Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 263

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

(Eiectrical Machines and Appliances)


THEORY- 1

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Higher Secondary - First Year

A Publication under
Govemment ofTamilnadu
Distribution ofFree Textbook Programme
( 'KOT FOR SALE)

Untouchability is a Sin
Untouchability is a Crime
Untouchablity is Inhuman

TAMILNADU
TEXTBOOK CORPORATION
College Road, Chennai - 600 006.

Government ofTamilnadu
First Edition - 201 O

CHAIRPERSON
Mr. K. GOVINDASAMY
Senior Lecturer 1Electrical
Bhakthavatsalam Pol:ytechnic College,
Kanchipuram- 631 552

AUTHORS
Mr. A. RAMESH
Vocational Instructor
Govt. Model Hr. Sec. School
Saidapet, Chennai- 15.

Mr. R. Balamurugan
Vocational Instructor
Govt. Model Hr. Sec. School
Saidapet, Chennai- 15.

Mr. V.V. Shanmugadoss


Vocational Teacher
Govt. Hr. Sec. School
Perunagar
Kanchipuram- 603 404

Mr. P. Muthusamy
Vocational Instructor
Govt. Boys Hr. Sec. School
Namakkal South
Namakkal

Mr. Kasinathan
Vocational Instructor
General Kariappa Hr. Sec. School
Saligramam
Chennai- 600 093

This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education


on behalf ofthe Govermnent ofTamilnadu

This book has been printed on 60 GSM Paper


Printed by Offset at:

HIGHER SECONDARY- VOCATIONAL COURSE


ELECTRICALMACHINESAND APPLIANCES
Syllabus for XI Standard
Theory I ( ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING)
l. INTRODUCTION OF ELECTRICAL E:\'GIJ'\o'EERING
Introduction- methods ofpower generation -electrical safety- safetyprecautions ofelectrician
- electric shock- preventive method of elecnic shock - first aid.

2. MATERIALS AND TOOIJS USED IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT
Electrc conductor- types of electric eonductor- properties of electric conductor- electrical
insulating materials-properties-types ofinsulating materals- electrical accessories- types ofswitches
- fuse unt- socket- ceiling rose- hand tools.

3. ELECTRICAL TERMS AND DC CIRCUITS


Curren! voltage- resistance- ampere- volt- ohms- ohm's law- capacitance- krichoff's
law- electrical circuit- closed electric circuit- open electric crcuit- electric short circuit -series
circuit - parallel circuit- series parallel circuit- power -energy calculation.

4. ELECTRO MAGNETISM
Magnetic materials- Electro magnet- magnetic effect dueto current- flemming's right hand
rule-max-well's cork screw rule- magnetic field in the coi!- end rule- magnetic reacton when the
curren! passing in a conductor in same drection and opposite direction- Faraday's electro magnetic
induction- induced electro motive force statically induccd e.m.f- self and mutual induced e.m.f
lenz's law- hysterisis hysterisis loop- energy stored in a magnetic filed.

5. ELECTRICAL EFFECT
Electrical energy

Light energy (lamp- CFL)

Electrical energy

Smmd energy (Bell Syren)

Electrical energy

Magneti e energy (Electromagnet)

Electrical Energy

Heat Energy (Iron box)

electrical energy

Chemical energy (Electroplating- Battery charging)

electrical energy

Mechanical energy (Electlic Motor)

6. BATTERIES
Battery- types of Batteries primary cells secondary ce lis- difference between primary
cells and secondary cells- Lead acid cell- recharge batteries- watch cell- UPS.

iii

7. A.C. CIRCUITS AND ELECTRICALMEASURING INSTRL"MENTS


Ahemating current- A.C. wave fonn - power factor- R.M.S. value- phase difference- pure
resistve circuit- inductive circuit- capacitive circuit- R.L. circuit- R. C. circuit- R. L. C. circuit- star
delta connection and two watrrneter method.
Ammeter- Voltmeter- ohm meter- watt meter- multi meter- Tong tester- Tecometermegger- single phase energy meter- Three phase energy meter.

8.

TRA.~SFORiVIER

Introduction- construction- operation- types oftransforrner- uses- protective devices of


transforrner - transformer oil.

9. DC GENERATOR
Basic Principie- construction- parts of generator- method of functiouing- types ofgenemtor
series generator- shunt generator- compound generator.

lO.DCMOTOR
Basic Principie- construction- parts ofDC motor -- method of functioning- types of DC
motor- series motor-- Shunt motor- compound Motor.

ll.AC GENERATOR (ALTERl~ATOR)


Construction- operation- parts of ac generator- types ofAC generator- single phase AC
generator- three phaseAC generator.

12.ACMOTORS
Single phase motor- construction- operation- uses.

TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE MOTOR


i)

Split phase motors

Capacitor type motors

ii)

Repulsion type motors

iv)

Shaded pole motors

v)

Universal motors

V1)

Submorsible type motOI'S

Three phase induction motor- types- constructon- operation- parts ofthree phase motors
stator Rotor.

SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR


a)

Single squirrel cage induction motor.

b)

Double squirrel cage nduction motor


IV

13. MOTOR STARTERS


AC motor starters : DOL starter- star 1delta starter- Auto transfonner struier slipring
motor starter (resistance type starter).
DC ~OTOR STARTERS
Three point starter- four point starter.
14. ELECTRONICS
Semi conductors -electrons and boles- ntrinse semi conductor- extrinsic semi conductordopping of semi conductor- N. type semi conductor- P. type semi conductor- PN Junction diodehalfwave rectifier- full wave rectifrre- bridge reetifire- Zenerdode-lght emitting dode- Juncton
transistor- PNP, NPN transstors SCR.

PREFACE
This book presents simple, explict and easy for learning at the begining leve! for the
subjeet on Electrical Engineering. Considerable emphasis is laid on the fundamentals
physical coneepts, principies and functions ofvarious elements.
The Government ofTamilnadu is deciding to revamp Vocational Education in Higher
Secondary Student to make them easy to understand higher studies in engineering faculty.
The students at school final leve! and the beginers on this subject can easily able to
understand the Principies and Coneepts. Much care is taken to explain all the details with
neat diagram and sketches. All the topics ofths book is sclf illustrative. The students at the
begining leve! will learn this book with much interest themselves, because such care is
taken while preparation ofthis book.
I personally thank all for giving me this best opportunity to bring out a best book for
benefit of the Vocational Students at school final leve!. All the readers of this book will
enrich knowledge on basic Electrical Engineering, which makes us feel proud and happy.

Thiru. K. Govindasamy
Chairperson

vi

CONTENT
Page No.

SI.No.

l.

lntroduction ofElectrical Engineering

2.

Materials and Tools Used in Electrical Engineering Department

10

3.

Electrcal Terms and DC Circuits

20

4.

Electro Magnetism

71

5.

Electrical Effect

84

6.

Batteries

92

7.

A.C. Crcuits and Electrical Measuring Instruments

109

8.

Transformer

151

9.

DC Generator

168

10.

DCMotor

184

11.

AC Generator(Alternator)

193

12.

ACMotors

206

13.

Motor Starters

226

14.

Electronics

233

vii

l. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
1.1. INTRODUCION

The subjects is introduced in Higher Secondary leve!. In this subject students are taught how to
maintain and repair electrical appliances and electrical machine howto connect elecirical circuits and
repairing minor or major faults in the citeuits and motorrevmding both theoretically and practically. So
by learning this subjects students are able to earn oftheir own by practicing such leaming.
We know, the universe consists of five big natural energy sources like water, land, Air, fire &
space. The Sixth important energy developed by human is called "Electricity". In this modem world, for
our dayto day life the electricityplays a vital role. Simply to say, even man lives without tood but not
lives without Electricity. Because in our lite, the electrical goods play an importan! role. Hence thc
students must know about this source and how t is applied.
Electrcity is one type of energy. Al! matter whether so!id, liquid or, gaseous consists of minute
partid es known asAtoms. According to modem Research electric current means flow of electron. So
we need to know about the Atom.
L2.ATOM

ft has a hard central e ore known as nucleus. It contains two type of part eles one is known as
proton and carries positive charge. The other is neutron, which is electrically neutral, .e. it carries no
charge. Around the nucleus in elliptical orbit the electrons one revolving. Electrons caJTy the negative
charge. The number of electro u are number ofprotons in a atom are equal. So the atom is electrically
neutraL The nun1ber of protons in the nucleus of atom gives the atomic number. The total numbers of
neutTon and proton are known as atomic weight. Because negligible weight ofthe electron is nottaken
to calculate atomic weight
1.3. METHODS OFELECTRICITY PRODUCTS

An electricity is produced bythe extraction of electrons from an atom. The energies which are
used to produce an electricity are (i) Friction (ii) Light (iii) Heat (iv) Pressure (v) Chemical Aclion (vi)
magnetism.
1.3.1. Electricity dueto friction

Dueto the frction oftwo material, the electrons come out from one material to join vvith the other
materiaL The material which looses the electron gets +ve charge and the material attracted the electron
gets --ve charge. This type of electricity is called Static Electricity.
Ex. :Materials like Glass, Rubber, Wax, Silk. Reyon, Nylon.
1,3.2 Electricity dueto light

When the light falls on the material, the electrons emitted from the surface and producing the low
of current Forthis purpose Photocell is used. Photo cell is used to convertthe light energy into cmTent.
The rnaterials which emitted electron dueto the light tal! on the surface are "photo sensitve metaL"
Ex. Sodium, Potassium, Lithimn, Cesitm1.
1

1.3.3 Electricity due to Pressurc

Electrons in the outennost orbt of an atom is extracted dueto the pressure applied toan atom and
the electricity is produced. Ths is called "Pieza Electricity". In a telephone, diapharam is pressured by
the sound waves. Because ofthis, Electric Waves are produced depending upon the pressure of sound
waves.
1.3.4 Electricity dueto Heat

The ends oftwo metal rods are joined together and this joined part is heating. Dueto this the part
opposite to the heated place is com1ected by a Galvanometer and the Electricity is known as the
deflecton ofthe pointer.

In the san1e way, two metal plates are joined together and is heating, forthe purpose of producing
electricity. This type is called "Thenno Coupling Method."
For the abo ve four methods, sufficientelectricity is not produced and the energy of electricity is
also less. Because, the othertwo methods are used to produce the sufficient electricitywith high energy.
1.3.5.Electricity dueto chemical action

By using the method of chemical action, electrons are extracted from an atom and producing
electricity. This method is used for producing electricity in primary and secondary cells.
Prin1ary cell is used in torch light and the secondary cell is used in cars, motorcycles etc.
1.3.6. Electricity dueto Magnetism
In this method Electrons are extracted from an atom dueto magnetism. For this purpose generators
are used. In generator the energized electricity is produced bythe magnetic poles and armature winding.

In our countiythe requirementof electricity is produced in allthe above methods.


In thiswehaveto studyaboutall thepowergeneratingstations in Tamiinaduandhowtheelcctricity
is produccd.
1.4. POWER GENERATING PLANTS

Today, there are seven power gencrating stations are available n our country. By ths,
approximately 7000 MW curren! is produced in our country
Types ofPower Generating Plants
l.

Hydro Electric Power Plant

2.

Thcnnal Power Plant

3.

Atomic Power Plant

4.

Gas Power Plant

5.

Diesel Power Plant

6.

Solar Power Plant

7.

Wind-Mill Power Plant


2

1.4.1. Hydro Electric Power Plant

From the waterreservoir, the water is taken thtough the jainttubes to the waterturbne. For tbe
rotation ofturbine, the knetic energy ofwater is converted into meehanical energy and s converted imo
eleetrical energy by the using of generators.
This type of plan! is placed in TamilNadu at Mettur, Kunda, Bicara, Suruliyaru & Kadamparai.
1.4.2. Tbennal Power Plant

Chemical energy is converted into heat energy by burnng ofcoa! or lignire in bciler plant Water in
the bciler is converted nto stearn by heat energy. This steam s flowing through the steam turbine which
s connected to the generator and this energy is converted into mechanical energy by the rotation of
turbine. TI1e mechanical energy is again converted into electrical energy by the use of generator.
This type ofplan! is placed in Tami!Nadu at Ennore. (Chennai), Neyvelli, Tuticorn and Metmr.
Thermal Power Plants play a major role for the reqnirements of electricity in Tamilnadu
1.4.3. Atomic Power Plant

By the diffuson of an atom ofUranium or Thorium, to gettng more heat Based on this principie
the atomic powerplant is workng. The heat energy is produced and is used torotate the steam turbine
and ths energy is converted into meehanical energy. The generator convens the mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
Ths plant is placed in Kalpakkam near Chennai and Tharapur in Rajastan State. Leakage of gas
by ths plant may cause pollution and affeet the health ofthe people.
1.4.4. Gas Power Plant

For the rotation of turbine, the underground gas is used. The generator which is connected to the
turbine produces the eleetricity. Ths plant is placed in Ramanathapuram and Kuthalam.
1.4.5 Diesel Power Plant

Ths type of plant is used for the place where the contnuous requirements ofelectricity is needed.
Le. in big factories and refrigeration works. The electricity is produced by the generator which is
connected to the big diese! engne.
Dependng upon the requirements, different capacities of small or large diese! generators are used
in hotels, hospitals, J ewelleryshops, cinema theatres, shipyards etc.
1.4.6 Solar Power Plant

For the purpose of mnimum production of electricity, this type ofplant is placed on the roof ofthe
buildings. In this plant, the electricity is produced by using sun-rays. This is used in houses, hotels,
hospitals, traffic signallights etc.
1.4.7 Wind-Mill Power Plant

The Wind-Mill is rotated by heavy speed of wind. The electricity is produced by the generator
which is operated bythe wind-mi!L This plant is placed atKayathar in Nellai District and placed at
Palladam-Udurnalai Pettai Road in Coimbatore District
3

1.5. ELECTRICALSAFETY AI"'D PRECAUTIONS


Aman who works in the electrical department must be carefully handled the work without any
damage to the equipments and also workers. Because accdent may occur heavy loss. He must know
al! ihe ope:t"atons of electrical equpments. Othe1wse wrongly handled the equipments wll cause heavy
loss. Electrcal accident may occur only dueto carelessness. Dueto this, workers wll get injured,
damaged equipments will cause loss, because the work was stopped. To avoid tbis, electrical workers
must lbllow the rules and regulations when working.

1.5.1. Electrical Precautions

Before he use the equipments, he mustknow the operation ofthat equipments. Electrical
connections are made properly according to the definition.

Only the trained and efficient person is allowed to operate, testing andreparing the machine.

A person works in the electric post and tower post must wear the safety belt and glouse.

lf the sitnation is occur, the man who works on the ladder, the other persons helps to capture
the ladder for safety. Ifit is essential, then the post and the ladder must be ted wth a ro pe for
safety purpose.

After earthngthe overhead lines by discharge rod, then the work \Vll continue.

Check the condition ofal! the hand tools, supply wires operated in current and also to check
the earth v<.~re is in good condition.

To remo ve the plug point pin from the socket by the proper way, cannot pulling the wire.

Afterthe main switch is off, fl!se wire mus! be changed. Dependng upon the load. suffcient
an1pere fuse \vire is provided.

Al! the hand tools used in electl'cal works must be insulated.

Dllling made up of wning, switch is always connected in phase lime.

If any fault occur in the electrcal equipment in the houses, it will be checked and repaired
afterthe equipment s totally disconnected from the supply.

Ex. Fan, Grinder, Mixie etc.

Safety equipments existing in the electrical circuit is not removed duelo any reasons.

Iffire occurs in the electrcal circuit, immediately the main switeh s tumed to offpositon. For
extingushing the fire any one ofthe following i.e. carbon-di-oxide extinguisher, dry power
extingusher can be used. Soda acid extinguisher is not used at any cost. Water s not used to
extngush the fire because it conducts electrcity and cause severe accident.

lfany person getting electric shock becausc oftouch the electric wire, imrnediatelythe supply
is disconnected. The person is removed from the wire by the use of dry stick, dry wooden
plank and d:iy cloth etc.
4

When the battery is charging in a room, the room must be in a condition to get free air. To
avoid dangerous situation, no fire is available near the battery.

For producing electrolyte, water is not added to acid. Hydrochloric acid is added in the
water by drop by drop.

Swetting hand is not used to switch ON or work on the electric supply. Ifthe person has
swetting on the hand continuously, he must wear the glouse.

The switch is in OFF position. Beforeto tum ON the switch to check if anybody is working
in that electrical circuit.

The abo ve points are used for electrical workers and they can be work without any damage.
1.5.2. Electrical Shock

Human body has aelectrical conducting property. Without swetting ofhurnan body the resisrance
is approximately 80000Q(Ohms) and during swetting resistance ofthe human body is approximately
1OOOO.(Ohms). Ifwe touch the current carrying condnctor, the curren! is conducted through our body
to earth. So the electrical circuit is closcd and we get electric shock duc to this, nervous structure, herut,
lungs and brain are affected. Ifthe curren! is heavy, death rnay occur. Therefore we rnust know, even
though the current is essential,ifit is used wrongly, it \Vil! cause heavy loss. i.e. death and economical
loss.
To prevent this electrical shock, we know about the methods ofpreventive cares and protectve
methods for safety precautions.
1.5.3. P1eventive method to avoid electric shock

The Operation ofelectrcal equpmenls rnust be known.

Darnaged wire is not used for wirng works or electrical connection.

The Electrical Instruments used or connections (.e. sw'tch,plug,pushings) is not having any
scratch or breakable, lf it is in such a way that it rnust be replaced by new one.

Requirement hand Tools are used in proper way

The hm1d tools are insulatcd essentially.

Proper earthing s provided.

Ifthe supply is taken frorn the socket, only the plug top is used. To avoid, the supply is taken
by inserting the wire with stick in the socket.

Depending upon the load, rated arnpere fi.lse wre is used.

The electrical equipment is repared after the main switch is off.

For any reason do not operate by overcoming the safety rules.

The electlical shock may be avoided for following the above methods in a proper way.

1.5.4. First Aid


Dueto unavodable reason, aman affects from sudden accident occur or electric shock, he may
be treated by first aid method to protect from death, before taken into hospitaL
When a person is affected by curren! shock, first the circuit should be disconnected. Ifthe main
switch is nearer put off the switch or using any wooden stck we could disconnect the person from
circuit. Then immediately send him to consulta doctor.
Ifthe affected person lose his consciousness, but breathing is normal then looser hs clothes and
apply cold water on hs tace and keep him in open air.
Ifthe person does not breath then immediately arrange artificial method ofbreathing clean his
mouth and keep it open.
TI1ere are three rnethods of artificial breathng.
HOLGER NELSON METHOD

In this rnethod the vietim should be kept in the bed facing the ground. Fold his hands and keep it
in the backside ofhis head, the helper sitting at his head should rnassage his back using both hands. Ths
is done with in two seconds.
Mouth to mouth

lo ths method the helperpushes air by keeping his mouth on the victim's mouth.By closing his nose
then the air filllungs. So the victim get~ artificial respiration.

Breathin
PuULower
JawForward

Backwards

Lay Victim on his back and


Lo osen Clothing around :'lleck
Mouth to Mouth Resuscitation
Procedure- 1

Seal Patient's Lips


with yours and
nflate Lungs

Nos Trials

Blow into lungs (12 times every minute)


avoid patient's exhaled air
Mouth to Mouth Resuscitation
Procedure - 2
MOUTHTO MOUTII METHOD
l.

Put the victim on a hed-sheet.

2.

If his tongue is folded conect it.

3.

Using both ha:nds catch !lis forhead and ehin.

4.

For respiration place your mouth overthe mouth ofthe victim and send an to his body for
respination.

Through Nose
In this method the helper se:nd air through victim's nosc. By closingllis mouth the air is blown in his
nosetill the heart ofthe victim rises bythis waythe victim gets artificial respiration. For a child the air
blo"l'llll is halfthe heart leve!, compared to adult.

Questions

Part-A
Choose the Correct Answer

l.

The smallestparticle of an element is known as,


a)Atom

2.

b) Protons only

e) Neutrons only d) Electrons, proton, Neutrons

In case ofElectric fire use,


a) Dry sand

4.

b) wet sand

e) Corbon powder

b) 120 -130 V

c)220-230V

d) 400-440 V

Switch always be installed on


a) neutral wire

7.

b) Equal to protons
d) None ofthis.

The Supply volltage used for domestic purpose is,


a)ll0-120V

6.

d) Water

The number ofElectrons in anAtom are equal to


a) equal to neutrons
e) Equal to the atomic number of t:he substance

5.

d) Electron.

TheAtom is composed of,


a) Eleetrons only

3.

e) Nucleous

b) molecule

b) earth wire

e) Phase wire

d) none of t:he abo ve

Wit:hout swetring ofhuman body oft:heresistance is approximately.


a) 80 KO

b) 40 Kn

e) lO KQ

d) None of ths.

Part-B
Answer the following questions in one word

l.

\Vhat are the main part eles in an Atom?

2.

Whatisl\-ucleous?

3.

Neutron have which charge?

4.

Proton have which charge?

5.

What charge does electrons have?

6.

Should we t:hrow water incase ofthe electrc fire?

7.

While a person is in contact wit:h elcctric shockshould be removed by pulling his ann?

Part- C
Answer the following questions in briefly

l.

What is calledAtom?

2.

What preventive precautions should be taken to avoid electric shock?

3.

What is Electricity?

4.

What is current?

5.

\Vhat are the difterent method ofartifieial repiration?

6.

\Vhat are the methods used for production ofEJectricity?

Part- D
Answer the following questions in one page leve!

l.

Explain the structure ofAtom?

2.

Explain the methods ofprevent electric shock~

3.

Explain the different types ofFirstAid?

Part-E
Answer the following questions in two page leve!

l.

Explain the power generating methods'?

2.

Explain the Electrical safety and precautions?

2. MATERIALS USED FOR


ELECTRICAL WORKS
INTRODUCTION

Generally the materials used for electrical works divided into three types. There are called
Conductors, lnsulators and Semiconductors. The materials which conduct the current from one place
to other place are called eonductors, the materals do not conduct curren! i.e. it resists the cmTent are
called Insulator and the materals whichhave half ofthepropetties ofthese two are called sencunductors.
i.e. It conducted only a very low value of current Forthis purpose conductors and insulators are widely
used in Electrcal department where as serniconductors are used in Electronics departrnent.
In this chapter, we haveto study aboutthe types and properties of conductors and insulators.
2.1. CONDUCTOR

\Vhat is called cunductor? The wire which carties (Conducts) cwTent from the supplypoint to the
load is called conductors. The material is operatcd byusing the current is called load. Eg. Fan, Radio,
!ron box, Mixie, Grnder, Bulb etc. Generally al! types ofmetals are used for conducting purpose, some
metals pennit easilyto allow the curren! flow throughit. Thistype of metal is callcd "Good Conductors".
2.1.1 Properties of conductor

To conduct the current easily.

Would have low resistance.

Would have high tensile stress.

More flexibilty.

Itvvillnot affectcd by the corrosion dueto air (or) not affected by rain, heat.

Whena crurent is flowing through the conductor, it will get heated. Therefore it is not affected
byheat.

Easy to soldering.

Cost is low and is easily available to buy it.

2.1.2 Types ofConductor

Conductors are classified into three types depending upon the conducting property with low
resistancc there are so lid conductors, Ji quid conductors and gas conductors.
Solid Conductors

Silver, Copper, Brass,Aluminium, Tungsten, Nichrome, Zine !ron are called good conductors.
There are converted into thln vvi.re and thinrod or strap for the purpose of conduction.
We have to study about the metal is used for conduction and where there s used.
10

2.1.3 Liquid Conductors


The conductors in the torm ofliquids are called as Liquid Conductors. Mercury, SulphuricAcid,
Nitrate are sorne ofthe liquid conductors used in batteres. Mercury is used in high power vapour
lamps and automatic circuit breakers.

2.1.4 Gas Conductors


Organ, Helium, Neon, Nitrogen are sorne ofthe gas conductors. They are used in gas discharge
lan1ps athigh temperature.
2.2. INSULATORS
Insulator is non-conducting material. i.e., it resists electricity. lt has high resistance value, normally
in Mega Ohms.
Properties

lt has high resistance and speciiic resistan ce.

High di-electric strength.

Good Mechanical strength.

Withstands high temperature.

May not get change in shape dueto temperature.

May not absorb water.

Can be made to any shape.

Can not get fire easily.

Classification oflnsulators
Generally Insulators are classified into three types:
l. Hard Insulators

Ex. : Back lite, Porcelain, Wooden Plank, Glass, Mica, Ebonite

2. Soft Insulators
Ex.: Rubber, Poly" Vnyl Chloride, Vamish coated papers, Micanite, Pressphan paper

3. Liquid lnsulators
Ex. : Mineral oil, Shellac, Vamish

2.2.1. Tools and their uses


For the bettem1ent of our electrical works a number of minor and majar tools are used. In this
chapter we are going to Ieam such tools.
11

l. CLITING PLIER:

In electrical tools cutting plier is the most important tool. It is used to cut the cables and to tighten
them. The handles of the plier is, wrapped by rubber evento be used in cwTent supply. lt is also used
to orremove screws.

2. LONG NOSE PLIER

lt is used to fix and remove screws in narrow gaps. It is widely used while repairing radios and
speakers.

3.IG~IFE

It is used to remove the insulation in electric cables. The handle of aknife is made up of wood or
plastic. lts length is in four or five inches to keep easily in shirt pockets.

4. SCREW DRIVER

It is used to fix and tighten the screVv'S. The point of a screw-driver should be flat to be fixed in the
gap in thehead of a screw. Itis available in different sizes from 4.5 inches to 12 inches. It is named
according to its length. Its handle is made up ofwood or plastic. Wooden handles are better to be used
for long period than plastic handled Screw Driver.

5. CONNECTING SCREW DRIVER

It is al so a type ofScrewDriver. Its handle is made of plastic. It is available in small sizes. It is used
to fix and tighten screws injoints, and peles. It is of 4.5 or 5 inches.

12

6. TESTER

It is the essential too! of a electrician. It is also like connecting screw Driver in size.

Its handle is also made up of slots. In its handle a visible pipe like part is fixed in ita neon bu lb is
fixed with a screw metal and there s a clip in its head. All these parts are connected using a cable. It is
used to check current supply in electric circuits. Ifthere is a current supply in the circuit the neon bulb

glows.
7.POCKER
It has a sharp end. lt is used to malee holes to fix screws in electric boards.

8.JUMPER

Itis used tomake holes on walls. It is availablein8 SWG or 6SWG sizes. Its handle ismade up
of iron. By hammering its handle, required boles are rnade by the sharp points.

7. TUBEJUMPER
lt is used to rnake boles on walls. But it is used to rnake holes between the walls to eonnect electric
cables. One side ofthis jumper is like a saw. The hammer is used to make holes androtate the jumper
dock wise to make hales casi!y and quickly.

8.WOODSAW

It is used to cut wooden boxes, sticks and round blocks forthe required size.

13

9.HACKSAW

lt is used to cut PVC or metal pipes and metal frames. Tbe frame ofhack saw is made up oflron
and the handle is made up of wood. A clip is fixed in its other end to adjust the length.

~--

10. BALLPANE HAM:VIER

As its head is round shaped like a ball it is called so. Its head s made up ofiron and handle is made
up of wood. It is uscd to fix needles and bend iron rods. It s available in different weights.

Handle

11. CLAWHAMMER

In tbis type ofhammer of end is flat, the other bent and there is a claw in the end. It is used to
remove nails and hannnering tbe nails.

12.MALLET
It is fully made up of wood. It is mostly used for woodet works.

14

13. HAND DRILLING M ACHINE

It is used to make holes in wooden materials. In one end ofthis machine a chuck is available to fix
required drilling bit. Fixing t i wood by keeping the handle tightly, holes are made by rotating the cli
14.FILES

It is used to correet the sze and smooth the upper parte metals. It is named according to the size
and the rough surface fo smoothing other surface.

TRYSQUARE
lt is used for measuring angles of90: (Right angle) Measure-ments in mile metre are marked in its
sea! e. lt is used to measure 90 right angle accurately.

::.
:1:
~
:;-

::

15

WlRE GAUGE PLATE

It is of round shape. It is used to measure the vv'idth ofwires. Its unit is gauge. The \vire is put into
the hole in the centre of the Gauge to measure its width. Wires are available in gauge of
8 SWG, 12 SWG; 18 SWG.

2.3 TYPE OF SWITCH


S.P.T Switch: This is a mechanical divice uscd for opening or closing an electrical circuit. Single poi e
switch is uscd for closing (or) opcning one phase only most ofthe switches are turmbler type but,
now a days flush type switches are used.
2.3.1 Intermediate switch: To control a light from more than two different places, the intennediate
switch is used for exarnple a long hall, corriders and passage ways with many doors etc.
2.3.2. Knife switch: Knife switch is made ofCopper and is generally used in laboratories for switch
boards. It has a long pece ofl copper strip hinged in one end and which can go into a copper socket
at d1e od1er end. It has got an insulated handle and two terrninals. Below the main sorne times there is
additional small strip held by means of springs. The small strips makes contact to perrnits any number
of control points.
23.3 Main S\~itch: Main s\v:itch is the one which controla the electrical supply for whole house (or)
factory. These are also called as Iron ciad switches. There are different types, Two pole and Three polc
in the Two pole switch, their ,,;be two fuse units, the neutro! one will have a link and the phase l. will
have the rated fi.Ise wire. Thcre is also an earth terminal. The !ron ciad switch has a metalic cover which
can be screwedout for changing the blown out fuse only. Afterputting ofthe switch. From the main
switch leads are taken to the distribution box.

16

2.4 Fuse unit:


Function : Afuse in meant for protectingthe circuit from damage ifa short circuit developes sorne were
in the wiring (or) in the cmmected appliances, Like a switch it instantly breaks the circuit and the flow of
curren! in the circuit is intem1pted at once. It does so automatically by melting offit self A fuse in made
of a metallic wire (tin, lead and Zinc alloy) having a low melting point and so life al any instan! any
excessive curren! passed through the circuit, ts heat melts ofthe fuse. When the fuse blows t is a clear
ndicaton that somethng has gone wrong some were in the system. Every electrical circuit mus! therefore have a fuse ofthe correct rating as a protective device. Fuses are usally rated for 5 Amps, 1O
Amps and 15 Amps
Types offuses: Kitkate porceilin fuse unit, HRC fuse, Cartridge fuse.
2.4.1 Cartridge fu se: This type offuse in mostlyused in T. V, Radio, Record pler, Voltage stabiliser,
etc. They are in the shape of a capsule in which the fuse wire is stretched in a gas tube with metalic caps
at each end, The blown of fuse wire can be seen stright away. This type of fuse is easy to replace by
simplypressing it into its seat
2.4.2. Kit Kat type fuse : These are the ones mostly used in domestic nstallations. This fuse consists
of a proclaim base having two fixed contacts, for connecting the incoming and outgoing cables. TI1e
bottom part ofthe fuse is called the base and the top is called the fuse carrier. The line anda load wires
are connected in the base terminals and the carrier is provided with a fuse. The base fixed but the
canier is removable.
2.5 Wall socket: It has ready to give supply to the soldering iron, Table Fan, Radio, T V and other
electrical applances. It has two pin, 3 pin and 5 pin socket for connecting plus. it is usua\Iy rated or 5
Amps and 15 Amps.
2.6 Ceiling rose : Ceiling fan (or) Tubo lamps are get supply from this ceiling rose. It has two orThree
brozz plates with connecting terminal screws.
Types of Ceiling rose : Two plate ceiling rose, 1bree plate ceiling rose.

17

Questions
Part-A
I.

Choose the Correct Answer

l.

............. is the best conductor.

a) gold

2.

e) Semiconductor

d) None ofthese.

b) more than two places

d) None ofthese.

b) florocent tu be

d) an electric ron.

\Vhch too! is used for pulling, tvvisting, cutting and vvrupping purpose?
a) screw driver

6)

b) h1su!ator

Ceiling rose is used to talce supply for


a) Portable equipment
e) heaterof2000 watts

5.

d) Aluminium

Intermediate switch is used to control a lamp fiom


a) Oneplace
e)individual controlling

4.

e) Coppcr

M!CAis better.
a) Conductor

3.

b) Sil ver

b) Insulated combination plier

e) si de cutter

d) gas plier

Vv1ch too! sused for hammeringthenail?


a) Plier

b)Screwdriver c)mallet

7)

The too! used for measuring the size of the conductor wire is

a)

Try square

b)SWG

e) Wooden scale

Part- B

11. Answer the following questions in one wotd


1)

Whch Switch is used to control a bell point?

2)

Ofwhichmeterial these ceilingrose are made?

3)

What are the rating of single way switch?

4)

How the switches are connected with load?

5)

What is P. V. C. stands for?

6)

Give example of safety accessories?

7)

Where the two way switches are used generally"

18

d)Hammer.

d) ~one ofthese.

Part-C
III. Answer tbe following questions in briefly
1)

\\'hat is conductor?

2)

What is insulator?

3}

\\'hat are semi conductors?

4)

Give examples for conductors?

5)

Give examples or Insulators?

6)

Give examples for Hand tools?

Part-D

IV. Answer tbe following questions in one page leve!


1)

Explain the elassfication ofconductors?

2)

Explain the propertes oflnsulators?

3)

Write short notes on Tester, cutting pler?

Part-E

V.

Answer the following questions in two page leve!

1)

Explain the propertes of conductors and lnsulatrs?

2)

Explain the types ofHand too!?

