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Safety Audit Checklist

for Roadworks

MAIN ROADS Western Australia


271008299.doc

September 1997
Road Safety Audits have been used in Western Australia for several years. They
have, however largely focussed on projects at design stage and on existing
roads. This document extends the general principles of Road Safety Auditing as
detailed in the AUSTROADS publication Road Safety Audit for road
construction works. Before examining the checklists for road construction works it
is necessary to quickly outline some key principles of Road Safety Auditing.
A Road Safety Audit is a formal examination of an existing or future road and
traffic project, or any project which interacts with road users, by which an
independent, qualified examiner who reports on the projects crash potential and
safety performance.
The purpose of the Road Safety Audit is to examine the crash potential and
safety performance of the road or road proposal. It is a formal process using a
defined procedure rather than an informal check. The outcome of a road safety
audit is a Road Safety Audit Report, which identifies any road safety deficiencies
and if appropriate, makes recommendations aimed at removing or reducing
these deficiencies. The benefit of this is;

The likelihood of crashes on the road network can be reduced

Severity of crashes is reduced

Road safety is given greater prominence in the minds of road designers and
traffic engineers

The need for costly remedial work is reduced

The total cost of a project to the community, including crashes, disruption and
trauma is reduced.

It is essential that personnel conducting a safety audit have previously acquired


knowledge of a range of conditions and operational requirements associated with
the roadworks to be audited.
A road construction safety audit should be performed by a person or team of
people who have sufficient experience and expertise in the areas of road safety
engineering, road construction works, crash investigation and prevention, and
traffic engineering. A cross-fertilisation of ideas can result from discussions
involving a team with diverse backgrounds who possess different approaches,
thus leading to a more in-depth approach than that would be obtained using a
single person.
Experience in road safety engineering and an aptitude for crash investigation and
prevention techniques are key skills for a successful road safety auditor. These
skills should be linked to an understanding of traffic engineering, road
construction and traffic management together with knowledge in road design
techniques. As well as these requirements a road safety auditor should have
undertaken the Road Safety Audit Training course. The team leader for the road
safety audit should have worked on at least five road safety audits as a team
member.

General Process
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The whole basic process can be summed up in a few basic straight forward
steps.

The designer or client needs to select the auditor or audit team with appropriate
skills and independence.

The designer must then provide background information by collecting plans and
site information for the auditor and provide a statement of the projects objectives.

A commencement meeting must then be held with the client, designer and
auditor all present to discuss the audit and hand over the information.

The auditor must then assess the documents (use checklists, drawings, data and
field notes) as well as inspect the site both by day and night. The types of road
users and likely conditions must be considered as a result of the inspection.

A report must be written by the auditor to identify items of safety deficiency and
make recommendations.

For major projects it is usually necessary for the client/designer plus the auditor
to once again meet, in the form of a completion meeting, where the
recommendations can be discussed.

The client/designer must then consider each recommendation, and document


reasons for accepting or rejecting each one.

A copy of this report must be forwarded to the auditor for feedback.

Elements of the project are then redesigned according to the recommendations.

As well as knowledge of general road safety and traffic engineering reference


documentation, roadworks safety audit personnel should be familiar with the
following specific documents:
1. Road Safety Audit, AUSTROADS, 1994, Australia
2. Australian Standard 1742.3 1985 (Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices.
Part 3 Traffic Control Devices for works on roads)
3. Traffic Management At Road Works. Main Roads Competency Based Training
Manual.
4. General Field Guide, 1995. Main Roads. Traffic Management For Roadworks
5. Road Traffic Act and Road Traffic Code
6. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984.
7. Code of Practice - Roadworks. Main Roads
8. Road Safety Audit - Operational Guidelines. Main Roads

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Roadworks Site
1. General items
1.Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
2.Turning Radii and Tapers
3.Sight and Stopping Distances
4.Traffic lane Safety and Visibility
5.Street Lighting and other Delineation
6.Roadworks Signs
7.Access to Property

2. Traffic Signs and Pavement Markings


1.Signs
2.Location/Placement
3.Day /Night Requirements
4.Control
5.Delineation and Reflective Markers
6.Pavement Marking
7.Detours

3. Traffic Signals
1.Temporary Traffic Signals
2.Location
3.Visibility
4.Signals Display
5.Traffic Movements

4. Pedestrians and Cyclists


1.Paths
2.Elderly and Disabled
3.Cyclists
4.Safe Grates
5.Warning

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5. Road Pavement
1.Pavement Defects
2.Skid Resistance
3.Ponding
4.Loose Screenings

6. Traffic Speed Management


1.Speed Restriction Signs
2.Speed Management
3.Signs Requirements

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ROAD WORKS SAFETY AUDIT


Existing Roadworks (Stage 5)
Location :_______________________________________________________
Date of On-Site Inspection : (Day) ___ /___ /___ (Night) ___ /___ / ___
Time : _______________________________ Weather : ___________________

CHECKLIST General items


CHECKLIST GENERAL ITEMS
Item
1

Horizontal And
Vertical
Alignment

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are the road works located safely


with respect to horizontal and
vertical alignment?

