© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 602

© All Rights Reserved

- GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT.ppsx
- Oil Pumping and Metering.pdf
- Natural Gas Liquids Recovery.pdf
- Gas Dehydration.pdf
- OPITO Offshore Oil & Gas Industry Minimum Industry Safety Training Standard 5301
- 1_Designing Ultrasonic Flow Meters
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 2.pdf
- Oil Treatment (Dehydration).pdf
- Injection Water Treatment.pdf
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 2.pdf
- Produced Water Treatment
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 1.pdf
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 3.pdf
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 1
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 4.pdf
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 2 (Inc Drawings)
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 1.pdf
- Subsea Tools
- Introduction to P&ID Reading & Design
- API-1470WB-Oil and Gas Separators.pdf

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 63

Part of the

Petroleum Processing Technology Series

OPITO

THE OIL & GAS ACADEMY

POL

Petroleum Open Learning

Part of the

Petroleum Processing Technology Series

OPITO

THE OIL & GAS ACADEMY

Designed, Produced and Published by OPITO Ltd., Petroleum Open Learning, Minerva House, Bruntland Road, Portlethen, Aberdeen AB12 4QL

Printed by Astute Print & Design, 44-46 Brechin Road, Forfar, Angus DD8 3JX www.astute.uk.com

ISBN 1 872041 85 X

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval or information storage system, transmitted in any form or by any

means, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publishers.

As a large part of this subject deals with calculations, you will require to be comfortable with

maths up to about standard grade level.

Visual Cues

Although some of the equations are fairly complex, all relevant data and information is

provided to assist you to solve the problems.

achieve by the end of the unit

how much you understand

let you see if you have been

thinking along the right lines

new knowledge

the major steps in your progress

All formulae required for calculations in your examination will be provided for

you. However, it is necessary that you are able to recognise the symbols

in formulae and allocate the correct units of measurement to each

symbol in your calculations

You will also find that a scientific calculator will be useful for this programme.

Contents

Page

Training Targets

Introduction

Section 1

Units of Measurements

Contents (contd)

*

Fluid Flow Properties

Orifice Plate Principles

Orifice Plate Flow Calculations

Types of Plate

Sensing Devices

Metering Stations

Safety Implications

Page

26

34

Visual Cues

training targets for you to

achieve by the end of the

unit

to see how much you

understand

let you see if you have been

thinking along the right lines

46

activities for you to apply

your new knowledge

54

on the major steps in your

progress

Training Targets

When you have completed this unit on Gas Flow Measurement, you will be able to:

State the gas laws and perform relevant calculations using the appropriate units of measurements.

Define molecular mass, gas density and specific gravity, and perform calculations when given appropriate formulae.

Define Reynolds number and, given Reynolds equation, define the terms in it and use it in a calculation.

Describe Bernoullis principle and state the types of pressure in a flowing fluid.

Describe the main types of gas flow measuring devices.

State the relationship between differential pressure and flowrate.

Describe the main features of orifice plate meters.

Perform a flowrate calculation in which all necessary formulae and data are given.

Draw a schematic diagram of a typical multi-stream system which complies with fiscal standards.

Describe the main safety implications associated with metering systems.

Tick the box when you have met each target

Gas

Flow Measurement

Oil and

Gas Separation

Introduction

Introduction

Systems

For most of this century there has been a necessity to measure gas flow accurately, both in commercial applications and scientific investigations.

The measurement of gas flow is more complex than that of liquid since gas is more sensitive to physical factors, such as pressure, temperature, composition,

etc. It has therefore been subjected to considerable research effort, which has led to a high degree of accuracy now being possible.

In this book we will be mainly concerned with natural gas flow measurement, but the principles are generally applicable to all gas phase matter.

This book comprises four sections :

Section 1, Gas Flow Measurement Applications and Gas Physics, outlines areas in which the ability to accurately measure gas flow is essential. It then

covers the basic physics of gas behaviour, which are essential to an understanding of the measurement and flow calculation methods.

Section 2, Fluid Flow Principles, presents the concepts of laminar and turbulent fluid flow, develops the Bernoulli and continuity principles to produce a

simple flowrate / differential pressure relationship.

Section 3, Measurement Devices and Methods, describes various fluid flow measurement devices which are applicable to gases. It then gives a more

detailed treatment of the orifice plate method, since this is the one most widely used. It ends with the ISO 5167 formula, and an explanation of its terms.

Section 4, Orifice Plate Metering Equipment, describes : various orifice plate designs, differential pressure and gas density sensing and measuring

equipment and a typical gas metering station. It ends by drawing attention to the safety aspects of gas metering systems.

The Need for Accurate Measurement

activities that require accurate measurement of

natural gas flow rates.

accurately measured volumetric flow rates with

specific reference pressure and temperature

conditions.

A typical field evaluation exercise involves flowing

reservoir fluid from an exploration well to a test

separator, where the liquid and gas phases are

separated. Accurate measurement of the gas and

liquid flow rates from the separator is essential

to the achievement of a reliable appraisal of the

reservoir performance.

The control and optimisation of gas processes,

in both offshore and onshore operations, often

requires gas flow rate monitoring as the process

variable in automatic control systems.

An example of this is using the gas flow rate through a

centrifugal gas compressor as a measured variable

to provide automatic flow control / recycling for antisurge protection.

Hydrocarbon Taxation

In most oil and gas producing countries, governments

impose various types of revenue on the production

companies. Most of these revenues are applied on

a volumetric basis, so flow rates must be measured

to a high degree of accuracy.

Fiscal Standards

In the last two examples, in addition to the need

for accuracy, there is also the implication of

complex legal considerations. This has led to

the establishment of a set of fiscal standards,

the purpose of which is to achieve consistent

levels of high accuracy and reliability in fluid flow

measurement.

is provided in the Petroleum Gas Compression

programme which forms a part of this Petroleum

Processing Technology Series.

Units of Measurement

It is not possible to fully appreciate the methods

and procedures of gas flow metering without a

basic understanding of the physical behaviour

of gases, in particular the relationship between

pressure, volume and temperature.

Boyles Law

Figure 1 illustrates the principle behind Boyles

Law, which describes the relationship between

the volume occupied by a given mass, or number

of molecules, of gas and its pressure, while the

temperature remains constant.

Figure 1 depicts a piston in a cylinder which

contains a fixed mass of gas. The highly energetic

gas molecules collide with each other and with the

cylinder walls and the piston face, resulting in a

force being exerted. The property we describe as

pressure is defined as the magnitude of that force

divided by the area over which it acts.

The force acting on the bottom face of the piston

is therefore the pressure multiplied by the cross

sectional area of the piston. To prevent the piston

being driven out of the cylinder, a force of the

same magnitude must be applied downwards, in

this case by a weight (W).

pressure (P), and the gas occupies a volume (V),

as shown in Figure 1 (a).

Now consider what happens if we double the force

on the piston, a condition we achieve by applying

a second weight of the same mass as the first one

(we assume that the piston itself is weightless), to

exert 2W.

To balance this force the gas must now exert

twice the pressure, i.e. 2P. If we measure the new

volume we find it to be 1/2 of V1, as shown in

Figure 1 (b).

the original force, Figure 1 (c) shows that

a gas pressure of 4P is produced and the

volume is reduced to 1/4 of V1.

The relationship between the pressure and volume

is now clear. Doubling the pressure halves the

volume; quadrupling the pressure reduces the

volume to a quarter of its original value. Boyles

Law expresses this formally with the statement that:

At constant temperature, the absolute pressure

of a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely

proportional to the volume.

Absolute pressure units must be used

instead of gauge units. Most field pressure

measurement devices read in gauge units,

which means that atmospheric pressure

must be added to the indicated value to

obtain the absolute pressure.

NOTE :

Unless otherwise stated, all pressure references in this

programme will be given as bar, this will infer that the

pressure is bar absolute (bara).

1.

2.

The kinetic model that was designed to

enable the prediction of gas behaviour was

based on two main assumptions that

pertain to an ideal gas

volumes of which are negligible in

comparison to the volume that the gas

occupies.

There are no attractive or repulsive

intermolecular forces, and the behaviour

of the molecules when colliding is similar to

that of billiard balls, the collisions being elastic.

proportional to its volume (V) can be written

as P is proportional to 1v

Which means that the pressure is equal to a constant (k)

divided by the volume.

Thus : P = kv

so k = PV which is the mathematical way of stating that the

pressure multiplied by the volume gives a constant value.

Referring to Figure 1 (a) and (b), we can write :

and

HENCE

P1 V1 = k

P2 V2 = k

P1 V1 = P2 V2

This equation can be used to calculate a new pressure or

volume, where the original pressure and volume and one of

the new conditions are given, at the same temperature.

Charles Law

Charles Law describes the relationship between the

volume and temperature of an ideal gas, while the

pressure is kept constant.

As in the case of Boyles Law, we can use a cylinder

/piston arrangement to demonstrate the principle behind

Charles Law, as shown in Figure 2.

This time, however, we keep the pressure constant by

leaving the force on the piston unchanged, and heat the

gas in the cylinder. Not surprisingly, we find that the gas

volume increases.

EXAMPLE

5 Ltr of an ideal gas is contained in a cylinder at 2 bar.

A piston then compresses the gas until the volume is

reduced to 3 Ltr.

