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Original Title: Projectile Motion Lab Revised

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Projectile Motion Lab Revised

Projectile Motion Lab Revised

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Terry Tong, Victor Jeung, Cathy Liu, Jason Feng

2011 September 28

1

Projectile Motions Lab

Abstract

This lab for projectile motions will be investigating the properties of the x displacement of a projectile.

The change of the x displacement can be changed dramatically by any type of variable such as initial

angle, initial speed, initial height, and air resistance but it is negligible. Our lab will be focused on

changing the initial height and seeing the changes in the X displacement.

Introduction

Hypothesis

Our hypothesis for the displacement of the ball is that it will increase with the initial height changes.

The variables within our experiment will be the Displacement of Y which we will control as an

independent variable. While all other except the displacement of x and time will be set to one

state and will not change, such as initial velocity and initial angle (set to zero to eliminate this

variable).

Theory

(equation 1)

(equation 2)

negative value) because the fly time is shared among its x component, we use this time to find

the x displacement after find its velocity.

(equation 3)

velocity of the projectile from when it begins its free-fall.

Initial velocity is zero from top of ramp

(equation 4)

The final velocity is found, which the initial velocity for the

actual freefalling motion is.

results in a direct calculation of the displacement of X

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Projectile Motions Lab

then substituting equations 2 and 4 in to initial velocity and time we get

Taking the log of both sides will show it is a linear relationship which

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Projectile Motions Lab

Experiment

Apparatus

-2 retort stands

-1 hot wheel tracks

-1 clamp

paper

-Tape, clear tape

-Projectile (Metal Ball Bearings)

Setup of Apparatus

Our set up for this lab was to use two retort stands placed one in front of the other. Then using clamps

to clamp on to the end of a hot wheels race track approximately 28 cm above the base of the retort

stand. Then using clear tape(which minimizes the friction when the ball goes over it) and tape the race

track down on to the first rhetoric stand. The base length of our stand was 51.2 cm. Then Lay down the

Piece of carbon paper to approximately where you think the steel balls would land, we placed a meter

stick from the edge of where the balls are launched so we can quickly get the measurements.

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Projectile Motions Lab

Our lab was conducted by letting steel balls go at the top of the ramp, which basically is almost zero

velocity at the top of the ramp. From the ramps top we count down and release, which at the same time

we start counting time and stop at the time when I hear the ball hit the floor. For each trial there would

be 6 runs (3 runs with the heavy ball, 3 runs with light ball). After each trial we raise the entire height of

the apparatus by placing a wooden plank under the two retort stands.

Data

Small Balls:

Big Balls:

Displacement X (cm) Height(cm) Displacement X (cm) Height(cm)

75.4

93.3

74.2

93.3

75.0

93.3

75.3

93.3

74.3

93.3

74.7

93.3

76.5

96

74.5

96

76.5

96

78.2

96

76.5

96

78.5

96

76.8

98.5

80.3

98.5

75.8

98.5

79.5

98.5

75.6

98.5

78.2

98.5

78.9

106

82.1

106

79.3

106

82.2

106

79.1

106

82.5

106

84.5

114

87.2

114

85.0

114

88.5

114

83.1

114

87.6

114

Figure 2: Raw data for small and big ball comparing displacement in x(cm) and height (cm) in tabular

form.

The data we collected seems to take a linear form and that the distance in x is changing linearly

according to the increase in the initial height. From the data we had also concluded that the weight of

the ball also may apply a change in the X displacement also, but there is no evidence to conclude why it

is so.

The graph as you see shows our collected data, the red plots represent the heavier (61 gram) steel balls

while the blue shows the lighter (8 grams) steel balls. And there is a clear difference in how much

difference there is between the heavier ball and the lighter ball.

The correlation ship between the initial height and the distance it yielded is shown quite clearly that it is

a linear relationship. Slope of the graph is H = 0.5956x + 19.746 for big balls and h = 0.4304x + 34.435

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Projectile Motions Lab

both of which are a linear relationship, and does not show any signs of being an exponential or log

characteristics. This of which proves that our theoretical calculations are correct.

Small and Big Ball Rolling Down Hot Wheels Ramp

90.0

88.0

Displacement in X (cm)

86.0

84.0

82.0

80.0

Linear (Data For Small Balls)

78.0

76.0

74.0

72.0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Figure 3: Graph - Displacement in x (cm) vs. Initial Height (cm) for Small and Big Ball Rolling Down Hot

Wheels Ramp

Conclusion

In conclusion, our hypothesis was correct because a direct relationship exists between the initial height

and x displacement. As the initial height increased, x displacement also increased, this was due to the

fact the extended height created more flight time for the ball, which means the velocity at x component

is able to travel further and further. This created a linear relationship as we hypothesized. There were

some random and systematic errors though that caused discrepancies in the data. These were:

The systematic error of not being equal to zero since the ramp was curved and taped down at

the end of the counter. This resulted in the ramp not being straight causing the x displacement

to change.

The systematic error of friction on the ramp, which caused the distance projected to be off by

approximately 10cm.

6

The systematic error of the ramp being uneven, due to the use of one retort stand. The random

error caused the ramp to shake and wobble while the ball was in motion resulting in a change of

the x displacement.

Use a ramp that is straight and does not curve with little friction to ensure that

also ensures the ramp does not shake or wobble while the ball is in motion.

Verify the relationship between initial velocity and height.

is zero. This

Acknowledgements

Mr. Murzakus notes and assistance with the projectile motion lab.

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Projectile Motions Lab

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