19

3. ELECTRICAL TERlVIS AND


DCCIRCUITS
3.1. INTRODUCION
Generally says, the cmrent flows fonn positive (+) tenninal to negative (-) tenninal. But electrons
flow from negative tenninal to positive tenninaL The flow ofelectron is called current Related to this.
we study about sorne of the electrical tem1s.
3.1.1. Electrical Current

The continous flow of free electrons constitues an electric current Theunit ofcurrent is amper (A)
and is measured by Ammeter. It is denoted by the letter ''1".
Amphere

If one columb charge cross o ver the area of cross section ofthe conductor per one second then
the value of curren! flows through the conductor is called 'One Ampere'.
OneCoulomb

2rc x lO 18 number of electrons is mentioned as one conlomb.


3.1.2. Voltage

To create the curren! flow in a conductor, i.e., the electrical pressure which is used to move !he
electrons is called voltage. Itis denoted by the letter 'V'. The unitofvoltage is 'Volt' and is measured
by voltmeter.
OneVolt

One volt means the force to m ove one coulomb of electrons in one second.
3.1.3. Resistance

The property of conductor which opposes the flow of cmrent through it is called resistance. lt is
denoted bytheletter 'R'. The Lmit ofresistance is ohms (Q) and is measmed by Ohm meter.
Ohm

When a conductor having 1V potential between the two end points, one ampere current will
flowing through the conductor and the resistance value of the conductor is 1 Ohm (Q).
3.1.4. Electro Motive Force (EMF)

In a circuit, a force is used to conduct the electrons from one point to another point is called
Electro Motive Force. The unit ofEMF is vol t.
Electro Motive Force Potential difference + Voltage drop
i.e, (EMF = PD + Voltage drop)

20

3.1.5 Potential Difference

It is represented by, the potental difference between any two points in the electrical circut Shottly
it is called PD and the Unit is Volt.
3.1.6. Electric Power

Power is deiined as the product ofvoltage and current. Unit ofpower is watts. The ener;;y absorbed
by an appliance in one hour is called the energy consummed by the appliance. It's unit is watt and
denoted by the letter "P."
p

V xiwatts

Electrc work Q

P x t watt hour

one kili o watt hour

1 Unit

3.1. 7. Law of Resistan ce

The resistance of a conductor in a circuit depends upon the following states.

It depends upon the material.

Directly proportional to the length ofthe conductor.

Inversely proportional to the area of the cross-secton of the conductor.

l t also depends upon the temperature of the conductor.

Resistance calculation

Resistance Specific resistance x length


Arca of the cross-section

R= pi/a
R- resistance- ohms

()

e"'

p- Specific resistance - Ohm meter


L- Length ofthe conductor- meter
A- Arca of the cross-section of a conductor- Sq.m
21

3.1.8 Specific Resistance


The resistan ce that is offered by one cubic cm material is called specific resistance.
The followingtable shows the specificresistance of materials

Materials

Specific resistance is ohm - meter

Gold

2A2x10'

Silver

1.63 X JO'

Copper

1.724 X 108

Alurnnium

2.83

Rubber

8 X 107

Glass

lO X 10 11

10'

Examplel

1 Cm2 cross section, 50 m long copper conductor has specific resistance 1. 72 x 1O' ohm-cm t1nd the
resistance.
Solution

Copper conductor length


L

.e.
Cross Section (a)

Specific resistance
Resistance

50m

50x 100 cm
1 cm2
1.72 x JO' Q cm

pL

1.72 X 10' X 50 X 100


1

0.00860hm
0.0086 Q

Resistance R

Example2
Arca of cross section of the Aluminium conductor is 0.009 sq.cm .Specific resstance s
2.69 x 1 ohm-meter. Potential difference between the end ponts ofAiuminium conductor (PD) is
20v. If2Acurrent is flowing through this, what is the length ofthe conductor?

o'

Arca ofthe cross-section (a)

=0.009cm2
0.009 x 1O" m 2

Specitlc Resistance (p)

=2.69x 10-" ohm-meter

Potential differencc (V)

=20V

Current(I)

=2A

Resistance (R)

V/I

20/2
22

1O O

R=pL
-a
Therefore L = Ra
p

LQx 0.009x!O-"
2.69 X 10'8

=334.5m
3.2. CONDUCTANCE

Conductance is reciproca! ofresistance whereas resistance ofa conductormeasure the opposition


which offers to the flow of current, hence the conductance measures the inducement, which offers to
low of cun-ent. Its unit is Mho and denoted by the letter G.
Conductance G = 1/R Mho (U)
Generally the materials are classified by its conduetance as they are
l. Conductor
2. Insulator
3. Semi conductor
l. Conductor

Conductor means the material, whichshould allow cutTent flow through it. i\11 matters are conductors.
Sil ver, Copper andA!uminimn are ihvthe good conductors.
2. Insulator

Jnsulator means these substances whieh totallyresist the flow of eutTent through it. This type of
substances are used in electrical appliances as Insulator.
Ex : Glass, mica, Asbestos, paper, wood, rubber, Porcelin, Plastic, dry cloth, backlite, PVC.
3. Semi Conductors
The material whose conductvity le in between conductor and Insulator is called semi conductor.
Ex. Gerrnaniurn, Silcon.

3.3. TEMPERATURE CO-EFFICIENT OFRESISTANCE


0

The dflerence in Resistance while increasing temperature from to 1e is called temperature coefficient ofresistance.
A conduct the conductor resistance increases to R ohm
Then the difference in the resistance
t>R

R, ROOhm

.R depends

23

l.

directly on its ntial resistance

2.

drectly on the 1ise in temperature

3.

on tl1e nature ofthe material ofthe conductor


or R, - R, a

Rxt

where t s the rise in temperature


or R,- R.,

aR0 t

where a (alpha) s constant and knovm as the temperature coellicient of resistance ofconductor.
from the above equation

R,-R,
R 0t
t= I"cthen

HJ.
R-R
t

Hence the temperature coellicient of a material may be defined as the increase in resistance per C
rise is temperanue
From ex. we find thatR,

R, (1+ at)

Example

Find the resistance of a copper conductor resistance at 25c where the conductor resistance at
O"c is !50 Q and temperature coefficient is 0.0040 perC.
Solution:

Temperature coefficent copper= 0.0040 per C

At O'c, resstance = 150 Q


Therefore R, =Ro (1 + at)
150 (!.;. 0.004 X 25)
150(1+0.1)
150 (1.1)

165

therefore resistance at 25'c in 165 Q


Effect oftemperaturc on resistance

The effect of rse in ternperalure is


i.

The resistance increase when temperature increases in metallike copper and iron, from this we

ean understand tlmt pure metals have positive temperature co-effieient.


24

2.

In alloys Iike magnesium and Eureka resstance increase is relatively small with increase in
temperature.

3.

In Electrolyie, Jnsulators, mica, glass and rubber resstance decreases ""ith increase is temperature.
Hence they have negative temperature- coe:fficient of resistancc.

3.4. OHM'S LAW


A relationshp was derived by the scientst Ohm, between the curren!, voltage and resistance of
the crcuit. It says,
"Al a constan! temperamre, the current tlowing through the circuit is directly proportional to the
voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance".
Curren!

Volta_g<::
Resistance

ie l= V/R
R= V 1 f
V=IxR
When the resstance of a cireuit is constant. ifthe voltage in creases the curren! increases and the
voltage decreases the current decreases.
If any two ofthe three values (!,V, R) are known, the third value can be casi! y calculated.
Let us see sorne problems based on the above:

Problems

l.

The supply voltage ofthe circuit is 240 V and the resistance value is 12 ohms. Calculate the
current flovving through this circuit.
Voltage (V)= 240 volts
Resistance (R)
Current ( I)

12 oluns

According to ohm's law,


I = V/R = 240/12 = 20 A.
2.

The supply voltage ofthe circuit is 230 V. If IOAmps curren! is flowng through this circuit,
calculate the resistance val ue of the circuit.
Voltage (V)= 230 volts
Current (1) = 1OA
Resistance (R) =?

25

According to ohm 's law,


R =V /1

230/1 O= 23 Ohms.

3. Find out !he voltage ofthe circuit when 6 Acurrent is flo'I'<'ng through the circuit. Resistance of the
circuit is 40 Ohms.
Current (I) = 6 A
Resistance (R) =40 Ohms
Voltage (V) ?
According to ohm' s law,
V

lX R= 6

40 = 240 V.

3.5 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

The circuir is defined as, the curren! flows from the supply points through the load to complete
Path.ln this chapter, we have to study about !he types of electrical circuit. There are callcd (1) Closed
circuit (2)0pen crcuit (3). Short circuit
l. Closed Circuit

''

Fig. 3.5.(a)

When a load is connected betwecn two tenninals of an electrical supply in such away, that the
curren! should pass through the load is said to be closed circuit.
2. Open circuit

26

In a circuit, if there is no way to the flow of current dueto disconnection of wre or ifthe switch is in
OFF state, then the circuit is sad to be open circlt.

3. Short circuit

1
1
1
1

/
Fig. 3.5. (e)

The wires contact each other when there are connected in supply, the short circuit will occurs e
.two terminals ofthe supply is connected directly without the load the current f1ow ofthe circuit is
int1nite because it has no resistance.
Leakage

\:V1len any wire in the electrical connection may contact the body of a material, current leakage will
occurs. In this conducton, if we touch the electrical equipment we get shock
Classification of electric circuit

l. Series Circuit

2. Parallel circuit
3. Series Para!lel circuit
4. Mesh or Network circuit

3.6. SERIES CIRCUIT

E(or)

I
Fig. 3.6

When resistors are connected as in fig. so thatthe same current passes through all ofthem, they
are said to be in series.

Here the resistors R, R,, R, are connected in series with each other.
(i.e.) R 1 is connected with R.,. R, is connected with R 3 and R 3 is connected with Rl through a
battery supply. The curren! flow is in same direction (i.e. one direction)

'I' ampere curren! flows in all three resistors


Each resistor has a voltage drop across itas given by Ohms law. Thus

The total drop in three resistors put together is

V ; +V 2 +V 3

I (R,

+ R, + R,)
;--

V
I

V
I

-~

L_

__..!

WhereR

-rlr-1____, r---~ll___j
VI

V2

V3

V4

Fig. 3.6 (a)


\\'hen one or more batteries are conneeted in series with each other, the total potenti al difference
is !he sum of the individual ones.
In the above therearefour batteries (V, V 2, V 3 and V J conneeted in series with eachother.
Total potential difference (V) is

VI+

v, + VJ + v,

According to Ohm's law

YandV=IR

R
Here V=

28

The voltage drop in each resistor is


=

v,

V4

Where R 1, R,, R, and R 4 are the intemal resistance of each battery.


=

ThereforeR
Example

200, 400 and 60Q resistors are connected in series across a240 V supply, Find out the total
resistance ofthe circuit and curren! that flows through the circuiL

R, =200

R 2 =400

20Q
1

Rl

K=600

'

60Q

40n
1

R,

1
1

K
'

240V

Fig.

Solution

R,

R,

40

20,

240V,

?,,

According to ohms law

V
R
R, + R, + R,

WhereR

20 + 40

120

240
120

60 = 120

2A

2A

29

60

1
1

Example
Three resistors are connected in series. The total resistance (R) ofthe circuit is 60Q. The first two
resistors are 25 Q and 15 Q find out the third one.
25Q

R1

1.____

15Q

lr-----11

__1

R,

1.____

__1

Supply

Solution
In a series total resistance (R) s
R

Rl

25

n,

R,

15

R,

R2.,. R3

R,

25 + 15 + R3

60

25 + 15 + R3
=

60!:2

60-40

20 Q

lmportant rules of a series ci1cuit


1.

In the series circuit, the curren! flows in one direction

2.

Total Resistance
R

3.

In a series circuit, the same cu!Tent passes through al! its resistors.

4.

The total drop across the series circuit is the sum ofvoltage drop across each resistor.
V

5.

The total series circuit will be inactive (there is no current flow) there is a fault in any one ofits
resistors.

6.

This type of connection is nsed in serial sets (Decorativo !amps)


30

3.7. RESISTAN CE IN PARALLEL CIRCUIT


\Vhen resistors are connected across one another so that the same voltage is applied between the
end points of each, then they are sad to be in parallel. The curren! in each resstor is dfferent and the
curren\ I taken from the supply is divided among the resistors.

:t.?-

::t~

'1
J

R,

R2-

R:

V
Fig. 3.7.
In parallcl circuit total curren\(!) is equal to sorne ofthe currents ! 1,

r, and ! 3

I ! + I2 + I3

Accordng to Ohm's law, we can find thetotal resistance (R) as given below

=V
R

I,

=V

R,
V

buti

=1-I+I
1
2
}
+V+ V
R 1 R2 ~

v(..!.. + l

R,

I
V

1 +1+

R 1 -R''"2

~ l._ )

R2

R,

'oc

Where 1

R,
R,~

1
I

R
31

R,
+ R,R, + R,R,
R 1 ~R3

+ 1

R1R2R3

IMPORTANTRULES OFPARALLELCIRCUIT

l.

In the parallel circuit current flows though two or more paths ata junction. That is, it gets divided.

2.

r = r, + r, + r, .................. .

3.

The voltage drop is same in all resistors

4.

Ifthere are 3 restistors (R 1, R 2, R;) in thecircuit

5.

R
~R, + R 1R 3 + R 1 ~

Ifthere is a fault in one resistor the otherwto resistors will work. The curren! will be divided into
two parts and will flow through the two resistors.

Example
60. and 40. resistors are connected in parallel through 240v supply. Find out the total resistance
and curren! flows in it.
Solution

'

t,.n1

R\

4-..n-1

R'2..l

240V

Fig.
~=40.

R =60.

240V

In parallel circuit
R1 ~

R
R

R 1+R2
=

6x4=
6 +4

2.40.

Aecording to ohm's law

I
[

V
R

240
2.4

!OOA

!OOAmp

Example
Three resistors 1OQ, 50. and 20. are connected in para!! el.

32

The rotal current llowing in the circuit s 2A Fnd out the total resstance and supply voltage of the
circuit.
100
R,

Solution

R,

100

5Q

-:;.,_

.~

R,

R,
R

20
?

2A

V '?

I=2A

2Q
1 R:;;

:;>.-;

R,R3 + R,R3 + R,R,

Fig.

.10x5x2
(5x2) ~ (2xl O)+ (1 Ox5)
lOO

100

10 + 20 +50
R

80

1.250

IR

2 X 1.25 =2.5

1.25

2.5 V

3.8. RESISTAN CE IN SERIES PARALLELCIRCUIT

In this circuir one and more resistors connected in series wth one more resistors connected in
parallel. It is a combination of series and parallel circuit.

t
V

\ 1

2. 1

.,

R:aJ

R4

Rsj.

+
Fig.3.8

In the above series parallel circuit, there are five resistors (R,, R2, R,, R4, R5) placed in i among
them R,, R, are connected in series and R,, R4 , R 5 are connected in parallel. The parallel resistors are
connected in series wth R1 and R,.
33

Here the total resistance (R) ofthe circuit is

= R,+R,+

R,

X R4 X

R,

Example
1OQ and 8 Q resistors are connected in parallel with a 4 Q resistor is series. Find out the total

resistance ofthe series parallel circuit.


1 10n

1
4Q

8Q

Fig.

Solution

Resistance ofthe
parallel circuit

R,R,
R,-,-R,
JO X 8
10+ 8

80
18

4.44 Q

Total resistance of the series parallel circuit


4.44 +4

8.44 Q

Example

Three resistors 2. 4. and 6 ohm are connected in parallel. This parallel combinaton is connected
in series with a resistor of 1.5 ohm. Find the curren! tlrrough in each resistor when the applied voltage
is 10 V.
34

2Q
1

l
1.5 Q

4Q
1
1

1
1

6Q
lO V

1
1

Fig.
Given Data

R,

2Q

R,

4Q

R,

6Q

R4

1.5

1OVolts

To find ctm-ent throgh in each resistors

Solution :- Resistance betweenAB


1

Rp

R,

+ l
R,
R,

R,R, ~ R,_R3 + R 1R3


R, x R,_x R1
Rp

R, xR,_x R3
R,R,_ + R,_R1 + R 1R3
-

2x4x6
(2 X 4) + (4 X 6) c.. ( 6 X 2)

Rp

48
8 + 24 + 12

L09Q

48
44

35

1.o9 n

Total Resistance between AC


=

Rp+R4

1.09 + 1.5

= 2.59 Q

Totalcurrent in the circuit

R
J.Q_
2.59

Voltage drop across A.B

=3.86Amps

IxRp
3.89 X 1.09

4.24 Volt
(Voltage is constant in parallel circuit)
i. Currentin 2 Q Resistor =

R,
2.12Amps
ii. Current n4 Q Resstor

=
=

iii. Current in 6 Q Resistor =

V
AB

4.24

R,

1.06Amps
VAB

4.24

R,
0.706Amps
3.9. KIRCHOFF'S LAW

Kirchoff's Law s used to find out the current flow in the network circuts easily where ohm 's law
s not applicable. It is applicable botb for D.C. andA. C. circuits.
Theyare
1. Cunent Iaw or Point law

2. Voltage law or Mesh law (or) Tressure law (or) Electro motive tora law.
Currentlaw

The sum ofthe current flowing towards ajunction is equal to the sum oftbe currents t1owng away
from t. This is called Kirchoff's Current Law.

36

Fig. 3.9 (a)


In the iig. above, J a junction (or node) fonned by five conductors. The curren! in these conductors
are I" 12, 13, ! 4, and ! 5

Sorne ofthese currents are flo\\~ng towards J and others away from it.
According to Kirchoff's Law
=

(Flowing towards J)

I 4 '-I5

(Flowing away from J) =

Otherwise
I, + 12 + 13 -14 - 15 =O. This is known as KCL equation.
VoltageLaw

At any closed circuit the Potential Drop (IR) at each Resistance is equal to the total voltage given
lo the circut
A

1
J

R,

V=IR
1
1

~ r'-

__ v

V,= IR,

...-.
l

...

V3=IR,
1

R,

Fig. 3.9 (b)


37

R,

,. '-re

In a closed circuit, the sum of the potential drop is equal to the sum of the potential rises. This is
called Kirchoff's Voltage Law.
V=

Example

In the circuit ofFig, find using Kirchoff's laVvo, the current in the varions elernents.
Solution

According to Kirchoff's first law mark the direction of curren! flow. According to Second law,
Wrte down the KVL equation in the closed circuits.

A
'

::r:,

--

CJov

251'-r-

::I-,+1.?.-

~if
}'

6
Fig.

2.

ABEFAfonns a el osed circuit


61 1 + 2 (1 1 + ! 2)

90

8!, + 21,

90

CBEDC fonns another closed circuit.


81 2 + 2 (! 1 + I,)

110

2!, + 1012

110

81 ?. + 2 [1

90 (1)

21,

10 r,

11 o(2)

To solve, equation (2) is rnultiplied and subtmcted from ( 1) by 4.

81, + 21, =
(2)

90

(3)

4 _ 81 1 40!2=

-440

(2)

-350

-3812

381,

350
38

:T?.

110 \(

__j

I,

350
38

9.211Amps
Substitute the I2 value in equation (1)

8!1 + 2 (9.211)

90

8I, + 18.422

90

81,

90- 18.422

8!1

71.578
=

Il

11578
8
8.947 A

r,

8.947 Amps

Fromtlris,
Thecurrentthrough6Qresistorsis

8.947 A

lbe cun-ent through 8 Q resstor is

9.211 A

The currentthrough 2 Qresstor is

8.947

9.211

18.158A_

Example2

By using Kirchoff's law, calculate tl1e current flo'A'ng through each resistor as shown in the
By applyng Kirchoff's second law,
In circut ABEFA, 51 1 + 20 (1 1 + I,) =
51,

= 4

201, + 20!,

251, +201,=4(1)

J 4Q~~~'c-r,--.f

.-r,--11 mi

Tr-I_...,..

h1circuitEDCBE,

412 + 20 (I, + I,)

20Q

41, + 20!, + 20!, = 6

2011 + 241,
Eqn (1) x 4, 100!1 + 80! 2

(3)

Eqn (2) x 5, 100L + 12012 = 30

(4)

6V
i

Eqn (3)- (4), -40! 2 = -14


12

16

= 0.35 A

39

Substituto 12 0.35 in Eqn ( 1)


25 I, + 20 (0.35)

25L=-7-c4
'
I, = -0.12 A

The path of the current flow in the 5 n resistor s-ve, therefore we assume current directon is
opposite to that as shov.'ll in tlg.
Currenti, in 5 n resistor

= 0.12 A

Current 12 in 4 Q resistor

0.35 A

Curren! 11 + 12 in 20 Q resistor

O.23 A

3.10. CAPACITORS
INTRODUCTION

In this we are gong to study aboutan importantmaterial used in electrical circuits i.e., capacitors.
Capacitor is an instrument to store electrical energy (Capacitl.mce) toa pa:tticular time and dscharge it
whenneeded. It is also called as condenser.
The charge in the eapacitor is denoted by the word capacitance and is measured by the unit called
Farad(F).
A capacitor can be manufactured by keeping a di-electric medium in between two electrodes. The
di-electric medium can be air, wax coated paper, mica or oil etc.
3.11. CONSTRUCTION

++++

T
Fig3.11

A Capaeitor can be manufaetured by keeping di-e!ectric medium in between tvvo electrodes. The
capacitance ofthe capacitor differs depends upon the distance between the electrodes and the strength
ofthe di-electric mediun1.

Working of a Capacitor
The fig shows a capacitar is cormected across a battery. One electrode is connected to +ve
tetminal and other is cormected -ve tetminal ofthe battery.
40

1\ow, the supply is gven to the capacitor, the electrode connected in the +ve terminal gets positive
charge (+) and the electrode connected in the -ve gets negative charge(-). During this, capacitar gels
chargng. i.e., The arnount of charge between the plates depends upon the delectrc material and al so
the distance between the electrodes. After few seconds the curren! flow slops. Now the capactor
voltage s equal to the supply voltage. [n this way the power can be stored in a capacitar. This stored
power can be used again when needed.

3.12. POWER OFCAPACITOR


Power ofthe capacitor can be depends u pon the constructon e.,

directly proportional to the area ofthe electrodes.

Inversely proportional to the distance between the two electrodes.

Depends upon the di-eleetric strength ofthe insulating media.

3.14 CAPACITAc'IICE
The capacitance of a capacitar is defined as the ratio between the changng gven to the capacitar.
Ths is denoted by the letter C and the unit is Farad.
Capacitance (C)

Charge (Q)
Voltage(V)

Therefore C

Hence C

Q_Farad
V
Capactance- Parad

Charge given to the capacitar- Coulomb


Potential difference bel\veen the plates- Volt

lfthe dielectric medhun between the two plates is stronger, then the capacitar can have high
charging capacity.
Lower value of capacitance is called as micro firrad & Pi ceo farad.

3.14. ONE J<'ARAD


When one volt supply is given to the capacitar, it will get 1 coulomb charge then it is called as l
Parad.

3.15 TYPES OFCAPACITORS


Capacitors can be classitied depending upon their construction and al so the material used for
making the capacitar. F or this, two types are classified as (i) Fixed Capacitar (ii) Variable Capacitar.

41

3.15.1 Fixed Capacitor


In this, three types of capacitors are mostly used. This type is ba~ed on the electrodes and dielectric

material used between the two electrodes. These are used in Radio circuit. In this capacitance val ue
cannot be changed. Let us study about these types of capacitors.
Paper Capacitor

Wax paper is rolled in the fonn of cylinder and dpped in wax solution in order to exhaust the air
and placed in between two thin aluminium plates. This type of capacitar is used in dc-coupling cirCLts.
Mica Capacitor
In this instead of paper mica is used as the dielectric medium. Silver mica is coated on the swface

ofthe rrca sheet and used as conductive electrodes. This type of capacitors are used in high frequency
filters, coupling and tuning circuits.
Cera me Capacitor

These are the modem capacitors. In this Ceramic is used as dielectrc medium. The performance
ofthis capacitar may not be affected even it get heated.
Electrolytic Capacitor
In this, aluminium Borate is used as the dielectric medium. When the paste is used in the fonn of

wet it is tenned as Wet Electrolytic capacitar and it is in Dry state it is termed to be Dry Electrolytic
capacitor. Otcourse wet electrolytic capacitor is not in use nowadays.
The dry electrclytic capacitar should be connected carefully. This is small in size but having high
capacity.
3.15.2 Variable Capacitor

This type ofcapacitor is used in tuner circuit ofRadio receivcr: In this, air is used as dielectric
medium between the two aluminium electrodes. The value ofthe capacitance can be changed wthin a
particular limit.
Capacitance in Series

V
Fig3.15.2

Three capacitors are connected in series as show11 in fig.ln this connection ifthe total capacitance
of the circuit is e then,

42

eapacitor in Series

e
Thereforc V1

e,
V2

e,
Q

\13

e2
V. + V2+V3

e,

e,

V
-V

~-l_,_ 1

+_!_
e,
e,

e,J

+ -

Wherc

el

+ 1

el

e,
...,

:\

c,c,e 3
C2 C3 + e,e1 + e,c,

c,c,c,
c,c3 + c,c3 + c,c2

e_

CC +CC +Ce
e, x e, X e,

e,

e,

e,

'e
'
1
=

3.15.3. Capacitors in Parallel

t
t
Fig3.15.3

43

1
e

Three capacitors (e 1, ez, e3) are cormected in parallel as shown in fig. In this circuit, fthe total
capacitance ofthe circuit is e, then
ve

Q
ThereforeQ

ve

ve

Q
2

ve

ve +Ve +Ve

Q +Q +Q
2

v (e +e +el

e 1 +C2 +eJ

\\lhere Q
V

=e

e
Advantages

Used in rectifier circuits to filter ac ripples.

U sed as suppressor capacitor in fluorescent lamp.

U sed in Ceiling fim, Radio and Television circuits.

Problem
l. Find out the total capacitance of a crcuit when three capaetors 1Omfd, 20 mfd and 30 mfd are
connected in series and also in parallel?

Solution:
1omta

eapacitors in Series

20mta

30mfd

~---1---~1 1~--------~r

l_=l.+l. l

e e, e, e,
l.= l.+ l.+ l.= "--'--"--'--"'

e
e

10 20 30

60

Fig.A
V

ll
60

t I I l
+ T T T

60 = 5.45 MFD
11

eapacitors in Parallel

Fig. B

e= e!+ ez + e3
e= 10 + 20 + 30 =

60 MFD.

44

lOmtl:l

20mfd

30mfd

3.16. WORK, POWER, EFFICIENCY AND ENERGY


Work

If a force ofF moves a body through adistance S in its directon of application is cal!ed work. The
unit ofwork is Newton meter. If 1 Newton force displaces a body through a distance of 1 meter then
the work done is 1 Nm (Newton-meter)
The potential difference applied across the coi! causes to flow through it. This implies that there is
an electrical work done. Unit of work done in Joule. In Electric circuit f 1 volt electric potentia! causes
one coulomb ofelectric charge to pass through a circuit then the electric work done is equal to 1 Jo u!e.
1 Jouel

Volt x Coulomb

Coulomb
J

Ampere x Time
=

Vx lxt

Power

It is the rate of doing work lts units is Watt (W)

Power

Work done
Time

p =

Joules
Tnne

J
t

P =

Vxlxt
t

VI watts

According to Ohrn's law


V=

IR

LR.L

IR watt
2

P=VI (or) P =IR


I

y
R

VI

vv

....

v'

_watt
R

Power in Watt

Voltagein Volt

I =

C'urrentinAmpere
45

R
1 kilo watt

Resistan ce in Ohm.
1000 watts.

Mechanical power is mcasured in horsepower. The relatinship between mechanical power and
the electric power is fmmd to be
1 Horsepower = 746 Watts
Watt meters are u sed to measure the power. Power is denoted by the letter "P".
Efficiency

Efficiency means the ratio between the input power to the output power. In all machineries the
output pmver is les ser than input power.
Output pov,-er

Efficiency

Inputpower

Percentage of efficiency --

Outputx 100
Input

Energy

Energy means the amount of work done by aequipment during a time period of t seconds. Unit of
energy is Joules.
Energy

Power x time

watt. sec

The energy spent for the appliance is l kilo watt hour. It is al so called as one unit.

1unit

1000 watt hour.

Example: 1

The resistance of a lamp is 1OOhms, and curren! through it 2A, calculate the power.
Solution
Resistance (R)

10

CmTent(l)

fR

Power
=

2 X 2 X !0
40\V

So the power ofthe lamp is 40 watts


Example2

Calculate the energy mtit when a 500 watts lamp is ON for 6 hours

46

Solution
=

1000 watts x 1 Hour


Energy consumed = 500 x 6

1Unit
3000 Watt-hrs.

3000

3 Unit

1000
3 Unit of energy is spent by using 500 watts lamp for 6 hours.

Example3

In a 100 V circuit the curren! is 4 A


Calculate

(2) Power

( 1) Resistance

(3) Ener,')' for 30 mn

Solution

Cunent(I)

4Ampere

Voltage(V)

100 V

Time(t)

30Mn.

According to Ohm's Law


V
I

lQQ

1) Resistance

25

4
2) Power(P)

VI

lOOx 4watts
3) Energy (P)

400W

30 min. 0.5 hrs

Energy

400 X 0.5
1000

watt-hrs

0.2 Unit

Example4
In a factory the following appliance are in operation

2 HP '\1otor 3 hours daily.

2.

lOOWlamp 12hourdaily.

47

3.

1000 w heater, 3 homs daily.


Calculate the cost for energy consumed. (1 Unit cost = Rs. 4.00) in a month consisting of30 days.

Solution

l.

The energy for 2 HP motor 3 homs daily

746x2x3
1000

Energy

4.476kWh
2.

100 W lamp 12 hours for daly

100 x 12

Energy

1000
1.2kWh
3.

IOOOWHeater3hoursdaily
Energy

1000 x 3
1000

for 30 days total unit is

=(4.476+ 1.2+3)x30
=

8.676 X 30

=260.28kwh
Total cost for 30 days
=

260.28 X 4.00

Rs. 1041.12

48

WORKED EXAMPLES
Examplcl
Find the curren! in the 2 O resistor path CF.

Solution
Mark the curren! in various Branches as shown fig. As thcre are two unknovvn quantities ! 1 and 1,
two equations haveto be fonned by considering 1\vo el o sed circuits ofloops.

Br-~1~:2:(':":r--TC~--{:4:D:J~I~,--,D
1,+1,

-.;:-

-:.;;-

35V

2D

! 30V

-~

-r-

Fig.
LoopABCFA

30 - 21, - 2(1 1 + 12 )

=O

or 41 1 + 212

CD

30

LoopABCDEFA

30-211+412-35
21,

41,

=O

Multiply eq (1) by 2 and then add itto eq (2) we get

10! 1

=55

r,

=5.5A

Substituting the value ofl 1 in eq (!) we get


22 + 21, = 30

12

4A

Curren! in 2 O resistor = 5.5

4 = 9 .S A

Example2
Three resistors of 1 ohm, 2 ohm and 3 ohm are connected in series across a 12 V battery.
Calculate thevoltage drop across each resistor and also determine 1he power dissipated in each resistor.

49

Given data:

R J = IQ
~=2Q

R 3 = 3Q

12V

V= 12 volts

~--------~~1--------------~

Tofind:
a) Voltage drop across each resistor(V, V2 , V3)

b) Powerdissipated in each resistor (P, P2 , P)


Solution : In series circuit
R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 1 + 2 ~ 3 = 6 ohm
V

I=

FI
a)

12

2A

Voltage drop across 1W resistor (V 1)

= 1R 1 = 2 x 1 2 volts

Voltage drop across 2\V resistor (V2)

I ~ = 2 x 2 = 4 volts

Voltage drop across 3\V resistor (V,)= I R3 = 2 x 3 = 6 volts


b)

Powerdisspatedinthe 1Wresistor(P 1)

PR 1 =(2)2 x 1 =4watts

Power dissipated n the 2\V resistor (P,)

P~

Powerdissipated in the 3\V resistor(P 3)

FR, = (2)2 x 3 12 watts

= (2) 2 x 2 8 watts

Example3
A lamp has a noted voltage 110V and hotresistance55 ohms. Find thevalue ofseries
resistance required to operate the lamp from a 220V supply.

Currentthroughlamp
=110

55

2A

Voltage across R
220-110= l!OV

10V

---*--

11DV ----fo!

Series resistance requred lo operare at 220V mans.


=

110
2

=55Q

1>+-----,--- 220V -------+<>

50

Example4
Three resistors 4Q, 6Q and 8f:l are connected in parallel across 36 VDC supply lind the
total resistauce and the cmTent through each resistauce.
1
1
1
1
=11
"

R,

R,

R2

-+

R.

'

+-

I,

60

13

I,

8D

R,

24

24

:. R, =-- = 1.846Q

361J

13

Fig.

~= 36=9A
R,

12

= V =36 = 6A
R.

"

I~

R,

36
8

4.5A

Example5
Three resistor2, 4 and 12 ohms are connectedin parallel across a 12Vbattery. Find d1e cunent
through each resistors and the battery. Also find the power dissipated in each resistor.

12

R..=4Q

'

J3

R,=l20

12V

Fig.
51

Givendata:

R1

2Q

R= 12Q
'

V= 12 volts
a) Curren! through each resstor (!1 , 12 , !3)

Tofind:

b) Cunent supplied by the battery (!)

e) Power dissipated in each resistor(P 1, P2, P)


Soluton:

In parallel circuit

1
1
1
+-+R R, R,
1 1
=.!
+ + i.e .. _!_ =0.833
R,
2 4 12 . R,

:. R,

1
0.833

= !.2ohm

Current supplied by the battery (I) =


a)

12

1.2 =1Oamps

CuJTent through 2 ohm resstor (I) =

12
-V =--= 6amps

Current through 4 ohm resistor (l) =

- =

R,

V
R,

Cunent through 12 ohm resistor (!,) =

b)

= 3amps

-V = 12 = lamps
R.