What will the new pressure be, once the temperature has

stabilised to its initial value ?

We will use the left side of the equation to represent the

initial conditions, and the right the final ones.

Thus :

2 X 5 = P2 X 3

P2 = 2 X 5 = 3.33 bar

3

If the Ifvolume

is measured at various temperatures

results are plotted on a graph, we obtain a diagram like

and the results are plotted on a graph, we obtain

Figure 3 when we use the Celsius temperature scale

a diagram like Figure 3 when we use the Celsius

temperature scale.

(Celsius Scale Only)

between the volume and temperature (the graph

is a straight line). However calculations involving

temperatures below 0C are slightly inconvenient

due to the presence of negative numbers. This

problem is solved by employing a different

temperature scale which only has positive values.

Figure 4 is similar to Figure 3, but with the graph line extrapolated to intersect the Temperature axis.

This point is taken as 0 for our other temperature scale, and we see that it corresponds to -273.15C.

Absolute Zero is the term that is commonly applied to this temperature, since it is physically impossible

to achieve lower temperatures than it. Absolute zero has been approached experimentally, but has never

been quite achieved; and is therefore a theoretical value rather than a practical one. We see in Figure 4

that the gas would occupy no volume at that point; a futile observation, since no substance would be in

the gas phase at such a low temperature.

temperature scale, which is measured in units

called Kelvin (K) in the SI system. In the Imperial

system the units are known as Rankine (R).

As evident in Figure 4, the unit step sizes for the

Kelvin and Celsius scales are the same. So a

one degree Celsius temperature change is also

one Kelvin. (A convention, which is by no means

universally applied, is to omit the term degree

when using absolute temperature units). OC,

then, is 273.15 K, and 100C is 373.15 K, so to

convert from C to K we simply add 273.15 to the

C value.

Absolute zero on the Rankine scale is equal to

-459.67F, and a degree on the Rankine scale is

the same size as a degree on the Fahrenheit

scale.

In most practical situations sufficient accuracy is

achieved by using 273 as the conversion factor

between Celsius and Kelvin, and 460 between

Fahrenheit and Rankine. However, where high

accuracy is required, such as in fiscal gas flow

measurement, the more exact values should be

used.

Law we can employ a similar argument to the one

we used for Boyle's Law.

The statement that the volume of gas is

proportional to its temperature can be written as :

V = cT

where c is a constant

so

We see in Figure 5 that if the absolute

temperature is doubled, the gas volume will also

be doubled.

Charles' Law, then, states that: at constant

pressure, the volume occupied by a given

mass of gas is proportional to its absolute

temperature.

c=V

T

V1 = c and V2 =c

T1

T2

hence : V1 = V2

T1 T2

This equation can be used to evaluate the new

volume or temperature of an ideal gas for a

change in which the pressure stays constant.

10

Boyle's and Charles' laws combine to give the

equation:

P1V1 = P2V2

T T

1

2

2 Ltr of an ideal gas at 10C and 2 bar is compressed to a

volume of 0.5 Ltr. Given that the heat of compression raises its

temperature to 25C, what will its pressure be?

45C and has its pressure reduced to 1.5 bar. Assuming

that it behaves ideally, what will its new volume be?

The first step is to ensure that the pressures and

temperatures are in absolute units. The pressures

are quoted in bar a, which means that the values are

absolute. However we will have to add 273 to the

temperatures to convert them from C to K.

Using P1V1 = P2V2

T

1

T2

You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1.1 on page 54.

Molecular Mass

Molecular mass is a physical property of all substances. A comprehensive description of it can be found in

changed ones to the right.

Thus we need to find V2.

3 x 5

1.5xV2

(15 + 273)

(45 + 273)

V2 = 3 x 5 x 318

(1.5 x 288)

V2 = 11.04 Ltr

elementary chemistry text books and training manuals, but for our purposes a simple description is sufficient.

All matter consists of atoms. In many substances two or more atoms combine to form molecules. As we wish to

keep this description simple, we will accept the atomic mass units (a.m.u.) given in the following text.

Let us consider methane, the lightest alkane hydrocarbon and the main component of natural gas. It is a

molecule comprising one carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms. Carbon has an atomic mass of 12

atomic mass units (a.m.u.). Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1 a.m.u. The molecular mass of methane is

the sum of the masses of its constituent atoms, which is therefore 12 + (4 x 1) = 16 a.m.u.

11

terms molecular mass and molecular weight

(Mw) are often used interchangeably.

The very small size of atoms and molecules

makes calculations using their individual masses

inconvenient. A more practical approach is to

consider the mass of a large number of them, and

this involves the concept of the mole.

The mole, usually written as mol, or grammemole (g-mol) is defined as the atomic or

molecular mass of a substance expressed in

grammes.

The number of moles of substance is usually

assigned the symbol n, and is easily calculated

for a given mass (m) of material using the

relationship:

n= m

Mw

EXAMPLE

Calculate the number of kg-mol in 40 kg of

methane.

We have already seen that the molecular mass of

methane is 16.

n = m = 40 = 2.5kg-mol

Mw 16

weight (Mw) is obtained by using the units in the

n= m equation. Hence:

Mw

n(kg-mol)

Mw

= m(kg)

Mw

= m(kg)

n(kg-mol)

kg/kg-mol. It may also be written as kg kg-mol-1

It will have the same value when expressed in

units of g/g-mol, so molecular mass is one of the

few physical quantities for which it is acceptable

to omit its unit of measurement.

Calculate the molecular mass of ethane,

which is a molecule comprising two carbon

and six hydrogen atoms.

substances like methane and ethane are

calculated, we will now determine the molecular

mass of a mixture of components, such as

natural gas. We have already seen that methane

is the main constituent of natural gas, but it

also contains smaller quantities of heavier

hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane and

butane. The relative amounts of these can vary

considerably between samples of gas, depending

on factors such as the reservoir conditions,

processing methods, etc. These variations can

have very significant effects on the behaviour of

gas during handling and measurement of its flow

rates.

We will use a simple example of a

two-component mixture of methane and ethane.

To perform the calculation, we will obviously

need to know the relative quantities of each

component. These are expressed as molefractions, which simply means the relative

number of molecules of each constituent. Let

us assume that our mixture has mole-fractions

of 80% and 20% for methane and ethane

respectively. In other words, 80 of every 100

molecules of the mixture are methane, and 20 are

ethane.

1.2 on page 54.

12

The procedure is shown in the following table, and involves adding up the

results of multiplying the mole-fraction of each component by its molecular

mass.

Component

Methane

Ethane

Mol. Mass

Mol. Fraction

Mol. mass x

Mol.Fraction

16

0.80

12.80

30

0.20

6.00

18.80

an average mass of 18.80 kg / kg-mol. In the following exercise you will see

the effect changing the concentrations of the components has on the mixture

molecular mass.

Calculate the molecular mass of a mixture comprising 60%

methane, and 40% ethane.

from that of the lighter one.

The procedure for calculating the molecular mass of mixtures of more than

two components is exactly the same as for two.

Gas Constants

The form of the ideal gas equation we looked at earlier :

implies that

PV = a constant

T

In other words, for a given type and mass of an ideal gas, the absolute

pressure multiplied by the volume and divided by the absolute temperature

will always produce the same answer.

If we call the constant C, we can rewrite the equation as:

You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1.3 on page 54.

P1V1 = P2V2

T1 T2

PV = CT

a gas with a given molecular mass. It will have different values for methane

and ethane, for example. What we need is a constant that will have the same

value regardless of the type of gas under consideration.

13

(n) of gas, instead of the mass, in the equation.

Thus:

PV = nRT

EXAMPLE

R is termed the universal gas constant. Its

value will depend on the units by which the other

terms in the equation are measured; the following

table shows values of R for various combinations

of units.

What is the volume of 1.5 kg of air at 1.5 bar and 25C? (Take the molecular

weight of air as 29, and assume ideal behaviour).

Mw 29

and use this value in : PV = nRT, having selected the appropriate value of R

from the table as 0.0831. Note that this will make our volume units m3. As these

are the most commonly used units for gas measurement calculations, we will use

0.0831 for all our calculations where a value of R is required

Inserting these values gives:

V

kPa m3

bar

m3

K

K

Ltr

bar

K

bar cm3 K

oR

psia ft3

kg-mol

kg-mol

g-mol

g-mol

0.0831

V = 1.280 = 0.853 m3

1.5

8.130

0.0831

83.1

Ib-mol 10.73

ideally, occupy a volume of 1 m3 at 2 bar and

20C?

on page 54.

14

Temperatures

Gas flow rates are often quoted in volumetric units,

such as m3 / minute and ft3 / minute. Having

studied the very significant interdependence of

pressure, temperature and volume, you will now

be aware that it is meaningless to express a

volume of gas without stating the pressure and

temperature at which it is measured. This has led

to the establishment of reference conditions for

gas volumetric measurements.

The values of reference pressures and temperatures

may vary between countries and contracts, but the

most common ones are

1.

1.013 bar ;

15C

2.

1.013 bar ;

0C

3.