If not, does works signing cater


for this?

Are turning radii and tapers


Turning Radii and constructed in accordance with
guidelines?

Tapers

Are the tapers delineated by


road works cones where
necessary?
Are the width of the lanes
satisfactory for the traffic using
the works area?
Are the alignment of kerbs,
traffic islands and medians
satisfactory?

Sight and
Stopping
Distances

Are sight and stopping distances in


accordance with guidelines?

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Item
4

Traffic Lane
Safety and
Visibility

Street Lighting
and other
Delineation

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are bus stops appropriately


located with adequate clearance
from the traffic lane for safety and
visibility?

Can passengers safely walk to


and from bus stops?
Is appropriate street lighting or
other delineation provided at the
road works to ensure that the site
is safe at night? (Note: the site
must be visited at night to
determine this)

Is the work area safe for


pedestrians and cyclists at
night?
6

Roadworks Signs
7

Access to
Property

Have unnecessary signs been


removed when works are not in
progress (eg. at night)?
Do the roadworks adversely affect
property access?

Have the owners been


consulted with, etc?

CHECKLIST Traffic Signs and Pavement Markings


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Item
1

Signs

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are all necessary regulatory,


warning and direction signs in
place?

Are they correctly placed clean,


and conspicuous?
Do they conform in general with
AS 1724.3 1996 and Main
Roads Department of WA
Guidelines, or other recognised
guidelines?
If Chevron alignment markers
are installed, have the correct
types of markers been used?
2

Location/
Placement

Are traffic signs in their correct


locations, and properly positioned
with respect to lateral clearance
and height?

Are signs placed so as not to


restrict sight distance,
particularly for turning vehicles?
3

Day/Night Signs
Requirements
4

Control

Are the correct signs used for each


situation including at night where
required, and is each sign
necessary?
Are other traffic control devices
according to standards and used
correctly?

Are flagmen or temporary traffic


signals requires where, when
and how?
5

Delineation and
Reflective
Markers

[a] Are traffic lanes clearly


delineated

[b] Have temporary Reflective


Markers been installed?
[c] Where coloured Reflective
Markers are used, have they
been installed correctly?

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Item
6

Pavement
Marking

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are all necessary pavement


markings installed in accordance
with guidelines?

Are vehicle paths through the


work area clear to motorists?
Are work areas clearly defined
and clear of through traffic when
flagmen not used?
Does the site present difficulties
for motorcyclists day or night?
Have these been addressed?

Detours

Do temporary detours cater for


heavy vehicles and buses to safely
manoeuvre in their designated
lane?

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CHECKLIST Traffic Signals

Item
1

Temporary Traffic
Signals

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are the temporary traffic signals


clearly visible to approaching
motorists?

Are additional warning signs


required?
Are signs warning of temporary
traffic signals adequate?
Are the ends of likely vehicle
queues visible to motorists so
that they may stop safely?

Location

Visibility

Are traffic signals operating


correctly? Is the number and
location of signal displays
adequate?
Have any visibility problems
caused by the rising or setting sun
been addressed?

Do any site works or any


construction equipment create
visibility problems for traffic
signals?
4

Signal Display

Traffic
Movements

Are signal displays shielded so


that they can be seen only by the
motorist for whom they are
intended?
Are all movements including
pedestrians catered for by the
temporary traffic signals?

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CHECKLIST Pedestrians and Cyclists CHECKLIST PEDESTRIANS AND


CYCLISTS
Item
1

Paths

Elderly and
Disabled

Cyclists
4

Safe Grates
5

Warning

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are pedestrians and cyclists


affected by the work area?

Are there appropriate travel


paths and crossing points for
pedestrians and cyclists?
Are there adequate safety access
provisions for the elderly, disabled,
children, wheel chairs and prams.
[eg. holding rails, kerbs and
median crossings, ramps] ?
Is the bicycle route continuous, i.e.
free of squeeze points or gaps?
Are bicycle safe grates provided at
drainage gully pits where
necessary?
Are pedestrian and cyclists
adequately warned of obstructions
and temporary works hazards on
their travelled way?

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Page 11

CHECKLIST Road Pavement


CHECKLIST ROAD PAVEMENT
Item
1

Pavement
Defects

Skid Resistance
3

Ponding

Loose
Screenings

Issues to be considered

Comments

Is the pavement free of defects


[eg. excessive roughness or
rutting, potholes etc.] which could
result in safety problems [eg. loss
of steering control]?
Does the pavement appear to
have adequate skid resistance,
especially on steep descents?
Is the pavement free of areas
where ponding or sheet flow of
water may occur, with resultant
safety problems?
Is the pavement free of loose
screenings?

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Page 12

CHECKLIST Traffic Speed Management

Item
1

Speed
Restriction Signs
2

Speed
Management

Signs
Requirements

Issues to be considered

Comments

Are speed restriction signs


required for these works?

If so are they correctly applied?


Are motorists informed of need to
slow down through Roadworks
site?

Are other devices required for


speed management?
Do speed restriction signs require
to be maintained all day and at
night?

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