 2. Goapite nf/2_ observing the: proper. sigd for q 3. Obtain P/P, from either Table 1 (interpolating) of Pig. 1 4S Coapute Per = PalP/Fe) 2 For @ given P gop (the maximum allowable value'of q) is foiina as above, but using 2/Pg in step (2), aL/P, in,step (3).,and computing Gor = Fo/L x (qb/Ze) instep (4). 3 : Example 3: (For all cases 1=50, EI=10){ Le ‘ -BegOD0Gy Cage 3, What is ger? Pen2,ue| GTOeDe Gade 1, yhot as i. 2 BI/I) "80773, P/Fo=. 619, Per Flg.2 9478, gL/Pe=t.6h, Per Plg.1 aE/Pe=t.05, Bo ger=t.05(80773)/50=1096 | P/P—=.3!, So Por. 3H(39478)= 13423 1: Examples? xanple “Pa~30000;,"Célse 1, What 1s gop? PET So0e" cise 3, what ts aor? Fora s/it 9478, P/Egen. 760 ber: Table 4580773. f/Pent. 6. Tar ‘fable L a ab/Pe=3.17. So gor=3-17(39478)/50=2503 | qL/Pex-2,02. dor==2. 02 (80773 )/50=3263 coos FORE enans of a vasrisg q 00 Boask (p,26,footnoter rs: COLUMNS WINK UNZFORN ELASTIC SUPPORTS 29 a2 3 4 6 <9 *D (atin of a/a) Lo I De 4,0 ta the top Line t 2 upert soptag constant, #lin. eee: eres rye at Bekl/?g fe wa Dotal amber of we Fin. eee re fonete Yass oe! flower wince er Dette the acta 4 mts ante ta used to alice of Din (2) and the mise of { Geteraine the einte \ han lermerane heli sStome nce . Rees ee Scape Fe 2 Pena aaa) 1 atee rete YoTE: ta doing step (3) above {t Ls easiest } ple" support earouen- fe Fire soly Hed stich son of ie otek } out, fuser ort gle tee maltese Be /ipt ee ‘eae Sanrargwmmeety; ae || jane mauroaye peggy Sera amenienirtt tte aerate Sie series gus by obi te. of elastic supertey ws eee Fig.02,05 Uifora colwan on Equaliy spaced Blastie Supporte gaving Simply Supported Ends Example maB, so D=1/8, 2/8, 3/8, = + + + + 7/8, For an eight span column having L = 20", ET = 1, k= 1510 1bs/in what is the buckling loed? “Proceeding as outlined: Pe =at* (10) /20%= 24674 ~ B= 1510(20)24674 = 1,22 Fer the above figure, Poz/Py = «705 Therefore, Por = 2467%(,705) = 17395 To S¥tain simple support ‘throughout kin = 3,82(2K674)/20 = 4713 (then Por = Fels 30 END_PRICTION EFFEOTS. 2.18 fa Prietion zetects’ For pincended columns the presente of end fixity due to friction will affec the axial load carrying ability in two aifrerent ways, One ts to increase it and the other is to decrease it, Such coluans typically have an end fitting which includes either a plain (or spher= ical) bearing or a roller (or ball) bear-| Ang with a connecting bolt or pin, With plain or spherical bearings the end fric- tion can be quite significant, whereas with ball or roller bearings it is’ essen+ thally negligible, ‘The effect depends upon the manner in which the column functions, If it 1s a stationary column with no end rotation relative to its supporting structure (such as a column in a testing machine) the effect is to increase the buckling load. If it is part of a mechanism or structure where such a relative rotation at the ends occurs the effect is to gen- erate a bending moment ‘which reduces the axial load-carrying’ ability, Stationary Columns For these the effect 1s to- oppose: | any rotation at the ends (which occurs when a column buckles), Therefore} the buckling lodd increasés; tut this cannot be used in design or analysis since it As not reliable. Moving Columns (Ena Rotation: ‘These cases must consider ‘the end friction ‘singe 1t causes end moments which reduce"its Strength, Fig.c2,46 illustrates the two possibilities here, PigsC246 Column as Tart of « Hechanisn STATIC AND MOVING COLUMNS The two cranks and the.red, BC, are mechanism which moves ag shown’ by the broken lines, For each case, (a) and (b) the “input® torque, ‘7, on crank AB causes the mechanism to move to tho right and is reacted by the "output" torgie at D, This puts rod BO in compression, The broken ‘ines show the relative rotation between the réd~and’ the cranks, “The axial load, P, and the end moments, M, due to fric- tion axe shown for each case, Note that case (b) is moze severe than is case (a). ‘The magnitude of the moments are calcu- ‘ated as y= P(ub/2) up/2 1g the radius of the "friction circle" where = coefficient of friction between the pin and the bearing D-= Dianeter of ‘the connecting pin For ast catée iA ,20 Bit oan be much higher if high-friction materials are used, . The axial load ,,P, actually acts tangent to the radius of the friction eirele as shown in Fig.C2.47 for the above two cases, a ‘ose tire eas 2 estes aes eT a: ‘7 Rigs c2,8P Load, Line Jangent to Priston Circle Hence, ‘the rod BC 1s a beam-column, due to the friction end moments,and there— fore will fail before its buckling load, For can be attained, The bending moment along the rodsan be gotten per Case I (or IL) ‘ip’Table 45.1, and the stress analysis made per Art.c348, Ir the friction effects are ignbred there will be a bad “surprise” when an earlier than predicted failure occurs, particularly when P approaches Por. References: (Add to those on’ p,C2,18) 4) trigindering Columh Analysis, (see Are. A1B,270) 5). Theory of Elastic Stability, Timoshen= koyS.P,and Gere,J.M., MoGraw Hill Co, 6) Numerical Procedure for Computing Def- lections, Monents and Buckling Loads, fewnark,W.W.,Trans, ASCE, Vol,108,1943 2) "Grittcal Loads of Coluans of Varying Cross Section; Thotbson, W.T., Journ, of App,Mechanics, June, i950 PLASTIC c3.4e The Coston simplicies Procedure The following presents a correction and an addition to Fig.c3.8, 1, The value of K for the tube in the figure should be 1,27 to 1.7. 