Pressure and Temperature, and the second

Normal Pressure and Temperature. However

you should be aware that some textbooks use

Standard Pressure and Temperature (STP) with

a reference temperature of 0C. Clearly, the first

two conditions apply to the metric system, and the

third to the imperial system.

A standard cubic metre, then, is the quantity of gas

that has a volume of 1m3 at 15C and 1.013 bar.

reference volumetric and volumetric flow rate

units. For example the standard cubic metre

may be written as sm3. The oil industry often

expresses gas flow rates in millions of volume

units per day, which would be 106 sm3 / d or 106

sft3 / d. However, the oil industry would normally

write these as MMSCMD or MMSCFD, although

you may also come across ksm3/hr (1000m3 (st)

/ hour in place of MMSCMD. Before performing

any calculations, you must always ensure that you

know which units the quantities you are using are

expressed in, and the units that will apply to the

result.

Gas volumes or volumetric flow rates measured at

pressures and temperatures other than reference

ones are sometimes called actual volume, or

actual volumetric flow rate. 1 m3 at 10 bar and

40C is an actual cubic metre at that pressure and

temperature, and would require conversion to be

expressed in terms of reference conditions, as the

following example shows.

EXAMPLE

gas at 3 bar and 25C.

We will use

P1V1 = P2V2

T1 T2

Hence:

P1 = 1.013 bar

T1 = 15C = 288 K

V1 = 5 m3

P2 = 3 bar

T2 = 298 K

1.013 x 5

288

0.01007 X V2 =

V2 = 0.01759 =

0.01007

3 X V2

298

0.01759

1.747 m3

15

In our work so far, we have repeatedly used the

term ideal to describe the characteristic

behaviour of gas. Real gases can deviate

significantly from ideal behaviour, since the

simple mathematical model from which ideal

gas behaviour was predicted is not adequate to

describe all gases under all possible conditions.

The model has been modified to make prediction

more accurate over a wider range of conditions,

but it is beyond the scope of this book to present

the explanation that these modifications would

require.

Although precise gas flow measurement

techniques would require use of fairly complex

formulae, we will be able to gain an appreciation

of how real gases deviate from ideal behaviour,

and even to make reasonably accurate

calculations, by introducing a term called the

compressibility factor.

The availability of this factor is due to the large

amount of empirical data that has been gleaned

from extensive experimental work over many

years, particularly in the natural gas industry. The

compressibility factor is usually given the symbol

Z, and is a function of the type of gas, pressure

and temperature.

It is customary to present Z in the form of charts,

the general form of which is shown in Figure 6.

This provides curves that represent values of Z plotted against pressure for various temperatures;

so to find the appropriate factor, the point that represents the relevant pressure and temperature is

identified and the corresponding value is read from the vertical axis. In Figure 6, for example, we see

that if the gas pressure and temperature is P1 and T1 respectively, the compressibility factor is Z1.

Note that if the stated temperature lies between two curves, interpolation is necessary.

16

ideal gas equation thus :

PV = ZnRT

ideal ( multiplying by 1 has no effect ). We see

in Figure 6 that Z = 1 at low pressure, which

includes atmospheric and standard pressure.

So, in most cases, ideal gas behaviour can be

assumed at these pressures. Points on the chart

furthest away from the Z=1 line denote the largest

deviations from ideal behaviour, the Z1 in Figure 6

being an example.

In Figure 6, T2 represents a higher temperature

than T1, and we see that T2 curve is generally

closer to Z = 1 than the T1 curve. This

demonstrates the characteristic that higher

gas temperatures tend to produce behaviour

that is closer to ideal than low ones. However,

temperatures above 300 - 400C will have curves

that show increasing deviation above the Z = 1

line with increasing pressure.

of temperatures below about 300C to give

decreasing values of Z (increasing deviation

from ideal behaviour) as the pressure increases.

However, at a certain pressure, a minimum

Z value is reached and further pressure

increment causes Z to increase until it reaches

1, where the gas is again ideal. Increasing the

pressure beyond that point causes Z to become

progressively greater than 1, which is again an

increasing deviation from ideal behaviour, but in

the opposite sense from values of Z that are less

than 1. This should become clearer when we look

at some examples.

17

chart for methane, depicted in Figure 7.

The chart covers ranges of pressure and

temperature that encompass most processing

conditions. The main features of the chart are:

1.

virtually behaves ideally.

2.

becomes rapidly non-ideal as the

pressure rises from 10 to 100 bar.

3.

behaviour occurs at pressures between

100 and 200 bar, for temperatures below

100oC.

4.

about 100 and 200oC, at pressures below

250 bar.

18

EXAMPLE

Activity

Use Figure 7 to find values of Z for each

of the following sets of conditions :

1. 70 bar ; 20oC

1. 0.88

2. 0.36

3. 0.74

appreciate the magnitude of the effect that nonideal gas behaviour can have.

in Figure 7 that Z = 0.68 (interpolation between

the T = 30C and T = 40C curves was

required). So we use this value in :

methane at 70 bar and 35C,

PV = nRT

PV = ZnRT

V = ZRT

P

= 0.68 x 0.0831 x 238

70

V = RT

P

V = 0.0831 x (-35 + 273)

70

= 19.78

70

V =

0.283 m3

= 13.449

70

V = 0.192 m3

non-ideality would have led to an error of

(0.283 - 0.192) x 100 = 47.4%. In other words,

0.192

we would have overestimated the actual volume of

the gas by almost 50%.

19

EXAMPLE

Using Figure 7 to find the compressibility factor, calculate the

volume of 32 kg of methane at 100 bar and -50C. Estimate the

percentage error you would have incurred by assuming the gas

to behave ideally.

You will find the answer in Check Yourself 1.5 on page 54.

We have already seen that, to perform gas

calculations involving changes in conditions from

P1, V1 and T1 to P2, V2 and T2 , we use:

P1V1 = P2V2

T1

T2

ideal at both sets of conditions, corrections will

have to be applied.

varies with pressure and temperature, so

different values of Z are likely to be required for

each set of conditions; ie. Z1 for P1, V1 and T1,

and Z2 for P2, V2 and T2.

The complete equation will be :

P1V1 = P2V2

Z1T1 Z2T2

65 bar and 20C, after it has been compressed to

150 bar and chilled to -30C.

Using:

P1V1 = P2V2

Z1T1

Z2T2

and assigning the initial conditions to the left side,

P1 = 65 bar, V1 = 3 m3, T1 = 293 K and, from

Figure 7, Z1 = 0.88. The final conditions are: P2 =

150 bar, T2 = 243 K, at which Z2 = 0.61 ; and V2

is the volume we need to calculate.

65 x 3

0.88 x 293

150 x V2

0.61 x 243

1.012 V2 = 0.756

V2 = 0.756 = 0.747 m3

1.012

Until now, we have used Z values which were

less than 1, which caused the volume occupied

by a given mass of gas to be less than that

predicted by the ideal gas equation.

Examining PV = ZnRT, from which P = ZnRT

V

we see that the pressure of a given mass of gas

at a given volume and temperature would also be

less than if it were ideal.

20

the volume at a given pressure, or the pressure at a

given volume, will be greater than that predicted by

the ideal law. You will also observe, when studying

Figure 7, that Z is only significantly greater than 1

at pressures and temperatures considerably higher

than those we normally encounter.

Figures 8 and 9 are examples of such charts, and apply to mixtures of molecular mass 18.85 and

23.2 kg / kg-mol respectively. Charts are also available for lower, intermediate and higher molecular

masses. When applying factors to mixtures with molecular masses that are between values for which

charts are available, reasonable accuracy can be achieved by interpolation.

hydrocarbons, so it is worth taking a brief look at

the selection of compressibility factors for such

mixtures.

When we looked at mixtures earlier, we saw that,

in addition to the type of components present, the

molecular mass of the mixture is determined by

the concentration, or relative amount of each

component. A mixture with a high concentration

of methane, the lightest hydrocarbon, produces a

lower molecular weight mixture than one with a

lower methane concentration.

The only difference between finding compressibility

factors for gas mixtures and for pure gases, is in

the selection of the appropriate chart. Instead of

the name of the gas to which the chart applies,

a gas mixture chart is identified by the average

molecular mass of the mixture.

21

except at temperatures well above 100C, the

deviation from ideal gas behaviour is considerably

greater for the heavier gas. For example, at

100 bar (10,000 kPa) and 5C, we see that the

Z values are 0.47 and 0.68 for the heavier and

lighter gases respectively. This is consistent with

the fact that its behaviour is closer to ideal when

a gas is relatively light.

We have spent some time looking at the gas laws

and the implications of non-ideal behaviour. We

did so because they are a very important aspect

of gas flow measurement.

We will finish this topic with an exercise in which

you will calculate volumetric flow rates instead

of simply volumes. This should not present

problems, since volumetric flow rate is just

volume divided by time and we substitute the

symbol Q for V in the equation

PV =ZnRT (PQ =ZnRT). This exercise is slightly

longer than the ones you have done so far, and

it is worth ensuring that you understand how the

answers are worked out, especially if you do not

get them right first time.

22

1. For two types of natural gas, with

molecular masses of 19 kg / kg-mol

and 23 kg / kg-mol, calculate their

actual volumetric flow rates in m3 /

minute, given the following data:

Line pressure = 130 bar

Line temperature = 10oC

volumetric flow rates for both your

answers to part 1.