12

'

CmTent supplied by the battery = Sum ofindvidual branch currents.

I=(I 1+! 2 + !)
e)

2
12

6-3

1 = 10 amps
V'

Power dissipated in 2 ohm resistor (P 1)

Power dissipated in 4 ohm resistor (P ,)

V 2 (12) 2
-=-R,
4

V'

Powerdissipated in 12 ohm resstor (P 3)

(12) 2

-=-

=-: =
'
52

72watts

36waits
12watls

Example6
Three resistances ofvalues 8Q, 12Q and 24Q are connected in series. Find the equivalen!
resistance. Also find the equivalent resistance when they are connected in parallel.

Solution
Case (1)
12Q

24Q

Fig.
=R +R,+R.

Total resistance R"'

=8

'

12+24=44Q

Case (2)
1

I,

I,

R,~

12n

R_,~24Q

Fig.
1
Rer

R1

R2

R,

=-+-

1 1
1
=-+-+
8 12 24
3+2+1
6

=----- 24

'"

24/6

24

= 4Q
53

Example7
A circuit consists of two resistor 3 Q and 6 Q are in parallel and the combnation is connected
in series with 8 Q resistor. Calculate the equivalen! resistance and currem drawn from 100 volts supply
Solution

Parallel resistance Rp

.R1R 2
R, +R 2

3X6
2Q
3+6
Req= R + K = 2 + 8 = 1on
p

'

r--C=:J---

B.Q

H===:J~--

64------100V_ _ _ _ _ttS
Fig.
100

Curren! dravm. from the supply =

R
(~fj

Current in 3 Q resistor = 1Ox +


6

10

= 1OA

6.67A

8D

2.\i

lOQ

--c==J- '--------'
!

ot-----100V_ _ __.~.!,

100V

~------

------~

Fig.
Curren! in 6Q resistor = 1

r - --=3.33A

6+3

Current in 8D resistor = 1OA


Example8
A resistor R is co1mected in series with a parallel circuit comprises oftwo resistance of 12
o!un and 8 ohm. The total power dissipated in the circuit is 70 watts when the apptied voltage is 20
volts. Calculate the value ofR.

54

Given: Total power (P) 70 watts


Find: Value ofR
----l

Rrsn

!--

20 Volts

~----------20Vo~lt~s--------~

Solution Rt=

Fig.

v2

(20)

- - = 5.714ohms

70

R1

R2

= -+--=

R,
1
--

= 0.0833 + 0.125

:.

R,

1
1
+12
8

= 0.2083

R:2

:. R 12

1
=- -

-ce

4.8ohms

02083

R=Rr -R 12
=

5.714-4.8 = 0.914 ohrns

Example9
A cunent of 15 amp flows through two ammeters A and B joined in series. The voltage drop
aeross 'A' is 0.15V and across 'B' is 0.3V. Findhow sorne cunent will divide betweenAand B. whcn
they are eonnected in parallel.

55

Given:

1=15A

V8

=0.3V

Fig.
Find : When they are connected in parallel, sarne current will divide betweenA & B i.e., !A and lB.
0.15
Solution : RA ~
J
15
~0.01 ohms
~

8
= -~

R AB
1

0.3

ce -

1
~-----

..-

RA

+ --

~-

0.01

15

0.02

O.02

1
R

~----

lOO + 50

]50

R AB

= -1 ~ =
!50

6.6667 x!O

V =IRAB
=15x6.6667xl03

fA

JB =
0.1V

o.1

- - = JO amps

RA
V

RH

0.01

o. J
0.02

Samps

ExamplelO
A resistor of 1Oohms s connected in series with two resistance each of 15 ohms mTanged in
parallel. What resistance must be shunted across this eombination so that total current taken shall be
1.5 amps 20 V appled?

56

1-

l :oMiA
~

_--

r---1

R,=IO!l

::r;

Rrl5.(l..

r-

p.
20Vofbl

Find : The value ofR

Solution:
1

R 23

--+
R,
R3

1
1
= - + - = 0.667 + 0.0667
15
15

1
- -

R,,

= 0.1334

R 23 = - - - = 7.5ohms

o.1334

R 23 = R 1 + R 23
= 10 + 7.5 = 17 .5ohms
20
V
1 1 = - - = - - = 1.143 amps
17.5
R 23
1 2 =1-1 1

=1.5-1.143 =0.357amps

R =

~=
12

20
0.357

= 56 ohms

Examplell
A 11 OV 60W lamp is connected in series with another lamp rated 11 OV, 1OOW across 220V mains.
Calculate the value of resistance to be shunted across the first lamp so that both lamp take their rated
power.
Given: Lamp 1 (L 1): P 1 = 60 W; V 1 = 110V
Lamp 2 (L,): P 2 = 100 W; V 2 = 110V
V=220volts
Find : The value of shunting resistance across the first lamp (R 1)

"

57

i,

60W L1

1COW L,

1,

00

00
lsh Rsh

L..r--~R
110 V
(V,).

.,

110 V

(V,)

220 Volts (V )

'

Fig.
Solution:
100
110

I,

P1

v,
=

R:.h

60

= 0.909 amps
= 0.545 amps

110

0.909

0.5454 = 0.3636 amps

110
= 1 =-- = 302.5 obrns
sh

0.3636

Examplel2
Two resistors of l 000 ohm and 4000 ohm are connected in series across a constant voltage
supply of250v. Fnd the p.d. across each. If a voltmeter of 12000 ohm resistance is connected across
the larger resistors, what is the reading on the meter.

R,=4000l

R,=1000l

R,;::40UOO

G 12000~

.---j

250 Volts

250 Volts

(ii)

'1

( 1,

fl'ig.
Given:
Find: i)a)V,

b)V,

ii) Voltmeter reading (V2)

58

Solution: i) ~ R, + R,

= 1000 + 4000 = 5000 ohms


1

250
= 0.05amps
5000

R,

V,= I x R 1 =0.05 x 1000 =50 vo!ts


V,= 1x R, = 0.05 x 4000 = 200 volts
ii)

R,v

R,

Rv

~=-+-

1
~----j-~----

4000

12000

2.5XI0- 4 + 8.333Xl o'

~1~ = 3.3333%10"'
R,v

1
R , = = 3000ohms
"
3.3333X1 o- 4

Ry

=R, + R,v
=

1000+ 3000
4000ohms

V
R,.

250
4000

= 0.0625amps

V2
=

0.0625 x 3000 = 187.5 volts

Example13
Detennine the currents in different branches ofthe circuit sho\vn in Fig.

Find: Currents in the different branches ofthe circuit (1 1, I,, I, 1)


Solution: C1osedloopABEFA
31 1 + 20(! 1 + 12)

100 =O

3L + 201, + 20!, = 100


23!, + 20!, = l 00
59

C1osed loop CBEDC


110 =o

20(1, + 1,)

4!2

4!2 + 20I, + 2011

110

2012 + 2412

110

[L

100V

u20[l
-------'~----~r~'

110V

30

l\

1, 8

40

l!+l~

r TI

<OOV

1,

20fl

L_
E

l_110V

'J
D

Fig.

23 201
[ 20

24~

=i 20

~1

~2 =

!,
-

l!J -

23 20

[2

/1:

24

[lOOJ
110

(23X24)-(20X20)=152

100 20
l1 O 1 = (1 OOX24) -{20Xll O)= 200
24

23 100
ll O =(23Xl 00) (1 OOX20)
20

L\ =
~

= ~~
~

200
= 1.315A
152

530

132

= 3.486A
60

530

Current through 20 Q resistor = I 1 - I, = 1.3 15 + 3.486 = 4. 801 A


CmTentthrough 3W resistor (AB) (I,) = 1.3 14A
Currentthrough 4W resstor (CB) (12) = 3.486A
Currentthrough 20W resistor (BE) (1 1+ 12)

'

4.801 A

Examplel4
Using Kirchoff's laws, detemne the cmTents in the unbalanced bridge circuit shown in Fig.
B

1Q

2V

Fig.
Find : Currents in the unbalanced bridge circuit
Solution: Closed loopABDA

1
I, + 12
D

2V

lQ
Fig.

Assume drection

r, + sr, - 4I, = o
11 4T" +513 = 0

61

Closed loop BCDB Fig.


8

2(1 1-I3) - 3 (I2 + I)SI J = O


l

=O
Closed loop ABCA Fig.
11 + 2(1 1 13) + (1 1 + 12)

=O

11 + 21 1 - 213 + 11 + 12

-"J
....
.::...

41 1 + 12 21 3

=2

]-4 5] rl,l = [o"oJ


[
_IJ
2 -3 -1 O
4 1 -2

I2

1 -4 5

"' = 2

3 10 = 1(6+10)+4(-4+40)+5(2+12)
1 -2

= 16 + 144 + 70=230

o -4
o -3

Li., =

5
-10
1 -2

= O( 6 + 1O) + 4 ( O + 20 ) + 5 (O + 6)
~80+30=110

1 o 5
2 o -10
4 2 -2

Li.,

1 -4

Ll.J

2
4

11

-.)

= 1( 6+0)+ 4( 4+0)+0(2+ 12)=- 6+ 16=10

llO = 0.4782 A
Ll.

230
40
1, = L\. 1 =
\
230
!3 =

o
o

= 1(0+20)+0(-4+40)+5( 4+0) = 20 +20 = 40

L\~

/
D.

1o

= ,~

~-'

= 0.174 A
= 0.43 A

62

Curren! through 1Q resistor (AB) ! 1

0.4782A

Current through 2 Q resistor (BC) (1 1 - ! 3)

0.4782 -0.043
0.4352 A
0.174 + 0.043

Curren! through 3Q resistor (CD) (!2 + 13)

0.217A
Current through 4 Qresistor (DA)(!,)
Curren! through the battery (I, + ! 2 )

O.l74A
=

0.4782 +o. 174


0.6522A

Example 15
1. Detenninethe cuiTents in different branches oflhe circuit as shown in fig.

!ocv:::-

LJ
r
Fig.

To find: Find the currents in the different branches ofthe circuit (I, I,, 11 + 12)

Solution
Closed loop ABEFA

31, + 20 (1 1 "- I,)- 100= O


31, + 201, + 201,

100

3I. + 20I,

100
63

Closed loop CBEDC


41 2 + 20 (L + ! 2) --110= O

+ 201,

41, -;- 201,

110

201, + 241,

t- =

23

20

20

24

. 23
1

20

201
24

110

=
= (23X 24) -

i 100

ltl o i
(20 X 20)

=552-400= 152

t-,

"" = 152

- l=

100 ~o'
(lOO X 24)- (110 X 20)
llO 24
- 2400 2200 = 200
"" 1 =200

t-2

23 100:
ll O 1
20

= (23 X

11 O) - (20 X 100)

2530-200

530

= 530
I,

=~

""

200
!52

= 1.315 Amps

! 1 + I, = 1.315 + 3.486 = 4.801Amps


Current through 3n Resistor (1 1)

1.315 Amps

Current through 4Q Resistor (I,) = 3.486 Amps


Currentthrough20n Resistor (1 1 + 1:)=4.801 Amps

64

Example16
Using Kirchoffs Jaw detemrine the currents in the tmbalanced bridge circuit shown in Fig.
~

'2-.!1--

5.-1
(.).,;,'i~)

[
\ .r_

:2-V

Fig.
To Find : Detemrine the current in the unbalaneed bridge circuit.

Solution
Closed loop ABDA

r, + si,-

41, =

L - 4L + 5L
l

.:.

=O---~

--1

'

Closed loop BCDB

2(1 1 - 1)- 3 (12 + I)- 51,= O


21,- 213 312 - 313 - 5I1 =O

2I.- 31, -IOL


,

,'!

O--- -----2

Closed loop ABCA

1, + 2(1, - 1) + (1, + r,) - 2

11 + 21, - 21, + r, +

r,

41 1 + I, - 213 = 2 ---

65

1 -4

2 -3
4 1

I,

~-2

I,

5
-3 -10
4

Ll.=

o
o

J,

-10 +4

-2

12

-101
12-3
+ 5.
4 1
' 4 -21
1

'

1 (6+ 10)-'-4(-4+40)+5 (2+ 12)

=16+144+70
=230

1
Ll., =

o -4
o ~- 3

: 2

5 '
-10 1 =

-2

'

101

3
1

:o -Jol

+4 '
2 :
12

-2

=0(6+ 10)"74(0+20)+5(0

=o

+5
1

o
2

6)

+ 80 + 30

= 110
1
2

o 5
o -10

4 2

-JO
-2

~2

1 (O+ 20)- O (-4 + 40)

5 (4 +O)

20 +O+ 20 =40
1 -4

t..,

2 -3
4

o
o

'

=1 1

11

110
= .A,
._ = ~
A

230

40
230

10
230

0.478Amps

= 0.174

+4

12
' 4

o1
2

o:

1 (-6 +O)+ 4 (4 -e O)+ O ( 2 + 12)

=-6+16+0

Amps

0.043Amps

66

10

Currentthrough 1 QResistor(AB) 1, =0.478Amps


Cunent through 2 Q Resistor (BC) (I 1 13) = 0.478 0.043 = 0.435 Amps
Cunentthrough 3 Q Resistor(CD)(I2 + I,) = 0.174 + 0.043 = 0.217 Amps
Current through 4 Q Resistor(DA) (I2)

O. 174Amps

Currentthrough the battery(I, + I2)

0.478 + 0.174
0.652Amps

67

Questions
Part-A
l.

Choose the Correct Answer

1)

The Unit ofResstance is


a) Joule

2)

d)Watts

b) Wattmeter

c)Ohmmeter

d) None ofthese.

The EME nduced in a conductors measured n,


a) Ohm

4)

c)Ampere

The value ofResistance measured by,

a) Voltmeter
3)

b) Ohm

b) Watts

e) Volt

d) ampere.

b) 10 60

e) 10 20

d) !OQ

b) Volt

e) watts

d)Hertz

b) Three path

c)Onepath

d) none ofthese.

c)V/I

d) VI

One Kilo ohm is equal to

a) 103Q
5) The unit of power is,
a) Farad
6) ln series circut has,
a) two path

7) According to ohm 's law R s equal to,


a)V2/R

b)FR

Part-B
II. Answer the following questions in one word
l)

Wbat is the unt of current?

2)

\VhatistheuntofEMF?

3)

\Vhat s the unit ofResistance?

4)

Wbat s the unitofCapacitor?

5)

Which letter used for specific Resistance?

6)

Jfyou add more resistanee in series Vvill the current increase?

7)

All the appliance connected in your home are in series ( or) in parallel?

8)

How many laws are these in Krichoff's law?

68

Part- C

111. Answer the following questions in briefly


1)

What is Voltage?

2)

What is Resistance?

3)

State the ohm's law.

4)

Vihatisopencircuit?

5)

How you can calculate the power consumed in circuit?

6)

The supplyvoltage ofthe circuit240 volts and the resistance value s 600 calculate the cmTent
flowing throug the circuit~

7)

Power ofheating element 1000 watts, the voltage applied is 240 volt, calculate the cu!Tent?

8)

20, 60, 80 resistors are connected in series calculate the total resistance?
Part-D

IV. Answer the following questions in one page leve!


1)

Explain theKrichoff's Lawwithneatdiagram?

2)

Write the condition of series circuit?

3)

Write the condition of parellel Circuit?

4)

301 6nt 120 Resistors are connected in parallel supplyvoltage in 240 vol!, calculate the total
resistance and cU!TCnt?
Part-E

V.

Answer the following questions in two page leve!

1.

Calculate the CU!Tent in each resistantusing Krichoff's law.

10

12

. 20

T
J::
69

2.

Calculate the cmrent flow through each resistance of abo ve wheat stone bridge circuit.

'-------tll-1--~
:;;.v
3) The following electrical appliances are working in a faetory,
a) 100 Walts, powerof40 lamps each working 8 hours inaday,
b) J500 watts heater working 6 hours per day
e) 85% efticency of 3 HP motor working 5 hours per day.
The charge ofone units 4.00 calculate the electric bll for 30 days?

70

4. ELECTRO MAGNETISM
4.1. INTRODUCION

Magnetism plays an importan! role in electricity. Electrical appliances like Generator, Motor,
Measuring instruments and Transformer are based on the electromagnetic principie and al so the importsnt
components ofTelevison, Radio and Aeroplane are working on the same principie.

4.1.1. Magnetic Material


Magnetic materials are classified based on the property called penneability as
l. Da Magnetic Materials
2. Para Magnetic Naterials
3. Ferro Magnetic Materials

1. Dia Magnetic Materials


The materials whose permeability s belowtmity are called Da magnetic materials. They are repled
bymagnet
Ex. Lead, gold, copper, glass, mercnry
2. Para Magnetic Materials

The materials v,ith penneability above unity are called paramagnetic materials. The orce of attraetion
by a magnet towards these materials s low.
Ex.: Copper Sulphate, Oxygen, Platinum,Alurnnum.

3. Ferro Maguetic Materials


The materials vvith penneability thousands oftimes more than that of paramagnetic mateJials are
called feuo magnetic materials. Thcy are very much attracted bythe magnet.
Ex. Iron, Cobalt, Nckel.
4.2. PERMANENT :\1AGNET

Pennanent magnet means, the magnetc materals whch will retan the magnetc property al all
times pennanently. This type ofmagnets are manufactnred by alumnium, nckel, ron, cobalt steel
(ALKICO).
To make a pennanent magnet acoil s wound over a magnetic material and DC supply is passed
through the coil.
4.2.1. Electro Magnet

Insulated wire wound on a bobbin in many tnms and Jayers in which enrrent is flowing anda soft
iron pece placed in the bobbn is called electromagnet.
71

Supply
Fig. 4.2.1.
This is used in a!l electrical machines, transfonners, electric bells. It is also used in a machine used
by doctors to pull out iron filing from eyes, etc.

4.3. MAGNETIC EF:FECT BY EI"ECTRIC CURRE1'<1

. -.........

l .,....... \

. t.,.... \

. . . . _,

~\

\,._ .,.~'

. _....../

;;--Jo:..

11

Fig.4.3.
If cunent passes through a conductor magnetic field is set up around the conductor. The quantity
ofthe magnetic field is proportion to the cunent.
The direction ofthe magnetic field s fotmd by right haud rule or max well 's corkscrew rule.
4.4. RIGHT HANDRULE

J<'ig. 4.4

72

This m! e is used to know the direction of magnetic field when the current passes through the
conductor.
According to this rule
Flemings righthand rule states that, ifwe spread out thumb tore finger a:nd middle tinger mutually
at right angles to each others and the thurnb points to the directions of motio:n ofthe conductor and the
forfinger points the direction of magnetio flux, then the middle finger gives the direction ofinduced
EMF.
4.5. MAXWELLS CORK SCREW RULE

Fig. 4.5.

1bis rule also used to know the direction of magnetic field when a current pass es through a conductor.
According to this rule arighthanded screwis held with the axis ofthe conductor to advance in the
direction ofcurrent when screwed. Then the rotating direction ofthe head ofthe screw indicates the
direction ofmagnetic field.
4.6. PERMEABILITY

The perrneability of a magnetic material is defined as the ratio of flux created in that maerial to the
flux created in air, provided thatmmf and dimensions ofthe magnetic circuitremain the same. Irs
smbol is .t and
.t =

B/.F!

where B is the flux density


H is the magnetisiug force
Being a ratio it has no unit and it is expressed as a mere nurnber. The perrneability of air .t air =
unity. The relativo perrneability .tr ofiron and steel ranges from 50 to 2000. The perrneability of a given
material vares with its flux densty.
4.6.1. Magnetic Field

The space around a magnet in which the intluence of the magnet can be detected is called the
magnetic field.
4.6.2. Magnetic Lines

Magnetic lines of force (flux) are assumed to be continous loops, the flux lines continuing on
through the magne. They do not stop at the poies.
73

4.6.3. Magnetic Flux

The magnetic flux in a magnetic circuit is equal to the total number oflines existing on the crosssection ofthe magnetic core at rigbt angle to the direction ofthe flux. Its symbol is <jl and the SI unit is
weber.

where
<jl

-total flux

]\;

- number oftorns

- cunent in amperes

- reluctance

~lo

- penneability of free space

ll,

- relative pem1eabilty

- magnetic path cross-sectional arca in m2

-lengh of magnetic path in metres

4.6.4. Magnetic field strengh

Tbis is al so known sometimes as field intensity, magnetic intensity or magnetic field, and is represented
by the letter H. Its unit is ampere turns per metre.
MMF
H=------Length of coi! in metres

NI

4.6.5. F'lux density

The total number oflines offorce per square metre ofthe cross-sectional area ofthe magnetic
core is called lux density, and is represented bythe symbol B. Its SI unit (in the MKS system) is tes la
(weber per metre square ).

B = _!_ Weber 1 m2
A

where <jl total flux in webers


A- arca ofthe core in square metres
B -flux density in weber/metre square.

74

4.6.6. Magneto -Motive Force

The amount of flux density set up in the core is dependent upon five factors the curren!, number
of tums, material of the magnetic core, length of core and the cross-sectional arca of the core. More
curren! and the more turns of wire we use, the greater will be the magnetising effect. We cal! this
product ofthe turns and current the magneto motive force (mmf), similar lo the electro motive torce
(emf).
MMF =NI ampere - tums
where mrnf- is the magnetomotive force in ampere tums
N - is the number of turns wrapped on the core

I- is the current in the coi!, in amperes, A.

4.6.7. Magnetic Reluctance

In the magnetic circut there is something analogous to electrical resistance, and is called reluctance,
(syrnbol S). Thetotal flux is inverselyproportional to thereluctanceand so ifwe denote mrnfby ampere
tums. we can write
NI
_. where <j is ilux, and relutance S
S

_ __

where S- reluctance
I -length ofthe magnetic path in metres
~t 0

permeablity of free space

~t,- relative penneablity

a- cross-sectional arca ofthc magnetic path in sq.mm.


Its unit ofreluctancc is amperc turns/Wb.
4.7. Comparson between magnetic and Electic circuit
S.No.

Electric Circuit

Magnetic Circuit

l.

Electro motive torce in volt (unit)

Magnetcmotive force inampere tums (unit)

2.

Curren! in ampere (I)

Flux in wcbers (<j)

pi/a

Resistance

4.

Conduetivity =

Reluctance inAt/wb
Pemmbility =

Conductance =

Reluctivity

Resistivity

5.

S = 1/au

Pemeancc

Rcluctance

Resistance
75

6.

Currenti =

EMF

Flux

MMF
Reluctance

Resistance
7.

Resistivty

Reluctivity

8.

Curren! density

FltLX density

4.8.1. Residual Magnetism

It is the magnetism which remains in a material when the effective rnagnetizng torce has been
reduced to zero.
4.8.2. Magnetic Saturation

The limit beyond which the strength of amagnet cannot be increased is called magnetic saturation.
4.9. SOLENOID

Fig. 4.9.

Ahelically wound coi! that is made to produce a strongmagnetic feld is called a solenoid. The flttx
lines in a solenoid act in the sarne way as in a magnet. They leave the ~orth pole to go around ro the
south poi e when a solenoid attracts an iron bar. It will draw the bar inside the coi!.
4.9.1. END RULE

According to this mle the curren! direction when looked from one end ofthe coi! is in clock wise
direction then that end is south poie. Ifthe curren! direction is in anti dock wise direction then that end
is north pole.
4.9.2. Force between two parallel conductor
Current in the same direetion

Fig. 4.9.2.

76

Iftwo conductors are placed parallel to each other and they cany cunent in the same direction,
then the magnetic field setup by the conductors oppose each other. So the field strength between the
conductor decreases. Hence the conductors attract each other when the cunent is the same direction
through both the conductors.
Current Opposite direction

~i~i~i..,_,..,..
~~F=;!#2~~~
Fig. 4.9.2.a.

Iftwo conductors are placed parallel to each other and the current in the ccnductors are in opposite
directions then the magnetic field setop by the conductors repel each other. So, the field strength between
the conductor is increased. Hence the conductors repel each other when the cunent is in oppositve
direetions.
4.10. ELECTRO MAGNETIC INDUCTION

Electro magnetic induction means the electricity induced by the magnetic field
4.10.1. Faraday's Laws of Electro Magnetic lnduction

There are two laws ofFaraday's Iaws of electro magnetic induction. They are,
1) FirstLaw

2) Second Law

FirstLaw

\Vhenever a conductor cuts the magnetic fhL'X lines an emf is induced in the conductor.
SecondLaw

The magnitode ofthe inducedemfis equal to the rate of change offlux-linkages.


4.10.2. Indueed Electro Motive force

Induced electro motive forces are of two types. They are,


i) Dynamically induced emf.

ii) Statically induced emf


Dynamieally indueed EMF

Dynamically induced emfmeans ru'1 emfnduced in a conductor when the conductor moves across
a magnetic field. The figure shows when a conductor' A' with the length 'L' moves across a' B' wb/m2 .
77

Flux density with 'V' velocity, then the dynamically induced emf is induced in the conductor. This
induced emfs utilised in the generator.
The quantity ofthe emf can be calculated usng the cquation
emf = Blv Volt

A,._.,...... V

Fig. 4.10.2.
4.10.3. FLK\fiNG'S RIGHT HAND RCLE
This rule is used to find out the direction of dynamically induced emf.
According to the rule hold out the right hand with the lndex fmgermiddle finger and thumb at the
right angels to each others.
Ifthe index finger represents the direction ofthe lines of flux, the thumb point~ in the direction of
motion then middle finger points in the dnection ofnduced cutrent

f Directionofmotion
of conductor

Direction of
Field

---

Drection of
inducedEMF

Fig. 4.10.3.
78

4.ll.STATICALLYINDUCEDEMF

Statically Induced emf is of two types. They are


l.

Selfinduced emf.

2.

Mutuallyinducedemf

4.11.1. SELF INDUCTION

Selfinduction is that phenomenan where by a change in the curren! in a conductor induces an emf
in the conductor itself. i.e. when a conductor is given curren!, flux vvill be produced, and if the current is
changed the flux al so changes, as per Faraday's law when there is a change of flux, an emf will be
induced. This is called selfinduction. The induced emf vvll be always opposite in direction to the
applied emf. The opposng emfthus produced is called the counter emf of selfinduction.

-----,------__

'\~

'

......

.__

Coil

'

,."'";-

,....-~ ,."'
..,.._..,.,...,.

"

Rheostat
Supply

Fig. 4.11.1.

Uses ofSelf induction


1.

In the fluorescent tubes for starting purpose and to reduce the voltage.

2.

In regulators, to give reduced voltage to the fans.

3.

In lightning arrester.

4.

In auto- transformers.

5.

In smooth choke which is used in welding plant

6.

In rectifiers to keep are stationary.

4.11.2. Mutual Induction

It is the electromagnetic induction produced by one circuit in the near by second circuits dueto the
variable flux ofthe frrst circuit cutting the conductor ofthc second circut, that means when two coils or
circuts are kept near to each other and if current is given to one circuit and it is changed, the flux
produced dueto that current which is linking both the cols or circuits cuts hoth the coils, an emf v.-1ll be
79

produced in both the circuits. The production of emfin second coi! is dueto the variaton of cunent in
frrst coi! known as mutual induction.
. ~ Iron Core

Dry
ce!!
Voltmeter

Fig. 4.11.2.

Uses:
l. It is used in ignition coil which is used in motor car.

2. lt is al so used in inductance fumace.


3. Itis used fortheprincple oftransformer
4.11.3. Len's Law

When an emf is induced in a crcuit electromagnetically the cunent set up always opposes the
motion or change in cmrent which produces it.
Eddy current

When the armatme with eonduetors rotales in the magnetic field and cuts the magnetc lines. an
emfwill be induced in the conductors. As the armature is made of a metal and metal beng a conductor.
emf will be induced in that metal al so and circulate the curren! called eddy curren!. These curren!
produces some effects which can be utili?..ed.
TI1is current are also called as Focault cunent.
Methods ofMinimisiog Eddy Current

Eddy cunen! always tends to flow at the right anglos to the direction ofthe flux. ifthe resistance of
the path is increased by laminating the cores. The power loss can be reduced because the eddy cunent
loss varios as the square ofthe thickness ofthe lamnatons.
4.12. MAGNETJC HYSTERESIS

It may be defined as the lagging of magnetisation or Induction flux density (B) behind the
magnetising force (H). It may also be defined as a quality ofamagnetic substance dueto which energy
is dsspated in t on the reversa! ofits ma.,onetsm.

80

B
A

Variable Resistance
H

Switch

Battety

Fig. 4.12.
Hysteresis Loop

Let us take a:n u:nmagnetised bar ofironAB and magnetise in by placing it within the magnetising
field of a solenoid (H). The Feld can be increased or decreased by increasing or decreasing current
through it. Let 'H' be increased in step from zero up toa ce1tin maximum value a:nd the corresponding
ofinduction flux density (B) is noted. Ifwe plottherelation between Hand B, a curve like OA, as
shovm in fig, is obtained. The material becomes magnetically saturated at H = OM a:nd has, at that time,
a maximum flux density, established through it.
IfH s now decreased gradually (by decreasng solenoid current) flu.x density B wll not decrease
alongAO (as might be expected) but will decrease less rapidly alongAC. Vv'hen it is Zero B s not zero,
but has a definte value= OC. It means that on removingthe magnetising force H, the iron bar s not
completely demagnetised. This value ofB (=OC) is called the residual 1ux densty.
To demagnetise the ron bar we haveto apply the magnetsng force H in tle reverse drection.
When H is reversed by reversing current through the solenoid, then B s reduced to Zero at pontD
where H = OD. This value ofH required to vpe off residual magnetism is kno"Wn as coercive f(Jrce a:nd
is a measure ofthe coercivity ofmaterals i.e. its 'tenacity' with which it holds on to its magnetsm.
Afterthe magnetisation has been reduced to zero value ofH is further increased in the negatve i.e.
reverse directon, the iron bar again reaches a state ofmagnetic saturation represented by point E. By
taking H back from its valueconespondingto negative saturation (=OL) to its value forpositive saturation
(=OM), a similar cnrve EFGA is obtaned. Ifwe again start from G, the same curve GACDEFG is
obtained once again.
It is seen that B always lags behindH the two never attain zero value smultaneously. Ths lagging
ofB, behind H is given the narne Hysteress' which literally mea:ns 'to lag behind.' The closed loop
ACDEFGA, which is obtained when iron bar s taken through one complete cycle ofrevesal of
magnetisation is known as Hysteresis loop.
81

Energy stored in a magnetic field

For establishing amagnetc ileld, energy mus! be spent, though to energy is required to maintan t.
Take the example ofthe exciting cols of an electromagnet. The energy supplied to t is spent in tvm
ways, (1) Part ofit goes to meet PR Joss and s los! once foral! (ii) part ofit goes to create flux and is
stored in the magnetic field as potental energy, and is similar to the potental energy ofa raised weight,
when a mass Mis raised through a height ofH, the potential energy stored in it is mgh. Work is done in
raising this mass, but once ra sed to acertain heght. No further expenditure of energy is required to
maintaiu it at that position. This mechaaical potential energy can be recovered so can be electric energy
stored in a magnetic fiel d.
\Vhen curren! through an inductive coi! is gradual!y changed from Zero to a maximu, value then
every change of its is opposed by the self-induced emf produced dueto this change. Energy is needed
to over come this opposition. This energy is stored in the magnetic field of the coi! and is, later on,
recovered when those field collapse.

Questions
PartA
I.

Choose the CorrectAnswer

1)

Ferro magnetic substanceare


a) Good nsulator
e) the same as that of diamagnetc material

2)

Unitofflux is
a)Ampere

3)

b) Webber

e) Watts

d) None ofthese

Para magnetic substance are:


a) Weakly attracted by a magnet
e) Weakly repelled by a magnet

4)

b) good conductor
d) Strongly attracted by a magnet.

b) The san1e as that of da magnetic metera!.


d) Produced by heating iron above the enrie point.

The mmf can be compared wth


a) the force of attraction between two magnetic force
b) the force ofRepulsion between two magnetc force
e) the force of earth magnetie field.
d) the electro magnetic force.

5)

The reluctance can be compared with


a) Conductance

6)

b) Inductance

e) Resistancc

d) capacilance

The magnetic flux can be compared with


a) Electro static flux

b) Electric curren! e) Magnetic curren!

d) Magneto motive force.

7) A solenoid is defined asan electromagnet,


b) having more axiallength than diameter
d) ha-ving more resistanee.

a) having only one tum


e) Less axiallength than diameter
82

Part-B
11. Answer the following questions in one word
l)

What are the types of magnet?

2)

Howmanypolesarethernamagnet?

3)

\Vhat s the unit of magnetic flux?

4)

What is the unt ofReluctanee?

5)

If the drection of curren! in the two conductors is san1e which !orce they will experience?

6)

If the direction of curren! in the two conductcr is in opposite direction which type of force is
resulted?

7)

What is B denotes in Electro magnetism?

Part-e
111. Answer the following questions in briefly

1)

What are the kinds o f magnetic meterais?

2)

DefineFlemingsrighthandmle?

3)

Define lenz's Lav/?

4)

DefineFaradaysLaw?

5)

Definemaxwell cork's screwrule?

6)

\Vhat is magnetic repulsion?

Part-O
IV. Answer the following questions in one page leve)
1)

Explammagneticmaterials?

2)

Compare electrical circuit and magnetic crcuit?

3)

Explain- Solenoid with neat sketch.

Part-E
V.

Answer the following questions in two page leve)

1)

Explam magnetic Hysteresis?

2)

Explam thetype ofElectromagnetic induction with neat diagrarn?

83

5. ELECTRICAL EFFECTS
5.l.INTRODUCION
Electricityis used in different ways for different purpose. Dependng upon the usage, elecuicity is
transformed into different energy. For example.
i).

