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Three Point Bending Test Analysis on Carbon Fibre Reinforced

Composite

By
Muhammad Shahril Ridhwan bin Effendy

Supervisor
Imran Mohd Salleh

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

Research Background

Problem Statement

Research Objectives

Research Scope And Limitations

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Carbon Fibre

Carbon fibre, otherwise known as graphite fibre or CF, is a material made of fibres about 510
micrometer in thickness and consisting mostly of carbon atoms.

To yield carbon fibre, the carbon atoms are merged together in crystals that are more or less line
up parallel to the long axis of the fibre as the crystal alignment gives the fibre high strength-tovolume ratio (making it solid for its size). Several thousand carbon fibres are pushed together to
form a tow, which may be used by itself or interlaced into a fabric.

The characteristics of carbon fibres, for an example high tensile strength, high stiffness, low
weight, high temperature resistance, high chemical resilience, and low thermal expansion, make
them very common in aerospace, military, civil engineering, and motorsports. Nevertheless, they
are rather costly when compared to related fibres, like glass or plastic fibres.

Carbon fibres would frequently formed with other materials to form a composite. When joined with
a plastic resin, it forms carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (often mentioned to as carbon fibre) which
has a very high strength-to-weight ratio, and is very stiff while somewhat brittle. Nevertheless,
carbon fibres are also composited with other materials, such as with graphite to form carboncarbon composites, which have a very high heat resistance.

RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Composite

Composites are solid materials composed of two or more materials with different physical
characteristics. Each substance independently contributes its physical properties to combined
materials.

Two type of composite:


i.

Thermoset composite

ii.

Thermoplastic composite

Advantages:
i.

Design flexibility

ii.

Low cost per cubic inch

iii.

Lower material cost

iv.

Improved productivity

RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Composite Resin

Resin is an organic polymer used as a matrix to contain the reinforcing fibres in a composite
material. Polyester resin, an example of an earlier matrix, used in conjunction with fibreglass has
been used in many non-structural applications such as fairings and spinners. The old
polyester/fibreglass formulas did not offer sufficient strength to fabricate primary structural
members. Newer matrix materials display remarkably improved stress distributing characteristics,
heat resistance, chemical resistance and durability.

Two general categories:


i.

Thermoplastic resin

ii.

Thermosetting resin

Most newer aircraft composite matrix-formulas utilize EPOXY RESINS, which are thermosetting
resins.

RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Flexural Testing

The flexure test method measures behaviour of materials subjected to simple beam loading. It is
also called a transverse beam test. Maximum fibre stress and maximum strain are calculated for
increments of load. Results are plotted in a stress-strain diagram. Flexural strength is defined as
the maximum stress in the outermost fibre. This is calculated at the surface of the specimen on the
convex or tension side. Flexural modulus is calculated from the slope of the stress vs. deflection
curve. If the curve has no linear region, a secant line is fitted to the curve to determine slope.

Hardware and software


Hardware: Universal Testing Machine

A universal testing machine (UTM), also known as a universal tester, materials testing machine or
materials test frame, is used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. It is
named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials,
components, and structures.

Software: TrapeziumX

The built-in software used for test control, specimens, and data processing parameter screens.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

In this day and age, carbon fibre and fibreglass composite have been extensively used in Aviation
Industry such as fairings regardless of their strength and low weight; composites have not been a
marvel resolution for aircraft structures.

Composites are difficult to examine for faults. Some of them absorb moisture. Most notably,
they can be costly, mainly because they are labour-intensive and frequently require
multifaceted and expensive fabrication machines. Fibreglass has drawbacks on health and safety
issue as result of fibreglass towards human lungs and eyes.

The technology of carbon fibre has already shown that it have superior strength to weight ratio
over some metals. It can help with reducing the overall weight of an aircraft which in return
help save fuel consumption and overall operating cost. Thus, opening the way to improvement
which can be implemented on current and future aircraft design.

This study will focus on the three points bending test of carbon fibre reinforced composite
by changing the fibres volume on the composite mechanical properties in randomly oriented
discontinue form.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.

To examine the carbon fibre composite on three point bending test with different volume of
carbon fibre.

2.

To compare between the data attained by the outcomes.

3.

To gather and supply the important data from this study for further use.

RESEARCH SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS


I.

The data generated, using three point bending technique, may be used to identify the elasticity
properties of the composite with different volume of carbon fibre.

II.

Apparent discrepancies may arise in results obtained under differing experimental conditions.
These apparent differences from results observed in another study can usually be reconciled,
without changing the observed data, by reporting in full (as described in this test method) the
conditions under which the data were obtained.

III.

Test data obtained by this test method are relevant and appropriate for use in engineering
design.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The type of methodology used in this study is experimental type. To achieve the objectives of this
research, there are three main tasks to be carried out. The first task was the preparation of
composite material by forming the epoxy resin and carbon fibre. The next task is the three point
bending test by using the Universal Testing Machine and finally calculates and analyse the data to
find out the dynamic characteristics of the researched composite. The procedure of this analysis
are summed up as follows:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
START

MIXING CARBON FIBRES WITH EPOXY RESIN


PREPARING SPECIMEN ACCORDING TO ASTM E8

NO

SUCCESS
YES

THREE POINT BENDING TEST

NO

MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
OBTAINED

CALCULATE AND ANALYSE


NO

YES

SUCCESS
DATA ANALYSIS AND PLOTTING GRAPH
FINISH

GANTT CHART FINAL YEAR PROJECT 1


Week
Task
Project title

Prepare the Proposal

Introduction
Literature
Review

Methodology
Submit report to the supervisor
and coordinator

Preparation for Presentation

Presentation FYP 1

10

11

12

13

14

15

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18

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THANK YOU