Yourself 1.6 on page 55.

Density

Example

the fluid is gas, density is an important physical

property.

and temperature (1.013 bar and 15C).

and is usually given the Greek symbol .

So

=m

V

pressure and temperature, you will appreciate that

density will be similarly affected.

We have already seen that the number of moles,

= PMw =

ZRT

1.013 x 16

0.0831 x 288

= 0.678 kg / m3

standard conditions.

Mw

temperature, of the following natural gas

components:

Mw

This is rearranged to :

m = PMw =

V ZRT

calculations.

Ethane (Mw

Propane (Mw

Butane (Mw

=

=

=

30)

44)

58)

1.7 on page 56.

23

Specific Gravity

Another method of expressing the density of a

material is to use the measurement specific

gravity (s.g.). Specific gravity is sometimes

referred to as relative density, which is an apt

term since it is defined as the density of the

substance being evaluated divided by the

density of a reference substance.

In the case of liquids, the reference material is

water; for gases it is air.

So for gases we can write:

gas divided by the density of air, specific gravity is

equal to the molecular mass of gas divided by

the molecular mass of air. i.e.:

sgg = Mw g

Mw a

..

sgmethane = 16 = 0.55

29

(it has no units).

s.g. = g

being evaluated and air respectively.

To avoid having to account for non-ideal gas

behaviour, measurements are usually referred to

standard pressure and temperature.

Consider the specific gravity of methane:

sgmethane = methane

a

calculated at standard pressure and temperature,

we need only use the molecular mass (Mw) for

gas and air in the equation.

24

Summary of Section 1

Applications in which accurate gas flow measurement is required are :

Process Control and Optimisation

Gas Sales Contracts

Hydrocarbon Taxation

Boyles Law and Charles Law combine to express the relationship between the pressure, volume and temperature of gases when they behave

ideally, with the proviso that absolute temperature and pressure units must be used in the calculations.

The number of moles of a substance is found by dividing its mass by its molecular mass, a procedure that can be applied to mixtures as well as

pure substances.

The number of moles (n) can then be used in PV = nRT, where R is defined as the universal gas constant.

The interdependence of these properties demands the use of reference pressure and temperature at which gas volumes are calculated.

Most gases only obey the ideal gas laws at certain pressures and temperatures, so the compressibility factor (Z) is introduced to compensate for

non ideal behaviour.

Gas density can be evaluated from the ideal gas equation, and gas specific gravity is defined as its density divided by that of air, both values being

referred to standard conditions. Gas specific gravity is also found by dividing the molecular mass of the gas by that of air.

25

We will start this section with a general outline of fluid flow principles.

You should note that the term fluid applies to gases as well as liquids.

laminar flow. This is characteristic of very gentle flow, in which we see from the

velocity profile that the fluid velocity is zero at the pipe wall, and progressively

increases to a maximum at a point midway across the pipe.

For calculation purposes, the mean or average velocity is the important value;

in a laminar flow situation it would typically be about half the maximum velocity.

a visual image of fluid flow characteristics to be achieved, In simple

terms, streamlines are drawn such that adjacent lines represent

different fluid flow speeds.

Consider now what happens if the flow rate is increased. The laminar profile is

maintained until a certain fluid velocity is reached, at which point eddy currents

start to appear, indicating a breakdown of the laminar pattern as the layers start

to mix, and the onset of turbulent flow.

Turbulence commences near the centre of the pipe, where the velocity is

greatest, and spreads towards the pipe wall as the flow rate increases. At the

pipe wall a thin layer of laminar flow will survive unless very severe turbulence

occurs. A flow pattern exists between the turbulent and laminar regions which is

known as the boundary layer or transition layer, as shown in Figure 11.

26

flowing fluid, as we see in Figure 12.

Reynolds Number

An indication of whether fluid flow is likely to be

laminar or turbulent, or between them, can be

obtained by calculating a value called Reynolds

Number (Re), using the following formula:

Re = DVavg

Where:

D

vavg

= Average Fluid Velocity (m / s)

= Fluid Density (kg / m3)

= Fluid Viscosity (kg / m s)

the right side of the formula cancel each other.

between the moving fluid and the static fluid layer,

giving rise to the term boundary layer drag. A

Telsa pump employs this principle in its design,

which is essentially a disc without blades that

rotates at a very high speed. The boundary layer

provides the friction which allows the disc to

impart centrifugal acceleration to the liquid being

pumped.

2 000 indicate laminar flow; while values greater

than 30 000 indicate turbulence. For intermediate

values, the flow would be partially turbulent. Note,

however, that this prediction applies to straight

sections of pipelines; at elbows, for example,

turbulence will occur at lower Reynolds numbers.

indication of a fluids resistance to flow. Treacle

at temperatures below 10C, for example, has a

much higher viscosity than water. Gases generally

have considerably lower viscosities than liquids,

but this is partially compensated for in Reynolds

number calculations by their densities also being

lower.

Reynolds number is an important factor in flow

calculations, and is often incorporated in a quantity

called the discharge coefficient, as we will see

later.

Find Reynold's number for a process gas,

with a viscosity of 1.2 x 10-5 kg / m s and a

density of 20 kg / m3, which flows through

a 125 mm internal diameter pipeline at an

average velocity of 2 m / s.

Predict whether or not the flow is likely to

be turbulent.

You will find the answers in Check Yourself

2.1 on page 57.

27

Bernoullis Principle

Daniel Bernoulli was responsible for considerable

advancement of fluid flow theory by developing a

principle based on the conservation of energy.

The basis for this principle is that the total energy

of the fluid remains constant at all points through

which it flows. The main assumptions in the

development of the theory are that: the fluid is

incompressible, frictionless and adiabatic (no

heat energy enters or leaves it).

The total energy of a flowing fluid is the sum of

the following components:

Internal Energy (U) can be considered for our

purposes, without describing its thermodynamic

definition, simply as a function of the fluid

temperature. If U is defined as the internal energy

per unit mass, the total internal energy of the fluid

is Um.

Potential Energy is the energy the fluid has by

virtue of its position above some reference

level. If it is a height h above this reference, its

potential energy is mgh, where m is its mass and

g is the acceleration due to gravity. Conversely, it

is the energy required to propel it to a height h.

potential energy in terms of the ability of the fluid

to do work, such as driving a piston or impeller.

This energy is expressed as the pressure

multiplied by the volume (PV). However, we have

seen that density () is mass (m) divided by

volume (V), i.e.

= m, so V = m and the pressure energy

V

therefore equals Pm / .

Kinetic Energy is due to the fluids motion,

and can be considered as the energy that will

be converted to another form, or forms, when it

stops moving. It is a function of its mass (m) and

average velocity (v) and is calculated from the

term mw2 which, along with the potential

2

energy expression mgh, you will recognise if you

have studied elementary physics.

Adding these terms to express the total fluid

energy (E) gives:

E = Um + mgh + mP + mv2

flow line immediately upstream and downstream

of flow measuring devices and thus relatively

close to each other, we can simplify the

expression as follows:

The fluid temperature will be constant, so the

internal energy will not change and the term Um

can be discarded.

There will be no significant height difference

between the points, so the mgh term can be

ignored.

Removing these terms and dividing by the mass

m to get the energy per unit mass (Em) gives:

Em = P + v2

pressure.

Em = P+ v2

2

28

subjected to the constraints I have described,

consists of two components : P is referred to as

the

2

pressure, because it is associated with the fluid

velocity. Clearly, if the fluid is stationary, the total

pressure would be P. Using the symbol PT to

represent the total pressure:

V

m = V, and, replacing V with Qv,

Em = PT = P + v2

2

quantities : pressure, density and velocity. If the

fluid density is known, and we measure the total

and static pressures, we can calculate the velocity.

This is the principle used by the Pitot Tube, which

I will describe later.

particle which is travelling at the average velocity v

of the flowstream. If, for example, the velocity is 2

m / s, the particle will move 2 m along the pipe in

1 second and the volume of fluid displaced will be

2 x A (the volume of a cylinder is calculated by

multiplying its cross-sectional area by its length;

so the volume of fluid moving along the pipe

in one second is, in effect, that of a cylinder of

cross-sectional area A and length 2 m).

Relationship

Figure 13 represents fluid flowing, at an average

velocity v, through a pipe of cross-sectional area A.

Qm = Qv = v A

volumetric and mass flow rates to pipe dimensions

and fluid velocities.

Qv =Av

is to consider the units involved. Using the SI

system, A is in m2, and v is in m / s; so multiplying

the units gives:

m2 x m/s = m3/s, which is volume per unit time.

29

diameter changes, as in Figure 14.

pipeline at an average velocity of 3 m / s. Taking

the density of water as 1 000 kg / m3, find the

volumetric and mass flow rates.

on page 57.

Here we see fluid flowing at average velocity V1, from the section of pipe with cross-section

area A, to the section with area a where its average velocity is v2. To account for compressible fluids

which might experience a change in density, we note that the densities are 1 and 2 in the wide and

narrow sections respectively.