Electric energy is converted into light energy. Eg. Electriclamps, Tube light.

ii).

Electric energy is converted nto sound energy. Eg. Electric bell, Buzzer

iii)

Electric energy is converted nto heat energy. Eg. Heater, !ron box.

iv) Electric energy s converted into Electromagnetic energy. Eg. Electm magnetc circuit breaker,
Telegraphic machine.
v).

Electric energy is converted into Electro chemical energy. Eg. Electroplating & Battery Chargng.

vi)

Because ofElectromagnetic induction principie, it is used in Induction motors and transfom1ers.

5.2. Electrical energy is converted into light energy,

Ex:- IncandescentLamp, Tube light.


5.2.1. Incandescent lamp

The filament ofthis lamp is heated up to the incandescent stage ofheat. So this type oflamps
are called Incandescent lamp. They are two types,

l. Vacuumlamp
2. Gas filled lamp
Fie:. 5.2.1.
----('on:act points
_._Backlitemoulding
--Metal tenninal

Glass rod

84

In this type oflamp the sphere shaped glass cover is used. The glass stem is fixed in the centre of
lamp. In ths stem support \vires are fixed for holdingthe filament. T11e top of the lamp is sealed and pins
are fixed for fixing the lamp in the holder.
Vacuumlamp

In this lamp the air is evacuated to protect the filament fi:om burning by oxygen mixed in the air
when heated dueto the curren! that passes through the high resistance filament. The moving electro
ereates fi:ietion. So the heat is generated in the filament when the heat rises up to the incandescent stage,
the ligltt is emitted from the filament. The emitted light is reflected by sphere shape glass cover.
Gas filed lamp
In the evacuated lamp, the filamentevaporats and deposit on inside ofthe glass cover afterlong
use and make black shade on the glass cover. To rectity this disadvantage, inert gasses are filled in this
lamp. Presence ofinert gas causes heat loss to compensate the heat loss, the filament is made as coiled
coil, Increase in length of the filamentleads to the increase in power.