2, The first two sentences of the final paragraph are revised as follows. If the calculated value of K is great-| er than the ranges shown or greater than, say, 2.0 for combinations an er-| ror has been made, For the concave @ianond shown in Fig.c3,7a,1f the shape| is given as y = tax" (for the left side) then k= (9n + 3)(in #2). For example, if n= i. (a diamond) then K =| 2.0; if n= 1,2 (a slight concavity) then K = 2,035 1f n= 2 (a large con-| cavity) then K = 2,1) if n =e0(the maximum, but impractical,coneavity) then K = 2,25, the maximum value, A four-pointed star would have sinilar values, The Fig,C3.7a data should be added below the diamond in Fig.c3.7. 3.78 Example Frotleas in Pinding Bending Strength ‘The following should te added after fhe ghd of Solution 1 of Example Problea No. 3. 32,750 in-bs not the predicted bending Strength of the menber, It is the first approximation, This 13 because the com- pression and tension loads (due to the compression and tension stress distri- butions) are not equal, They must be eq-| ual since no applied axial loads . are present (see art,C3.3, second paragraph, second sentence), In this case the stress distributions produce a compres- sion load of 32,70 1bs on the portion above the W.A., but a tension load of only 23,350 1bs on the portion below the N.A, Therefore nore calculations are needed assuming the N.A, is farther up from the section's centroid which was as-. sumed to be the NvA, After additional trials, it ls found that when the M.A. 1s assumed to be .42" down from the top, the compression, aid tension loads are essen~ tially equal, and the allowable bending moment 1s 31,080 in-lbs, ‘This applies to all allowable bend ing moment determinations when the cross section 1s not symmetrical (or when the tension and compression stress-strain. y ourves are.not assumed to be identical)* ‘This discussion also applies to the sol- ution of Exaaple Problezs 3 and |, ‘Also see Art.03.5 BENDING an In doing the plastic bending analyses che allowable compressive unit #train-is € = Foo/B, and this is at the mean line of the compression flange, However, a more realistic and larger prediction of the bending strength for members like the above cases is presented An Art,C10,15b, Tt is based upon experi- mental date and does not base failure on- ly on the flange allowable stress. dele thayametrioal section With we 2 Axia of Symmetry If the procedure tn Art €3,10 does not give a positive margin of safety, the tore exact procedure outlined in art, 3,11a should be tried, G5.ila Alternate Mare Benet Wethod for Goapler Bending ‘The steps used in carrying out the more exact procedure suggested in Art, (3.11 are as follows (for an unsyanetri- cai section with no axis of aymmetry) as shown in Pig,C3,27a, Referring to Fig. 03,27, xr is the axis about which the applied tending moment ts given, vr Pig.c3.27a Unsyesetrient, Section 1, Assume @ neutral axis. position, &, 2, Find the allowable plastic bending mo- ment about axis x'x', This will re- quire several iterations, moving x'x' parallel to itself until’ the tension and compression loads on the cross~ section are essentially equal, as in Art.C3.7a, This gives the allowable Vending: moment about x'x', Mati xtxts Find the monont of the stresses in (2) about axis y'y", This gives the cergeaponting’eLiowatle somene seset y's Mariyty* esotve the noaents Mesazigt and feqagrys ante aonente*SBaak ates xx and yy" to get Maqixx and Marty. Matixx = Matix cosd + Maiiyty* sind. Matiyy = Matiz's'Sind + Mariyty*cosd. 32 The left hand rule, ‘shown in’Fig.c2. 27, 1s used for any set of axes, 5. Plot the pointMarizz: Matiyy @& shown in Fig.c2.270, "™™ ” Repeat steps (1) (5) for several other assumed values“of (one of which can "bs = 0) to establish an allowable curve ‘of Malixx 5+ Mati fas in Fig.c2,27) 1 ie only necele— ary to objain. that portion ofthe curve (the solid line)"wherein the ap- plied moments are acting, as shown by She point mx. and my in'the figure. 