The continuity equation, as its name might suggest, is based on the principle that the mass flowrate

must be constant through all cross-sections of a flowstream. So the mass flowrate in the wide section

(1 A v1) is equal to the mass flowrate in the narrow section (2 a v2) :

1 A v1 = 2 a v2 =Qm

30

EXAMPLE

A liquid flows through a pipeline the diameter of

which changes from 150 mm to 75 mm. If the

average velocity in the wide section is 0.5 m / s,

what will its velocity in the narrow section be ?

Let A and a be the cross-sectional areas of the

wide and narrow sections respectively, with v1 the

velocity through A and v2 the velocity through a.

Note: We are using / 4 x D2 to calculate crosssectional area, although you may be more familiar

with r2

Av =av

1

2

v2 = A v1 =

a

x 0.1502 x 0.5

4

x 0.0752

4

4

v2 = 0.01125 = 2m/s

0.005625

Figure 15 is silimar to Figure 14, but with the addition of two pressure gauges, P1 and P2, which

measure the static pressures of the wide and narrow pipe sections respectively.

Consistent with the assumption that energy losses due to friction are negligible, the total pressure PT

remains constant; thus we can write:

P1 + v12 = P2 + v22

2

2

relationship, in which the total pressure is the sum

Clearly the pressure P2 must be less than P1 to compensate for v2 being greater than v1 and to obey

of the static and dynamic elements, to a situation

this equation.

involving a changing flowstream diameter.

31

From the continuity principle we can express

mass and volumetric flow rates in terms of the

flowstream dimensions and the fluid densities

and velocities. We have been able to calculate

flowrates in the preceding example and exercise,

but only because we were given the average

velocity of the fluid. In practice, accurate

measurement of this quantity is difficult due to the

susceptibility of the measuring devices to fouling,

and other problems; so it is preferable to avoid

measuring it directly.

Taking Bernoullis equation:

PT = P + v2

2

and the mass flowrate expression :

Qm = v A

v = Qm

A

gives:

( )

PT = P+

2

Qm 2

A

Figure 15, but assuming that the density does not

change ( 1 = 2 = ), we get:

( )

1+ Qm 2 = 2+

2 A

2

( )

Qm

a

flowrate to the change in static pressure,

flowstream cross-sectional area, and fluid

density; no longer requiring velocities. Crosssectional areas are known, pressures are easily

measured and densities can be measured or

calculated. This is the principle behind most of the

gas measurement devices that will be described

in this book.

It is customary to refer to the static pressure

change across a measurement device as the

differential pressure, and it is often called delta

p, which is written as p. So p = P1 - P2.

When p is substituted for P1 - P2 and the

equation is rearranged and simplified, we get:

Qm =

2p

A2a2

A2 _ a2

applying this equation to a changing crosssectional area pipeline configuration as shown

in Figures 14 and 15, a high degree of accuracy

would not be achieved. In practice, there would

be considerable pressure energy loss due to

turbulence and friction. As stated when describing

Reynolds number, the discharge coefficient term

will be introduced to compensate for this.

Gas flow measurement would be considerably

inaccurate from a calculation using the equation

as it stands, since compressibility is not

accounted for. Again we will see that the equation

will be modified by incorporation of a factor to

correct this.

These corrections and other modifications to the

equation will be described in the next section. You

will be relieved to know that you are not expected

to remember the fluid flow equation, either in this

form or when modified. However, you should be

able to describe the terms in it, and understand

the terms and concepts of the Bernoulli and

Continuity principles from which it was developed.

One important relationship that you should keep

in mind is that the flowrate is proportional to the

square root of the differential pressure.

Because of the absence of the correction factors, I

will not include a calculation exercise at this point;

instead, the following exercise will invite you to

test your knowledge of the terms and concepts.

32

1.

of a flowing fluid consist of ?

2.

cross-sections of a fluid flowstream ?

3.

following terms and give their SI units

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

A and a

v (note that this is lower case)

Qv

Qm

p

4.

known how is the volumetric flowrate calculated ?

5.

and the differential pressure ?

Summary of Section 2

Fluid flow can be categorised as laminar or turbulent, and

Reynold's number can be used to predict which category

applies.

Bernoulli's principle of fluid energy conservation can

be simplified and expressed in pressure terms, the

total pressure being the sum of the static and dynamic

components.

Bernoulli's principle, and continuity principle of mass flow

conservation, combine to produce a fluid flow formula

which does no account for frictional losses.

page 57.

33

Types and Application

subtracting the reading on the static pressure

gauge from that on the gauge attached to the

nozzle. If we call the dynamic pressure Pd , we can

find the velocity from :

can be described as static, in that they have no

moving parts. There is a device which is used for

gas flow measurement called a turbine meter. As

its name suggests, it contains a small turbine or

fanlike wheel which is rotated by the flowstream,

the speed of rotation being a function of the

flowrate. The rotational speed of the turbine

shaft is converted to an electrical signal which is

processed to give an indication of the gas flowrate.

Some models work quite satisfactorily in some

situations, but the device has not been universally

accepted in applications where high accuracy and

precision are required. For this reason there will be

no further description of it in this book.

The static flow measurement devices can be

categorised into two groups: velocity head and

differential pressure, the names of which give an

indication of their operating principle. I will only

describe one velocity head device: the Pitot tube.

Pitot Tube

I referred to the Pitot tube in the preceding section,

when I described pressure as consisting of a static

and a dynamic element. This is the device that is

normally used to measure the static and dynamic

pressure of a flowing gas, from which the velocity

is then calculated.

so

Figure 16. The main feature is a nozzle (1)

pointing in the direction of the flow source and

connected to a pressure gauge. A second pressure

tapping (2) is subjected to the pressure at the pipe

wall, perpendicular to the flow direction, and is

thus measuring the static pressure. The pressure

at the nozzle is the total pressure: the static

pressure

plus the dynamic pressure, P +v2

2

Pd = v2

2

v=

2Pd

average velocity of the stream. Before the mass or

volumetric flowrate can be evaluated it is essential

to know the relationship between v and the

average velocity. We see that, in the example

represented by Figure 16, the nozzle is in the

centre of the stream, where it measures the

maximum velocity. As stated when describing flow

patterns, this could be about twice the average

velocity if the flow were completely laminar.

This, then, is one disadvantage of the Pitot tube;

another is that the nozzle is prone to blockage

by foreign matter, as would be the case in the

majority of natural gas applications. However

it should be stated that the device is widely

employed with success where the gas is clean and

the flow characteristics of the system have been

comprehensively determined.

An averaging Pitot tube device is also used in

some cases. This has several nozzles spread over

a larger area of the flow stream, thereby providing

increased accuracy.

34

The pressure gauge attached to a pilot

tube nozzle reads 10 m bar g, while the

static pressure gauge reads 9 m bar g,

and gas density is 3 kg /m3. What is

the gas velocity at the location of the

nozzle?

Hint: Remember to convert the pressure

to Pa (1 m bar - 100 Pa), to get the velocity

in m / s. Strictly seaking, you should also

use absolute pressure valves, but, since

the calculation will involve the difference

between two pressures, the same result

will be obtained if the gauge values are

used.

measurement devices; their principle being to

use the static pressure differential created when

the flowstream diameter is reduced.

Nozzles

Nozzles, an example of which is shown in

Figure 17, are used in high velocity applications;

especially in hostile environments where erosion

or corrosion would damage devices such as

orifice plates. They produce lower differential

pressure at a given flow rate than most other

devices.

3.1 on page 58

35

Venturi Meter

Dall Tube

In the preceding section it was mentioned that energy losses due to friction occur, and will cause a

reduction in the total fluid pressure. One objective in the design of a flow measuring device should be

to enable the maximum recovery of pressure energy after the fluid has left the measurement location.

to the venturi meter, but is shorter and hence less

energy efficient. Its smaller size often makes it a

preferred option to the venturi meter. Figure 19

shows a typical model.

The venturi meter is designed to produce a smooth flow, with the minimum turbulence, into and out of

the narrow diameter section where the velocity is increased. These features are evident in Figure 18.

The advantage of low energy loss is often outweighed by their high cost and space required

for installation.

36

Orifice Plate

The simplest, and cheapest, method of creating

a restriction in a pipeline is to insert a disc with a

hole in it, so that the fluid has to flow through the

hole. The concept could hardly be more simple,

but it belies the deeper understanding of fluid flow

principles that the achievement of accurate and

precise flowrate measurements requires.

An orifice plate is mounted between flanged ends in

a pipeline, and it is this relative ease of installation

and subsequent maintenance that has made orifice

plates the most popular gas flow measurement

device in commercial applications, especially in the

case of natural gas.

What is the main difference between

the Pitot tube and the other four p flow

measurement devices mentioned?

You will find the answer in

Check Yourself 3.2 on page 58.

and low cost are at the expense of the smaller line

pressure energy losses enjoyed by devices like the

venturi meter. As we would expect, the presence

of an orifice plate will create considerably more

turbulence than an aerodynamically designed

restriction.

in the next section.

37

Configuration and Pressure Profile

Figure 20 is an orifice plate configuration which

also shows the behaviour of the fluid in terms of

streamlines, as it flows through the measurement

region.

The principle, as we have seen, is that the

presence of the orifice reduces the flowstream

diameter, and the resulting increase in velocity

causes a decrease in static pressure from which

the flowrate is calculated.