5.2.2. Tu be light

Fig. 5.2.2.
Starter
r-------'1--'(i'a

-l~

~~~@~--------------sp~~.K

Supply

~~p
Choke

Svv1tch

In this type a long glass is used. Inside the glass tube the fluorescent paste is coated. The two end
ofthe gla~s tu be is covered and low pressure nert gas and mercury are filled in this tube. The electron
emitting filaments are fixed at both the ends, one end of each filament is connected though a choke to
the supply. In this choke there is a coi! wound over the core. There is a starter connected between the
two ends ofthe filament. In this starter asmall glass bulb is fixed, in this bulb inertgas is filled anda bimetallic strip is fixed.

Working Principie
This lamp functions based on the principie of cuuent passing through a Air medium. The Air
medium the resistance falls dovvn heavily. When this curren! passes to the lamp the circuit is el osed
through choke, filament, and starter. So the 230V supply voltage is applied between the starter tem1l1als
Dueto this voltage, cnrrent starts flowing through the inert ga> in the starter. Now, the bimetallic strip
rised touch each other as the temprature ofinert gas has increased. Once the circuit is complete through
the bllletallic strip and the filaments in the tube light the bulb will be glowng.
The inert gas in the starter cools clown and the bimetallic strip open agan. Therefore the cunen!

85

through the choke decreases and hence the magnetic flux. The decreasing (or altemating) flux is cut by
the choeke winding which causes selfinduced emfin the choke coi!.
The induced emf is near about 1200V: This voltage is applied betweeeo the filament of the tu be
light causing electron flow between the filaments and through the inert gas ofthe tube light. The electron
collition in to the inert gas produces the ultra violet rays. These rays impinge on the phospher coating.
and lighis emitted bythe coating.
Afterthe light started 11 OV is enough for the light, the balance 120V voltage ofthe supply voltage
is dropped across the choke.
5.3. ELECTRICAL ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO SO'L'ND ENERGY

Ex. Electric bell, Buzzer


5.3.1. Electric Bell

,,

}'ig. 5.3.1.

Electrical bell consists ofhorse shoe type eleetromagnet. Tbe two coils wouod on it in such a way
asto produce opposite polarity. Soft iron piece called armature completes the magnetic circuit between
two ends of shoe eleetromagnet. This rumature is canied on a tlat steel spring fixed at one end and free
to move through a small dista:nce at the other end. At the free end spring carries a movable contact. Ths
movable co:ntact :normallytouches the fixed contact which can be adjusted by means of contact screw.
When push button is pressed, current flows through the electromagnet which gets energized. This
attracts armature to which is attached to hammer. Ibis makes hanuoer to hit against gong giving sound.
Attraction of armature breaks the circuit at contaet points and electromagnet gets de-energized. This
brings back armature to ts original closed circuit position under the actioo of spring. The sequence of
events repeats ru1d we get interrupted sound ofbell.
5.3.2. Buzzer

Bw.z.er in principie is a bell without hanuoer and gong. Vibration of armature gives out dull noise
instead ofharsh annoying noise of gong incase of electric bell.

86

5.4. ELECTRICALENERGYIS CONVERTED INTO ELECTROMAGNET ENERGY.

Ex : Electrcal energy is converted into Magnetic circuit breaker, telegraphic machine.


5.4.1. Magnetic Circuit Breaker

p
e

1 .1-ot--- A
r

,.,._.. '
~V . .

~]

L---__....ljl[ .Banery
Fig. 5.4.1.

Electric supply is given to the apparatus D from the battery. The conductor A always ton ches
temnal P with the help of spring. The electromagnet E attracts conductor A, if the current 1ow is
beyond specified Iimit. The apparatus isolated from electric supply dueto terminal P. Ifcurrent through
electromagnet is reduced, attracton also reduces. The conductor A retain its place and operate the
apparatus.
5.4.2. TELEGRAPHIC MACHI~E

Morsekey

Fig. 5.4.2.

The American scientist Morse found Telegraphc machlne. Which is used to send the message
from one place to another. The machine part sends the messageis 'Morse Key' and the machine part
receives tbe message is '.Morse Sounder'.
The battery circuit el oses tbrough m01se key K and electromagnet M. The lever is placed on the
electromagnet. The levertouches nail Y dueto spring, the electromagnet Iever whenever the morse key
pressed. The lever make a sound on touching nail Y Vv'henevertbe morse key is not pressed, snce the
morse key and more sounder are indiffcrent place, one end ofthe machinc is earthed. Earth acts as a
conductor, we will make a sound in the more sounder on pressing and relea~ing morse key. Messages
passes tbrough this sound.

87

5.5. ELECTRICAL ENERGYIS COl\'VERTED INTO HEARTENERGY

Ex. Heaters, ironbox


5.5.1. ELECTRIC HEATERS

----Scale
t----Tube
- - - Heating Element

Fig. 5.5.1.

Tiris type ofheater is immersed in water. It is cheap and portable. It is made of a chromed iron or
brass pipe in which a heating element is plaee<i Around the element there is an insulaton so that it may
not touch the pipe. Full rod has to be replaced when found defective.
5.5.2. Electric Iron box

In hon Box electric is converted into heat energy. The metal casing at the bottom of the iron box
gets heated and used for ironing.
Sole Plate

A soft Iron plate at the bottom gets heated and it is used tor ironing clothes. Heating element is
fixed nside the box. It gets heat and transfers to the sole plate. The sole plate is not connected directly
to the electric power supply only the heat is transferred from the heating element.

The handle and otherparts are fixed with the plate by welding. The sole plate is finished by suface
grinding and chromium coating is applied over the plate for smoofboess.
Mica

The heating element is placed in between the mica sheets. Mica is an insulator and also it can
withstand high temperature. The asbestos sheet placed overthe upper. Mica sheet prevents heat transfer
to the upper portian ofthe iron box. So, it prevents passeage of currentto the handie and to the sol e
plate.
Heating Element

Heating element is an alloy with the mixer ofNickel and Chromium. It is fixed inside a mica sheet
and the two ends are ooveniently fixed for giving electric supply. The heating element offers high resistance
to the flow of current, hence gets heated to ahigh temprature. It is rolled into fewtums for better heating
results and long life.

88

Pressure plate
It is heavy iron plate placed overtheAsbestos Sheet to apply sufficient pressure on the clothes. It
is fixed fmn wth the sol e plate with the help of screws. This arrangements holderthe healthy element,
mica and asbestos sheet intact.
Cover plate
lt actas a cap which covers the bottom and all other parts inside the box. On top of the cover
plate, handle, thennostat adjustment knob, power socket are fixed. The handle s generally made up of
bakelite.
Handle

Handle is made up ofbakelite or ebonite because it offers high resistance to flow cwrent and t can
wthstand more heat. The indicator lamp and power socket are fixed in the handle.
~on-Automatic Iron Box

In ths type ofiron box the heating element transfers the heat to the sol e plate continously. Afterthe
sole plate gets the required heat,we haveto disconnectthe supply. Then the heat reduces on ts own.
Then again for the required heat we have to switch on the supply.
5.6. Electrical energy is converted into chemical energy
Ex : Electro Plating and Battery Changing
5.7. Electrical energy is couverted into Mechanical energy
Ex: Motor
5.7.1. DC Motor
DC Motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It operates only in DC supply. A DC
machine may be operated either as generator oras motor. DC motor working in F araday's law of
Electro magnetc induetion, DC motor ro tates the director ofmotion is given by flemng's left hand rule.

89

Questions
Part-A
I.

Choose the Correct Answer

1)

Electrieal Energy Converted by tube lamp s


a) Heat energy

2)

b) Sound energy

e) Chemical energy

b) Mechanical energy

e) heat energy

b) heat energy

d) light energy

e) Mechanical energy d) light energy.

The electric bell working with,


a) Permanent magnet b) Electro magnet e) Dia magnet

6)

d) Mechanical Energy

In Iron Box the Electrical energy is converted into

a) Sound energy

5)

d) None ofthese.

InElectric motor the Electrical Energy is convened nto,


a) Chemeal energy

4)

e) Sound energy

In battery the electrical energy is convcrted into

a) heat energy
3)

b) Light energy

d) none ofthese.

The heating element made of,


a) Niekrome

b) Cromium

e) l11ongston

d) Copper

7). Crcuit breaker is working as


a) Magnetic ener;,'Y

b) Chemical energy

e) Sound energy

Part-B
11. Answer the following questions in one word
1)

Give an example to convert electrical Energy to mechanical energy.

2)

Give an example to conve1t electrical Energy to chemical energy?

3)

Give an example to convert electrical energy to sound energy?

4)

Is the mica u sed as a Insulator?

5)

Vlhat is the stationary part of motor?

6)

The electro plating depends upon which effect?


Part-C

111. Answer the following questions in briefly


1)

What are the types ofincandecent lamp?

90

d) N one of these.

2)

What is buzzar?

3)

Write the parts of Iron Box?

4)

What are the t:ypes ofheating appliances 7

5)

\Vhat is incandecent larnp?

Part- D

IY. Answer the following questions in one page leve!


1)

Draw the neat sketch of incandecent larnp?

2)

Explain magnetc circuit breaker?

3)

F.xplain Electric heater with neat diagram'?

Part-E

V.

Answer the following questions in two page leve!

1)

Explain the workingprincple oftube larnp?

2)

Explain the working principie ofElectric Bell with neat diagram

91

6. CELLS AND BATTERY


6.1. INTRODUCTION

Commonly Generators produce electricity at hydroelectric power station. h1 thermal power station
the electrical power produced by heat energy, in atome power station by meaus of atomic energy, in
v,indmlls power station by means of v.~nd powerthe electricity is normal!y produced. Chemical energy
is trausterred as elect:tical energy in battery in small scale.
6.1.1. Cell

\Vhen chemical energy is transferred as electrical energy in batteries, the curren! tlows in outer
circuit from positive terminal to negativetenninal, the electrons from (-) negativeterminals to (+) positive
terminal in inner circuit. These Batteries are classified into two types.
l. Ptimary Cell

2. Secondary Cell
6.1.2. Primary Cell

In primary cell the chemical energy is transferred as electrical energy by chemical reaction. lt
finally reaches a state of discharge when it can no longer deliver current. It can 't be recharged again.
Such a cell generally has to be replaced.
Primary cells are classified as
l.Drycell
2. Wet cell (Example : Leclanche cell, Daniel cell)
6.1.3. Secondary Cell

h1 a secondary cell the chemical action taking place to produces electricitywhen discharging. This
process is reversed while charging. When the cell is discharging, the chemical energy is transterred as
electrical energy and taken out. Sending a current through the electrolytes can reverse !he condition of
the electrolyte. Thus the electrodes and the electrolyte are restored to the original condition. This
process is called 'charging.'
Secondary cells are al so called as 'Accnmlator' andas Storage celL
The secondary celis are dassified as
a) LeadAcid cell

b) Alkaline cell

92

6.1.4. Comparison between Primary cell and Secondary Cell


S.:S o.

Primary CeU

Secondary Cell

l.

These celis produce electrical

Eleetrical Energy is produced only when it

energy by themselves

is fully changed.

After discharging the cuJTent it

It can be charged and recharged again and

2.

cannot be recharged
In this chemical energy is converted into

Electrical energy is converted into chemical

elec1:tical energy

energy and again the aetion is reversed.

4.

Shortlife

Longlife

5.

Low power output

High power output

6.

Low efficiency

High efficiency

7.

Weghtless

Heavyweight

8.

Lowcost

costly

9.

Less maintena.nce

High Maintenance

3.

6.2. TYPESOFPRIMARYCELL
Types

There are two types in prmary celll. Wet cell2. Dry cell.
l. Wet cell:

Under Wet cell, there are few types. They are Volta cell, Daniel cell, Laclanche cell, Bchromate
cell and Bunsun cell.
6.2.1. Voltaic Cell

Fig. 6.2.1
~~-..

G1ass container

.-'>Diluted Sulphuric acid


(H,SOJ

93

Volta (1800) was the first to set up a cell which would give a continuous current. Hence it was
named (Volta cell) after hirn.

Construction
lt consists of a glass vessel with a copper anda zinc plate dipped into a dilute sulphuric acid
solution. On connecting the two electrodes extemally with piece ofwire, curren! flows from copper to
zinc outside the cell and from zinc to copper inside it. The copper electrode is positive pote or anode of
the cell and zinc is negative pole or cathode ofthe cell. The electrolyte is dilute sulphurc acid.

Working principie
The electrolyte is dilute sulphurc acid. As the plates are immersed in the acid due ro chemical
reaction hydrogen ions reaches copper and sulphate ions reaches zinc plate. So copper become anode
and zinc become cathode. If these rwo tenninals are connected by a conductor, curren! flows. This can
be seen by the defleetion of a galvanometer. EMF ofthe cell is 1V.
Defects

Local action and polrui?.ation are the trouble shooting in the volta cell.
Defects of a simple cell

With a simple voltaie cell, the strength of current gradual!y diminishes after sorne time.
-Local action
Polarsation

Local acton
In a simple voltaic cell, bubbles ofhydrogen are seen to evolve fi:om the zinc plate even on open

circuir. This effect is tenned local aetion. This is dueto the presence ofimpurties like carbon, iron, lead,
etc. n the conunercial zinc. This fonns small celis on the zinc plate and reduces the strength of current
ofthecell.
The local aetion is prevented by amalgamatingthe zinc plate with mercury. Todo so, the zinc plate is
immersed in dilute sulphurc acid for a short time, and aftewards, mercury is rubbed over its furfuce.

Polarisation
As curren! flows, bubbles ofH2 evolve the copper plate on which they gradual!y fonn a thin !ayer.
Dueto this the current strengh falls and finally stops altogether. This eftect is called the polarsation of
the cell.
Polarisation can be prevented by using some chemicals which will oxidize thc hydrogen to water
before it can accumulate on the plate. Thc chcmicals used to remove polarsation are called de-polarsers.

94

6.2.2. Daniel Cell

: ~/!' : _, ...,-.

l~i=--'i0~opper

Sulphate crysrals
Copper sulphate solution

:- ~ji' -' - --~

'

(;

--

Copper Container

.. .. -

,~

.,.,

"'

Fig. 6.2.2.
It is a modification ofthe simple cell with copper sulphate solution as depolarizer. Instead of
copper platea copper vessel which eontains the fluid of the cell is used, the vessel itself is being the
positive pole. The negative poie is anamalgamated zinc rod which stands in a porous pot inside the
copper vesseL Dilute sulphuric acid is placed in the porous pot
The copper sulphate solution contains cu~ and S04 ions. This positive ions which are driven on
to the copper plate are copper ions instead of hydrogen ions and no !ayer of hydrogen bubbles is
formed on the surface ofthe pi ate and polarization is prevented, when the cell is not in use the porous
pot and zinc should be removed and emptied. EMF produce is 1.1 V. Interna! resistan ce s 2 ohms.
These ce lis are used in laboratmy.

6.2.3. Leclanche cell

a- Ammonium Chloride
Solurion

~otl="=l-- Carbon rod t+l

:t;:'!f='-3-- Manganese di-oxide(+)


graphite

Fig. 6.2.3.
95

A Lec lanche cell consists of a carbon electrode (ano de) packed in a porous pot containing
manganeso dioxide and charcoal powder. The porous pot is immersed in a saturated solution of
ammonium chl01ide (electrolyte) contained in an outer glass vessel. A zinc rod (cathode) is immersed in
electrolytic solution.
At the cathode dueto oxidation reaction Zn tom is converted into Zn++ ions and 2 e!ectrons.
Zn++ ions reactingvvith ammonium chloride will produces zinc chloride and ammonia gas. Ammonia
gas escapes. The hydrogen ions diffusethrough the pores ofthe porous pot and react with manganeso
di oxide. In tls process the positivo charge ofhydrogen ion is transferred to carbon rod. When zinc rod
and carbon rodare connected extemally, current flows from carbon to zinc. The emf of cell is about
1.5V Intemal rcsistance is 5 ohms.
These type of cells me used in telephones, telegraphic equipments.
6.2.4. Dry cell
Mercury coated zinc rod

t- i

Carbon rod

"1--H-- Carbon powder ~ manga-

_-,

nese di~oxide

Thick eloth bag


Zinc chloride paste

Fig-6.2.4

The glass jar in a Lec! anche cell is replaced by a zinc container which itself acts as a negative
electrode. The anm1onium chloride solution is replaced by the moist paste made from a mixture of
plaster ofparis, ammonium chloride andzinc chloride called salammoniac paste. This funns the electroi}1e
ofthe cell. Zinc chloride s hygroscopic innature and helps to maintain the moistness ofthe paste. The
porous pot s replaced by a canvas wrapping. The carbon rod forms the positive electrode. Ths is
surrotmded by Mn02 and powdered carbon. The powdered Carbon reduced the interna! resstance
of the ce!!. The top of cell contains a !ayer of saw dust. This acts as the base for the top !ayer of
bitumens used for sealng purposes. A vent is provided in this !ayer to allow tbe gases formed in the
chemical reactions to escape. 'Ibe emfof cell is 1.5V. These type of cells are used in torch lights, radios,
wall clocks etc.
6.3. BATTERY

More than one or two ce lis when connected in series or parallel connection it is called as Battmy. For
example if a cell has l. SV and if we necd 3V or 6V then we can get it by connecting two cells or four
cells. So cells me often arranged ingroups to form batteries. There aJe two main metbods in connecing
them.

96

Series Method
Series Connection
Switch
II

- ----

------

...,

~-

Fig.6.3

The negative terminal of one is eonneeted to the positive terminal ofthe next through out the
battery. In this casethe total voltage ofthe battery is the sum ofthe voltages of each cel!. This method
is employed in Telephone exchange, Telegraph etc.
6.3.1. Parallel Method

--

+
I

Switch

t: ::.":.- 1
::::- ..::: f:f:; .
. :_:: .:;:- ::;-:_
l5
;~

--

1---~-

__ ..
~~ b .;;:::: 1:::
___
II
~ :.;..--.,..

Parallel Connection

e h-- 1,....; ---:: t:


'-;c..---

.. -

--

;:
-. '---'---- ...

~ 1---~

e--~-

III

---

[,;'- .?.:=): ;::-:::


Fig. 6.3.1.

The negative terminals ofthe batteries are connected together and formed as one tetminal and all
the positive tenninals are connected together and fonned as another tenninal. These terminals are
output termnals ofthe battery. In this type, the voltage ofthe battery is equal to the voltage ofthe single
ce!!. But the Ampere ratngs high since it has less resistance. This battery will work even i f any one of
the cell s damaged or disconnected. This type is used where high ampere rating is needed.
97

6.4. STORAGE BATTERIES


Types ofSecondary Cells

Secondary cells may be classi!ed underthe fol!O\ving heads:


a) LeadAcid cell
b) Alkaline eell eg. Nickel iron eell, l\ickel cadmitun eell
Lead acd cell is generally used in vehicles.
6.4.1. LeadAcid accumulators

The constructonal features of alead aeid cell can best be understood by studying its parts. The
parts are the !.Container 2.Piates 3.Strap and terminal pillar4.Separator 5. Electrolyte 6. Cell cover
and 7. Vent plug.
The outer containermade up ofhard rubber, bakelite, celluloid or bitumen. TI1e Electrolyte used in
this is diluted sulphuric acid. Lead plates are kept as positve and negative plates. One excess negatve
plate s kept to reduce interna! resistance and increase more current. Separator (made of rubber,
ebonite, glass) are placed in between the positive and negative plate to prevent any possibility of short
circuit between them. The bottom offue plate is rest on the top of the ribs. The top o f the container is
sealed but one venthole per cell, arranged sueh that the acid will not splash dueto shake.

+
Vent hole

.. Electrolyte
Negative pi ate

Separators

Bottorn support

Outer container

Fig. 6.4.1.

98

Working principie
Firstly, astrong de supply is given through positive and negative terrninals. This curren! is passed
for ce1tain period of time. Now hydrogen is liberated at that set of plates COilllecte<l to the negative of
the so urce. This makes these plates spongy. At the positive plates, the liberated oxygen combines to
fonn lead peroxide. This process is called charging. Charging process is done till the acid reaches its
required speeific gravity. lfnow the original so urce of curren! is discollllected and the two plates are
collllected toan ammeter, it shows the cunent flow.
The container is filled three parts of distilled water and one part of concentrated sulphuric acid.
Before charging, the speeific gravity ofthe acid should be 1.15 and after eharging, the specilc gravity
should be 1.26. This can be measured by using hydrometer. The emf should be 2.25V

Chemical Reaction During Discharging


When the cell is discharging, curren! flows in the externa! circuit l:i'om positive to negatve. The
flow of current through the electrolyte splits into Htand So, ons.

Both the positve and negative plates are slowly converted in to lead sulphate.

Water is formed during discharge. So that the acd becomes more and more dluted.

Deereasc n emf.

Chemical Equation
During discharge
(Positi ve PIate)
Lead
peroxide

Hydrogen

Pb0 2 +

(Negative Plate)

Sulphuric
A cid

Lead
Sulphate

H,so,

PbSO,

Water
+

2H,O

'

Pure lead

Sulphate

Lead sulphate

Pb

so

PbSo
4

During Charge

Positiveplate
Lead

PbSo

Sulphate

+Water

Lead peroxide + Sulphuric acid

so

+2HO

PbO +2H2SO

(Negative Plate)
lead Sulphate +
+

PbSO
4

Hydrogen

Lead

Sulphuric acd

Pb

HSO

99

Sulphate

90% of stored energy can be used.

Coating ofred oxide is done over lead plates to avoid corrosion.

To get large steady current, batteries should be connected in parallel.

Precautions

Battery should not be kept under discharge condition for long period.

The leve! ofthe electrolyte must be 2cm above the plates.

\Vben the leve! of the electrolyte decrease, distilled water should be added.

The charging and discharging process should be done in constant speed.

During charging vent plug should be loasen, so that gases can be easily evolved.

Avoid fires near batteries.

While preparing an electrolyte, acid should be added drop by drop to the water.

The batteries should be fixed fim]y in the vehicle.

Avoid loose connection in the tenninalloops.

While charging, the voltage should be more than 10% ofthe battery voltage.

6.4.2. Alkaline cell


In this type of cell insteadof sulphuric acid, potassium hydroxide is used.

There are two types


l. ~ickel iron eell
2. Cadmium cell
Nickel iron cell
Construction

Its positive plates consists of ruckel plated iron tubes packed with ruckel hydroxide. Its negative
plate consists of sitnilar tubes filled \vith J:inelym oxide iron. The electrolyte is a solution of potassium
hydroxide whch gives positive potassiU!ll andnegative hydroxylarnine.

KOH

K'+OH-

The container is ofruckel plated steel and nowadays even plastic. The addition of small amount of
lithium hydroxide is found to increase the capacity ofthe ce!!.

lOO

. Electrolyte

Ni che! Hydroxide

Fig6.4.2.
Characteristics ofAikaline cell

l.

Robustness, mechanically strong and can stand vibrations.

2.

High intemal resistance.

3.

Life time is approximately 5 years.

4.

Atfullycharged condtion ts emfis 1.75v and during discharging condition its emfis 1

5.

The rate of discharging should not be below 1. 15v

6.4.3. Difference between Lead acid cell and Nickel iron cell
Lead acid cell

:Sickel acid cell

1. Positive plate is lead per oxide

Positive plate is nickel hydroxide.

2. Negative plate is lead plate.

Ferrous hydroxide powder is Negative pi ate.

3. Electrolyteusedis diluted

Potassium hydroxide is used. Sulphuric acid .

4. Averageemfis2.2v

Average emfis 1.1 v

5. It is heavy and not easily portable.

Lightweight, easilyportable.

6. In tema! resistance is low.

Interna! resistance is high.

7. Less cost.

More cosl.

8. Period ofcharging is longer.

Period ofcharging is shorter.

6.4.4. TROUBLE SHOOTING IN THE BATTERY

Three types of defects occurs in the battery.

1. Sulphation2. Sedimentation 3. Plates buckling.


101

Sulphation

Ifthe cellis discharged too far or left standing for long unused, the acd attacks the plate and may
fonn a very bigh depost oflead sulphate on them. This is called sulphation. To avod tbis battery should
not be kcpt unused for long time, bigher speed of charging and dscharging should be avoided. During
chargng low current with long perod should be followed.
Sedimentation

When the part eles deposted on the postve plate dssolves in the electrolyte, short crcuit may
occur. Ifithappens the electrolyte should be changed.
PI ates Buckling

If the rate of chargng and discharging s higher, the plates become unshaped . lf it happens the
plate should be replaced.
6.4.5. Symptoms offully charged Batteries

Oxygen is liberated from anode and hydrogen s liberated fonn cathode.

EMF should be approximately 2.1 V

Specific gravity ofthe electrolyte should be more than 1.2.

Positive plate in chocolate colour.

Negative plate is state grey in colour.

6.4.6. Capacity of an Accumulator

The capacity of an accumulator is given either by its watthour rating or by its ampere hour rating.
The ampere hourrating is generally, used that is the product of current gven out by the number ofhours
for which it can be taken. So the capacity ofthe battery depends upon number of pi ates used, its area
and electrolyte used.
6.4. 7. Efficiency
i) Ampere Hour Efticiency

The efficiency of a cell can be considered as below;


Ag. Efficiency% = Ampere hour on discharge x 100
Ampere hour on charge
Efficiency oflead acid cell s 90 to 95%
ii) Watt Hour efticiency
lt s a ratio ofwatthour of energy delivered by battery to the watt-hour supplied by source during
chargng.

WH Eftlcency = Discharge (Cunentx Time x Voltage)


Charge (Current x Time x Voltagc)

102

6.5. TESTI~G OF' BATTERY

Fig.6.5
For testing a batte1y we use cell tester.In fully charged battery the emfis 2.2V fwe increase the
rate ofdischarge the capaeity ofthe cell decreases. So the cell tester (ie) a voltmeterwith high resistance
connected across the poies ofa cell will approximately measure its emt: Cell tester should not be used
for a longertime beeause it has high resistance, which in tum made a voltage drop on the ce!l. So the
testng should be carried only for l or 2 minutes. Ifthere is no vares in the voltage then the batter y is
in good condition. Ifthe voltmeter shows l.8V then lhere is sorne defects. So the faults should be
identified and rectified.

6.5.1. The method of charging secondary cells are


-constan! curren! method
- constant potential method
- rectfier method

6.5.2. Constant current method


This method is used wherethe supply is high voltage DC220V, llOV etc. butthe battery is of
low voltage 6V, l2V etc. TI1e emfofthe battery is small in comparison to the supply voltage so a lampload ora variable resistor is connected in series with the battery. This causes a loss of energy, so, the
method s ineffieient.
Use : For eharging more number of cells at constan! current rating,

6.5.3. Constan! poten tia! method


In this method, the voltage s maintained ata fixed value about2.3 V per cell; the curren! decreases
as the chargngproceeds, A variable resistor is connected in series, so a vltage souree of2.5 to 2.6 V
percell is required. For a 12V motor car battery, the charging dynamo s of about 15V. In eomparison
to the constan! current method less power is wasted for chargng and less time is taken.
103

Use: For charging batteries of eonstant voltage rating.


6.5.4. Rectifier method : A reeitifier for battery charging s generally made of diodes connected in the

tonn of a bridge. A transformer is used to step down the AC voltage to that suitable tor diodes.
Ammeter, volttneter, switches and fuses are also used in the rectifier se!.
6.5.5. Trickle charge: When the batteryis charged ata very lowrate, that is2 to 3% ofthe nonnal

rate for a long period, it is said to be a triek! e charge.

Use: Forcentral or sub-station batteries and for emergency lighting systems.


Initial charge: TI1e first charge of anew, previously unchargcd battery is called the intial charge.

The process that occurs insidc the battery is called onning the eells.
To conduct an initial charge, fill the cells with an elcctrolytc of a proper specific gravity, then
replace the vent plugs. Make sure the boles in the plugs are clear. TI1e battery should also be cool
before you begin the initial charge.
Freshening charge: When a new battery s put into service for the frrst time, it may be given a
brief charge to ensure that it statts in a fully charged condilion. Ths kind of charge is called a freshening
charge. Nonnally all that s required is charging at the fmish rate untilno change in specfic gravity or
voltage occurs over a three hour period.
Boost charge : If a battery s in danger ofbeeoming over-discharged during a working shift, you

can give ita supplernentary charge during a rest period. This boost charge is nota conventional method
of charging the storage battery. It is not recommended as a standard procedure. It is generally a high
rate charge of short duration, used only to ensure that the battery \cv'lllast until the end ofthe shift.
6.6. WATCH CELL
Alkaline cells : Alkaline celis use a zinc container for the negatve electrode and a cylnder of

manganese di-oxide for the positive eleetrode. The electrolyte is made up ofa solution ofpotassium
hydroxde oran alkaline solution.
Alkaline cells are produced in the same standard siz.es as carbon-zinc cells but are more expensive.
They have the advantage ofbeing able to supply large currents for a longer priod oftime. For example,
a standard 'D' type 1.5 V alkaline cell has a capacity of about 3.5 A.h compared with about 2A.h. for
the carbon-zinc type. Asecond advantage is that the alkaline cell has a shelflife of about two anda half
years as compared to about 6 to 12 months for the carbon-zinc !)pe.
Mercury cells : Mercury cells are most often used in digital watches, calculators, hearing aids
and other miniature electronic eqnipment They are usually smaller and are shaped differently from the
carbon-zinc !)pe. The electrolyte used in this cell is alkaline and te electrodes are of mercuric oxide
(cathode) aud zinc (auode).
Silver oxide cells : Silver oxide cells are much like mercury cells. However, they provide a

104

highervoltage (1.5V) and they are made for light loads. The loads can be continous, such as those
encotmtered in hearing aids and electronic watches. Like the mercwy cell, the silver oxide cell has good
energy-to-weight and energy-to-volume ratios, poor low-temperatme response, and flat output voltage
chardCteristics. The structmes ofthe mercuric and solver oxide cells are very similar. The main difterence
is that the positive electrode ofthe silver cell is silver oxide instead of mercuric oxide.
Lithium cells : The lithium cell is another ty}le ofprimary cell. It is available in a varety of s;r-es

and configurations. Dependng on the chemicals used with lithium, the cell voltage is between 2.5 and
3.6V. Note thatthis voltage is considered higher than in otherprimary cells. Two ofthe advantages of
lithium cells over other primary cells are :
-longer shelflife- upto 1Oyears
- higher energy-to-weightratio upto 350 Wh/Kg
Lithium cells operate at temperatmes ranging from -50 to + 75C. They
ouput voltage during discharge.

have a very constan!

Uses: Primary celis are used in electronic products ranging from watches, Smoke alarms, cardiac
pacemakers, torches, hearing aids, transistor mdios etc.
6.7. STATIC UNINTERUPTABLE POWERSYSTEM (UPS)

~~

Fig. 6.7.

The function of a UPS is to ensure absolute continuity of power to the computerised control
systems thereby protecting critical equipment from electrical supply fui! me. A UPS market is possible
to provided a elean reliable supply of alternating current free of sags or surges i nthe line voltage,
frequency va:riation, spikes and transients. UPS system achieve this by rectitying the standard main
supply, using the direct curren! to charges the standby battery and to produce clean alternating curren\
bypassing through an inverter and filter system.
105

Components of a UPS system

The essental components of a UPS system are as under


l.

A rectfier and thyristor- controlled battery charger which converts theAC input into regulated
DC output and keeps the standby battery fully charged.

2.

A standby battery which provides DC input power to nverter during voltage drops or on failure of
the normal mansAC supply

3.

An inverter which converts DC to cleanAC thus providing preciselyregulated output voltage and

frequency to the load.

106

Questions
Part-A
l.

Choose the Correct Answer

1)

In case of primary Cell,


a) Chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy
b) Chemical energy into electrical energy

e) Electrical energy into chemical energy


d) Electrical energy into electrical energy.

2)

The local action is minimised by amalgamatingthe


a)Zinc rod

3)

d) Te1minal.

b) Carbon

c)Zinc

d) Sulpherc

.................... has 1.5 voltE.M.F.


a) Voltaic Cell

5)

e) Container

Tbe positive electrode ofdry cell is made of


a) Copper

4)

b) Corbon on copper rod

b) Daminal Cell

c)DryCell

d) l\ one of these

Primary cell is generally used for


a) Watcb

b) aeroplane

c)Train

d) automobiles.

6) The chemical tem1 of solplnie acid is

a)

H., O

d) Pb

7) The possitive plate ofleadAcid cell is

a) Nickel

e) Lead

b) Iron

Part- B
II. Answer the following questions in one word
1)

What is the polarity of carbon plate?

2)

Which plate has negative polarity?

3)

Whatarethedefectofthevoltaic cell?

4)

Howthe local action defect isremoved?

5)

WhatistheemfofvoltaicCell?

6)

Is it necessary to use saparators in lead acid cell?

7)

Vv'hat is the active meterial ofnegative plate in lead acid cell?

107

d)Zinc.

Part-e
III. Answer the following q uestions in briefly
1)

What is battery?

2)

What are the charactersties ofPrimary Cell?

3)

What are the characteristics of Se<:ondary Cell?

4)

Wlmt is local action?

5)

\lv'hat is polarisation?

6)

What are defects occures in secondary cell?

Part- D
IV. Answer the following questions in one page leve!
1)

Distinguished between primary and secondary Cell?

2)

Explain D1y celhvith neat sketch?

3)

Explain watch cell?

4)

\Vhat is meant by cell and explain?

Part-E
V.

Answer the following q uestions in two page leve!

1)

Explain the simple voltaic cell withneat sketch?

2)

Explain the working principies ofleadAcid cell?

3)

Explain the working principie ofAlkaline eell?

108

7. AC.CIRCUITS AND ELECTRICAL MEASURING


INSTRUMENTS
AC.CIRCUITS
7.0.ALTERNATINGCURRENT
Altemating curren! may be generated by rotating a coi! in a magnetic field or byrotating amagnetic
field within a stationary coi!. Altemating cunent fl\vs in one direction one time and later its changes its
ditection offlows. And the magnitnde changes at everytime. The magnitnde depends upon the position
ofthecoil.
\ CYCLE
V

1
o

270

Fig. 7.0
In the figureAnAlternating ctment shows the changing the direction ofcurrent and magntude.

ADVANTAGEAND DISADVANTAGE OF AC CURRENT


Advantage
1)

lt is easy lo conductAC to one place to another place.

2)

InAC curren! easy to develop high voltage.

3)

AC equipment s low cost.

4)

Possible to convert to DC.

5)

Easy to step do>v11 of setnp the voltage by transfom1er.

6)

AC motors are eheapesl.

Disadvantage
1)

Can notable lo store in Battery.

2)

Compared to DC lgh Eleetric shock. SoAC circut should have good lnsulation and earthing.

3)

Because oflgh starting cUITCnt inAC the voltage Drop is occurred.

4)

The speed of the AC motors is depending up on the frequency.

5)

According to the h1duction load: Power fuctor gets low.


109

7.l.ACWAVEFORl\1ANDITSCHARACTERISTICS

Fig. 7.1. (1)

:Fig. 7.1. (2)

In the figure ( 1) A coi! fixed asto rotate in magnetic fiel d.

h1 the figure (2) A magnetic field fixed asto rotate in side the coi l.
If coil rotate in magnetic field ormagnetic field rotate inside the coi! therc s an altemating emf
generate in the coil. The generated alternating emfis proportional to the nurnber oftnrns of coi!,
magnetic field strength, and the angle between tite coil and magnetic fiel d.

(i.e.)

e= Blv sin e

Fromthis

Len,>th ofthe conductor

Velocity ofconductor.
Flux density.

e
e

angle between field to conductor.


generatedAC emf.

The generatedAC emfvalue is depending upon the sine value ofthe angle betvveen the rnagnetic
field and conductor.

The sine wave rnay be dravvn by taking the electro motive force in Y axis and time in X axis.
(+ve)

Maximum value

Time

Fig. 7.1.1

11 o

In the figureA coi! ro tate in a magnetic field el oc k wise direction. First the conductor is in the
position "a". Nowthe angle between the magnetic field and conductor is O0 Then the emfin the
conductor is zero. Sin e= O, is. Tbe total emfis zero because in the formulaBlv sin e, the sin e in zero.

The conductor m oves by rotation to the position C the angle between the magnetic tield and
conductor is 900. Therefore sin 90 = l. So, in the position the emf is maximum leve!. This emf is
called as positive maxirnum.
Tbe conductor moves by rotation to the position "e". The angle between the magnetic field and
conductor is zero. In this position emfis zero. Latter the conductormoves by rotation to the position
"g" the angle between the magnetic field and conduct is 90 Therefore the emf generated in the
position is maximum. In that position the emf is called as negative maximum. Latter the conductor
again moves to the position A. In the position the emf in the conductor is zero.
By the way the conductor rotates one revolution in the magnetic field. This rotation charted
equally and the sine wave is drawn. This way altemative current sine wave form.

7.2.CYCLE
InAltemating current complete set of one positive half cycle and one negative half cycle is
called one cycle.

7.2.1. Time period


The time taken by an alternating quantity to complete one cycle is called time period. lt is
donated by the 1etter "T".
Example: In theAC frequency 50 LIS the time period for one cycle is 1150 second.

7.2.2. Frequency
The number of cycle per second is called the frequency ofthe altemating quantity.
Its unit is hertz (Hz) to find frequency the formula.
f= PN/120 is used.
f = frequency.
P=Numberofpole
N= Number of revolutions is r.p.m.

7.2.3. Instantaneous value


TbeAlternating quantity changes at everytime. In particular time its value is called instantaneous
value.

7.2.4. Maximum va1ue


Tbe maximum value positive or negative, of an altemating quantity is known as its maximum
value.
111

7.2.5. Effective value and R.M.S. value

The Effectve value of an altemating curren! is given by that DC current which when flowing
through a given circuit tora given time produces the same heat as produced by the altemating curren!
when flowingthrough the same circtt for the same time. It is also called as Root mean square value.
the curren! effective value denoted as I nns and voltage effective value denoted as V nns. The voltmeter
and ammeters are read the effective value only.
R.M.S. Value =
7.2.6. Average value

The Average value is calculated bytheAverages ofthe maximum value of altemating quantity at
different instances.
Average Value =

2JM
II

or

II

7.2. 7. Form facto1

lt is the ratio ofR.M.S. value ofAC quantity to average value.


Formfactor

R.M.S. value

111

Average value.
7.2.8. Peak factor
lt is the ratio of maximum value ofAC quantity to R.M. S. value

Peak factor

Maximum value
=1.414
R.M. S. value.

In sine wave peakfactorvalue s 1.414.


7.2.9. Power factor

&
Fig. 7.2.9.

In a electric circut the ratio between tme power to imaginary power.


Power factor is always below one power factor is called asCos 8. 8 means the angle between
the voltage andAmmeter.
1be powerfactor depends upen the circuit Example in aAC circut fresistance only connected
the power factor is unity. Iflnductance or capacitar is connected in a circuit Power factor is Zero and
called as zero pewer factor.
112

Example

In aAC circuit lOA current flows and emfis 230V. In the circuit power is 2 KW. Calculate
power factor and phase angle between current and emf
Current

--

lOA.

emf

230V

Power

2KW

Power factor

Phaseangle

2000

VI Cose
230 x lOCos O.

Power factor CosO

2000

0.8695

230 x 10
0.8695

Cose

Cosl 0.8695

2959.

Powerfactor
Phase angle
7.2.10. Phase

0.8695
=

2959'
CYCLE

-f

llrf
T

Fig. 7.2.10.

Phase ofan altema:ling current is meant, the fraction ofthe lime period ofthataltemating curren\,
which has elapsed since the current last passed through the zero position of reference. For example the
phase of current at pointA is T/4 second where T is time period of expressed in teJms of angle it is rr/
2 radians and at point B 1t radian.

113

7.2.11. Phase Difference


In the figure two conductors rotate in the magnetic field and the sine wave al so drawn. Ifthe
two conductors mtate in san1e speed, butthe conductors are in different angle. Because ofthe different
angle theAC quantity never gets maximum ofzero at the sometime. This difieren! AC quantities
between the two conductors are called phase different and the angle between is O

Fig. 7.2.11. (1)


In the figure, A sine wave gets the maximum first by the B sine wave. So A sine wave A is
leading thesine wave B, (or) sinewave B s laggingthe sine waveA.
A

Fig. 7.2.11. (2)


7.2.12.ln phase

Fig.7.2.12.

Ifwave fonn oftwo AC quantites (voltage or curren!) get the maxmum and zero at same time
then they are said to be IN PHASE.

114

7.2.13. Out ofphase

If in AC circut two quantties namely


voltage or current waves get lhe maximum and
zero at ditlerent time then they are said to be
OUT OF PHASE.
7.3. AC CIRCUIT WITH PURE RESISTANC~<:

Fig. 7.2.13.

A circuit without Inductance and capacitance is called pure Resistance circuit. The value of
Resistance is R.
R
Instantaneous value of emf

'-----{0)------'

V max sin mt

Current value IAmpere.

Fig. 7.3.

When curren! passes through the crcuit lhere is no counter emf created. The supply voltage
and Resstance only in the circut.
Current

Electro motive force


Resistance

E/R.

fitrther in tl1e circuit.


Power =curren! x emf and power factor always unt because the angle between the current
and voltage is 0.
Because lhe power factor (Cos O) = 1.
7.3.1. lnductance
A long conductor wound round in the forrn ofa coil is called an inductor. This has the prope11y

ofinducing an emf when there is achange in lhe currentpassingthroughit. Its uuit is henry and denoted
bythe letter "L".
7.3.1.1. InductanceinAC circuit
V

Fig. 7.3.1. (1)

115

In the figure a coi! is connected in theAC circuit TheAlternating current quantities are changes

ar every time as maximum to zero and also the magnetic field changes to maximum to zero. Because of
the change in magnetic tield Back emf is induced in it. The Back emfresist the applied voltage. The
opposition is called lnductance. By the way the Inductance is always in oppose every time in the AC
circuit. lu only Jnductive crcuit the frequency is sarne ior voltage and current but current is lagging by
90" to the voltage.
7.3.2. Inductive Reactance

Inductive Reactance means the opposition due selflnductance to the AC current through a