7. Using this plot, for any applied mo- ments, mxxend my, the margin of safe- ty can be detertined as 4.8, = ob/oa = 1.0 M.S, = ob*/oa" ~ 1,0 M8. = 00/0: o8/od = 2 Figs 03-270 M.S. for Unsyanstrical sections 3.12 Tlexinid “sheis Stress a5 the Piaetie wanes In Art.03,2 it was‘ stated that in the plastic Teige:the equation for ‘the shear-stress: is -CVQ/It,: In the' elastic Tegion C= 1.0, bus withiplastic bend= tng it te largerstham-1,0'in the neutral axis»region andsless than 1,0 near the Cuter fibers, The ‘prosedurs in Art. 3. 42 Tor calculating 6 ts an approximate one. ‘This 1s tecause flexural shear 1s 4y/Ax, and when M changes in the plastic Tegion fq-and fo alge change, which the’ Art.03,18 procedure does not’ consider. Foliowing is the more exact procedure, For a given tending monent at a given beam station one devermines he Corresponding values of fm and ty by suc-| cessive. trials ag previously shown (ry 1s Galeulated as Ne/I), Or, fora ayaxetri cal section one calculates fp = He/t and hen assumes @ strainy€y obtains fq and FLEXURAL SHEAR STRESS IN TAE PLASTIC RANGE fo and calculates fp = fp + (i - 1)f9. Ris te repeated until the value of 2, equals that calculated as Mc/I,. The pro- per values ‘of fm; fo, fp and é are then Known for the applisd bending monent, M. ‘Theny et the point tp'and € on the fm curve, one draws a straight line which 45 tangent to the curve and which inter sects the ordinate , calling the value of fq at, the ordinate fa. This is repeated Using fo and the fo clive calling the va~ Jue of f atthe ordinate fg. This pro- cedure if illustrated in Fig.c3.28c. ePige O3;28e Deteratning te and, Wie’ correspondiiig value of rh 1s then calculated using f% and % in the pre~ vious formiila, One then calculates. Atne ta-fhs Afoe fo- 3 and Aya ty-fh, Fig,03,284 illustrates all of the above stresses. (along with. Fig,03,28e), Asef SB ob ot fe 4 ae ratohe = Mae t Fige 03.28 Plastic and Linear Stresaae Ot fe ats dL “Are 7 rage onetbe sat FiutlsSaa tape Se One then celculates the axial load on the section (on,one side of the N.A,] due to the Afy and Afo streds distributions, calling this 1dad Pa and repeats this us- ing the Ap and arf ‘stress istratution, calling this load'Ph, cis then calcuia-~ ted as : 0 = Pg/Py RESIDUAL STRESSES AFTER PLASTIC BENDING Example Problem Using the data from Example Problen 2 on p.C3,10 and its associated curves in| Pig.3.19, calculate the shear stress at the Nid. given in Pig.C3,28 and also at the intersection of the web and flange. Per the example fy = 35,800, f> = 19700 and € = ,0222, Constructing the straight Lines tangent to the fm and fo curves at € = ,0222, these intersect the ordinate at fh'= 23,000 and fh = 13,000, fp = 39150 (pe 63.10) and 18 = 23000 # (1417 = 1)(23000) = 25,210 Using the above stresses as prev~ jously discussed, Atm = 35,800 - 23,000 = 12,800 ‘Bfe = 19,700 = 13,000 = fy = 39,150 = 25,210 = 13, These are used as in Fig.C3,28d to cal culate the axial loads. At the N.A., Pa = 1.375(.125)(12.800 + 11,930)/2 + 32, (0225) 12,920 + 6,700)72 Py = 1,375(,125) (13,940 + 12,198)/2 + shop desi cazsise + 0972 Therefore, C = 3,143/2,919 = 1.08 This is slightly smaller than the 1.09 value obtained using the approximate procedure (p,C3.11), However, for other sections ani other iaterials ¢ 1s tr quently auch. larger than when the. approx-| imate procedure ts used, At the web to flange intersection, Pq = 1.975(.225) (12,800 + 11,930) = 2412 Fp = 1.375(.125)(13,940 + 12,198) = 2,246] Therefore, C= 2,125/2,246 = 946 ©oe18 tleld stress vending Modulua ‘At limit load there must be no det= rimental yielding (Art,Ci.1#) which gen- erally means limiting the applied stress to the yield stress, Fry or Foy, deter- mined as shown in Fig. 51.1, Tis allows the use of a yield bending modulusy Foy which will be slightly larger than’ the yield stress, For the materials listed in Table C3,2 Fpy can be calculated as Foy = fn t folk - 0) 23 where fg and f9 are the values listed in the table under "Yield". These are the values at the unit strain,€, correspon- ding to the yield stress ona fm and fo vs € plot, For a material not included tn Table 3,2 (or not in any other similer avail- able tables) the basic fq and fo va € curves are needed. Phy can then be dete erained by locating the values of Pty oF Foy on the fq curve and dropping verti- sally fron this point to obtain the cor Tesponding value of fo on the fo curve. Foy 1 then calculated as previously shown using these fq and fg values (fm here 1s the yield stress, Fey or Foy) 3.15 neetguah sergnues Folie jending ae Plastie 5 When a beam is loaded so that the bending stresses are in the plastic range and the applied loads are then removed, there will remain a residual stress and a vesidual strain in the team, This will be largest at the extrote fibers, Those