Note, however, that the maximum velocity is not

exactly at the orifice, but is at a distance equal to

approximately half the pipe diameter downstream

of it, called the vena contracta. This effect is

mainly due to the inertia of the fluid causing it to

continue converging after it passes through the

orifice. So the static pressure is slightly lower

at the vena contracta than at the orifice, which

means that the ideal location for the downstream

pressure tapping is at the vena contracta rather

than at the orifice plate.

pressure tappings. Figure 21 on the next page,

shows how the pressure varies at locations on

the flowpath.

38

obtained from the highest differential pressure(p) between

the upstream and downstream regions. In Figure 21, we

see that this is between point 1, the corner between the

upstream surface of the plate and the pipe wall, and point

2, the vena contracta.

However practical considerations must again prevail; it

is easier and cheaper to bore and fit pressure tappings

to the flanges instead of the pipe wall, so most industrial

installations are fitted with flange tappings. Corner

tappings such as would be required to measure the

pressure at point 1 are also less convenient than flange

ones.

In applications where pipe tappings are used it, is

customary to use the D and D configuration. D is the

2

pipe internal diameter, and the upstream tapping is

located at a distance D from the upstream surface of the

plate, while the downstream one is D from the

2

downstream surface : at the vena contracta.

The differential pressure, then, measured in the Figure 21

diagram is that between points 3 and 4. We also see that

the static component of the line pressure has recovered

at point 5, but not to its upstream value. This reflects the

pressure energy loss due to turbulence, which it somewhat

exaggerated in the diagram. You should also note that a

continuous slight pressure reduction is shown to represent

the frictional losses that occur in all pipelines.

39

Beta Ratio

design and configuration of the line in the vicinity

of the meter is subjected to certain specifications,

particularly in fiscal and other contract situations.

The plate assembly and pipeline lengths upstream

and downstream of it are referred to as the meter

run.

D

diameter of the orifice and D is the internal

diameter of the pipe. is an important factor in

orifice calculations and it is recommended that it

should always be greater than 0.2 and less than

0.7 in natural gas applications.

would expect, to achieve as smooth and

symmetrical a flow of fluid through the meter as

possible. The presence of bends, valves or other

devices within a certain distance of the meter could

cause measurement inaccuracy, so specific

minimum lengths of straight pipe, both upstream

and downstream of the plate, are stipulated.

The minimum lengths are quoted as multiples of the

pipe diameter, and depend on the types of fitting

such as bends, valves, reducers and expanders

on the upstream side, and on the diameter of the

orifice relative to the pipe diameter. Tables of values

are available in international standards publications

such as ISO 5167; these range from 5 to 80 times

the pipe diameter on the upstream side, and from 4

to 8 on the downstream side.

In some applications where the physical layout of

the plant makes the minimum straight length

unattainable, it is possible to install straightening

vanes upstream of the meter, which help to smooth

out flow disturbances.

1.

the minimum flowstream diameter

occurs in an orifice meter, and what is

its approximate location?

2.

would the maximum p, and hence

best measurement resolution, be

obtained?

3.

pressure tappings?

4.

continuous line pressure drop in the

direction of flow, outside the region of

the plate?

5.

the orifice diameter is 130 mm, and

the pipe internal diameter is 250 mm ?

3.3 on page 58.

40

The ISO 5167 Formula

At the end of Section 2 we had the following

equation for mass flowrate:

Qm =

2p A2a2

A2 - a2

before it could be used for accurate flow calculations,

and you will recognise similarities between it and

the following flow equation from ISO 5167:

Qm = CE d2 2p

4

You will be relieved to learn that it is beyond the

scope of this book to show how this equation is

derived from the preceding one. It looks more

simple, but that is because the modifications have

been mainly incorporated in the first three terms,

which we will now look at.

C is defined as the discharge coefficient, and is

a function of Reynolds number Re and . It can

be calculated from a formula, or obtained from

tables. ISO 5167 presents discharge coefficient

tables for various pressure tapping locations and

pipe internal diameters, but if high accuracy is not

critical, a value of 0.605 can be used in typical

applications.

due to turbulence and friction that were mentioned

earlier, and it is interesting to note that a typical value

for the venturi tube is 0.98, thus reflecting its more

aerodynamically efficient design.

E is called the velocity of approach factor. It has

enabled us to eliminate the A and a pipe and orifice

cross-sectional area terms since it employs the 13

factor in the following formula:

E=

1 - 4

measurement since it accounts for the compressibility,

and hence density change, of gases when their pressure

changes as they flow through the meter. Liquids, being

essentially incompressible, have an factor of 1, which

means that it can be ignored. For gases, it is obtained

from the following formula:

= 1 - p (0.41 +0.35 4)

PY

which is the specific heat ratio of gases. It is given by:

= Cp

Cv

and Cv is the specific heat at constant volume. These

values vary between gases, and typical values of Y are

1.4 for air and 1.3 for methane.

formula for , but you should note that its value

increases (approaches 1) as the line pressure

P increases; which confirms that gases become

less compressible as their pressure and density

increases. You should also be careful to avoid

confusing with Z, the non-ideal gas behavioural

factor which was described in an earlier section.

Qv, the volumetric flowrate, is found by dividing

the mass flowrate Qm by the gas density at the

reference pressure and temperature:

Qv = Qm

= PMw

ZRT

referred to standard conditions, P = 1.013 bar, T =

288 K and Z = 1.

This expression can also be used to obtain a value

for , the fluid density upstream of the orifice, in

the ISO equation, so non-ideal gas behaviour is

accounted for here. Clearly, the P, T, Z and Mw

values would be the prevailing ones upstream of

the meter. It is fairly common nowadays, however,

to measure the gas density directly.

41

particular note of the relationship between the

flowrate Qm and p, in that Qm is proportional

to the square root of p. This relationship, of

course is maintained in the ISO 5167 equation,

and has an important implication with regard to

the resolution to which flow measurement can be

made.

with this square root relationship. Were the

relationship linear, the scale on the left would

apply and the resolution to which it is read is

constant over the complete range. With the

square root scale, however, we see that high

resolution is available on the upper region, but

it deteriorates lower down and is extremely

poor near the bottom. For this reason a

range switching facility is recommended, and

stipulated in fiscal systems, so that low flowrate

measurements can be measured to greater

accuracy.

Reliable flow measurement requires an adequate

p value. If the flowrate is reduced, the differential

pressure across the meter will also be reduced,

and, if it falls below a certain value, the reliability

of the flowrates calculated from it will decrease.

If the flowrate is anticipated to remain near this

value for a considerable time, the plate should be

replaced with one with a smaller diameter, which

will increase the differential pressure.

Conversely, excessively high flow rates will lead

to unreliability, as well as creating undue line

pressure loss due to excessive friction. In such

cases, a larger diameter plate would be fitted.

42

EXAMPLE

of 200 mm, has been operating satisfactorily with

a ratio of 0.65. The gas flow through the line is

to be reduced to a rate which will not produce an

adequate p signal. Calculations predict that p

would be satisfactory if is reduced to about 0.45.

What is the diameter of the plate which is currently

fitted, and what is the diameter of the one that will

replace it ?

Having seen the large number of data necessary to calculate flowrates, you will appreciate

that longhand methods of performing the calculations are rather tedious and time consuming.

Fortunately, recent advances in electronic technology have alleviated this problem.

Differential pressure, line pressure, temperature and density measurement signals can be digitised

and processed electronically to yield flowrate readouts directly.

d

=D

d = 0.45 x 200 = 90 mm

happen to give round figures for the plate diameter.

Orifice plates are only available in certain sizes, so

it may not always be possible to achieve a desired

value exactly; hence my use of about 0.45.

We will look at the general layout of such systems in the next section.

1.

the discharge co-efficient C?

2.

Given that E = 1-4, what is its value

for a meter in a 250 mm internal

diameter pipe, with an orfice diameter

of 110 mm ?

3.

important when measuring gas

flowrates ?

4.

switching facility on instruments that

read gas flow measurements

obtained from orifice meters ?

5.

gas throughput in a 250 mm internal

diameter pipeline which contains an orfice

meter operating with a beta ratio of 0.44.

The increased rate would create a higher

than necessary differential pressure

across the plate in addition to causing

excessive energy loss due to friction.

It is predicted that increasing the beta

ration to about 0.65 will alleviate the

problem. What is the diameter of

the plate to be removed and of the plate

which will replace it, given that plates are

only available with diameters in multiples

of 10 mm?

on Page 59.

43

but is actually not too difficult since you are given

most of the formulae and the numbers you will

need, so it is really a question of inserting them

as appropriate.

Given the following:

Qm = CE d2 2p

4

E=

1 - 4

a.

mass flowrate of the gas in kg/s.

b.

standard (1.013 bar, 15C) cubic metres

per hour.

= PMw

ZRT

d = 125mm

D = 257.4 mm

Line temperature T = 59C

Mw = 22.7 kg / kg-mol

Z = 0.937

on page 60.

C = 0.605

= 0.9987

44

Summary of Section 3

The main features of the following devices were described:

Pitot tube

flow nozzles

venturi

dall tube

orifice plate

The Pitot tube is the only velocity head device, the others being dependent on differential

pressure measurement.