coi!. Its w1it s ohm and denoted by the letter "XL"

Inductive reactance X = 2nl


L

Inductance inHentry

fiequency in hertz

7.3.3. Capacitor

Two conductors plate separated byinsulating material is calledcapacitor. The insulating material
may be air, mica, anda paper.
The property ofcapacity to store the curren! in it is called capactance. It s measured in farad.
If one coulomb charge is need develop one volt potential at the capacitor terminal the capacity is one
farad.
The small quantity micro farad (1 O-") and Pico farad (1 o-6) are used in General Because one
tarad is big unt.

90

Sv.itch

'-----(1\}----<

Fig. 7.3.4.
7.3.4. A e Circuit only with the capacitor

AC voltage changes at every time. That is in the sine wave of one cycle the voltage raises lo
maximum at first 90_ and from 90 to 180 the voltage decreases to zero, from 180 to 270" voltage
raises in opposte direction. And 270 to 360 the voltage decreases to zero_ When a capacitor
conneeted to the cireut up to 90 capacitar charged and 90 to 180 the capacitor discharged. Next
180 to 270 the eapactor charged in the opposite direction from 270 to 360 the capactor dscharged
from this inAc one cycle the capacitar charged and discharged in two time. So the current passes
contnuously in only capactor AC Circuit the cutTent is leading by the voltage at 90

116

7.3.5. Capacitive Reactance

The resistance offered by a capactors called as capacitivo Reactance. The unit is Ohm (rl)
and denoted by letter Xe

Xe
2 nfc

Xe

Capactive reactance in ohm

Capacitance~ in farad

frequency ~in Hertz

7.3.6. Uses of capacitor

To improve the power factor in factory to smooth the line vo!tage. To improve power factor is
tube light, Resistance welding, Induction motor, photo equipment are sarne place ofusing capacitar.
7.4. IMPEDANCE

The combined resstance inAC circuir oftered by Resistance, Inductance and capacitance (rl)
any ofthetwo is called Impedance. The unit is ohm. It is denoted by the letter Z.
7.4.1. Resistance and Inductance isAC circuit

The Resstance and Inductance are conuected in series. There is no pha'le different in Resistance
circuit But in the lnductance circuit the voltage is lead by 90 to the cunent. The voltage across the
resistance is V . Voltage across the Inductance s V Resistance value is R, Inductivo Reactance value
. X

!S.

11,\/Wv'vV.

.t

~--il

V
V
L

8~

!
A

V
R

Fig. 7.4.1.
RLCircuit
V

RL Series Circuit- Phasor Diagrarn

V= V +V (Vector sum)
R

Ohm'sLaw

e
fL-_L_---'--io..: .._
1

IR,

I =Curren!

IR.

V=Voltage

Fig. 7.4.1.
117

IX ,

=
L

R = Resistance

= Inductive Reactance ohm's (Q)

XL

+V'

V -

Total Impedance, ohm's (Q)

7.4.2. Impedauce Triaugle


(R.L. Series Circut)

z
XL

ohm's
Power Factor cose
Power

VI cos

e watts.

Fig. 7.4.2.

7.5. RESISTAN CE AND CAPACITANCE IS AC CIRCUIT


In the figure the Resistance R and capacitor
C is connected is series with the circuit. The voltage
between the capacitor and Resistance are Ve and V,.
The total supply voltage is V and cunen! is l.
V "'

R.. .

c.

]-4---~-L---\k--

118

In the ahove figure the voltage by the resistance is mentioned in the Vector atOA as the sarne
the in the VectoratAB. In thecrcuit the supplyvoltage s OB ands the sum ofOAandAB
R-CCIRCUIT
7.5.1. R-C Series circuit- Phasor diagram
Ve

V=V +V (Vectorsum)
R

'

Ohm'sLaw
V

V =

IR,

IR,

V=Voltage

lX ,

R = Resistance

Fig. 7.5.1

Cunent

V
X

....

e
e

CapacitiveReactanceohm's(Q)

V =

V +V
R

V =~l'R'+l"X/

-- ----

z
Z

=
Totallmpedance,ohm's(Q)

119

7.5.2. lmpedance Triangle


(R. C. Series Circuit)

(}
\j

Fig. 7.5.2

= ~ R, + Xc' ohrn's

Power Factor cos 8 = R

Power = VI cos 8 watts.


7.6. RLC CIRCUIT
(Resistan ce -Capacitan ce in AC Circuit)

In the circuit the Resistance, capacitar and Inductance are connected in series in this Circuit the
cun-ent is same. Voltage is differed by resistance offered by the R. L. C. Total supply voltage is V.
IR
and

IL

le

VR+VL+Vc

The victor diagram shows the voltage vector diagram and Impedance vector diagram the abo ve
are with reference to the cun-ent.
Voltage across the resistance.
Voltage across the Inductance
Voltage across the capacitar

,......
R~

c.

...~~--..ll\\J~
,_R___.~'--- JJ..l-"-----J",__..,"'-~,----'

V~

L __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _

Fig. 7.6.
120

7.6.1. RLC Series Circuit


V R s in phase wth current I
VL is leading with current at 90
Ve s lagging with cwTent at 90
IfVcis greaterthan Ve (Ve> Ve) the dfference between VL and Ve can be Wright as Ve- Ve.
Total voltageis V

\
Fig. 7.6.1.

Case 1
RLC Series Circuit Phasor diagram (X >X )
e

V=V -,.y +V (VectorSum)


R

Ohrn'sLa\v
V=IR

I =Curren!, R

V =IX
L
L
V =IX,
e
e

V=Volatage
X

Resistance

Inductve Reactance (ohm's)


L

X = Capaciti ve Reactance (ohm 's)


e
V'

V ' + (V. - V )', (X > X )


R
~
e
L
e

'
'
'
w-qv
-vr
R
L
C

V
V
V
V

..J(IRf+ (IXL -IXd

=
=

~I R + 1 (X - X )
2

..Jr' (R

+(X -X )
L

I ~ R +(X -X )
2

V
I

z
z

'VR+(X-Xf'
L

Total Impedance Ohm's

121

7 .6.2. Impedence Triangle

(X >X)

Case l

VR

+ (X -X )
e

Power factor cos

e =R
z

R..
Fig. 7.6.2.

VI Cos e watts

Power

7.6.3. Case 2
RLC Series Circuit Phasor diagram (X <X )
e

V=V +V
R

V (Vector Sum)
(.

Ohm'sLaw

V=IR,
V

I ~ Current, R = Resistance

V=Volatage

IX
L

V =IX,
e
e

Inductive Reactance (ohm's)

=
L

X =CapacitiveReactance(ohm's)
e

V/+ (Ve - V1 ) 2 , (X <X)


L

-..jv

+(V -V)'

;,/(IR)'+ (IXciXJ'

V
V

(X -X f'
e L

V
I

"R'
'
+(X -X) '

-) R

Total ImpedanceOhm's

+(X -X
e

-t2

(X -X )
L

-V =Z
1

2
,

122

7.6. 4. Impedence Triangle


Case 11

(X <X)
e

~ R2 +(X -X)'

Power factor eos El = R

Fig. 7.6.4.

Power =VI Cos El watts


7.7. SERIES RESOANCE

In resstance, Inductance and capacitar are in series circut the impedance


Z

~R + (XL-Xcf

Total Rcactance XL-Xc This Reactance may be capacitve Reactance or Inductive reactance
by which one is grcatcr value.
Since nductve reactance XL = 2nfL, Inductve Reactance XL is directly proportional to the
frequency. So XL increases when the frequency increases.
On the other hand Capacitive reactance Xc = l/2nfc. As Xc s inversely proportional to the
frequency, XC decreases with increase in frequency. So the circuit having both L ande,~. increases
from O, Xc decreases from maximum value as frequency increases.
Ata particular frequency both reactances (~ & XJ will be equal and opposite. This condition
s called Resonance and this circut is cailed Resonance circut and that pwticular frequency is called
Resonance frequency. f_=_l:__
2n"LC

Fg. 7.7.

7. 7.1. Properties
1.

At resonance, XL & Xc nullify each other

2.

lmpedance of resonance circuit is very low.

3.

Current through this crcuit depends upon the resistance mlly. So current will be maximwn at
this condition. ie, If current at resonance is Im then Im =V 1R
123

4.

Power factor of the circuit is unity as the crcuit is purely resistve.

5.

As the circuit is purely resist ve, both voltage and current are in phase.

6.

Voltage drop across nductance and capacitance is maximurn.

7.

Frequency at which resonance occurs in a circut is called resonance frequency.

7. 7.2. Applications of resonance circuit

l.

It is used in radios to tune for a particular radio station

2.

Used in TV receiver.

3.

Used in oscillators as tank circuit.

4.

Used inmicrowave communication equipment

5.

Used in Telexand Teleprinter.

6.

Used in IF and RF transformers.

7.

Used in Navy ships.

7.7.3. Q Factor of a Series Resonance Circuit

At resonance condition voltage drop across inductance and capacitance are equal. Further, this
voltage is more than the supply voltage. The ratio between this magnified voltage and supply voltage is
called Q factor.
7.8. Parallel Resonance
R

Fig. 7.8.

When the frequency of a circuit (which contains resistance, inductance and capacitance in parallel)
is increased, both inductive reactance and capactive reactance will nullizy each other. A circut at this
condition is eaiied parallel resonance.
7.8.1. Propertics ofParallel Resonance
l.

Impedance ofthe circuit is maximurn.

2.

Current at resonance is miuimurn.


i.e. l

V
L/CR

124

3.

Curren! magn.ification takes place.

4.

Voltage and current is in phase.

5.

Power factorofthecircuitis nnity.

7.9. POLYPHASE SYSTEMS

lf the armature of an alternator generating a.c. supply is having only one winding then the supply
taken across the two terminal will be one phase. It will have only one voltage wavefom1. So it is called
single phase.
Instead of one winding if the altemator has 2 or 3 winding then 2 or 3 phases are generated. So a
system which produces more than one phase is called polyphase.
lfthe armature of an alternator is having three windings namely A 1A 2 ,B 1B2 and C, C2which are
displaced 120' apan is rotated, then three different emf is generated in these windings. The phase
difference between each phase vvill be 120'. Generallythree phase is denoted as red (R), yellow(Y)
and blue(B).
p

A~

1[
E,'
(b)

(a)

t
Fig. 7.9.

125

7.9.1. Phase Sequence


It is the tenn which is used to represen! in what sequence the three phase voltage or ctment attains

maximum value. For eg. Ifthe phase sequence s said to be R'{B, then fustred phase attains maxirmun
value and then wth a phase difference of 1201eaeh, the yellow phase and blue phase attains their peak
value.
7.9.2. Advantages ofThrce Phase System

l.

Power produced by three phase motor s high compared with that of san1e rating of single phase
motor.

2.

Three phase transmission is more efticient and requires less copper for transmitting same power
over the same distance.

3.

Three phase motors are self starting while single phase motors are not.

4.

Power factor ofthree phase motor is high.

5.

Torque ofthree phase motor is utfonn where as that of single phase motor is pulsating.

6.

Size ofthree phase motor is smaller than single phase motor of same rating.

7.9.3. Balanced Load

If al! the phase wndings ofthree phase altemator are having equal impedance orphase angle, then
it is called balanced system, Similarly ifeach phase load ofthe three phase load connected to three
phase supply is having equal impedance or phase angle then it is called balanced load.
7.9.4. l7nbalanced Load

Ifthree phase load having different value ofload in each phase is connected to three phase supply,
then it is called unbalanced load
7.10. THREE PHASE COI\'NECTION

Each winding ofa 3 phase generatorwill have two ends and so total!y there v.ill be six ends. These
ends can be connected in any one oftwo fashion namely
l. Star or Y Connection

2. Delta or Mesh Connection


7.10.1. Star or YConnection

.,

"1

)'
b~

(b)

'1

a
'z
Fg.7.10.1.

(a)

e (Bl

126

In this me1hod similar ends (starting end or frnshing end) of eaeh phase winding are joined to.gether
to forma eommonjunction N and supply is taken from otherthree ends. The junction N is called star
point or neutral point The voltage between any one line and neutral is called phase voltage. Current
flows through that phase is called phase current. Voltage bet\veen any two lines is called line voltage
and current through that line is catled line current.

In the star cmmection, phase current = Lne current

IL
Phase voltage

Line voltage

.Y3
7.10.2. Delta or J\iless Connection
r--'-~---

Fig.7.10.2.

If the six ends of three phases are so emmeeted that one end of frrst coil is connected to start end
ofthe seeond col and so on, a closed mesh will be formed. Ifthree lines are taken from the three
connected points, then this method is called delia connection.
As only one phase winding is in between any two lines, phase voltage will be equal to the line
voltage.
Phase Voltage
Phase Current

=
=

Line Vohage
Line Current!'-13

Therefore, 3 phase power

'-JTVI cose

7.11. TWOWATTMETERMETHODOFMEASURINGPOWERANDPOWER
FACTOR

Ibe one wattmeter, two wattmeter and three wattmeter method are used to measure the power
ofthree phase.
In common two vvattmeter method is used. If the load s balanced or imbalance this method
may be used. The cireuit dagram shows the Two wattmeter connected is star connected three phase
load.
In this method the wattmeter W l and W2 are separately connected to three phase crcut. In
wattmeter there are two cols one is current coi! and another one is pressure coi! in the figure. ]VI, Lis
represen! the curren! coi! and V l, V2 is represen! the pressure coi!. The curren! coi! ofWattmeter Wl
is connected in series with R and the pressnre coil is connected between R and B as the same the
curren! coi! ofW2 is connected in series with Y and the pressure coi! is connected benveen Y and B.
Similarly, two wattmeters may be connected to Delta connection to measure the total power.
This connection is shmvn in the figure.

ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


7.12. INTRODUCTION

In Electrical t01ms current. voltage, power, resistance, conductance and capaeitance are those
which gives the value of quantity to be measnred bythe instruments is called Electrical measuring
instruments. We study about sorne ofthe electrical measuring instrllll1ent.
Ammeter, VoltmctCl, Wattmeter etc.
7.12.1. Classification ofElectrical measuring instruments

Eleetrical mcasuring instruments are classified into two types.


1. Absolute Instruments.

2. Secondary lnstruments.
Absolute instruments are those which give the value ofthe quantityto be measured in terms ofthe
constant~ ofthe instnunent and their deflection only. No previous calibration ofcomparison is necessary
in their case. The example of such an Instrument is used in Laboratory as standard Instmrnents.
Secondary lnstruments are those in which the value of electrical quantity to be measured can
be determined from the deflection ofthe Instruments only. Wnen they have been pre-calibrated by
comparision with an absolute Instrument. The secondary Instruments, which are generally used in
eleetrical fiel d.
The example of secondary Instruments is voltmeter, Ammeter, Euergy meter and so on.
7.12.2. Classification of secondary Instruments

Secondary instruments are classified into three types nan1ely

1. lndcating instnnnent
2. Reeording instrument
3. Integrating instmment

128

l.lndcatng instrument

They give areading ofthe input quantity during the specified interval oftirne or give a measure of
the input quantity given at the moment ofmeasurement. A dial and pointer are u sed in such instruments.
Example: Ammeter, Voltmeter, Wattmeter, Power factor meter.
2. Recordng instrument

They give a continuous record of the quantity being measured over a specified period.ln these
instrurnents a pen is attaehed to the moving system will tmce the values of an a graph sheet placed over
aslowly rotating drurn.
3. Integrating Instruments

They totalize events over a speeified period of time, the product oftimc and electrical quantity.
This instnunent generally given by a register consisting of a set ofpointers and dials.
Example: Ampere hour meter, Watt hour meter.
7.13. PRINCIPLE OFOPERATIO:'II

Ammeter, voltmeter, power and energy are measured by the following eftect.
( 1)

Electro ma,'tletic effect

(2)

Yiagnetic effect.

(3)

Heating effect.

(4)

Chemical eftect.

(5)

Electro dynamic effect.

( 6)

Electro static effect.

l. Electro magnetic effect.


Ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter and watt hour meter functon by ths em~ct. This type of
Instrumems is al so called as Induction meters.
2. Magnetic effect.

Generaly Ammeter and voltmeters function in this effect.


3. Thermal effect.

Amrneter and voluneterfunction in this effectthis type ofmcters is called also Hot \vire instmmeots.
4. Chemical effect.

The DC ampere- hour- meter only funclions in this effect.


5. Electro dynamic effect.

Anm1eter, voltmeter, and wattmeter, tunctions in these effects. This type ofmeters is also
called as Dynsmometer type Instruments.
6. Electro static effect

Electro Static effect voltmeter function in this effect.

129

7.14. AMMETER~~D VOLTMETERS


Working principie

The arnmeter and voltmeterwork in the sarne principie in the amrneter the load curren\ ora pm1
ofthe load curren\ pass throngh it and current through the meter gives the de1ecting torque. As the
same n the vol!meter the current is proportional to the measurable voltage is passes through the meter
and gives the deflecting torque. ;\11 type ofvoltmeter is measures like the same except the electrostatic
voltmeter. "!be main different between the two meters is the current, which givcs the deflecting torque.
l.Ammeter

Ammeter is used to measure the curren\ t:he 1ows through a circuit lt measures curren\ inAmpere.
Ammeter s connected to the circuts in series. So thelunrneter coi! s thick in sze and has few number
ofturns to reduce the voltage drop across the meter coi!. \Vhen theAmmeter is connected in series \v"th
the load, fu!! load current passes through the anuneter coi!. As the fu!! load curren\ is high in magnetude
the coulmay bum. Therefoer a low resstance called as shunt is cmmected parallel to the meter coi!
which allows maximum current to pass through t and very less current only passes through the meter
coi!.
Ammeter

.-------------4 A
Supply

Load

Fig. 7.14 (1)


2. Volt Meter

Voltmeter is used to measure the voltage across two dfferent ponts in a circuit. The full Voltage is
applied across the meter. The resistance ofthe voltmeter coil must be high to avoid short circuit. So the
voltmeter coil is thin and has many number ofturns. The voltmeter should be connected across the
circuits.

Supply

Load
Voltmeter
Fig. 7.14 (2)

7.14.1. Type of ammeterand voltmeter.


The eommon used arnmeter and voltmeters are.
(1) ?\1oving coi! type.

(2) Moving Iron typc.

130

(3) Hmwretype.
(4) Electro static type.

(5) lnduction 'I}pe.


l. Moving coil type meters

Moving coi! type meters are two types. They are,


(1)

Permanent magnet type.

(2)

Dynamo metenype.

The two types instruments function as Ammeter and voltmeter. The permanent magnet meter s
used to measure Direct eurreut and Dynamometer type meter is used to measure the Altematng and
Direct current.
2.Moving Iron type meters

Movng Iron type meters are two types. They are,


(1)

Attraction type.

(2)

Repulsion type.

They measure the Both Alternating and Direct Current. They are very low eost and this type of
meters s mostly used.
The Heating effeet s used to function the Hotwire Iustruments. So ths type ofmeter measure the
Effective valu e. This type of meter is suitable to measure the Altemating current. Frequency never
disturbs the measurement and never disturbed by the stray magnetic field.
Electro static meters are only used as voltmeter. Very low power is need to operate the meter.
Jnduetion type meters are only used inAltemating eurrent. They are not used as voltmeter and am
meter because they are very costly.
7.14.3. Common errors

The accuraey of the measuring Iustmments is reduced by common errors. They are.
l.

Frictionnl error.

2.

Error dueto change is temperature.

3.

Mechanical unbalance.

4.

Change in characteristics.

The temperatare dueto the current through the coil and room temperature cbanges the resstance
ofthe coi!. Dueto the change error is occured. Ifthe currcnt through the voltmeter is very low the
temperature changes 11creases the error. So reduce the errorthe coils are fixed in ventilated place.
To get required resistance Iow temperature coefficient materials are used and connect in series.
Frction enor is dueto the pressure in the pivot. To reduce the error the moving parts are very
light in weght and spindle is fixed in verticaL

131

7.15. MOVL"'G COIL INSTRUMENTS:

They are two types


l.

Pennanent magnet !Jve.

2.

Dynamometer(Jpe.

7.15.1. Moving coil permanent magnettype


Ammeterand Voltmeter

......

.,;

.(A)

Core&Coil

Harspring

(B)
Fig. 7.15.1.

This type oflnstnunents fi.mction bythe principie. Wben a current carrying conductor is placed
in a magnetic field, there is a force is induced in the conductor. This force moves the conductor any
d.irection and replace frorn magnetic field.
The construction is as shown in the figure. The soft Iron magnetic piecc is fixed in the end ofthe
"U" shaped permanent magnet. A cylinder shaped !ron core is iixed between the magnetic poles. A
rectangular coi! wmmded on the aluminium or copper frame is iixed in the ar gap.
Two spiml shaped phosphor Bronze hairsprings are fixed. On the top, and bottom ofthe coi!.
They are used to carrythe coi! current and give the controlling torque to the coi!
The almninium frame not only provides support torthe coi! but al so provides dampng by eddy
current induced in it. This construction may be used in voltrneter and Ammeter. When is used as
Ammeter the circuit cunent or the part of circuit cunent is pass through the coil. When it is used as
voltmeter the current thmugh the coi! is proportional rate of circuit voltage. The magnetic field by coi!
currents repulled by the permanent magnet's rnagnetic fiel d. and tl1e Deflectng torquc s nduced in the
coi!. This Deflecting torque is proportional to the coi! cunent so the sea! e is uniform dvson Det1ectng
Direction is according to the coi! current direction.
132

Moving coi! types are able to carry only low range of current. Shunt and series resistance are
cmmected with it and used asAmmeter and voltmeter.
+> - - - - - - - . - - - - - -

~M,llifu

a) Volt Meter
--

--.~---1~

'

Shunt Resistance
b)Ammeter
Fig. 7.15.1.

7.15.2. Advantages
l.

Sea!es are uniforrn.

2.

No hysteresis loss.

3.

Lowpowerloss.

4.

Hightorqueweightratio.

5.

Hgh eddy curren! damping.

6.

Kot affected by stray magnetic fiel d.

7.

Range should be extendng by shunt and multplers.

7.15.3. Disadvantage
l.

Deflecting torque is dueto current direction. So this type of meter used only in DC.

2.

Compared to moving iron this type of meter are costly.

3.

With the eommon error (frictionand temperature) the aging errordue to the their spring and
perrnanent magnet is occurred.

7.16. DYNAMO l\1ETER TYPE MOVING COlLINSTRU:MENTS


The construction ofthis type ofmeters are as san1e like the perrnanent magnet meter but mstead
ofpermanentmagnet there are two fixed coils fixed as shown in the figute. The coils ate air cores
because to avoid the hysteresis effect when the meter s operated in altemating cutrent. This type of
meter may be used as Ammeter or voltmeter. Mostly this type of meter used as voltmeter.
Fixed coils and moving coils ate connected in series ofparallel ofit necessty.
Two Hairsprings are used to h1duced controllng torque and also carry the cun-ent to the moving
coi l. Air damping is used to damping t01que. Sorne time eddy currentdamping ate used.

133

riXEO COIL

LOAO

SUPPLV

Fig. 7.16.

Vihen the meter used asAmmeter the load curren! or the part ofthe load curren! passes through
the coil,. When the meter used as voltmeter the cunent proportional to the voltage is posses tluough
the coil. 'The current induces the Deflectng torque.
Ths deflecting torque is proportional to the square ofthe curren! passes through t. So this type of
meters are used in altemating and direct current. The scales are not unform ifthe meter is used as
ammeter or voltmeter particularly crowded nears zero.
Because ofthe air core the field strength is very low. More coi! tums is necessary to induce for
particular deflectng torque. And so for the hairspting is very tlrin the very small amount of current can
be send through the coiL So more tums of coi! are necessary. The abovetwo factors thc weight ofthe
movingpartis increased and the friction increased compared to othermeter. 'l11e sensitvity is very low
duelo torque 1weight ratio.
This type of meters is very costly. 'l11ere in no eddy cummt and hysteresis error upto 1OA
Ammeter and 600 V Vol!meter are manufacture with high sensitivity.

7.17. MOVING IRON INSTRUMENTS


The are two type
l.

Attrdetion type

2.

Repulsion type

7.17.1. Attraction type


This type of instruments is operated in the principie oflron pieee in attracted by a magnet. As
shmvn in the figure when curren! passes through a coila magnetic field is induced. An oval shaped soft
iron piece is fixed in a spindle, which is fixed in between two bearings nearthe coi!. As a pointer is fixed
in the spindle when the soft iron moves towards the magnetic field the pointer moves on lhe scale. The
deflection ofthe pointer depends upon the coi! current. Though the current is in any drection in the coi!
theiron moves only towards themagnetie field. So this type ofinstromentis used both inAC andDC.
Tiris figure shows the air fiiction dsmping and gravity control is used in tlris type.
134

Fig. 7.17.2.

7.17.2. Repulsion Type


The constructon ofthe nstrument is shown in the figure. Two soft iron pieees are fixed in parallel
in centre ofthe coi!. In t one piece is fixed and the other is movable. 11ris movable piece is fixed with
the spndle.
\\'nen this instrument is used as an Ammeter, lhese iron pieces are magnetised with same poi e
effect by the load current passes through the coi!.
When this instrument is used as a voltmeter these iron pieees aremagnetised with same pole effect
by the current proportional to the circuit voltage.
These iron pieces are magnetised as the poi e on the top and south poi e the bottom. Dueto the
same poie effeet, as by the repulsion principie the moving iron is repulled by the fixed iron. This
depletion depends upon the coi! cmrent.

....--0)\MPING
CHAMBER

WEIGHT

Fig.7.17.2.

135

As the moving iron is fixed with the spindle, the pointer moves on the se ale when the spindle
moves. Though the cunent is in any direction the iron pieces are magnetised \\~th sarne poie effect. So
the spindle ro tates regularly in one drection. So, this instrument is used in both AC and DC.
If pi ates are used instead of iron piece, the measurements are accurate. This figure shows that
darnping torque is got from air fiiction damping. The controlling torque s gol from gravity controL
7.17.3. Errors in moving Iron Instruments

Generallytwo types of errors occur in this type ofinstrument.


1. Errors dueto direct current andAltemative current.
2. Error only dueto AC.

l. Error occurs due toA C 1DC

(i)

Dueto Hysteresis lose in the moving iron the measurements difter. To avoid this hysteresis loses,
the low hysteresis loss metals such as Mumetal and Permallay C are used.

(ii)

Duelo stray magnetic field the measurements are not shovvn accurately. To avoid it, magnetic
screening is fonned using metal sea!.

2. Errors duc to AC only

(i)

Frequency error occurs normally due toAC. As the frequency ehanges the impedence ofthe coi!
ehanges. And the arnount of eddy eurrent ehanges.

(ii)

Due to these change e1Tors occurs lo avod this error a capacitor equal lo the coil resistance s
conneeted with the cireuit.

7.17.4.Advantagcs

(i)

HighdeflectingTorque.

(ii)

U sed both inAC and DC

(fu)

ft is cheaper and reliable

(iv)

It is suitable to be used in high capacity and in low frequency.

(v)

As the movi ng parts don 't need curren! this instrument is ro bust.

Disadvantages

l1)

Hysteriesis lose and stray magnetic Joss occurs.

(ii)

The sea! es are not 1mif01m

(ili) Whle used inAC supply.

The frequency in which it is calibrated, it works accurately.


(iv) As the heat increases, the stiffuess ofthe hairspring reduces.

136

7.18. EXTENSION OF INSTRUMENTS RANGE

Amrneter

Voltmeter

.----fA>-----,
Multiplier

~---V---+~1

Shunt

}"ig.7.1.8.

The measuring range oflnstrument in dueto the current carrying capacity ofthe coil to extent thc
measuring range the cum:nt carrying capacty in increased.
After manufacture the Instrument it is not possible to change the coi!. Soto extent the measruing
range shunt, multipliers, dividers, currenttransformers and potential transfonners are connected extemally.
Ine scale ofthe Instruments are changed V\~th calibrated new one when Extemal Equipment connected
for extenson shuntmeans a low resistance metal strip. The strip is used to extent the range of ammeter
and connected is para[] e! as shown in figure.
The shunt resistance are used extent the measuring range ofAmmeter. The shunt resistance
diverts most ofthe time current though it and abo ve small quantity of curren! through the Amrneter (Vi)
they are plate or tabular shaped. The temperature coefficent must very low for shunt resistance.
Multiplier used to extent the measuring the range of voltmeter. The multpliers are connected in
series with the meter and it has resstance without hnpedance.
The multiplier value s should be constan! at any temperature change. So the multipliers temperature coefficent is must be al low.
7.19. MEASUREYIENT OF RESISTANCE

The resstance are classifed by Low resistance, Medum resstance and High resistance.
7.19.1. Low resistance

One ohm and belowthe value are called low resistance. Armature, series feld resistance, Amrneter shunt, and cable length are the example ofLow resstance.
So measnre the low resistance the following methods are used.
1) Ammeter Voltmetermethod.
2) Potentio meter method.
3) Kelvin's double btidge method.

137

7.19.2. Ammeter and voltmeter metbod

Fig. 7.19.2.
The ammeter and voltmeter are connected in series and parallel with the unknown resistance. The
unknown resistance is calculated bythe meterreading vth use ofhms law.
Resistance (R)

Voltage(V)

i\.mpere (I)
By changing the resistance near to the Battery and five of six voltage and current readings are
taken then, ohm's law used to find the unknovm resistance.
7.19.3. Poten to meter metbod

'---..!VVVv
R

Fig. 7.19.3.
In this method a standard resistance is connected in series to the unknown resstance. The voltmeter measure the voltage aeross to the unknovm and standard resistance.
The value of unknown resstance is calculated by the given formula.
Ratio(])

Unknovm Resistance (X)


Standard Resstance (S)

Ratio(2)

Voltage across unkno\'V11 Resistance (X)


Voltage across standard Resistance (S)

Ratio(!)

Rato(2)

138

7.19.4. Wheat stone Bridge method

This method is very accurate. The P, Q, R and unknovm resistance X is connected as shovm in the
figure. The R is variable resistance. The variable supply voltage is connected to tbe pointAand C. The
Galvano meteris connected between tbe terminal B and D. The Galvano meter is poin ted at Kull point
by changing the voltage and variable resstance. At null pont tbe curren! through the armA to B and C
to D is equal. So the potential different betweenA to Bis
=

Current x Resistance

11 xP.

IHg. 7.19.4.

as the same. Ato D tbe potenti al different


=

Curren! x Resistance
12 X

Potential DfferentatA to B = Potential Different atA to D.


=

Hence

Hence

I,P

I2R.

12

I,

(1)

I,

(2)

r,

12
In the equation (1) and (2 )--=-- is equal

r,

Therefore

Therefore

RQ
p

139

7.20. OHM METER (MEDIUM RESISTAN CE)

The rllllge between one ohm to 100 k ohm are called mcdium resistance. They are measured by
ohm meter.
Ohm meter is used to measure the Resistance, Current, Voltage and Continuity ofthe electric
wires directly.
7.20.1. Series Type Ohm meter

Fig7.20.1.

Fg shows the crcuit diagram ofseries typeohmmeter. In this, a galvllllo meteris parallely connected
to the rheostat R, aud ths setup is connected to the resistor R 1 in series. Ths circuit is connected to the
pointAB through a battery for measuring the value ofresistance connectcd across the pointAB. When
the supply is given from the battery, the current will flow through the galvauorneter and the pointer is
detlected to showthe readings. Ifthe cireuit is oponed, there s no currem flow in the galva.nometer and
the pointer is in zero postio.n. This s de.noted as a. ]be voltage ofthe battery is recluced depending
upon the usage.
7.20.2. Shunt type Obm meter

In this circuit, galvanorneter is connected to the rheostat R, and battery E in series connecton. The
terminals of the galvanometer s connected to the unknow.n resistance. When the pont AB s short
circutecl, then Rx Oand the current flowing through the galvanometer is zero. If AB s openecl, the
whole current wll flow through the galvanometer. This type of meters are usecl to measure the low
resstance value.

S/',__--''----..0

Fig. 7.20.2.

140

7.21.MEGGER(HIGHRESISTANCE)

Fig. 7.21.

The range above 100 k ohm called high resstance. They are measured by megger. Insulation
resistance, radio, amplfier, televsion and electronics applances have this type ofhigh resistance.
Meggar is used to measure high resistance and system insulation resstance. Meggar is an improved
ohm-meterwith a built in generatorthat is hand driven. The construction details are shov:n in figure.
Construction
It consists of two pairs of pennanent, one set for ohm-meter side and the other for the generator
and also consists ofthree cils knovvn as (i) Curren! ro! (deflecton coi!). (ii) Pressure coil (control coil)
and (iii) Compensating coi!. These coils are mounted rigidly and pivoted to control shaft and they are
free lo rotate. The CU!Tent coi] is short circuitng. The compensated coil is provided to give better sea! e
proportions. Hence these two main coils, cUITent coi! and pressure col, are connected in parallel
across the small generator mounted in the instrurnent Both these coils are in the field ofspecal permanent
magnet provided to shunt leakage current overthe test tenninals \vithout passng through current coi! of
the instrurnent Thus t elintinates errors dueto leakage qnantty given at moment of measurement
Example:Ammeter, Voltmeter, Wattrneter.
Working principie
The unknown resstance is connected between the terminals L andE (Lne and Earth). The generator
handle is then steadily tun1ed at unifonn speed. There is a slip mechanism in the drive which ensures a
ln1ited speed.
'N'hen the resistance value s small, the curren! d1r0ugh the deflection coi! will be high, its deflecting
torque will bevery high and hence thepointenvill move to the extreme clockwise positon indicating 'O'
or very low resistance value.
When the resistance value is high, the current through the clllrent coi! is hgh, its de!lectng torque
v.ill be very high and the pointerwill be taken to the extreme anticlockwise position, ndicating nfinity or
very high resistance value.

141

7.22. Multi meter

This type of meter measures High resistance, DC current, DC voltage AC voltage with difieren!
measuring range. So this meter ealled as multimeter. The unknO'Ivn resistance is fixed in between the
test probe its shows the resistive valne. 'Ibe sea!e is marked for every extension and Electrical quantity.
The Rotating switch of separate testng plugs selects the Different Exrension and Electrical quantity.

DCV

o
o o

OADJ.

ACV 1 ooo
DCmA 1000

10M

500

GsoO O
2 so
i5o
Oo 0 Oo
50

02s

OoOo

Fig.7.22.
7.23. W ATT METERS

The product ofAmpere and voltage is power. So in watt meter there is two coils are current coi!
and the ofher is pressure coil. The current coi! is connected in series and pressure coi! is in parallel to
the circuit.
Watt meters are three types
1)

Dynamometertype.

2)

Induction type.

3)

Electro static type.

7.23.1. lnduction type

Ibis type ofmeter function as InductionAmmeter and Induction voltmeter. They are fu.nction only
s altemating current. The constmction is shown in the figure.
A RotatingAluminium disc is fixed between 1:\vo laminated core magnet. The pressure coi! is
wound in the top magnet. In fhe coi! fhere is a current proportional to the voltage is flows:
In fhe bottom ofthe Di sean current coi! is wounded overthe laminated core magnet. And load
current is passes through fhe coi!. Bofh the electro magnets induce magnetic field. This magnetc field
induces as current flow in fhe Disc. Because ofthe disc is aclosed circuit there is an eddy current flows
142

in it anda magnetic field induced by the Eddy current Ths magnetic field repulses each other and
deflecting torque is induced.

.r

nw
;

:;;.=-

:-

~)

Pressure Col

.l

r ""'

1[

;::

1
-~-,

r-

r-Aluminium
di se

~t

..- [)

::::

\
Curren! coi!

[1

Load

l<"ig. 7.23.1

7.24. TONG TESTER

To measure the curren! passing thtough high voltage circuits ortransmission linse ammeter can not
be used drectly. Because, to connect the ammeter along the path ofthe cmTent, the transmission line
has be cut ata pont and then the ammeter has to be connected in between the open line. Once the
testing is over the line has to be rewired. This is notan cfficient or teasible method. long tcster is helpful
in measuring the cuiTent through a line without cutting it open. The core ofthe Tong tester can be
opened and the heavy curren! carrying line is feeder inside and the core is elo sed tght as shown in thc
figure. With the help of ammeter com1ected to the handle ofthe tong tester, the cU1Tent flowing through
the line can be calculated. It is al so called as clip-on type meter. This is al so u sed to measure high
voltage across any two points.
CURRENT CARRYING
\\NSULATED CONOUC TOR
- MAGNETJC F!ELD

CURRENT READ;NG

TONG-TESTER

Fig. 7.24

143

7.25. TECCO METER


Measurement of speed: Speed is defined as a scalar guantity. Electricians must know how to

measure the speed of rotating electrical machines. The speed of rotating machines is measured in two
ways.
Direct method (contact method)
Indrcct (non-contact) method
In practice both the methods are beng used by electricians.
In the direct method two types of instruments as stated below are used for measuring speeds.
Revoluton counter and stopwatch
Tachometer
Revolution counters: Revoluton counters are oftwo types; one is a dial type counter, wlch is
an earlier version and has become obsolete. The other type is a digital counter which is shovvn in Fg
7.25.1. The spndle ofthe counter which is provided with a conical rubber bush is plaeed in the
countersunk porton ofthe machine shaft formeasuring speed. The revolution counter counts the number
of revolution as long as its rubber brush is in contact with the shaft. To get the revolution per minute, it
is necessary to have a timng device.

KNOBTO
STARTTHE
TIME

RESET

MOTORSHAFT
STOPWATCH

REVOLUTION
COUNTER

ROBBER TlP OF
REVOLUT!ON

COUNTER SHAFT

Fig. 7.25.1.

Hence to measure the speed ofthe rotating shaft ;vith the revolution counter, a stopwatch is al so
necessary. Just when the rotation offhe shaft speed is transfened through friction to the counter, the
stopwatch begins to tick. Both the revolution counter and the stopwatch are stopped at the same time
and thenun1berof revolutions iudicatediu the counterperminute gives the speedofthe shaft in r. p. m.
The accuracy offls method is notvery great, as human reflexes are involved.

144

Motor

Fig. 7.25.2.

The second instrument used for directmeasurement of speed is a tachometer as shown in Fig
7.25 .2 The speed is direetly shown by a needle over a calibrated diaL

The tachometer is used in the same way as that ofthe revolution counter except that a stopwatch
is not required.
7.26. ENERGY METER

Theyareoftwo types
l.

Single phase energy meter

2. Threephase energy meter

7.26.1. Single phase energy meter


a) I:nduction lype single phase energy meter

There are tour main parts of the


operating
mechanisms. 'l11ey are,

Pressure coi!
(Shunt Magnet)

GearTrain
recording mechanism

Copper
Shading band

l)

Driving system

2)

Movingsystem

3)

Brak:i:ng system

4)

Registering system

Fig. 7 .26.1.

Current coi!
(Series Magnet)
Supply
NO-------l

145

l. Driving system

The driving system ofthe meter consists oftwo electromagncts. They are, Series magnet, Shunt
magnet
TI1e eores ofthe eleetromagnets are made up of silicon steellaminations. The coi! of series magnet
is excited by the load currentand it s called as curren! coi!. The coi! ofshunt magnet is connected
across the supply and therefore, carries a current proportional to the supply voltage and is called as
pressure coi!.
Copper shading bands are provided on the centrallinks ofthe shunt magnet. The positions of
these bands are adjustable. The function of these bands is to bring the flux produced by thc pressure
coi! current to 90 from voltage. The two copper bands wlch are in outer limbs ofthe shuut magnet are
for ficton compensation.
2. Moving system
This syatem consists of an alumininm disc mounted on (shaft) light al!oy shaft. Tls di se is positioned
in the air gap between series and shunt magnets. The shaft top end is engaged in a bearing cup and the
shaft rests and runs on a hardened steel pivot, screwed at the base ofthe shaft. The pi vot is supported
by a jewel bearing. The threaded portion on top ofthe shaft will engage a pinion on the energyrecording
mechanism.
3.Breaking system
A permanent magnet positioned near the edge of the alumininm disc forms the breaking system.
The disc moves in the field ofthe magnet and thus provides a breaking torque. 1be position ofthe
permanent magnet can be adjusted so asto adjust orvarythe breaking torque.
4. Registering or counting mecbanism
The function ofthe registeringmecbanism is to record continuously annmberwbich is proportional
to the revolutions made by the moving system and hence the energy in KWh.
Principie of operation
The supply voltage is applied across the pressure coil. The pressure coi! magnet produces a flux
<jJ., proportional to the supply voltage. This flnx includes an eddy ctm-ent in the disc. Similarly the load
currenti flowtbrough the current coil and produce a flnx <j"'proportional to the load current. This flux
also produces eddy curren! in the disc. Dueto interaction of each eddy current with the other flux, there
is a net driving torque on the alumininm disc. Since the speed of rotation depends on the power at the
instant.
7.26.2. (b) Three phase energy meter
11lree phase energy can be measured with a two element energy meter justas in the case oftbree
phase power measurement. The fig shows the circuit diagram of3 phase energy meter.
There ate two discs maintained on the same spindle that drives a single counting geartrain and two
separate brake magnets. Each element is similat in construction to the single phase meter.

146

It is essential that the driving torque ofthe two elements must be exactly equal to the amount of
powerpassing through each elernent. Thus in addition to normal compensating device attracted to each
elements, an adjustable magnctic shunt is provided on one or both the elements is made with the
pressure c.oils are connected in parallel and the curren! coils are conneeted in series in such a manner
that the torques produced by the two elements oppose each other. The magnetie shunt is adjusted to a
position where the two torques are exactly equal and opposite and thereforethere is no rotation ofdisc.

M,- Series magnet


M 2 - Shunt magnet
M 3 - Break magnet
A- Copper shading band

Fig. 7 .26.2.

147

B- Aluminio m disc

PC- Voltage coil

ce - Current coil
G- Gear train

Questions
Part-A

l.

Choose the CorreetAnswer

1)

The fiequency ofA.C. in India is,


a)25 Hz

2)

e) 50HZ

b)60HZ

The angular displacement between the phase of a polyphase system s


a) 120 electrical degree
e) 90 electrical degree

3)

oo

b)lag-0

e) lead- 90

oo

b) lag- 0'

e) lead- 90

b) unbalanced load
d) only Resistive load.

To convert mechanical power into electrical power multiply the power by,
a) 746

7)

d) lag- 90

Twowattmeter method is used to measure threephase .................. load.


a) balance load
e) balance and unbalance load

6)

d) lag- 90"

Current in purely capacitive circuit ................ thevoltage by .............. degree electrical.


a) lead-

5)

b) Oelectrical degree
d) 180 electrical degree.

In purely Inductive load on a.c the curren! ........... by ............ ..


a) lead-

4)

d) lOO HZ

b) 846

e) 946

d) 646

The power factor of a.c. purely resistive circuit is


a) 90 lagging b) 90' leadingc) 60'leadingd) unity.

8)

The pe1manent magnet moving coil type instruments are best suited for,

a)

A.C. measurement
measurement.

9)

The moving !ron type instruments are suitable for

b) D.C. Measurement

a) D.C. Mearuementsonly