fibers which were loaded in compression will have a tensile residual stress, and vice-versa for those which were loaded in tension, The residual stresses oan be of importance when doing fatigue or fracture analyses and can be determined as’follows It 1s necessary to have a “K-curve” where K is the shape factor (20c/I) for ‘the cross-section being analyzed, For such a curve see Fig,C2,19 where the curve for K= 1.17 13 shown, It ts also necessary.to have the fm (stress-strain) and fo curves, ‘The Kecuirve is generated as follows for any selected value of K, 1, Select a unit strain value, é. 2, Obtain the fg and f> values at the se- lected €, 3, For the selected K value calculate the vending modulus at this strain as ss Pp = fat folk = 1) Repeat steps (1) - (3) for each of several values ofé, 5, Plot the points Fp, é, draw a curve through them and Tavel it K = (selec- ted value), This is shown in Fig,C.29 (the fq curve is for K = 1.0), For this K-curve gtrain in the determined as the residual stress and outer fibers can then be follows, ae ¥2g.03+29 potersineticn of Reatéual ste Syanetrical Cross-section’ Referring to.Fig.C3.29, calculate the’ bending stress fy = to/t) enter the figure with fp and go.across to the K- curve eatablishing the point A. Draw the straight line 48 paraliel to the linear | portion of. the stress-strainvcurve and establish, the point 8, Then go down from point,,A to establish. f_y.on'the stress Straip.curve,.The residual stress ie tres fmy~ Tp ‘The ‘reidiial strain, émegr oie thatrat point.3, These,are ths outer fiber va~ lues, the largest:values, The sane-pro~ cedure would establish: the saaller-values a&-any inner fiber, os woe Unsymme trical Cross-Sections. Referrita to Fig.(b) of art.C3,?, more effort is required since.the neutral. ax~ 4s,45 not the centroidel axis, and a-suc- cessive trials procedure,is.therefore, needed, as follows, ..~ 4, Assume an outer fiber strain, €, for the portion with the most depth fron the ‘céntroid, y, €2 is then known for ‘the other portion.as shown in the Pig. Proceed as discussed for Sxample Prob lem 3.4n Art.03.7 and, also in Art.C3, 7a to determine N= my + a2 (finding the correct neutral avis), This re= quires successive trials, + Repeat steps (1). and (2). for each of several other assumed.values of €1 so that a curve of Wve, can be drawn, Enter this curvé with the applied mom ent and obtain the corresponding value of €1., G2 will then also be known step 1). Enter the appropriate plastic. bending curve with €}, go vertically to inter- sect the applicable K-ourve to estab- BEAM-COLUMN ANALYSTS. lish point A, Then, in the same manner as for the symetrical section, draw the line AB and determine tie residual outer fiver stress and strain for portion 1 of the cross-section, Then repeat step (5) using €2 for portion 2 of the cross~ section, ‘This article ‘preserits ‘the procedure for doing the ‘stress analyses for uniforn and also varying section meters, le. Hembe For uniform single~spiin members nun- erous formulas for the bendihs moments slong the span are presented in Tables A5.1 and A5,ia,. Forvany case not avail- adie there (or'by guperpésition of those eases), the bending moments’ cain always be calculated by using the tabular procedure presented later for beari-columid of non- Uniforg spans,’ Allowable stresses and margins of sefety are discussed later, Hultispen Members’ of Unitora Spans For multispan members where the spans are uniform'but EI may vary from span to span, the'monent distribution procedure with axial load is used, as illustrated in Art,All.14, to obtain the bending moments’ at’ the ends ‘of each con- tinuous span, The tending monents with in any span‘ate then obtafaed by using these Détiding“moments as applied loads (e.g,s Cage '2T)"Table 'A5,10) together with any plicable load'case"(e,g,, Case III, Weto.);lusing superposition of the e- sults (for the same axial load)”, Yarying-Section ‘Single-Sian Mémbers When EI-vartes along ‘the span the form’ ulas for uniform members in Table A5.1 and A5,ia cannot be used, In such cases a nunerical procedure is required to de= termine the moments within the span, This is done by using the sane tables of calculation as for' varying-section col- unns in art,c2,6p{Tables 2,5, C2.8, and C20): exceptcthat the bending moments, M, along the! span due to the’ applied loads are used in Col.(2) of the first table of calculations. At’ this point ‘the reader should review Art.2,6b as to how the tables and data are used there, For the beam-coluimn the difference ie thet tngteador“using an assumed shape for the first table one enters in Col. (2) the bending moment at each station due to the applied lateral loads and any end no- BEAN-COLUIN ANALYSIS 35 ments, These bending nonents are deter- mined’ assuming simply supported ends even| though end fixity may actually be present The procedure is as follows and applies for each type of table. 