The orifice plate was identified as the most popluar gas flow measurement device, and the rest

of the section was devoted to describing its effects on flowing fluid and how these effects could

be used to measure flowrates. The description showed that:

The maximum fluid velocity, and hence minimum static pressure, is at the vena contracta.

Flange-mounted pressure tappings are the most popular type, although they do not tap

into the regions of the meter at which the maximum differential pressure occurs.

The ISO 5167 formula is used for orifice and contains terms which correct for fluid frictional

energy losses and gas compressibility.

45

Types of Plate

Plate Geometry Variations

Orifice plates are manufactured with various

geometrical designs, examples of which are

shown in Figure 23, to suit different applications.

on the plate, there are different designs of orifice

edge, two of which are shown in Figure 24.

The most common type is the square edge with

bevel, and you should note that the plate must be

installed with the bevelled edge facing

downstream. The only exception to this rule is a

plate designed for special applications, which is

known as a conical entrance plate.

The square edge profile is used in applications

where the facility to measure flow in either

direction is required. Clearly, its shape will make

it slightly less aerodynamically efficient than the

bevelled edge plate.

the central location of the orifice allows a

symmetrical flow pattern.

The segmental type is mainly for slurries, and

the eccentric plate is for gas streams which may

contain liquid. The hole, being at the bottom of

the plate, allows liquid to flow through instead

of being trapped, as it would be by a concentric

plate. A variation on this is a concentric plate with

a small hole near the bottom.

and the design of their edges will affect the flow

characteristics; so the appropriate factors, mainly

C and , have to be adjusted accordingly.

It is very important that plates which been

damaged are replaced, even if the damage is only

slight. Entrained high velocity solid, or even liquid,

particles will wear the sharpness off the leading

edge; the permissible wear is less than that

which is visible to the naked eye. Other damage

which can occur is buckling due to excessive

temperatures, or high pressure surges.

46

carrier which is moved by a handle operated rack and pinion arrangement,

We have seen that orifice plates are normally fitted between flanges, so a and a chamber situated above the plate.

plate changout demands the inconvenience of depressurising and purging the

The following description is intended as an explanation of the operating

meter run. To alleviate this, the Senior fitting assembly was produced.

principle of the system, and it is important that you do not regard it as an

operating procedure. If your work involves the operation of Senior fittings,

then you must follow the procedures pertinent to your installation.

This explanation applies to a unit fitted to a hydrocarbon gas system.

1. The chamber is purged with inert gas and pressurised to the pipeline

pressure.

2. The carrier and plate are retracted into the chamber, which is then sealed

from the process stream, depressured and purged.

3. The plate is removed from the carrier and chamber, and the replacement

plate is inserted.

4. The chamber is sealed and purged with inert gas and pressurised to the

pipeline pressure.

5. The plate and carrier assembly is lowered into the meter run.

6. The chamber is safely vented and purged.

In theory, this method can be followed without the gas flow being stopped. In

practice, however, many plant operations managers doubt that it is as safe as

a proper line isolation, depressurisation and purge procedure. Nonetheless,

even if the meter section is isolated, depressurised and purged, the Senior

device saves plate changeout time by eliminating the work and problems that

can be associated with flanges.

47

Sensing Devices

Line pressure and temperature sensing devices

are widely used throughout industry, and the

types used in gas flow metering systems are the

same as those for other applications. We will

therefore confine our attention to the devices that

measure the orifice plate differential pressure and

the gas density.

Electronic measuring and signal processing

devices are becoming increasingly predominant.

Advancement in the design of intrinsically

safe circuitry has allowed them to replace the

pneumatic instrumentation that was traditionally

the only viable means of measurement and

control in hazardous environments. However, this

conversion process is by no means universal, and

pneumatic systems are still in use, particularly on

older plant installations.

Differential Pressure

I will describe two differential pressure sensors,

one pneumatic and one electrical.

The pneumatic one is the torque balance

transmitter, and a simplified sketch is shown in

Figure 26.

liquid-filled twin-walled diaphragm

capsule, which is subjected to the

upstream pressure on one side and the

downstream pressure on the other.

The position of the centre of the capsule

depends on the pressure difference

between its sides; an increase in flowrate,

for example, will reduce the pressure on

the downstream side thus causing the

diaphragm centre to be displaced to the

right.

A force bar, which is linked to the capsule,

transfers the movement to a flapper/

nozzle arrangement in the signal

conditioning system, which is shown

simply as a block diagram. The movement

is converted to a pneumatic output signal

that can be measured directly or, more

commonly nowadays, converted to an

electrical signal first.

The electrical device is the capacitive

differential pressure transmitter, a sketch

of which is shown in Figure 27, on the

next page.

48

Gas Density

A device which is often used to measure gas

density directly uses the vibrating cylinder

principle. The process gas is passed over the

inner and outer surfaces of a thin metal cylinder,

which, like all solid objects, has a natural or

resonant vibration frequency. However, the vibration

frequency of the cylinder is affected by the gas

molecules which interact with its surface and vibrate

with it. The significant property, here is the mass of

gas, the relationship being that increasing the mass

will decrease the vibration frequency. This means

that, if the frequency is measured, it can be used to

evaluate the gas density.

Figure 28, on the next page, is a schematic

diagram of the system. The cylinder requires an

activating signal to make it vibrate; this is achieved

by passing current through the cylinder activating

coil. The vibration frequency is picked up as an

alternating current by the sensing coil, and this

signal is amplified and processed to produce a

square wave output. This type of signal is ideal for

transmission and can be readily converted to an

analogue or digital form.

The upstream pressure is transmitted to the isolating diaphragm on one side of the cell, and the

downstream pressure to the other side. Movement of the isolating diaphragms is transferred to the

sensing diaphragm by silicone oil, and any change in the position of the sensing diaphragm changes

the electrical capacitance between it and the capacitor plates. The resultant electrical signal is

converted to a current reading in the 4 - 20 mA DC range, which can then be processed to produce the

required analogue or digital output.

4900 Hz at a gas density of 0 kg / m3 (no gas

present) to 3900 Hz at 60 kg / m3. Units are also

available which are capable of measuring densities

up to 400 kg / m3.

49

50

Metering Stations

Typical Multi-Stream System

Metering stations to which fiscal standards apply,

and others in applications where maintenance

of production rates is essential, comprise two

or more meter runs; thus allowing fluid flow to

continue while a meter run is shut down for

maintenance.

Figure 29 is a schematic diagram showing the

main components of a two stream metering

station with a computer based electronic signal

processing system.

We see that each stream has its own computer,

and they are connected to the main or station

computer. The operator interface with the system

is the input / output terminal, which displays live or

recorded data and through which entries such as

changes to meter factors are made.

The temperature, pressure, density and differential

pressure transducers transmit their data to their

stream computer where the signals are processed

and the computations are done and sent to the

station computer.

51

to measure the gas specific gravity, upstream of

the meter runs. This is an option that is sometimes

used so that a more accurate measurement of the

density is obtained. The sensing element in the

specific gravity transducer is usually a vibrating

cylinder, as in the case of the density sensor, but

with the facility to incorporate a reference gas.

In addition to mass and volumetric flowrates,

measurements of line pressure, temperature and

density can also be displayed. A fiscal requirement

is that flow totalisers are used so that the total

mass or volume of gas for a period of time can be

measured.

This description has only outlined the basic

facilities of an automated metering station. Many

installations have additional features such as the

ability to transmit data to central monitoring sites.

The following is an example of some of the main

metering station design requirements that would

likely be agreed between the relevant parties,

which would include the UK Department of Energy,

in a fiscally controlled contract. You should note

that this does not include specifications applicable

to hardware such as the orifice plates, the meter

pipes and the installation of measuring elements.

Please regard this as an outline of some of the

main clauses in a typical agreement in the UK, and

not as a specific contract. If you work on a fiscal

metering system you should try to learn as much as

possible about the terms of the contract.

1.

or mass units, depending on the agreement

between the interested parties. Volumes will

be measured in cubic metres and mass in

tonnes. Volume measurement will be

referred to the metric standard conditions of

15Celsius and 1.01325 bar.

2.

measured directly using a density

transducer, in some instances it may be

calculated, by an agreed method, from a

knowledge of the composition of the gas

together with the measured operating

pressure and temperature.

3.

ensure that at least one standby meter will

be available, at the design production rate.

Isolation valves will be provided so that

individual meters can be removed from

service without shutting down the metering

system.

4.

digital microprocessor based flow computer,

one of which will be allocated to each meter

run.

held in the flow computer will be accessible

for inspection in a general display register

and it will be possible to modify these

values, with authorisation, after overriding

some form of security lock.

5.

station summators will have sufficient digits

to prevent cycling occurring more frequently

than once every two months.

Safety Implications

Most of the safety precautions and procedures that

apply to other items of process equipment handling

combustible gases are pertinent to metering

equipment, and includes:

pressurisation

systems are installed in high pressure applications.

I will repeat the statement I made when describing

the Senior orifice plate assembly, which is that you

must always follow the safety precautions and

procedures applying to the installation you are

working on. Nothing in this book is a substitute for

them.