e) AC/DC measurement

C) A.C!DC measurement

d) frequency

b)A.C. measurements only


d) Resistance measurement.

1O) Pen used inmeasuring instruments is,


a) lndicatinglnstrumeut
e) Integrating Instrument

b) Recording Instruments
d) None ofthese.

11) Ammeter is connected with load in,


a) Series

b) Parallel

e) Series parallel

148

d) Noneofthese.

12. Voltmeteris connected in,


a) Series

b)Pamllel

e) Series Parallel

d) Non ofthese.

c)Voltage

d) Speed in RPM.

c)AVOmeter

d) Energy meter.

13. Tacho meter is used for measuring

a) Frequency

b) Power

14. Multimeterisealledas,
a) Wattmeter,

b) Tong tester

Part-B
11. Answer the following questions in one word
1)

How many eleetrical degrees are their in one cycle?

2)

What is the current and voltage relationship in the purely resistve circuit?

3)

What is the value ofpower factor in the purely inductive circuit?

4)

Whatis the use ofinductance?

5)

Whatistheunitoffrequency?

6)

What is the current and voltage relationship R. C. series circut?

7)

\\'hat is ~denotes inAC circuit?

8)

What is Xc denotes inAC crcut?

9)

What is the material general!y used for control springs?

1O) Can you use the moving coi! type meter on a.c.?
11) \Vhich meter the ammeter orvoltmeter has high value ofresistance?
12) In which meter having uneven scale?
13) What is the nature of supply which in used in megger?

14) lfthe terminals of ohm meter are short circuited what will be the readng of the nstrurnents?
15) How many main coils are there in an energy meter?
16) \Vhch meter is used for measuring currentvvithoutcutting live "''ire?
Part-C
III. Answer the follo'l'l>ing questions in briefly

l.

\1/hat is altemative current?

2.

What is one cycle?

3.

What is frequency?

149

4.

\Vhat in RMS value in AC cuiTent?

5.

What is power factor?

6). Vihat is impedence?


7). How XL is calculated?
8)

How is watt meter connected?

9.

What are the types of measuring instmments?

1O. Vv'hy it is called as moving coi! type instruments?


11. \\-'hat are the types ofmoving Iron Instrument~?

12. \Vhatsmultimeter?
13. Vv'hat is the use oftongtester?
14. \\'hat is the use ofTachometer?
Part- D
IV. Answer the following questions in one page leve!
1)

What are the advantage and disadvantages ofAC Current?

2)

Defme:- (i) Maximum value (ii) Peak factor(iii) form factor(iv)Average value.

3)

Draw R.L series circuit and C:\c']Jlain.

4)

Draw R.Cseries circuit and explain.

5)

Explain (i) Star connection (ii) Delta connection

6)

Explain (i) Voltmeter (ii) Ammeter.

7)

Draw the diagram of three phase energy meter?

Part-E
V.

AnS'Iver the following questions in two page leve!

1)

Drawthe RL.C. series circuit and explain?

2)

Explain the classificationofmea;,'ll.ling instrmmmts?

3)

Explain the working principie ofmoving coi! Instruments?

4)

Explain the wheat stone bridge method measuring Resistance?

5)

Explain the working principie of single phase energy meter?

150

8. TRANSFORMER
Introduction

Generating stations generate electricity ata voltage of 11 KV The generating voltage is limited to
11 KV because highervoltage in generator leads to the problems in providing insulation. But at the
consumers end most oftheAC motors operate on 400 V The power from the generating station is to
be brought to the eonsumers end through transmission and distribution lnes. 1he transmission voltage is
either 66 KV, 11 OKV or 230 KV; beeause a high voltage is desirable fortransrnitting large quantity of
electrical power. Transmission ofpower with high voltage reduces the line curren! for a given power.
Such reduction in transmission line curren! has the following advantages:1. Less PR less in the transmissionline

2. Less voltage drop in the line


3. Efficiencyoftransmissionis increased
4. Volume of conductor required is less
Let us assume that the transmission voltage is 110 KV So the voltage ofll KV has to be stepped
up to 11 OKV at the generating station. At the receiving end ofthe transmission line, 110 KV has to be
stopped down to llKV. This 11 KV has to be again stepped down to 400 V before it can be supplied
to the consumers.
The device whieh is used for stepping up or stepping dov.n ofvoltages is knov.n as transfmmer.
They can step up or step dovvn altemative voltage only. This is the basic reason for the adoption ofA.C.
system for generation, transmission and distribution.
Working Principie of a transformer:

A transformer is a static (Stationary) apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is
transferred into another circuit without changing the frequency. It operates on the principie ofmutual
induetion between two (ormore) inductively coupled coils. In it~ simple form, itconsists oft\vo inductive
coils which are electrically separated but magnetically coupled to a coreas shown in fig: 8.1. Ifthe coil
is connected toa source of altemating voltage on alternating flux is set up in the laminated eore. Most of
the flux is linked with the other coi!. 11ms flmc is called mutual flux.
Seeonday winding

Fig: 8.1. Diagramatic representation of a simple transformer

151

As per Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction, anEMF is induced in the second coi l. Ifthe
second coil circuit is closed, a curren\ flows in it and thus electric energy is trans foned from the first coi!
to the second coi!. The coi! which is connected to the a.c. supply is called a~ Primary winding. The coi!
which is connected to the load is called as Secondary winding.
The primary winding receives its energy from the alternating source. Depending up on the degree
of magnetic coupling between the two circuits, energy is transfened from one circuit to the other.
Constrational Details

The iron core

n)

Primary and Secondary windings.

m)

Insulationofwindings.

iv)

Tanks, cooling methods, conservations etc.

As there are no moving parts in a transfonner, the construction is simple. The main parts of
transfonner noted above are shovm if

!("

ll 11

\j

uu

l. L. V. Terminal Bushing

2.lLV. Terminal Bushing

3. TransformerTank
5. ConservatorTank

4. CoolingTubes

Fig 8.2. Important parts of a Transformer

For the magnetic circuit a core ofhigh permeability silicon stoel is used, Each lamination is of
thickness 0.35 mm to 0.5 mm. There are three types of construction.
1) Coretype2) Shell type 3) Benytype.
'!be beny type construction is basically a shell type construction "~th magnetic path distributed
around the windings. This is not commonly used.
152

The primary and secondary windings consists of copper conductors normally of suitable crosssectional area, properly insulated. The number oftums in the winding is fixed based on the voltage.
There are two main types of windings, concentric cylindrical and sandwich. The coils are circular in
shape. Varnished cotton or paper is used for insulation. Low voltage windings are placed nearest to the
core in the concentric winding. Each !ayer is separated from the other by a small paper, in low output
transformers. In large transformers, each winding is placed on a separate former. In the sandwich type
of winding, the two windings are placed in altemate layers. Half a !ayer of the low voltage winding is
placed at the top and bottom.
. __ Conservator

r:;:f,,

Transformer

\. r=JJ /~T~n~:
1

. .

-/~ TransformerOil
Limb
Winding

Fig 8.3. Conservator and Breather

Eddy currents in the core and PR losses in the windings produce heat in the transfonner. To keep
down the temperature in the windings, the heat produced has to be removed. Natural air cooling is used
for small transformers. Por large output transformers oil cooling is used. Oil provides insulation, besides
cooling. The transfonner is placed in si de the tank. The tank is filled with transfonner oil and sealed.
The heat is passed to the oil. The oil circulates around the tank by convection and carry the heat to the
tank walls. One method of increasing the surface area of the tank is to provide vertical tubes on the
sides ofthe tank so that oil can circulate through them. Heat dissipation is accelerated. The oil used for
cooling oftransformers is got by refming crude petroleurn. This mineral oil has good insulating property.
In very large transformers effective cooling is achieved by forced oil circulation by purnps. Conservator
is a separate small cylindrical tank fixed on the top ofthe transformer tank, to avoid the whole surface
ofthe transformer oil to be exposed to atrnosphere. The whole ofthe transformer tank anda part of the
conservator are filled with oil. The breather is connected on the side ofthe conservator. Silicagel or
calciurn chloride in the breather (cacl 2) absorbs the moisture and allows dry air to enter the tank of the
transformer.
Core type Transformer

A core type transformer is one in which there is one iron path. The windings are wound on two
opposite lirnbs.
The magnetic circuit is made up oflarninated iron core. The core is laminated to reduce the eddy
current loss occurring in the core. Silicon steels are used to reduce the hysteresis loss in the iron core.
Laminated sheets are insulated from one another by a thick !ayer ofvamish insulation. Presently coldrolled grain-oriented (CRGO) silicon steellaminations areused for cores. Small core type transfonners
153

are made rectangular section core Iimbs. The core strips are assembled in such a way that the joints in
altemate layers are staggered so thatnarrow gaps, through the cross section ofthe core, are avoided.
In large out put core type transformers, ifthe <.,wss section ofthe core is circular, itis eeonomical.
High-Voltage

Low Voltage windng

Fig. 8.4. Core-type


For a given area, circular cross seetion gives mnimum circumference. This reduces the length of
the mean tum of the winding and heuce the cost of the winding wire. The produce circular cross
sectional area oflimb, the width of each lan1ination. Must be made variable (refer fig 8.5 a). This is
uueconomical. To overcome this, the core section is arranged in steps ofthree different widths (refer fig
8.5. b)

Fg. 8.5
a) Core cross section laminations ofvariable widths.
b) Core cross section lan1inations with three different viidths.

Shell Type Transformer :-

L VWinding

Fig. 8.6. Shell- Type


'

154

'

In sha!l type, theie are two parallel magnetic paths into which the flux the centrallimb can
divide.
The primary and secondary windings are placed on the centrallimb one abo ve the other. This
gives a better magnetic coupling. The magnetic circuit is made oflaminated iron core. In a shell type
transformer, the core surrounds the windings. In general the shell type is more economical for low
voltage transfonuers and the core type construction is more suited or hlgh voltage transfom1ers.
Coi! assembly

Fora given area, to have mnimum periphery so asto reduce the cost of winding wire and for easy
construction. Cylindrical coils are used. Astopped core is used. '111e core lal11inations are bolted together.
The bolts are insulated from the core to avoid eddy currents by employing Synthetic Res in Bonded
Paper (SRBP) tubes. In each limb, a stiffening plate is used to preven! bulging ofla111inations between
bolts. Sunoundingthe linlb, SRBP cylinder is placed. This supports the L. V. winding is provided near
the core, to reduce !he heavy insulation. Spacers are provided between L. V. and H. V. windings. Thus
cooling ducts are fonned. This ensures free 1ow of coils. L. V. and H. V. windings are insutated frorn
each other by bakelite eylinders. The bottom yokes have clamping channels.
The entire core is first built up. The top yoke is pulledout one by one. The already wound L. V. and
H.V. windings are placed over the limbs along withinsulating cylinders. The top yoke is then put in
position and elamped.

EMF Equation of a Transformer:


Let a transormer have,

P1irnary turns =N 1
Secondary tums N2
Maxinlurn value of flux in the core linlcing both the windings =?m in webers
Frequency of a. e input in H.Z f.
The flux in the core will very sinusoidally as shows in figure 8. 7.

1=
X

2TT

/
-----

timet

--1
Fig.8.7.

155

The t1ux in the core increases from zero toa maximum value? m in one quarter cycle
(Y, second)
There fore,Average rate of change offllLx =$m

= f"
4 '!'m

4f
Therefore, Average e.m.f. induced
Pertw-n =Average rate of change offlux x l.

= 4f"'!'m volts.
The flux vares sinusoidally. Hence the r.m.s. value ofinduced voltage is obtained by multiplying
the average value by form faetor, which is equal to 1.11 for a sine wave.
There fore R.M. S. value ofinduced e. m .f.
Perturn
=

1.11 x 4 $m m volts.

4.44 f iDm volts.


The primary and secondary windings have 1\'1 and N, tums respective!y.
R.M.S. value ofinducedR.M.F. inprimary. E1=4.44 f$mN 1
R.M. S. value ofinduced e.m.f. in secondary, E2 = 4.44 f $m N,
In an ideal transformer on no load,
Applied voltage V,

E,

Secondaryte1mnal voltage V 2 =

Voltage Ratio
The ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage is called voltage transformaton ratio. lt is
represented K.

Current Ratio

Neglecting the losses, Input volt ampere = output-volt ampere. V, 1 1 =V, I,

12
I

Losses in a Transformer
The losses in a transformer consists of FR loss or copper loss and iron loss or corc
Joss.

156

PR losses or copper losses


These losses occur s p1immy and secondmy wndngs. eopper losses in a transformer s a variable
loss. It vares as the square ofthe load current.
Iron loss or core loss
!ron losses consists ofhysteresis and eddy current losses. They occur in the tnmsfonner core duc
to the altematng flux.
Hysteresis loss : When the iron core is subjected to alternating flux hysteresis loss takes place.
Eddycurrent loss : Eddy currents are induced in the cores. This loss is dueto the flow of eddy
currents. Thn lamnations insulated rom each oher, reduce the eddy current loss.
Efficieney ofthe transformers :
The efficiency of a transionner is he ratio of output power to input power.
Output power

Efficiency, 11

Inputpower
=

Output power
Output power + losses

Auto transformer :
An auto transforrner is a one wnding transforrner. eonsider a single winding Be ofN 1 turns

wound on an iron core as shown in Fig : 8.8.

Fig: 8.8 Step Down auto Transformer


Ifths wnding is connected to an a.c. voltage V1, a flux will be set up in the core ami an e.m.f
E, will be indueed in the vvinding. Ifhere is a tappng at point E such hat
E
E :

There are N, turns between E and e on e.m.f. E2 exists bctween E and e such that
=

1V ,
--:-;

when a load is connected across the terminal s E and e, a cnrrent 12 flows. The

m.m.f. dueto I will be balanced by m.m.f dueto I1 Ths arrangement is referred toas anauto tr.msformer.
Ifpoint E is a slidng contact, a continuously variable output voltage can be made available.
157

Step down auto transformer:Fig: 8.8. shows a step downautotransformer. V2 is less than the input voltage. If core loss,
Copperloss, magnetizing cun'ent and leakage reaetance core neglected,

V
V2

12
!

N
N

The current [2 is greater than 11 The distribution of currents are indicated in Fg : 8.8.
The voltampore delvered to load is V,I,. Thismay be wrtten as V212 = V,J 1 + V2 (I,-1,)
V21, gives the voltarnperes ttansfe1red conducti vely to the load through the winding part BE and
V, (12-I) represents the voltarnperes transferred inductvely to the load through the winding part EC.
Advantages :
When comparing with 2 windingtransformer.
l. Copper required is very less.
2. The efficiency is higher.
3. The saving in conductor material and hence cost s less.
4. More smooth and contnuous variation ofvoltage.
Disadvantages:-

Direct link between high voltage and low voltage sides. TI1ere is no isolation, as in the case
of a two vnding transfmmer.

n)

If there is an open crcuit between points E and C ( Fig: 8.8) the full primary voltage would
be applied to the load on the secondary si de.

m)

1be short circut current is greater than, that of a hvo winding transformer.

Applications ofAuto Transfonner:


1) As a booster of supply voltage a small extent

2) Three phase auto transformers are u sed to startingA.C. 3 phase induction motor.
3) It can be used to vary the voltage to the load. Smoothly from zero to the rated voltage.
4) 111ree phase auto transformers are used in the nter conneetion of girds. Example 132 KV grid
with 220 KV grid.
Three Phase Transformer:
Electric power is generated in generating stations, using three phase alternators al 11 KV. This
voltage is further stepped up to 66 KV, 11 OKV, 230 KV or 400 KV using 3 phasepowertransfom1ers
and power is transmitted at this high voltage through transmission lines. At the receiving substations,
158

these high voltages are stopped down by 3 phase transfonners to 11 KV This is further stepped down
to 400 volts at load centres by means of distribution transformers. For gimeration, transmission and
distribution, 3 phase system is economical. Therefore 3 phase transfonners are very essential for the
above purpose. The sectional view of a 3 phase power transfonner is shown inFig : 8. 9.

Tap-changer switchhandle
2. Porcelain-bushing insulator
(For high voltage)
3. Bushing insulators
(Forlow voltages)
4. Oilgauge
l.

Oil taulc
6. Breatherplug
7. Cooling pipes
8. Tank front wall
5.

9.
10.
11.
12.

Core,
Highvoltage\\o'nding
Low voltage winding
V/heels or rollers.

Fig 8.9 lOO KVA oil immersed power transformer


Construction ofThree phase Transformer

Three phase transformers comprise ofthree primary and three secondary windings. They are
wound over the laminated eore as \Ve have seen in single phase transformers. Three phase transformen;
are also of core type or shell type as in single phase transfonners. The basic principie of a thrcc phase
transformer. Is illustrated in fig. 8.1 Oin which only the primary windings are shown. They are inter
connected instar and put across three phase supply.

r,

PJI
Fig 8.10: 3-phase core-type Transformer

!59

The three cores are 120" apart and their unwound limbs are shown in contact with each other. The
centre core formed by these three limbs, canies the flux produced by the three phase currents 1 Iv and
IB. As atany instantiR-'-Iv+lB=0, the sumofthree flux es (flux in the centre limb) is also zero. Therefore
it will make no difference ifthe common limb is removed.
Thc core typetransformers are usually wound with circular cylindricaJ coils. Ihe construction and
assembly oflaminations and yoke ofa threephase core type transtormer is shown in fig: 8. 11. one
method of arrangement of windings in a three phase transfmmer is shovvn in fig: 8.12. In this fig, the
primarywindings occupy the bottom portion of each limb.

Fig. 8.11

Fig. 8.12

In the other method the primary and secondary windings are wound one over the other in each
limb. The low-tension windings are wound directly over the core but are, of coutse, insulated for t. The
high tension vvindings are wound over the low - tension wndings and adequate insulation is provided
between the two windngs.
The primary and secondary windings ofthe three phase transtormer can also be interconnected as
star or Dalta.
Thrce Phase Transformer connections:-

The identieal single phase transformers ean be suitably nter-connected and used instead of a
single urt 3-phase transformer. The single urt 3 phase transformer is housed in a single tank. But the
transformer bank is made up ofthree separate single phase transformers each with its own, tanks and
bushings. This method is preterred in mines and high altitude power stations because transportation
becomes easier. Bank method is adopted also when the voltage involved is high because it is easier to
provide proper insulation in each singlephase transtormer.
As compared toa bank of single phase transfonners, the main advantages of a single unit
3-phase transfmmer are that it oecupies less floor space for equal rating, less weight costs about 20%
less and futther that only one unit is to be handled and connected.
There are various methods available for transforming 3 phase voltages to higber or lower 3
phase voltages. The most common connections are (i) star- star (i) Delta- Delta {iii) Star- Delta (iv)
Delta- Star.
160

B~~~~~b
,c:-'-+Oy y ~111 c::::-;}---oy

111

Fig. 8.13 Star-Star

Fig. 8.14 Delta- Delta

Fig. 8.15 Star- Delta

Fig.- 8.16 Delta- Star

The star-star connection s most econornical for small, high voltage transformers because the
number oftarns per phase and the amount ofinsulation required is minmum (as phase voltage is only
1/3 oflne voltage. In fig: 8.13 a bank ofthree transfonners connected instar 011 both the primary aod
the secondary sides is show11. The ratio ofline voltages 011 the primary to the secondary si des is the
same as a traosfotmation ratio of eacts single phase transfonner.
The delta- delta connection is economical for large capacity, low voltage transfom1ers in which
insulation problem is nota serious one. The transfonner connection are as shown in fig : 8.14.
The main use of star-delta connectio11 is at the substation e11d ofthe transmission line where the
voltage is to be stepped down. The primary v.;inding is star connected with grounded neutral as shovm
in Fig: 8.15. The iatio between the secondaty and primary line voltage is 1/3 times the tra11sfonnation
ratio of each single phase tra11sformer. There is a 30 shift between the prirnary and secondary line
voltages which mea11s that a star-delta trat1sf01mer bank ca11not be parallcled with either a star-star or
a delta-delta bank.
Del ta-Star connection is general!y employed where it is necessary to step up the voltage. The
cOJmection is shown in fig: 8.16. The neutral ofthe secondary is grounded for provding 3-phase,
4-wire service. 1be connection is very popular becausc it =be used to serve both the 3-phase power
equipment at1d single phase lighting cireuits.

Parallel Operation ofTransformers


For supplying a load in excess ofthe rating of at1 existing transfom1er, a second transtonner may
be connected in para!!el with it to share the total load.

Fig : 8.17 Transformers connected in


parallel to the same mains and supplying
independent loads

Fig : 8. 18 Transformers connected in


parallel sharing total load

161

In parallel across a supply system of proper voltage, and their secondaries are connected to
separate orindependent circuits as in Fig: 8. 17. they operate independently of each other. When the
seeondaries are also c01mected in parallel as in Fig: 8.18, the transformers must have the same rated
primary and secondary voltages. Othervvise the secondary emfs will be unequal, anda current will
circulate between the machines, This current is to be limited only by the impedance oftheirwindings.
Since this impedance is small, such a light difference in secondary EMF Vvill cause a large current to
circulate. Therefore in connecting two or more than tVvo transfom1ers in parallel, it is essential that their
terminals of similar polarities are joined to the same bus bars.
In order that the transforrners may properly divide the load, the impedance drop in each must be
the same at allloads. Thus each transfom1er must have the same percentage impedance. In general
transfonners wll share the load inverselyproportonal to theirrespective impedances. Forinstance, if
two transformers ofthe same rated KVA are to equally divide the load, they should have the same
impedance.lfone has !\vice the KV.Arating ofthe other, it should supply m ice the current. (the in1pedance
ofthe higherrating transforrner should have lower value compared to the other, because voltage drops
should be same in both the transformers).
Conditions for satisfactory parallel Operation:

The following conditions should be ful1lled fbr the satisfactory parallel operation oftranslbrrners.
1)

Polarity oftransforrners should be same. In case polarity is wrong, adead short circuit may
occur.

2)

Equal voltage ratio is required to avoid local circulating currents between the transiormer
windings. \Vith 1mequal voltage ratios, the secondaryvoltages onno-load will not be equal.
When secondaries are connected in parallel, circulating current will flow.

3)

The percentage impedance {Percentage voltage drop dueto impedance ofwinding) of the
transf01mer should be equal. Por paralling 3. phase transformers in addition to the above
points, the following conclitons must also be fulfilled.

4)

In case of 3 phase transforrners, phase sequence should be san1e.

5)

The transfom1ers to be connected in para!!el should be long to the same vector group.

Instruments Transformers

In D.C. circuits when high voltages are to be measured, low-range voltmeters are used with a high
resistance connected in series with them. Por measuring large currents, it is usual to use low range
ammeters \.Vth suitable shunts. But in alternating curren! systems ofhigh and moderare voltage, meter
relays and other instruments are not usually connected directly to the power circuit. For this purpose,
speeially constructed instrument transforrners kno>vn as are employed. By mean~ ofthese transfmmers
ordinary instruments ofl50 Volts potential and 5 ampere current coils can be used to indicate accurately
the voltage, current and power etc., in such circuits regardless ofthe line voltage or ofthe curren! they
carry. Also low energy relays can be employed to operate protective and control apparatus.

162

Poten tia! Transfonners


H,

PrtJ
11KV 100:1

Po1enHal
T ransfo~mer

Fig. 8.19 Potentia! Transformer

Potential transfonners do not differ much from the ordinarytwo winding transfonners, except that
their powerrating s ex:tremely small. These are step down transfonners. The primary \vinding is eonnected
directly across the power crcuit. The secondary is usually wmmd for 11 Oor 120 volts, so that the
voltage ratio depends upon the rated primary voltage. Meters and instruments are connected in the
seeondary si de.
Fig : 8.19 represents a potential ttansfonner connected toa llKV line. Its voltage rating s 11000
to 110V ora ratio of 100: l. Thus the 150 V. voltmeter will indicate 110 volts or 1/100'" ofthe line
voltage. or the volttneter sea! e can be multiplied by the transfonner ratio. In sorne voltmeters its scale is
calibrated to showthe primary voltage directly. Thus the 150V nmge volttneter indicates the line voltage
directly. The secondary always should be gronnded at one pointto eliminate "static" from the instrument
and further to ensure safety to the operator.
Current Transformers

The curren! transfonner has a primary col of only a 'fewturns ofthick wire connected in series
with the line whose cun-ent is to be measured. The secondary consisting large number of tums is
com1ected to the terrninals of a low reading ammeter. The arnmeter is thus entirely insulated from the
line. Mostly the secondaries of all cunent transfonners are wonnd for 5 ampers. Therefore the current,
or tnmsfonnation ratio is detennined bythe cunen! rating ofthe power circuit.

.Aro.

Fig: 8.20 Current Transfonner

Seeonde.ry

163

In Fig: 8.19 current transformer also is connected to measure the current in the 11 KV power
system Assume there are 2 tums in the primary and 200 tums in the secondary. The curren! "ratio" in
the transfonner is 200:2 or 100:1 (reverse oftums ratio). Ifthe !ine currem is 500 amperes the meter
vll indicate 5 amperes. Ifthe scale ofthe meter is marked suitably, it indicate the line current directly.
Fig: 8.20 shows how the large current througha bus-bar is measured by a current transiorrner. If
the secondary ofa current transformer beco mes open circuited, a high voltage will exist across the
secondary because the large ratio of secondary lo primary turns causes the transformer to actas a
stepup transforrner which is dangerous to the operator. Therefore, the secondary ofacwTent transforrner
should not be open circuited under any circumstances.
Protective Devices ofTransformer

The protective devices in an oil cooled power transfonner are discussed below:
1) Conservator

Transformer oi llosses its insulating properties and is oxidised when it is in contract with the
atmosphere. Forthis reason, the oil must not come in direct contract with the air outside. Conservators
or oil expansion chambers are provided to prevent this absorption.
The conservator is a cylindrical verssel. It is fitted on the top ofthe tank. The tank is entirely filled
up with oil.Tbe conservator is filled with oil partly. (about 50%). The transfonner oil gets heated dueto
the losses in a transformer. The volume iucreases dueto heat and the leve! of oil in conservation increases.
Air is expelled from the conservator through the breather. When the oil cools doVvn, the volwne decreases
and the leve! ofthe oil in the conservator comes dovvn. This is referred toas "breathing". 'The oil surface
in the conservator is only exposed to oxidation. The sludge is thus confined to the oil surface in the
conservator. Ifthere is no conservator the sludge will stick to the cooling tu bes. This will spoil the
cooling effect.
ii) Breather

The breather is a small vessel. It is connected between conservator and air outlet. It contains
silicagel. It is a dehydrating agent. The moisture is the incoming air is removed. The colour ofthe
slicagel is blue when dry and pink when wet or damp.
iii) Explosion Vcnt

In the event of an accidental intemal short circuit in the transfonner, an are is forrned between the
turns ofthe winding. Heat is produced by the are. Dueto this, a large volume ofgas is produced.
Provision must be made for rapid release of the gas. Otherwse high pressure will be builtup nside
leading to the lip ofthe tank blmvn ofl: An explosion vent is provided, this reason on the tap ofthe tank.
The explosion vent's mouth is covered by adiaphragon of glass or aluminium. Under normal conditions
air is not allowed to come in contract with the oil. Under short circuit conditons. The diaphragon is
ruptured dueto high pressure. The gas is expelled to atraosphere. The high pressure gas escaping, may
take a portian ofthe hot oil also. The hotoilmay get splashed and cause injuryto theworkers in the
transformer yard. For this reason it is bent dovmwards.

164

(iv) Bucholz Relay:

Sphericalfloat

~~
T

To alarm bell

To trip circui t

....

-'"?C:Q-'
Spherical
float

'~

Fig. 8.21. Bucholz Relay

This is adevice which be attached toan oilimmersed transfonner. This is fitted in the pipe cormeeting
the transfonner tank with the conservator.
Itconsists oftwo floats as showninFig: 8.21.
Two pars of electrica[ contracts are provided. These contacts may get short circuited under
certain situations.
Gas is generated in the oil when insulation breaks down in a transfonner. Quckgeneration ofthis
gas leads to a serious fault. TI1e gas rushes through the pipe and pushes the [ower float to the rght. The
two lower contracts bridge together andel oses to trip circut of the circuit breaker. The transfonner is
out of circuit now. Suppose the fault develops slowly gas also is generated slowly. This maynot be
suflicent to move the lower float. This gas gets col!ected gradually in the top ofthe relay chamber. Tbe
oillevel gets lowered. This causes the upper t1oat to sink. It finally el oses the second pair of contacts.
This trips ofcircuit breaker or it may be arranged to ringan alann be!!. Afault can thus be detected and
the transfonner s switched out of circuit.
Transformer Oil:

Transfonner oil is a mineral oil. It is obtained by refining curde petroleum. It is a good insulator. Its
tendency lo form, a sludge is very much less. 'I11e dielectrc strength ofoil s a!Tected toa great extent by
the presents ofmoisture. So it has to be kept dry. Transfom1er oil serves two functions.
(i) Cooling

(ii) Insulation

165

Questions

Part-A
Choose the CorrectAnswer:
l.

..,
~.

Transfonner opemtes on the principie of


a. Selfinduction

b. Mutuallnducton

c. Maxwell's Corck screw rule

d.Len'slaw

Slicagel in the breather absorbs .


a. Moisture

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

b.Dust

c. Heat

Transfonner eore s laminated to reduce the


a. Copper loss

b. Wintage loss

c. Hysteresis loss

d. eddy cunent loss

Slicon steel sheets are used to reduce the


a. Frictionalloss

b. mechanicalloss

c. Hysteress loss

d. eddy current loss

Potential transfmmers and current tmnsfonners are


a. Outdoor transbrmers

b. IndoorTmnsfonners

c. lnstrument transfonners

d. Power Transfmmers

Conservator s a
a. Main tank of a transfonner

b. Protective device of a transformer

c. Earthing system of transfom1er

d. Insulationmateral ofa transfom1er

Transbrmer o! serverthe functons of

a Insulation and cooling

b. Lubrication

c. Onlyinsulation

d. only coolng

Part-B
Answer the following questions in one word:
l.

How many windings are having a 3 ~ transonner?

2.

Write the name of the variable loss in the transfonner

3.

What type oftransformerto be attached the Bucholz Re! ay?

166

d. Vibmtion

4.

\lilhat is the colour ofSilicagel when it is dry condition?

5.

Why the transtormer oi! is heated?

6.

Write the generating voltage at generation stations.

7.

What based the number oftums in the winding is fixed?

Part-C
Answer the following questions in briefly:
l.

What are the advantages oftransrnission of power wilh high voltage for a given power?

2.

What is the voltage ratio of a transformer?

3.

State eftlciency ofthc transformer?

4.

What is the advantage of auto transformer?

5.

V.lhat are the protective di vices oftransformer?

6.

Write short notes on transformer o!?

Part-D
Answer the following questions in one page leve!
l.

Explain the workingprincple of a transformer?

2.

Explain the operation of an auto transfonner?

3.

Explain how to the Bucholz relay works as a protective device for a transformer?

Part-E
Answer the following questions in two page level.
l.

Explain the connection ofthree phase transbnner?

2.

Explain the function in instrurnent transbnners


a) Potential transfonner b) currenttransfonner

167

9. D. C. GENERATOR
D.C. Machines can be used as a generator or as a motor. Hence D.C. Machines are
classified in to:
i) D.C. Generator and
i) D.C. Motor.

Basic Principie ofDC Generator and Energy Conversion:


In general, an electrical generator is a rotating machine which converts mechanical encrgy into
electrical energy.
D. C. generators work on the principie of electromagnetic induction. This is explained as follows.
According to Faraday's Laws ofElectro-~1agnetic Induction, when a conductor or acoil is rotated
in a ma,l'JJ.etic field in such a way, to cut the magnetic lines oftlnx, an e.m.f is induced in a conductor or
in the col. Ifthe circuit of the conductor or coi! is closed in proper way, a cuiTent flows through the
circuit. The magnitude of induced e.m.f. is proportonal to the speed of rotation ofthe conductor, the
flux in the magnetic field and the number of conductors or coils connected in series.
In d. c. generators the conductor or the coils are arranged on a cylindrical rotor called an armature.
The armature is rotated in the magnetic field so asto cut the magnetic !ines of flux. To rotate ths
armature, another rotating device called prin1e-mover is used. The prime movers used for this energy
conversion may be water turbine or diese! engine or steam engine. The armature ofthe d. c. generator
is driven by mechanical energy applied to its shaft. Thus the mechanical energy is convetied in to
electrical energy. Fig: 9.1.

InputMechanical Energy

OutputEiectrical Energy --

D.C.
Generator

Prime Mover

Fig. 9.1. Illustration ofEnergy conversion


The D.C. machine {D.C. generator or D.C. motor) has the followingparts.
l.

Poles orfield poles to produce the magnetic flnx.

2.

An annature with conductors and

3.

Relatve moton benveen magnetic field and armature conductors.

In d.c. generators the magnetic field is stationary and the armature rotates. W11en theannature s
rotatcd, the annature conductor cut the magnetic lines offlnx, so a dynamically induced e.m.f. is induced
in the armature. The e .m. f. thus induced in d. c. generator s of altemating one and this is convetted in to
direct e.m.f. by a device kuovvn as "Commutator". The Commutator is mounted at the one end of the
168

armature, on the same shaft of the annature. The direction ofinduced e.m.f. is detennined by using
llemng's righthand rule.
Constructional Details ofDirect CurrentMachine:-

Adirect ctment machine can be used as a generator oras a motor. When the machine is driven by
a prime-mover it converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and is called a generator. If the
electrical energy is supplied to it, it works as a motor and the energy conversion is from electrical to
mechanical. There fore the constructional details of a d. c. generator anda d. c. motor are the same.
A direct curren! machne (generator or motor) has the followng parts:

O Yoke or magnetic frame.


il)

Field system- Po le cores, pole shoes, Field coils.

fu)

Armature-Armature core,Annature windings, commutator.

iv)

Brushes, Bearings, End covers, shaft, tenninal box, etc.

13

l. Yoke

2. Pole
3. Po le shoe
4. Field coi!
5. Interpole
6.Airgap
7.Annature

8. Slot
9. Teeth
1O. Commutator
11. Shaft
12. Base
13. Temtinal box
Fig. 9.2. D.C. Machine

Yo ke or magnctic frame: The Yoke or fiame is the outer cover of the machne. It is made of cast iron. But for large machines
usually cost steel or volted steel is employed which has greatcr strengthand high pem1eability.
169

The Yoke serves two purposes


l.

It provdes Mechanical support to poles acts as a protecting cover for the machine.

2.

It carries the magnetic flux produced by !he poles

Fig. 9.3. (a) Yoke


Field Poles:
Laminated steel sheets are used to fabricate poles. The sheets are stacked for the required length
and reveted together. The poles are fixed at the inner periphery ofthe hollow cylindrical frame. One
each polea former wound coi! s provided. Insulated copper wire is used for the coils. The coils of aH
the poles are connected in such a wayte ferm north and south pele alternatively. These are called field
poles. Vihen the wse ofthe coils carries a current, the pele beco mean electro-magnet and produces
the magnetic flux. The purpose of providing pele shoes in the poles are,
Rivet hole

Fg. 9.3 (b) Po le


(i)

It actas a mechanical support to the field coils.

(ii) They reduce the reluctance of the magnetic path and

(rii) They guide and spread out the flux in the air gap.

h1ter Poles:lnter poles orthe commutating poi es are fixed to the frame as shov.m in lg: 9.2. T11ese poles are
provided to mprove commutation. T11e >vinding ofthe interpole s connected in series wth rumature.
170

Armature:

9.3. (e) Field coil

Fig. 9.3. ( d) Armature lamination

Armature slats
and teetb

{e) Armature and commutator


Fig. 9.3. Parts ofD.C. Machine

Armature is the rotating partofthe machine. It is in cylindrical shape with slops on its petiphery. lt
is built up of steellaminations. It is mounted on the shaft. The annaure lamination is abou:t 0.5 mm thick.
By using laminated sheets to tablicate annature, the eddy curren! loss is reduced.lf silicon content steel
is used for rumature core, the hysteresis loss also reduced. Dueto losses (hysteresis, eddy current and
FR los ses)heat is developed in the annature. To dissipate this heat a fan is provided at one end ofthe
annature. Ventilating ducts are also provided in the annature for the purpose of cooling.
Armaturc Windings:

The armature Vvinding s placed on slots available on the armature surface. Former wound coils
are used. The ends ofthe coils are jointed Vvith the commutator segments. Insulated high conductivty
copper wire is used. Lap Vvinding or wave winding is used.
Commutator:

The conrmutator is made up ofnumber of wedge shaped segments. Ifis of cylindrical shape.lt is
built up of segments ofhard drawn copper. The segments are separated by their layers of mica. Each
commutator segment is connected to the annature conductor by means of a copper strip called riser. In
d.c. generatorthe commutator converts the altemating current induced in the atmature into unidirectonal
current.
171

Brushes:-

The brushes are made of carbon. It is in the shape ofrectangular block. The brushes are placed in
brush holder. The brush holders are mounted on rocker arm. The brushes are arranged on rocker arm
in such a way, ittouches the surface ofthe commutator. The fl.mction ofa brush is to collect curren! from
commutator, in case of generator. When the machine is working as a motor the current to the armature
conductors are fed through the brushes.
Bearings:-

Ball and roller beatings are used. For heavyduty condtions roller bearings are used.
Generation of electro Motive Force:-

Consideramagnetic fieldandaeoil of single tum \Vth sliprings as in Fig. 9.4.

N.S - Magnets
e,- Coh
M - Magnetic field
Sn S, - Slip rings
RL - Load resistance
Fig. 9.4.

The coil s provided in between the poles. It is rotated in clockwise dection ata uniform speed in
a tulform magnetic fiel d.
At position 1, (0 =O'), d1e planeofthe oil is perpendcularto the direction oflines offlux. Now,
the flux linked with the coi! is maximum. But the ratc ofchange offlux linkages is mininlum. So, no e.m. f
is induced in the coi!. That is at the starting position, e.m.f. induced is zero.
When the coi! is rotatcd further, the rate of change of flux linkages increases upto position: 3, (0
90"). Atthis position the plane ofthe coi! is paralled to the lines of t1ux. :t\ow, the t1ux linked with the coi!
is minimum, butrate ofchange of flux linkages is maximum. Thereore, at this position e.m.t: induced in
the eoil is maximum. On further rotation ofthe coi!, from position 3, (0 = 90) to position 5 (0 180')
the rate of change offlux linkages decreases, and the emf, induced is gradually decreased. At position
5 (0 = 180") it is reduced to zero. The magnitude ofe.m.f. with respect to the coi! position is indicate
inFig. 9.5.
From position 5 to position 7 (that is from 180" to 270") the induced e.m.f. value starts again from
zero to maxi1num and from position 7 to position l. (fiom 270" to 360") maxl.mum to zero.
172

e.m.f.

Coil positiou:-

One

Cycle

-----1

Fig. 9.5

The direction of nduced current in the conductor is frorn Ato B and frorn C to D during the
revohrtion ofthecoil from position 1to 5. (Applying fleming's righthand rule). In thenext halfrevolution,
fmrn positon 5 to l, the direction ofthe induccd current is frorn D to C and from B toA as shown in
figures. 9.6 (a) and 9.6 (b).
The variation ofthe magnitude ofe.m.f. are similar in both the haif revolutions. But the induced
e.m.f. during the first half revolution is positive and negative in the second half revolution. The cunent
reverses its direction after everyhalf revolution thus the quantity generated is an alternating one.

A:----\D

D,-----.,.A

ABCD- Coil
b 1 '.
1

1\

Fig. 9.6 (a)

1\

Fig. 9.6. (b)

a 1 b Split ring,
Segments
b 1 b2 - Carbon brushes
RL - Load resistance

To rectifYthe altemating quantity and get direct curren! splitrings (Fig. 9.7) are used inslead of slip
rings. By using split rings the current in the externalload circuit is maintained in uuidirection as shown in
figures. 9.6 (a) and 9.6(b). The wave from of the curren! (obtained by providing the slip rings) through
the extemal is as showu in figure. 9.8. the current thus obtained is unidirectional current but pulsating
one.

173

Mica insulation

Segments

Fig. 9.8 (b)

Fig. 9.7 (a)

In practica! generator, the number of coils are large and are accommodated on the surface of the
armature. Instead of split rings the commutator (v,ith large number of segments) is provded at the one
end ofthe armature. For example if there are two coils. Then the number of commutator oflargc
number of segments may be less pulsating as shown in figure. 9. 9.

Fig. 9.9.
E.M.F. Equation ofD.C. Generator:The e.m.: generated in a direct current generator is proportional to the speed rotation ofthe