1, Calculate the bending moment at each station assuming simply supported ends| and enter these moments in Col, (2) of the first table, calling them lg since| they are for the applied laterat loads| Complete the table (as discussed in Art,c2,6v) but eliminate the last col- umn’ for Pops Multiply the true deflection at each station ty the axiel load, P, and en- ter this moment in Col, (2) of the next table, Table I, reversing the sign (becalse of the sigh convention) 4, Carry owt another table of caleul- ations, Table II, asin (2) and (3). 5. Repeat again, Table III, ato, veral tables are completed the after ch station, n, final bending mouent at can be computed ag® My = Mg # Mr + May + ‘This 1s a geometric series where the sub scripts refer to the calculated table, @ being the first and N being, the last, ‘The Value of Nis taken from Col. (2) of each table, and Myyt is obtained by mul~ tiplying the true deflection in the last calculated table, N, by the arial load, Usually three or’ four tables are adequate Unless the axial load ts quite large the deflections decrease fairly rapidly in the successive tables (if P is greater than Por the deflections will increase and are meaningless), If the axial stress, P/A, on any geguent is greater than the proportional limit stress the tangent modulus, Et (not Eerr) must be used, The geometric series converges only if P< Por as @ coluan, +f (=9 ‘The procedure 1s illustrated for a simply supported member in the following example, For members with end fixity the| procedure is the same except that the table will be longer. ** Example Problem ‘The member in Fig.C3.32 is a beam column aubject. to the applied loads as show 20. 7 30000 20004 ‘Sane bean na tn Plg.c2.208 5008 10004 Pig.c3.32 Bean-Coluan ‘The bending moments at the six beam sta~ tions, 0 = 5, are, from statics Mo= 0 Mp = 94400 My = 9,400 My = 4,700 My = 10,000 Ms= 0 These values are entered in Col, (2) of Table C3,3 and the table is completed as shown, Hote that this table is of the ‘same form as Table G2,5 (Art.C2.6%) ex~ cept that the above monents are in col, (2) and Col, (10) ig eliminated, The de~ flections in Col.(9) are then multi- plied by the axial Load, 30,000 Ibs, and those moments are entered in Col. (2) of Table €3.4, reversing the sign, and that table 1s completed as shown, ‘ate c),3 Meancotsan Munertoal anaizeie, Piset Tenle 2 Qo “27 fora.a6 as.0t| =.190 nates and procedures (Arne) TaoLe 3.0 amcotamn Raarcal dnalyete, second Table 22 9 Qo 2. Braz 18 Te Sas Tar ar] 8 “eee esp Tate Ca lle =10r] hss = 508 = 6.82 195 a 4.25 36.67 nab ons [6.66] -.129 2 nd procesurer (arte, 700] ,50|-1.2%0| 12.92 ot isol oe | sae wo more tables were completed and the results for all four tables are summar- ized in Table 03,5, showing only the va- lues of M and true ‘deflection for each ‘se ser Cooma on path, ‘9 can also te used for final dertections and steps station, 36 BEAM=COLUMN: ANALYSIS cults of Tabular Calculations ‘table TI Merz Der, 3 Tir [beri eunud ‘The Pinel vending moments at each station are calculated using the geonet~ Tie geries,-as shown in Table 03.6. Gol, (10) shows the calculation of Por, discussed later, ‘able c},6 Deteraination-of Final Hotenté and 2, rg [are 2 3étalv770 \f2éo) 2640 700) 325 2g0|2430|190| 23875 5700 se Soe text Averede, Par F O5075 End Fixity If one or both ends are fixed the sane’ procedure ts used with "the longer calculation tables, Like Table 02,8 and 2,10 The criti¢el axial load for a bean columt' is, the same load as ir it ware a column. (no bending monents): The ‘naximun allowable drial load for a beam-colunn. is less than the critical load since earlier failure’ Will occur by bendife due to the applied lateral loads or moments, The critical:load for the above member is 45000 1s and the axial load 1s 30000, If] at were larger the bending moments would) increase} and ds"1t “approached the eriti~ cal load’ the. moments would approach intiny ity. Of course, bending failure would o¢- cur before this’ sould ocoun : Calédlating Poy from Beam-Coluian Data » The data in the beam-colunn calcu ation tables can also be used to casily and quickly calculate Poy as follows. | At) any station Por = P(My/Mye1) where Nis from the last calculation ibid and Mye1 1s as discussed before, For the above example Por is calculated in the last: column-of fable C3, S-and is, for ex- ample, at station 2 Por * 30/000(2850/1890) = 45,300 Tbs ted ts the Soon se Mibcater ae Note that theysmall: range in Po values xs similar to that in Table C27, The formula for Poy is