52

Summary of Section 4

We looked at some variations of orifice pate design, and at the Senior fitting

which is intended as a means of simplifying plate changeouts. The pneumatic

torque balance is ofter used to measure differential pressure where electric

instrumentation is not employed. Electrical measurement of differential

pressure often uses capacitance changes in a sensing cell as the output

signal.

Gas density can be measured by the principle that the mass of gas in contact

with a thin-walled metal cylinder affects its vibrational frequency.

The main features of two-stream gas metering station were described, along

with some of the fiscal standards it complies with.

I finished by drawing your attention to the fact that metering equipment is

subjected to specific seafety procedures along with the plant in which it is

installed; and you must apply them if you are working on that system.

53

Using

P1V1 = P2V2

T

T

1

2

Mw 16

side, so we need to calculate P2 :

PV = ZnRT

2x2

= P2 x 0.5

(10 + 273)

(25 + 273)

methane using PV = nRT

V = ZnRT

P

P2 = 2 x 2 x 298

283 x 0.5

100

P2 = 8.42 bar a

V = 0.185 m3

n=

2

24.348

n= m

Mw

0.08214 = m

16

= (2 x 12) + (6 x 1) = 30

= 0.08214 kg-mol

m = 0.08214 x 16 = 1.31 kg

100

ie. an error of 100% !

54

For both gases we will use PV = ZnRT, but the first point to note is that,

since we were given a mass flow rate, we will calculate a molar

flow rate using n = m , where m is the mass flow rate.

Mw

For the lighter gas, n = 50 = 2.632 kg-mol / minute

19

For the heavier gas, n = 50 = 2.174 kg-mol / minute

23

This means that V will be solved as a volumetric flow rate, so we will

replace it with the symbol Q. Hence : PQ = ZnRT

Q = ZnRT

P

From Figure 8, Z for the lighter gas is 0.66, and from

Figure 9, Z for the heavier gas is 0.51.

So, for the lighter gas:

Q = 0.66 x 2.632 x 0.0831 x 283

130

Q = 0.314 m3 / minute

Q = 0.51 x 2.174 x 0.0831 x 283

130

3

Q = 0.201 m / minute

To replace these actual flow rates at line conditions to standard ones,

we use:

P1V1 = P2V2

T1

T2

and replace V1 and V2 with Q1 and Q2 respectively. We will assign

standard conditions to the left side, so we need to find Q1 for both gas

types.

228

283

0.003517Q1 = 0.1442

0.003517

228

283

0.003517

55

= PM

w

ZRT

(0.0831 x 288)

2. = (1.013 x 44) = 1.862 kg / m3

(0.0831 x 288)

3. = (1.013 x 58) = 2.455 kg / m3

(0.0831 x 288)

56

Re = DVavg

1.

2.

Mass flowrate

3.a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

v (note that this is lower case) : Average fluid velocity (m / s)

: Fluid density (kg / m3)

Qv : Volumetric flowrate (m3/ s)

Qm : Mass flowrate (kg / s)

p: Differential pressure i.e. change in static pressure. the SI unit

is Pa, but mbar is often used.

= 20 kg / m3

D = 0.125 m

vavg = 2 m / s

= 1.2 X 10-5

Re = 20 x 0.125 x 2

1.2 X 10-5

Re = 416,667; indicating turbulent flow.

Qv = A v = (

4.

( )

5.

pressure.

2 X 3 = 0.0942 m3 / s

)x (0.2)

4

57

2

and total pressures. The others measure the

static p across the restriction.

PT = 10 mbar

P = 9 mbar

v2 = 10 - 9 = 1 mbar = 100 Pa

2

v2 = 2 x 100 = 200

v = 200 = 8.16 m / s

3

1.

distance of approximately half the pipe

diameter downstream of the plate.

2.

1 and 2.

3.

4.

loss.

5.

= d = 130 = 0.52.

D 250

each other

58

1.

Re and .

2.

= 110 = 0.44

250

E = 1- 4 = 1 - 0.444 = 0.981

3.

accounts for gases being compressible and thus experiencing a change in density when

flowing through the meter.

4.

Because the resolution is poor at the lower end of a square root scale.

5.

=d

D

d = D = 0.44 x 250 = 110 mm

The diameter of the plate to be installed:

d = 0.65 x 250 = 162.5 mm

So the nearest available size is 160 mm

59

E=

= d = 125 = 0.486

D 257.4

E=

ZRT 0.0831 x 288

1 - 0.4864 = 0.972

= PMw =

25 x 22.7

= 21.9 kg / m3

ZRT

0.937 x 0.0831 x 332

Qm = CE d2

4

v

0.961

2p

4

b.

Qv = Qm Note that we need the volumetric flowrate at standard

1- 4

a.

2 x 10000 x 21.9

Qm = 4.77 kg / s

60

- GAS FLOW MEASUREMENT.ppsxЗагружено:Masood Alam Farooqui
- Oil Pumping and Metering.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Natural Gas Liquids Recovery.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Gas Dehydration.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- OPITO Offshore Oil & Gas Industry Minimum Industry Safety Training Standard 5301Загружено:ipin4u
- 1_Designing Ultrasonic Flow MetersЗагружено:munzii
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 2.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil Treatment (Dehydration).pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Injection Water Treatment.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 2.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Produced Water TreatmentЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 1.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 3.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 1Загружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 4.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 2 (Inc Drawings)Загружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 1.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Subsea ToolsЗагружено:bolajibabs
- Introduction to P&ID Reading & DesignЗагружено:shan4600
- API-1470WB-Oil and Gas Separators.pdfЗагружено:cperez10000
- P&IDЗагружено:Raviraj Maiya
- How FPSO WorksЗагружено:Majeed Rumani
- How to read P&IDЗагружено:Jayaram MV
- The Piping Guide_Design & Drafting_Dennis J. WhistanceЗагружено:Esteban Ramírez Oregón
- Oil and Gas SeparationЗагружено:Kyle S Jones
- Piping Design InstructionЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Subsea IntroductionЗагружено:Flipkart Floppy Day
- P&ID SeminarЗагружено:蔡蕲
- Basic h2s TrainingЗагружено:akbar_kwy3327
- PIPING ARRANGEMENT GUIDEЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap

- SPED Rp001- Rev 0Загружено:ikhlit
- SAMSUNG SEM-3069E Compressor & Turbine Piping Design Standard_2Загружено:saminasritn
- Toxic Gas Detection System Pcca001Загружено:rehman1980
- SEM 3036E Rack PipingЗагружено:James Ortega
- The Piping Guide_Design & Drafting_Dennis J. WhistanceЗагружено:Esteban Ramírez Oregón
- PIPING ARRANGEMENT GUIDEЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Piping Design InstructionЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 2 (Inc Drawings)Загружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Produced Water TreatmentЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Process Flow and P&IDs Workbook 1Загружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 4.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 3.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 2.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Petroleum Gas Compression workbook 1.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil Treatment (Dehydration).pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 2.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Oil & Gas Separation Book 1.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap
- Injection Water Treatment.pdfЗагружено:Mahathir Che Ap

- Sop04a Manual Do Temp Ysi550aЗагружено:ipul
- ACP_Intro_14.5 _S01_Composite_Introduction.pdfЗагружено:lljjsakdjk
- Oxidation of Natural Rubber-based MagnetorheologicalЗагружено:Chokchai Boonchuay
- NC3 NC8_%28PTRC%29Загружено:Qusairy Abdul Rahman
- Chemical Equilibrium and Acids BasesЗагружено:Prem Kumar
- topic 11-exercise and practice questionsЗагружено:api-235839943
- BiologyЗагружено:nylatsirc
- Task 3 - Student 2 ResponseЗагружено:PradHvin Raja
- Sealant Used by BHEL for Turbine Bearing Housing Parting PlanesЗагружено:Project Sales Corp
- Chapter 9 Aldehydes and KetonesЗагружено:Roshan Gill
- ASTM D3035 - Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials.pdfЗагружено:Horacio Nelson Astete Wesche
- Stable and Radiogenic IsotopesЗагружено:Thirukumaran Venugopal
- Comparison of Calorific Values of Various Fuels from Different Fuel StationsЗагружено:researchinventy
- Air Quality Questions NEHA Study GuideЗагружено:temp001bunn
- Poly Tetra Flu Oro EthyleneЗагружено:Munna Capri
- 5032_92Загружено:Franz Miguel Claros Vargas
- PREMIX Code SandiaЗагружено:dfcortesv
- Chemistry Investigatory Project on FOOD ADULTERATIONЗагружено:Shivansh Tomar
- Syl Lb Tech BiotechЗагружено:gautam_gujral3088488
- 1962-A hydrodynamic model for nucleate pool boiling.pdfЗагружено:Tahok24
- Bromination of Deactived Aromatics.pdfЗагружено:Jbb
- heat pipe 324Загружено:Yasin K. Salman
- PowerPlantSimulatorDesigner1.pdfЗагружено:psaayo
- pengemulsiЗагружено:tika0638
- Dubuis, Jean - Spagyrics Vol 1_djvuЗагружено:muscleean
- shi2017.pdfЗагружено:agilan89
- 5psheet^wellfloЗагружено:rony411
- Airflow Dust LitЗагружено:gelmar
- SYLLABUS1Загружено:ultrauncool
- Ohtani Pub WebЗагружено:drcoded