discussed in Ret.3 (art, 418,278) "and applies only when’ all. segments of the member have the’ same value of E (1,e,, in the elastic range), for P/A), “ i : Changes in the Applisd Leads: The results of the tabular calcu- Jations can’ be used for changes in ap= plied loads’ as long’as two conditions are met, 1, His the same for all sogaents (P/A erin the ellastle- range )- 2, All lateral loads change by the same factor; é Thié"can save mich effort by fot having to repeat the tabular calculatichs, ‘The procedure is as follows 1, Let the final monents from the tabular calculations ‘be Ngo Mn Miri + 2s-Let the faétor for the ‘change tn (all) lateral loads be L + ty. art 3y Tet the “factor ‘fof the charge in the axial Toad: te"K” : soThS new ‘bendirig moménts alone ‘the span Seach station wilt then be 1 : mi sey? . + Ng Big Gr = EMG My = Let iy My = OR Ager OE Myr Or, for any Table, n,. starting with Q asn= 0 = Sra é 5,5, DR These are used to’ determine’ the ney. final bending tonents' (1.8, 9" by re replacing the-values in Table €3,6). ‘Bzample Frobles eiaiple propieit F dt be 39,000 Tbs and the lateral loads are ineréased by a fac~ tor of 1.2, For this ease L= 1,2. and K = 39006/30000 = 1.3. Applying these factors in the spec- ified manner to the’ bending moments in Table €3.6, the new final ténding moments Become the much larger values shown in Table ¢3.7, Note that although the ap plied loads have been increased by an BEAK-COLUMN ANALYSIS 37 1 ince Sa eT T | sai0 | ston | s3e| sees |etsa] astro | aame || Pao ae | alaas | Sez) $255] ane | ia fhe went Spe aie Axial ont 5 | £2aeo | adese | 3603 | Bde: | Star | Sezer a [ERE | 188 | 788] 0d | 2 | Sosro $ || < : average factor of only 1,25, the bending moments for those four stations afrected by the axial loads have increased by a much larger average facter of 1.61, Beam-Columns Having an Initiel Bont Shape| Sometines for various reasons a beam-column may not be "straight" even before any loads are applied. For uni- form members, for which various formul— as apply as in Table A5,i and 45.10, the member should simply be considered to be straight and a lateral loading applied which produces the same tending moment along the span (assuming simple support= ed ends) as does the axial load tines thel bent shape deflections at the stations, This is in addition to any actual lateral| loading. Proper. signs must be observed in doing this. “That ts, downward (=) de+ flections result in a positive bending moment, Pig.C3,33 tllustrates the pro- cedure, A single tend is shown in (a), reversed bending in (b) and @ smooth con-| tinuous bend in (c), ‘The "equivalent" loads for a straight team are shown be~ neath each of these, That in (c) is a good approximation, “Thus, the loads con- Sist of the equivalent loads and the ap- plied loads, and. the formulas of Tables AS.i and AS.ia apply” For the case of a varying section member it 1s best to complete the first table (for the lateral applied loads), ‘Then the bent shape deflections at each station are added (+ or =) to the true deflections calculated and their totals are multiplied by P to obtain the bend- ing moments for Col,(2) of the second table. This is done only once, for the second table. Additional tables are com~ pleted in the routine manner, Approximate Pormula for Bending Nonents When there are no end moments the following formula can be used to estimatel the bending moments along the span for a uniform, simply supported beam-column, At any Station Metnay =MQ/Mt.- P/Fer) Por ts the critical load if the member were a column, If Foy (=Par/A) 18 in thel ores Bonding 1 = Os Bending Gonent Diagran a= pe(ditiay Equivalent Lond @) Bent Shape and Arial Lond — SS Bending Moaent Diagraa om Bent Shape and Artal Load ‘Binding Woaent Diagran = 8Pe/i* tepprostoate) wy, ate Byutvalent Loading (e ig.03,39 Bent Shapes and dqutvalent Loade ge ret plastic range Et is applicable (but not Eerr)s hence a column curve can be used, but not one having any crippling adjust: nent, Mg 1s the moment due to the later~ al loads“only, The formila is most accu- rate for a uniformly distributed load and least accurate*for a concentrated load, ‘The formula can also be used when te axial load 1s tension, adjusted as shown, Mesnar = WQ/(L + P/Pop) ‘A tensile axial load reduces the moments, Other Peam-Column Considerations ‘There are numerous other consider- ations which affect the bending moments generated in a beam-coluan, These are discussed in detail with example problens in Ref.3 (Art.A18,27a) and include the following topics, Bis contervatire 28. BEAN-COLUMN MARGINS OF SAFETY. 1, Axial loads within a span 2, Elastic (rotational) end fixity 3. Members with internal (flexible) aplices 4, Multispan’ béan-cclums with ends spliced together, affecting fixed end moments, carry over and stiffness factors Multispan bean-columns having varying EI spans require numerical evalu- ation of fixed end monents, carry over| and stiffness factors 6, Multispan deaa-columns on elastic sup-| ports and on. sagging supports 7. Freesended team-colunns 8, Beams in tension heving a varying EI) ‘the ‘tabula? procedure can be used but requires modifications Uowable Loads: or Strea: of Safety Following are two different proce dures for caloulating the margin of safe ty for a Beai~solunn, For a given case the larger of the to should be used, and Ma: The follwing interaction equation (from; tests of ciroular. tubes)-12 P/Pon + Niue. 1.0 where P 4s the axial load, Por is the buckling. load asa column, Nis the final beam-coluan bending moment and Mart, ts the allowable bending moment ‘per Art, Cl,17, 03.4. or C10,15b.. The. apparent mS, \(art,ci.13a) is then Ws. 2 A7P/Bop + Wat = 1.0 20 Afialternate procedure is MeS.,= BeA(P/A + Mo/T) - 4.0 where Pand M are as above, Fy is the outer fier allowable compressive stress; determined as follows, and & ig, the cross-sectional area a) If the beam section shape factor, K, 45 1,1 or less then Fr is the proportions! limit stressor that An (2) 4f onaller bv) If K 4s, 1.5 or more then Fy 1s Foy If’ 48 between 1,1, and 1,5 then Fel nL seus ch te owl on ere Po/tocy for te curve’ ie tangent "tht a ceseatea tn Flav cesG09"? TOHSIONAL MODULUS OF RUPTURE 4g determined by interpolating Line early between (a) and )b) above, 4).I¢ the section has a Local buckling Stress (Art.05.4, 05.5 and 66,4) less than in (a)'= (6) then Fo is the outer ‘fiber stress correspond- ing to the local buckling stress at the flange's méanling sna vee Pte Pos ince e) For cases where no™pernaneht, set is ‘allowed a sone’ particular “Load devel, “such as af proof toad for actuators, Fy {9 the proportional Lintt stress Nethod 1 above ts not applicable for this case, ‘The margins of safety as calculated above are apparent oties, The true M.S, 4s cal~ culated per Art.Cb, 234 and C1.i3a, (ch, 200"ebénensd Hedulud GE bptune cubvee, Art,0l.20 atscussea torsion stresse: for only the case-of cirewlar oross- sections® For other'eross-sections plas- tie’ torsiei and @ torsional modulus, of. rupture also occur for ductile materials. Following ‘are nethods for, determining, the ultinate strength in torsion for auch’, members.’ ‘The formas, data’and discus® sions in ArtyAé.s through" A6,7 and in Table ‘AS: apply oniy'when the. shear stress '15\in the” elastic range’. “Torsion! inthe, plastic tenge“1s ate- cussed in Ref.4-and’ 5," For"nonecirctlar cross-sections the ultimate torsional strength 1s proportional to. the volume of ary sand (or table salt) that can be heaped upon the cross~section.. If the cross“section has holes a special tech- nique is required, a9 discussed later, ‘This’ volune of’ snd can te odloui- || atea' tor only three typed of crdss- sections, a rectangle, a’circle and a triangle, ag. shown in’ Fig, Cl, 31, v= PGawi/a vaa/3 = varDi/as fe Miare ob crianele Area Pigy Cho32 Flastie foreton Date ‘The equation for calculating the ultimate torsional strength, Tait, when no local Duckling can occuryas with very thin: tubes ete, 4s Tutt = 2VFrs SHEAR BUCKLING OF FLAT RECTANGULAR PLATES where Fr 16 a reference stress which can| be taken as Fo, for the material or cal culated per Table C4.9. Vis the sand heap volume in cu, in, For other cross-sections without holes @ cardboard teuplate of the actual cross-section 1s made and sand 1s slowly poured onto the template until any addi~ Eional sand runs off. The sand is then weighed and the volute is calculated as Vin welght/weight per cu in of the sand, Eaving J, Tyre can then be calculated pox the forma, If the cross-section has holes the following is done to determine V, Snug fitting thin right cylinders made from ‘thin paper are inserted in ‘the holes, Jong enough to project above the volume of sand that can be piled on, The sand ie then poured on as above, and the pap- er cylinders slowly pulled’ downward un- til their edges become contour lines at ab the max,elevation, (a bit of practice is helpful’here), That ts, none of the side ares of the paper cylinders will be exposed, “The weight of the heaped sand is then determined, To this weight of of sand must be added the weight of sand required to fill the cylindere from the template up to their tips, ‘The sand vol- ume can then be calculated as discussed previously and Tyiz 1s then calculated, It is generally unconservative to deter- mine V simply by deducting from the strength of the cross-section without its holes the strength of solid sections having the cross-section of the holes, but this 1s sometines done for rough pre= ‘Liminary estimates, Instead of using ?gy for Fp tn oal- outating Tait, Pra can S8 decersined oc follows, For the alloys in Fg.08,17 through C4,30 the torsional modulus of rupture, Fst for solid circular cross- eeotiene ce be obtained at D/t ea Then, gincelge~ 2¥Peay Pet = TazeR/Ie T= tHt/2 and V = 708 /2i°cne can solve Tor Fes as a function of Fog. By alee braie manipulation Frs = -75Fst Table Ch.9 shows the values of Fets Frsv and Fg for several alloys from the Fig- ures shown, Fgy 1s from MIL-HDBK-5, 39. ‘The values of Fg were obtained from art, 04,20. ‘They could also be gotten by do- ing torsion failure tests of rods having a ciroular cross-section, 0h.25a Tiustrative Probleas tavoiving Geabined Bending and Goapreceion In Art,C#,22 Equation .Cl,14 does not give the true margin, but rather an apparent one (see‘Art.1,i3a). Therefore, in Art, Cl, 23 the calculated N.S. of .09 ks not the true margin which wiil be'clo- ser to zero (but not negative), To find the true M.S. one must find, by succes~ sive trials, the coumon factor by which all applied loade must be multiplied so thar te calculated M.S, is zero, Calling this factor F, the true margin is F - 1.0 ‘This applies to any beam-column, or to any other case where the internal loads or stresses do not vary nearly with the applied leads, GG.Ta Buckling of Fiat Rectangular Flaten Ualer tear Leeda Add the following’ to art.C5.7. The use of the secant modulus ‘for shear buckling stresses in the plastic range hes no theoretical basis; 1t sin- ply happens to match experinental results. It 1s helpful to redefine the shear, buckling coefficient as Ky = kgt*/12(1-»4) ‘Then Eq. (5) becomes Tor = XsB(t/oT or Tor = B/(b/tVRs* ‘The abscissa tn Pig.C5.13 will then be either of the above divided by Fo Bd sas ar aa a ioise ‘SHEAR BUCKLING CONSTANT A ot Gude peecton te yee es coe Ta] BF Gree Framers neta 83 [Be Et Gap ae fhe hae fe 2:8 [BER eer char lane neise Flg.c$.11a Shear Buckling Coef., Ve wo The value of VK te. given in Fig.o5,t1a, Pig. ll. gives Paor (age) {92 several comion materials asd inofudes' the effect of plasticity, Note that "cut-off" lined are used, These are at shéar stresses 0 approximately .5Fo,7 (or #.5Poy)., This i a fairly coamon coigervative practice, Fos, etn eaters Pig,05.19 ny yaednguatine tite Ga ae OTE aa ot oulativis. Fscr = "FO.7(Fscr/F0,7). Sinse hand 79,7 are seeded te'do this they axe|. obtained’ fron Table Bi.1, or for other materials n canbe calculated per Art. BL,1 or read from Fig, Bi,13 (obtaining Fo.7 and,F0,05 fron the material's stress| strain curve per Pig. Bi,12, 5.8a RuskLing of Pat’ Rectangular Plates Gator Bening Loads Useful aata tor bio cases of platés subject to bending stresses are chown in Fig,5.i¢a and Pig.5,14b, That in (a) is for all edges siasiy sugported with Ke being the value knfle/12i-¥*). the buckling stress is calculated as Fror = Kato(t/b}ry where Ze is the, compressive Welve of Young's Mogulus, Tf Foor 18 in the plastic range one caléulates FBor/?0,7 enters Fig.05.8 with this and obteins Fop/ojge_ te corrected vaiue of Pucy. 1s then cadduaated as Fo.7(roe/#047), Fee a/b values less than :50, Kp o&h caloulated as Hy w Citet ZF ) (a atet (0%) (24908 [iF (v* fat ) BENDING. BUCKLING OF FLAT RECTANGULAR FLATES Fig.5.ilb is for a plate in bending and compression (not tension), with the eoupression (upper) edge free’ and the other three edges simply supported. ‘This can also te useful, for example, in esti- mating the buckling stress, for the up- standing free edge of a T-team in bending with. the uppe edge in compression, The Duckling stress ig calculated as fine s1z(a JeroF If For is inthe ’pidstic range it 1s cor- ‘rected as discussed for the previous case Note that the figure shows cases ranging from pure bending to pure compression (b/n = 2 to b/n = 0), For tension and ending b/n > 2 and is not covered by the date in the figure, his the distance fron the free edge to the line of zero stress Foor It shbula ve ‘noted. that’ for, this ease the compressive butkling stress de~ pends upon hy or the location of the line ef zero stress, Therefore, it depends upon thé felative magnitudss of the. bend~ ‘ing stregs and thé compressive stress, or upon Mand P, So for a given case one must determine fp andif; and then find the Yelue of h and b/h in order to enter the figure and obtain k, This 1s unlike other plate buékling stress which are for only'e single stress fe, fp or fr. Two graiples'will ‘illustrate the proceaure. * SOS76 (1Fat7 oF aa +97 Foe BEE renee) 34 Ky 28} al ee] 3 a/b 6 7 Fig.C5.ila Flat Plate Compression Buckling Coefficient, Kp Seer here tele Ebin= lie Dik, ee Fig.¢5;1%0 Flat Platé Compress ton—Rending Buckling Coefficient, k