armature, total number of atmatute conductors, total flu.x available in the field and the type of winding
adopted in the armature.

Let, P No. ofpoles.


0 =flux per poi e, in webers.
Z =total no. of conductors in the armature (number of slots iu the armature x number of conductors

per slot).
N= Speed of rotation of armature in r.p.m.
A =No. ofparallelpaths inarmature
Eg = e.m.f. induced in any parallel path is armature.
The EMF Equation ofD. C. generator (Eg) = 0zn x.!: volts
60 A
Where,

P in case oflap wound generator,


2 in case ofwave wound generator.
174

Types ofD.C. Generators:

D.C. Generators are classified according to the manner in which theirfield windings are connected.
The process of giving D.C. voltage to the field winding for producing magnetc field s called field
excitation. The generators are classfied as follows:
D.C. generator

Seperately Excited
D.C. generator

Se1ies
Generator

Selfexcited D.C.
genemtor

Shtmt
generator

Compound
generator

Longshtmt
Compotmd
Generator

Short Shtmt
Compound
generator

SEPARATELYEXCITED GEJ\"ERATORS:In this type of generator, the tleld winding is excted by a separate D.C. source. The sehemate
diagram of a separately excited D.C. generator is shown in figure. 9.1 O.

Fig. 9.10 Separately excited generator

SELFEXCITED GENERATORS:In this type ofgenerator, the field 'Ninding is excted bythe same machine. When the armature is
rotated some e.m.f is generated dueto the presence ofresidual magnetsm. Thus sorne nduced currents
s produced and this passes through the field cols. This induced current produce more flux. This action
is repeated and thereby sufficient current passes thwugh the field coils to generate the rated induced
EMF.

The self excited generators are further classiled in to three types, according to the way of their
t1eld winding cont1cctions to the annature as tbllows:
175

1.

Shunt wound generator.

2.

Series wound generator. And

3.

Compound wound generator.

SHUNT WOUND GENERATOR:In tbis type of generator, the field winding is connected in paralled with the armature terminals. The

shunt field windings consists of a large number oftums oftbin copper wire. Since the field winding is
connected in parallel, the voltagc generated is applied across the tenninals. The schematc diagram of a
shunt generator is shovvn in figure. 9.11.

Fig. 9.11 Shunt generator

SERIES WOUND GENERATOR:-

In this type of generatorthe field winding is connected in series with the armature. The field
winding consists of a few number oftums ofthick copper wire because itha~ to earry fullload atn1ature
current The schematic diagram of a series generator is shown in figure. 9.12.

Series Field

Fig. 9.12. Series generator

COMPOUND WOUND GENERATOR:-

Short Shunt connection Long- Shunt connection.

1
L

-"-----()

Fig. 9.13 Compound generator

}'ig. 9.14 Main polc ofa compound


wonnd machine
176

In the compound wound generator, the shunt field winding and series field winding connected V'.'th
the rumatureterminals. Depending up on the shunt field and series field winding connections, it is namcd
as long shunt or short shunt generator. 111e schematic diagram ofD.C. compound generator is sho\\'11 in
figure. 9.13. In compound generator, the shunt field w'inding and the series field w'inding are placed in
the main poles as shovvn in figure. 9.14.
Armature Reaetion:

In D.C. generators, under looked condition, the armature conductors carry current and produce
a magnetic fiel d. The effect ofthis magnetic field set up by the armature curren! on the distribution ofthe
flux tmder main poles is known as armature reaetion.

Neutral

Neutral
Plane

Jau e

Fig. 9.15

In d.c. machines the brushes are placed along the geometrical neutral axis (GNA). The magnetic
neutral axis ()ANA) is also the san1e. The geometricalneutral axis is the line which bisccts the angle
between the two adjacent poles. Along the magnetic neutral axis, the flux exisiting is zero. Hence the
EMF induced in the conductors along this axis is zero.
Fig. 9.16 (al) shows the flux from the field poles through the armature ofa bipolar generatorwhen
there is no current in the rumatuie conductors. This flux is produced entirely dueto the ampere turns of
the field w'indings . .Yforeover it is distributed symmetrically with respect to the polar axis, that is the
centrelineoftheN and the S poles. Thefig. 9.16 (a2) shows a vector Fwhichrepresents inmagnitude
and direction ofMMF producing this flux. This vector F is acting a right angle to the neutral plan.
,

__ ., __ ... __
------

~cutral

r ..,.
1

plane
\

-.<-.'~-

Trailing
pole tip

New Neutral

New Neutral
plan e

-;~W'

(a 1 Curreut iu field coi! only)


n1msn

(a2)

axis

(Brush axis
(b,)

(c 1 Curreut in both
armature and field)

Fig. 9.16 Effect ofarmature


reaction on field of generator
177

(e,)

Inlg. 9. 16 (bl). Thereis no cunentin the field coils, butthe annature conductors aresbo-wn as
carrying current. The direction ofthe cunent in the annatnre conductors are shown as if it is loaded.
The direction of cunent in a11 the conductors is the sarne that lie under one poi e. The direction of the
cunent is away from the viewer on the left side ofthe rumature. This cunen! direction may be checked
by fleming's righthand rule.
The M.M.F. dueto these cunent carrying conductors combine to send the flux do'knwards through
the annature, as sho'kn in the diagrarn b2. (this direction can be determined by cork screwrule). The
direction of curren! in the conductors on the righthand side ofthe armature is sho\VTI as coming towards
the viewer. Their MMF's al so combine to send the flux do\VTiwards through the armature. That is, the
MMFs ofboth sides ofthe annature combine in such a ma1111er asto send the do\VTiwards through the
armature. The direction ofthis flux is perpendicularto the polar axis. The annature ~\1F is represented
in magnimde and direction by the vector F, in fig.
Fig. 9. 16 (Cl) shows the resultan! flux lines obtained when both the field curren! and the rumature
current are acting simultaneously, which occurs when the generator is tmder load. The resultan! flux is
acting atan angle to the main flux. The effect of annature reaction is sho\VTI by a vector Fo in the figure
C2. The leld MMF vector F and the arrnature Mlv1F vector FA act at right angles to each other. The
resultan! MMF vector is F . As the direction ofthe resultan! flux is the same as that of the resultan!
' neutral axis must be at right angle to F Thus the new magnetic neutral
MMF then the newmagnetic
axis advances as shown in fig. 9.1 6(d).
0

00

../

Demagnetizng
component of the
armatu re mmf

FA----- FC \

\ Cross-magnetJZmg
componen! of lile

armature mmf
Fig. 9.16 Relation of armature flux to brnsh axis

]berefore the brushes are also shifted to the new magnetic neulr'al axis. The atmature behaves as
tilted coi! and hence the annatnre ~\1F is also filted along the magnetic neutral axis.
Effect ofArmature Reaction:

( 1) Tbe flux dueto rumatnre cunen! helps (strengthen) the main pole flux on the left handside at trsiling
poletips.
(2) The flux dueto armature current opposes (demagnetize) the mainpole flux on the righthand si de at
the leading pole tips. There are shows in fig. 9.16 (e) above.
The arrnamre Mlv1F can be resolved in to two components as
(1) Demagnetising componen! and
(2) Cross magnetising component
178

(b) Cross-magnetizng
armature conductors

Fig. 9.17
The demagnetising componen! is in phase opposition to the field MMF. This reduces the main
fieldflux.

TI1e crossmagnetising component is at right angles to the field MMF. Ths changes the direction of
the main field flues. The exact conductors which produce these two effects are shown n figure. 9. 17
Dueto the effect of these t\vo components of the armature MMF, the resultan! MMF has increased
(Fig. 9.18).
Brusb axis

Fig. 9.18

--FA=Armmmf

"

Result mmf

Melhods ofCompensatngArrnature Reaetion:(i) Increasng the Ar Gap Length.


Pole Core
Lamination
with Oue Tip

Long Air
Gap

., Chamfered

~~le

Sboe

Armatuer Core Surface

f,.~~==;;r::::!:::
Armatuer Core Surface
(b)

(a)

Fig. 9.19 Special pole-core laminations to counteract the effect of arma tu re reaction

179

ln small machines the air gap length is increased (for increasing tl1e reluctance to the arrnature lux).

This increases the ratio of the poi e :VIMF to armature YIMF. Thus the effect armature reaction is
reduced.
The reluctance between the pole tips and the surface ofthe armature core is increased in two
ways. This reduces the armature reaction lux in the interpole 7..one. Fig. 9.19. Showshowthis is done
by using chamfored poi e shoes and by employing poi e laminations at one side ofpole ip.
In fig. 9.19. (a) the rounded surface ofthe poi e shoe is not concentric with the circular armature
core. This reduces the effectiveness ofme armature IV!MF at me pole tips and in me commutation zone.
ln fig. 9.19 (b). the same result is accomplished by cutting off onepole tip. ln assembling the laminations,
me pole tip. In assembling the lanrinations, the pople tips are alternated from one si de to the other in !he
adjacent poles.
(2) Providing Interpole (Communtating Pole):

One ofthe most importan! developments in he design ofD. C. macltines is the use of interpoles to
reduce the armature reaction. The interpoles are narrow poles placed exactly halfway between the
main poies. The exciting windings for mese poles are always pennanently connected in series vvith the
annature \Vinding. The flmc produced in the inte1poles is directly proportional to the armature current

f'ig. 9.20 Connections to field poie windings

The connections and the arrangement of commutating poles and meir exciting >vindings ofa shunt
generator is shown in fig. 9.20.
(3) Providing Compensating Windings

In case ofheavy curren! Machines the acmature reaction is neutralized by providing special windings
lmown as compensating windings. These windings are provided in slots made on the mainpole faces.
Fig. 9.21. shows sueh an arrangement of a D. C. generator. These windings are connected in series wim
the armature vvinding. They carrythe armature curren!, but in me oppositc direction to that of armaturc
conductors. The flux established in these windings neutralses ilie demagnetising effect ofthc armature
reaction.
180

Fig. 9.21. Pole-face winding to compensate armature reaction

Losses in D. C. Machines

Coper Iosses

Ironlosses

Totallosses

-f
-e

Mechanicalloss

-e

Almature Cu loss
Shtmt field Cu loss
Series iield Cu loss
Hysteresis loss
Eddy Curren! loss
Friction loss
Windage loss

Applications ofD.C. Generators

D.C. Generators are used only for certain special propose. Sine D.C. generators require regular
maintenance and expenditure on replacement of parts sueh as commutator, bmshes etc., the use is
limited to the speciiic purpose only. Nowadays or obtaining D.C., rectifiers are use. The various
applications ofD.C. generators are as detailed below:l. SHUNT GENERATORS

In shunt generators. terminal voltage is more or less eonstant, so there are used tor
(a) Electroplating

(b) Battery charging

(e) Excitors for AC generators.

2. SERIES GENERATORS

Series generator has a rising characteristic. So it is used as boosters in case oflong D.C. fueders
to compensate for the voltage drop in hem. lt is al so used for lighting are lamps.

181

3. COMPOUND GENERATORS

a)

Leve! Compound : Used where reated terminal voltage is requred at fullload conditions.

b)

Over Compound: U sed where power is to be transmitted toa long distance. In this case, the
voltage at load remains constant.

e)

Differential compound : - U sed for D. C. welding sets since they have an inherent character to limit
the short circuit current.

4. SEPERATELY EXCITED GENERATORS

These generators are used for (1) Supplying D.C. motors whose speed in to bevaried widely (2)
where a wide range ofD.C. voltage is required fortestingpurpose.
Questions
PartA
choose the correct answer

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The e.m.finduced in the d. e generatoris alternating one and this is converted in to direct e.m.fby
a. slipring

b. corbon brush

c. commulator

d. cnd rings.

'fl1e direction ofinduced e.m.fis detertnined by using


a. fleming's right hand rule

b. fleming's lefthandrule

c. Kirchoff's law

d. Mutual induction.

The Yoke or frame ofthe d.c machne is madc of


a. Copper

b..-'Junnium

c. Castiron

d.Bronze

Interpoles are provided to


a. Generate the e.m.f

b. operate in over load.

c. economical basis

d. inlprove commutation

A:nnature lannation is about


a. 1 Cm thick

b. 1 mmthick

c. 0.5 mm thick

d. 0.5 inch thick

Compensating windings are provided in slots made on the


a.armature

b. mainpole faces

c. Interpole faces

d. none of these
182

7.

D.C series generatorused are


a. Boosters in case oflong d.c feedcrs to compcnsatc for the voltage drop.
b. Electro plating

c. D.C wclding set.

d. Battey charging

Part- B
Answer the followng questioos in one word:
l.

What kind of energy is converted in to electrical energy in d.c generator?

2.

Write the material used for making field coils.

3.

S tate any one purpose of providing poie shoes in the poi es.

4.

What is the purpose of providing ventilating ducts in the atmature?

5.

Vlhat is the metal used to built up of commutator segments?

6.

What is the name of the process of giving D. C. Voltage to the field winding for producing magnetic
field?

7.

What is the namc ofthe combined losscs ofHysteresis loss and eddy current loss?
Part-e

Answer the followng questions in brietly:


1.

What are the mainparts o f d.c machne?

2.

\Vhat is the interpole?

3.

Write shortnotes on commutator

4.

Whatis the use ofbearingind.c machine?

5.

What are thetypes ofd.c generator?

6.

\Vhat is known as armature reaction?


Part-D

Answer the following questions in one page leve)


l.

Write the e.m.f equation ofthe d.c generator.

2.

Explain the construction and operatin of


l. Series generator 2. Shunt generator

3.

3. Compound generator

List out the applications ofD.C generators


Part-E

Answer the following qnestions in two page leve!


l.

Explain theconstructional details of D.C machine?

2.

Explain the armature reaction in the D. C generator?

183

10. D.C. MOTORS


General Introduction:An electric Motor is a machine whichconverts electrical energy into mechanical energy. lts acton
s based on the principie that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, it expetiences
amechanical forcewhose directionis given by "Fieming's left-hand Rule".
Constructionally, there is no dfference between a DC generator and DC MotO!: In fact, the same
DC machine can be used interchangeable as a generator oras a motor. When a generator is in operation
it is drivenmechanically and develops a voltage. This voltage can senda eurrent tbrougb a load resistanoe.
When a motor is in operation, it develops torqne. This torque can produce mechanical rotation. DC
motors are also like generators classified into shtmt wound seties wound and compound wound motors.
Before going to studythe ptinciple of operation ofDC motorthe fleming's left-hand rule should be
thoroughly knowu.
Fleming's Left-Hand Rule:The direction of motion of the conductor can be deterrnined by using flemng's left-hand rule
knowing the direction ofthe magnetic field and the direction ofthe current in the conductor, the motion
ofthe conductor can be deterrnned.

e on d uc t o~~

Motion of the conductor

:l.

Drectou of 1

Motionot'
the

D re cton of current

lines of flux

Fig.lO.l.
STATEMENT OFRULE:

Keep the forefingure, mddle fingure and thumb ofthe left hand mutually perpendicular to one
another. Ifthe brefmgure indicates the direction ofthe magnetic field and the mddle figure indicates the
drection ofcurrent in the conductor, then the thumb ponts to the direction of motion of conductor.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF D.C. MOTOR:-

Fig 10.2(a) shows an unforrn magnetic field in which a straight conductor carryng no curren! is
placed. The conductor s perpendicular to the direction ofthe magnetic fiel d.
In fig. 10.2(b) the conductor s shows as carrying a current away from the viewer, but the field due
to the N and S potes has been removed. There is no movement ofthe conductor during the abo ve two
conditions. In fig. 10.2(e) the curren! carrying conductor is p!aced in the

184

Fig. 10.2 (e)

Magnetic fiel d. The field dueto the curren! in the conductor supports the main field ahove the
conductor, but opposes the man field belowthe conductor. The result is to increase the flux density in
to the region directly above the conductorand to reduce the flux densi1y in the region directly belowthe
conductor It is found that a force acts on the conductor, trying to push the conductor downd-wasels as
shown bythe arrow. (Refer Fleming's left hand rule).
'Ifthe cnrrent in the conductor s reversed, the strengthening offlux lines occurs below the conductor
and 1he conductor will be pushed upwords (Fig. 10.2(d).

Nowconsiderasingle tumcoil canyingacutTentas shovminfig. 10.2(e).ln vewofthereasons


given below above the eoil side "A" will be forced to move downwards, where as the coi! side "B" will
be forced to move up wares. The forces acting>on the coi! si des "A" and "B" will be of same magnitude.
But ther direction is opposite to one ano1her. As the coi! is wound on the armature core which is
supported by the bearings, the armature vvillnow rotate. The commutator periodically revcrses the
direction ofcurrent flow through the armatorc. There fore the armature viII have a continuous rotation.
A simplified model of such a motor is sho\\'11 in fig. 10.3. the conductors are wound over a soft iron
core D.C. supply is given to the field poles for producing flux. The conductors are connected to the
D.C. supplythrough brushes.

Fig.l0.3. Simplified version ofthe


D.C. Motor

Brush
Commutator

185

Types of DC. Motors

In the same way as generators DC Motors are also classfied nto three types, they are
(1) D.C. seriesmotors.
(2) D.C. shuntmotors.
{3) D.C. Compound motors.

This classification is based on the field wind connections with the annature. The compound motor

can also be classfied as long shunt and short shunt compolllld motors.
D.C. Series Motor

In D.C. series motor, the t1eld \Vinding is conoeeted in series with the annature as sho>vn in Fig.
10.4. The series field winding carries the inputcurrent (I 1=I,=Ir) the conductors ofthe series field
winding have [arge cross sectional area. It has a few number of turns per poi e. Because of its Jarge
cross sectional arca and less number ofturns, the series field winding has low resistance.
Let V= Supplyvoltage
+

I, =la= annature cunen!

Rse = Resistance of series field Ra =Resistanee of annature.

Eb = back emf induced.


The relationship between V, Eb and la is given below
Fig.10.4

V=Eb+IaRa+IaRse
V= Eb +la (Ra +Rse).
IL

D. C. Sbunt Motor

--""T"--..--.

In DC shunt motor, the field winding is conneeted n panallel wifu the


armature as shovm in fig: 10.5. The field windings has a large number of 1
turns and relatively smaller cross sectional area. Sin ce the field eurrent is V
small the field power loss is also small. The relationship between V, Eb
and ia is given below.

V= Eb + IaRa; (Annature current la= IL-Ir).

Fig.IO.S

D.C. Compound Motor


In eompound motors, both series field and

shunt field windings are eonoected vvith the


annature. The diagram of conoections oflongshllllt and short-shunt compound motors are
shO\vninfig. 10.6.

Series
Field

Short-shunt connection

1
Long-shunt conncction

Fig.l0.6. D. C. Compound motor


186

In long shllllt compolllld motor, the series field w:inding is connected in series vth the annature.
But in short shllllt compolllld motor the series field winding is connected in series with the parallel
combination of armature and shunt field \Vlldings.
Speed control ofD.C. Motors:

Different ranges of speeds are required for different applications. A single motor can be used for
different speeds for various works. Smooth speed control is possible in D.C. Shunt motor.
TI1e speed of aD.C. motor can be expressed bythe equation: Speed, N a. (v-JaRa)/$. Neglecting
the small voltage drop IaRa, the speed is directly proportiona! to the voltage imprcssed across the
armature and nverselyproportional to the flux. Hence the speed of a D.C. motor can be controlled by
varying the voltage or flux. The above two methods are known as.
l. Armature control and 2. Field conuoL
These methods are applied to shunt, series and compound motors.

SPEED CONTROL OF D. C. SHUNT MOTOR

r-~7

Armature Control Method:

1bis method is used when spends belowthe no-load speed are V


required. As the supply voltage across tl1e annature is varied by 1.
inserting a variable resistance in series vtb the armature. Circuit as
shovvn in Fig. 10.7.
As the controller resistance is increased, the Potential drop
across the armatnre is decreased. So armature speed also decreases.
In this method speed can be varied up to the rated speed.

Fig.10.7

1bis method is very expensive because the power loss and not
suitable fbrrapidly changng loads. A more suitable operation can be
obtaned byusing a diverter across the annature in addition to annature
control resistanceasshownnFig. 10.8. Now thechanges inarmatnre
current (dueto changes in load) v>'ill not be so effective in changing
the P.D. across the armature.

Fig.l0.8

Field Control Method:

rt is seen that the speed of a D.C. Motoris inversely


proportional to the flux perpole when the armature voltage
is kept constan!. By increasing the flux, the speed can be
decreased and vice versa. The flux per pole of a D.C.
motor can be changed b changing the field current. The
field curren! can be changed with tbe help of shunt field
rheostat as shown in fig. 10.9. Since the shlmt field curren!
is relatively small, the shunt field rheostat has to eany only

r
V

o-~--

Fig.10.9
187

a small amount ofcurrent. Thereibre the FR loss is small as the resistance of the rheostat s less. This
method is, therefore, ve1y efficient and is known as flux control or field control method.

r
V

Fig. 10.10.

1:,...__..._______.
By this method of speed control we can not have speeds below the rated speed. (Flux can not be
increased). But the speed can be increased beyond the rated speed. By combining tl1e field control and
armature control methods, it is possible to get speed variations below or abo ve normal speeds. The
connection diagram for such aspeed control is shown in fig. 10.1 O. variable resistance are connected
in the armature and field circuits.
Ward- Leonard System
This system is used where a very sensitive speed control s requred. Examples: Coi! winders,
electric excavators, papermills etc. The arrangement s illustrated in fig. 10.11.
D.C. Supply Liue
-------,----~------------------~~

Field Regulator

Fig. 10.11. Ward Leonard system


M 1 s the mainmotor forwhich the speed control is required. ]be field ofthis motor is pennanently
connected across the D.C. supply lines. By applying a variable voltage across ts armature, any desired
speed can be obtained. Ths variable voltage s supplied by a motor-generator set whch conssts of
either aD.C. oran A.C. motor M2 The motor M2 s direetly coupled to the generator G.
The motor~ runs atan approximately constant speed. The output voltage of"G" is directly loo
to the main motor M 1 The voltage ofthe generator can be varied from zero to its maximum value by
means o its field regulator. The field current ofthe generator can be reversed bythe reversing switch Rs.
Therefore the generated voltage can be reversed and hence the direction of rotaton of M 1 s al so
reversed.
188

It should be remembered that motor-generator set always runs in the same direction.

The capital cost of such a system is high, since three machines are employed. But this method is
vety eflective and the speed control obtaincd is ve1y smooth.
lf a vasiable resisance is connected in series with the field circuit of motor M1 The speed above
the rated value can be obtained. The direction of rotation of a D.C. motor can be reversed either by
changing in the direction of curren! through the armature or field winding as shown infig. 10.12.
r-------;---------~+

ru
V(

r---.-..,r------0+

..,.__Reversing V
Switch

1-

lf

QJ+...._

Reversing V
Switch

J,.
(b) Armature reversing

(a) Field rcversing

~
(a)

Armature reversing

(b)
Compound
motor

(e)
F'ield reversing

Fig. 10.12. Reversing tbe direction ofrotation


SPEED CONTROL OF D.C. SERIES MOTOR:-

Speed of aD.C. series motor can be controlled by the followingmethods


(1) Field Diverter Method:-

+
Series Field

Fig. 10.13

A rheostat called the diverter is connected in parallel with the seriesfield "lvinding as shown in Fig.
10.13. Any desired amount of curren! ean be passed through the diverter by adjusting its resistance.
189

Hence the flux can be decreased and consequently the speed ofthe motors increased. The mnimum
specd is obtained by completely removingtheresistanee in the diverter circuit.
(2)Armature Diverter Method:
Series Field

Fig. 10.14

In tlris method a variable resistance knovm as diverter is col1!1ected in parallel with the armature as
shown in fig. 10.14. The armature curren! can be varied by adjusting the di verter resistance.

For a constant load ifia s redueed using annature di verter, then the flux 0 has to be increased to
produced the same tosque as T a0 Ia. To satiszy this condition, current drawn from the mains will be
more to increase the flux. Thus when the flux increases, then the speed in creases. The varations in
speed can be obtained by varying the diverter resistance.
(3) Tapped Field Control

L----~
Fig.. lo.is

This method is often used in electric traction and is shovm in fig. 10.15.
T11e number of series field tums in the circuit can be changed at our wiiL With full field winding in
the circuitthe motor runs at ts rniuimum speed. The speed can be rased in steps by cutting out same of
the series turns.
(4) Variable Resistan ce in series with motor:

By increasing the resistance in series wth the annature, the voltage applied across the annature
terminals can be decreased. If the voltage across the armature is reduced speed is also reduced.
Howeverit v.ill be noted that, when fullload current of the motorpasses through tlris resistance, there
is a considerable loss of power in it. The circuit diagram for tlris operation is shown in fig. 10.16.
190

Fig.10.16
Summary ofApplications of'D.C Motors:
Type ofMotor
Shunt

Selies

Cumulative

Characterstics

Applications

Approximately constant speed speed can For drivng constant speed !ine :
be controlled. Medium starting torque. (Up shafting lathes, centrifuga! pumps, i
;
to 1.5 fullload torque)
machine tools, Blowers aod fans,
Recprocating plm1ps.
Variable speed. Speedcao be controlled.
Hgh Starting torque.

For traction work. i.e. electric


locomotives rapid transit systems
trolley cars etc. cranes and hoists
conveyors.

Compound Variable speed. Speed can be For intermittent high torque loads,
controlled. High Starting torque.
for shears and punches, elevators,
conveyors, heavy planners, rolling
Mills, ice machines, printing press,
atr compressors.

Questions
Part-A
Choose the correct answer:
l.

2.

The Plinciple of operation of d.c motor is

a Fleming'sRigthandrule

b. Fleming'slefthandrule

c.Ohm'slaw

d. Ampere rule

Compound motor can be classfied as


a. Long shunt

3.

b. Short shunt

c. Long shunt atld short shunt

d. none ofthese

The series field winding has


a. Tbin conductor

b.Tbickconductor

c. Largenumberof!'lmls

d. Tbck conductor with lcss number ofturns


191

4.

Tbe shuntfield vndnghas


a. Smaller cross sectonal area vvith large number oftums.
b. Higher cross sectional area mth small number ofturns.
c. Canying the fui! armature curren\
d. none ofthese

5.

Speed control ofD.C shunt motor in below rated speed by


a. field control

6.

b. Armatme control c. Tapped field C{)ntrol d. field andArmature control

The motor used for tracfion work pmpose is


a. Shuntmotor b. series motor c. Cumulative compmmd motor
Part-B

Answer the following questions u one word:


l.

Write the narne ofthe connecton of series field windng v.~th armature.

2.

Write the name ofthe connection of shunt field mndng with armature.

3.

What is the very sensitive speed control system of d.c motor?

4.

What method is often used in electric traction of speed control?

5.

What type of motor is to be used for driving constant o;peed?

6.

write any one application ofcumulative compound motor.


Part-C

Answer the following questions in briefly


1.

Give the statementofRule offleming's lefthandrule.

2.

What are the types of d. e motors?

3.

What are the applicatons of d.c series motor?

4.

What are the applications of d.c shunt motor?

5.

What are the applications of d.c cumulative compound motor?


Part-D

Answer the following questions in one page leve!:


l.

Explan the three types of d.c motors?

2.

Explain the speed control of d. e shunt motor by mmature control method?

3.

Explan the speed control ofd. e shunt motor by field control method~
Part-E

Answer the following questions in two page level.

l.

Explain the "Ward Leonard" speed control system mthneat sketch.


Explain the speed control ofD.C series motors by
a. Field di verter method

b. Armature divertermethod

c. Tapped field control method

d. Variable resistance method


192

d. Differential motor

11. A.C. GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR)


11.0. Introduction
In power supply system altemating current s supplied to a much greater extent than direct
curren! supply, because ofthe follov.~ng advantages.
Advantages ofAC Generation:(1) AC power can be generated in bulk quantity vvithout much dfiiculty.

(2) AC requirements are cheaper in cost.


(3) AC voltage can be step up or step down to any leve! of onr requirement
(4) We can convert in to AC into DC, in case of atmost need for DC supply.
1ne machine which generales alternating curren! is called as Altemator (or) Synchronous
generator.

11.1. Principie ofAlternator

AC current

Fig.ll.l.
The alternator works on the principie of"Electromagnetic !nduction". According to Faraday's
Laws ofelectro magnetic lnduction, when there is acutting ofmagnetic flux by a conductor orwhen
there is achaugenflux linkage by acoil,anemfisnduced in theconductororcoil. Fig. 11.1. shows the
simple arrangement ofan altemator.
In the fig. 11.1. shown anopen ended loop or coi! ofwire is rotated between the polesofan
eleetromagnet. An e.m.f. is generated in the loop.

Fig.11.2.
193

The value ofthe e.m.f. varies both in magnitude and direction according to the instantaneous
position ofthe loop. In one revolution ofthe loop through 360 electrical degrees, the forrn ofthe e.m.r
wave is in the shape shov.'ll in the fig. 11.2.
In slip rings are fixed to the free ends ofthe loop, and sliding connections arranged to bear upon
than, the alternating e.m. f. will be obtained.
It will produce an altemating cunentin a closed extemal circuit. The current v.~ll vary in a similar
way to the e.m.f. generators.
The complete change of e.m.f. or current from zero to positive maximum baek to zero, and
through negative maximum to zero is called a "cycle". The no of cycles happening per second is
"frequcncy."
The standard frequency "f' ofthe publc supply is 50 Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. The
practica! forrn ofthe above machlne is known as "Single phase altemator".
11.3. Three Phase Generator

Large sea!e generation of power is achieved by generating three phase e.m.f. 's using three
sepruate windings insulated from eaeh other. They are plaeed on the rotor ofthe altemator. The v.indings
are displaced atan angle of 120 with each other as shuwn in fig. 11.3. (a). When the rotor is rotated,
e.m.f's will be induced in the three coils (Phases).
R

Time--

(b)

Fig.11.3.

Voltage induced in the three phases ~ R,, Y1 Y2 and B1 B2 will have a timephase ditlerence of
120 as shov.'!l in fig : 11.3 (b). Thls can be understood by observing that similar rate ofchange of flux
linkage as that ofthe coi!, R, R, will take place in the coi! Y, Y2 after the rotor has rotated by 120
electrical.
The three phase windings are connected instar mode inside the rotor. At least three slip rings
are necessruy for making connections vvith externa! load circuit.
Requirement of A1ternator

For the generation ofAC emfby the altemator the following basic systems are required.
(1) Magnetic field system to produce the magnetic fiel d.

(2) Armature system whichhouses the conductors on which emfis be induced.


(3) A pdme mover is required which gives necessary ro taliona! power forthe generation of emf in
the altemator.
194

11.4. Methods of Generatiug EMF


fn altemator any one ofthe following methods can be adopted to generateAC emf
Stationary field and rotating armature type
Stationary Field

Field

Winding

3$AC
Vo!tage

outpvt

Fig.l1.4.
Ae can be generated in the stationary-field revolving armature. lt is commonlyused in small
sizes and forthe lowervoltages. The direct curren! exciting currentis supplied to the field \\<ndings by
fixed connections, whlle the altemating current is delivercd fiom the slip rings as shown in fig: 11.4. The
mechancal eonstruction ofthe rcvolving armaturc altcmator is similarto tha ofthe dircct current gencrator,
except that there is no commutator.
11.5. Stationary Armature and rotating field type

Tnree phase
A.C Voltage
outp!..lt

l
Fig.11.5.
Altemator with the stationmy annature revolving field type is invariable used in the generation of
hlgh voltages. The man reason for this type is the difficulty ofusing sliding contact brushes bearing on
slip rings at hlgh voltages. With a stationary armaturc, the power from the generator is delivercd through
copper to copper connections firmly bolted together. The revolving fields are supplied with direct
current normal!y at 11 OV, tluough a pair of slip rings as shown in fig : 11.5.
11.5.1. Advantages ofrotating field and stationary armature system
(1) It is easy to insulate the stationary armatnre winding, beca use they are placed in the stator.
(2) Out put current can be easily collected and supplied to the load circuit from the fixed tenninals
ofthe stator and not to provide three sliprings and brushes.
195

(3) To supply DC to the rotatng field system, onlytwo sliprings are needed. The voltage is ll OV
(or) 220V and hence these two sliprings can be easily insulated.
(4) Rotatng field is comparatvely light in weight and hence it can nm at high speed.
(5) In statonary armature, the armature coils can be properlyplaced in postion in such a way to

withstand the large forces developed, when any short circuit occurs.
(6) In stationary armature, the winding may be colled more efficiently, because the stator core can
be made enough cooling ducts for forced air circulaton.

11.6. Construction of Alternators


Altemators are constructed in two types.

( l) Salient pole altemator


(2) Non-salient pole altemator.
Salient PoleAiternator

Salient pole altemator consists of a rotor on which projected poles (Salient pole) are mounted on
rotor as shown in Fig: 11. 6. these alternations are driven at low speeds by prime movers like wator
turbines or diese! engine To generate electricity at 50 Hz, with the rotor rotated at slow speeds, the
number ofrotor poles required becomes large. It is convenient to build a rotor having large number of
poles in projected poi e, i.e., salient pole construction. The diameters of such rotors become bigger than
their lengths.
Stator

It consists of mainly the annature eme formed vvith laminations of steel al! oy (slicon steel) having
slots in ts innerperipheryto housethe annature conductors as shown in fig: 11.6.
The armature core in the ftom of a ring is fitted to a fi'ame which may be of cast iron or welded
steel ftame which is called stator ftame.
Stator
frame

Stator

eore
Ventilating

ducts
Slots

Stator for Smaller Machine

Fig.l1.6.
The armature core is laminated as shovm in Fig: 11.8(a) to reduce the eddy current losses which
occur in the stator core when subjected to the cutting of the flues produced by the rotatng field poles.
196

Stator
ICor
Slot with an
\/insulatlng
'\
lnlng around

Tooth
Copper

Conductor

L,~__,J

Fig.11.7.

The laminations are stamped out in complete rings (for smaller machines) or in segments (for larger
machines), andinsulated from each otherwith paper orvamish. The stampings also have holes which
make axial andradial ventilating ducts to provide efficient coolng. Ageneral view ofthe stator wth the
frame is shown in fig: 11.7.
11.8. Armature slots and windings

Slots provided on the stator coreare shown in fig: 11 .8(a) to house the annature cols are manly
ofthree types as shovminfig: 11.8.(b).
()

Open (ii) Semi-closed slot> and (iii) closed.

- - - Leatheriod Paoer

''-:'-~.

Wide-Open

a) Part of the Armature core

:\'-,
Sem-Ciosed

Clcsed

b) Types of slots
Fig.11.8.

The open slots are more commonly used because the coils can be fonn-wouud and pre-insultated
before placing in the slots resulting in fust work, less expenditure and good insulation. This type of slots
also facilitates easy removal and replacement of defective coils. But this type of slots creates uneven
distribution offlux, thereby producing ripplcs in the cmfwave. The semiclosed type slots are better in
this respect but do not permit the use offonnwound coils, thereby complicating the process of winding.
Totally closed slots ae rarely used, but when used they used bracing ofthe winding tums.

197

11.9. Rotor
Laminatons

Fig.ll.9.

Fig: 11.9. shows the salient pole type rotor in whch the riveted steellaminations ate fitted to the
shaft fitting with the help of a dovetailed joint. Pole :fuces ate curred to have unifonn distribution ofthe
fllL" in the air gap leading to production of sinusoidal wave fonn ofthe generated emf These pote taces
are also provided v.':ith slots to carry the damper vvinding to prevent hunting. Field coils ate provided
armmd the pole core to produce necessary fiel d.
The field coils ate cDnneeted in series in such a way asto produce altemate :.JORTH and SOUTH
peles, and the field winding ends are connected to the slip rings.

1he DC excitation source is connected the brushes whch ate made to contact the sliprings '-'<ith
the required pressnre.

This type ofrotoris used only for the slow and medimn speed alternators.

This type is less expensive and having more space for the field coils and vast heat dissipating
area.

This type is not suitable for high speed alternators as the salient poi es create lot of nose while
running in addition tothe difficulty ofobtaining sufficientmechanical strength.

Salient poi e type altemator conld be identified by thcir larger diameter, short axiallength and
low or medium speed of operation.

.!'ion Salient pole type (or) TurboAlternator


Another type of alternator is non salient pole type.
11.1 O. Stator Construction
Stator forthe turbo alternator is constructed with smaller diameter and with larger axiallength as
shown in fig: 11.1 O. Stator stampings are made of silicon alloy steel sheets, having slots in its inner
periphery. Double layer'-'<inding is generally adopted for machines with voltage upto 11 KV. Higb voltage
machines use semiclosed slots single layer '-'<indings. Axial ventilatingholes ate provided to increase the
cooling effect.
198

-~

Stator core

Frame

Slot

'J
J

St::tor

(a:} Stator

}'ig. 11.10.
11.11. Rotor Turbo Alternator- Cylindrical Roto

This rotor is used in very high speed alternators driven by steam turbnes. The rotor of turbo
altemator physicallyis in the form of smooth cylinder having long axiallength and smaller dian1eter.
Poles arenot projectedoutfrom the surface ofthe rotor. The outerperiphery ofthe rotorstarnpings
has radial slots.
The tield windings is accommodated in these slots. Over certain regions the slots are omitted to
either ti-om two or four poles as shown in the fig. 11.11.
Radial ducts are provided for ventilation General!y copper strips are used for the field 'Ninding.
PolcArea

Winding
Field

Fig.ll.ll.

Wndng

Comparison ofRotors ofAlternator


Sl.No.

Salient Po le Rotor

1. The diarneter of stator is large

Smal!.

2. Po le are projecting outside

J\o projection of poles.

3. Length of stator is short

Length ofstator is long

4. Oamper winding is required

No drunper winding is required.


199

Cylindrical Rotor

5.

Runs at slow speed suitable for


hydrogenerators.

Suitable for turbo alteroators run by steam turbines.

6.

More windage loss

Less windage loss

7.

No cooling arrangement is necessary

Cooling arrangement is more essential.

8.

Noisy Operation

."'oise free operation.

11.12. Parallel Operation of alternators


(l) Alternators in Parallel
It is common practice n these days to connect a nurnber of synchronous generators in parallel
instead of single unit to supply a common load. In power stations instead ofhaving one large capacity
generator, a nurnber ofsmaller units are installed for sorne capacty are connected in parallel.
The fig 11,12 shows the arrangementof a para! le! operation of alteroators in which they are two
generators connected toa common busbar to which the total load ofthe system s connected. These
two generators share that common load according to their excitationand the input power given to them.
There are severa! advantages in adopting parallel operatio:n of alternators.

R---------------------r

Y------,--r----,a~u~sb~ar~r-i------4v

LJ
Afternator~ 1

A!ternat-or-2

Fig. 11.12.
(2)Advanages ofparallel operation ofAltemators

Ibe follov.ing are the advantages ofconnecting a large nurnber of synctronous generators
in parallel to supply a common lead.

(a) Easy repair and Maintenance:Repair and rnaintenance ofindividual generating units can be done keeping the continuity of supply
by scheduling maintenance of generators one after the other. If only one large generator is installed,
supply is to be cut off for carrying out maintenance week.

200

(b) High Operating Efficiency

For operating an altemator on maximorn efficiency it is to be run near to its fullload capacity.lt
is uneconomic to operate large generators on low loads. If severa! small units are used units can be
added or put off depending upon the load requirement and tlms the units can be operated at near to
their rated capacity.
(e) Saving in capital Cost

Additionai sets can be connected in parallel to meet the increasing demand, thereby reducing
the initial capital cost ofbuying larger units in anticipation ofincreasing demands.
(d) Easy ofManufacturing

There is physicai and economic limit to the possible capacity of altemators that can be built.
The demand of a single power station may be as high as 1200 MVA, It may not be feasible to build a
single altemator of such a high rating dueto physcai and economc consideratons.
(e) Continuous Power Supply

Ifnornber of generators are operated in parallel, if one ofthe generators fails, continuity of
supply can be rnantaned wth the help of generators other than faulty one.
(f) Easy Transportation

Generators become in smailer in size hence t is easier to transfer the smaller size generators
rather than transporting a single bulky uuit.
(3) Synchronisations ofAltemator

Befo re a synchtonous generator can be put to share the load, it should be properly connected
in parallel wth the cDmrnon bus-bar. Interconnection ofthe tennnals of a generator with the terminals
of another ora busbar to which a large number of synchtonous generators are already connected is
called synchronsiug.
(4) Conditions for Parallel Operation ( or) Synchronisation

For satisfactory parallel connection oftwo altemators, the follovving thrce conditions must be
fulJillecl

The tennnai voltage (effective) ofthe incoming altemators is same as that ofexistiug altemator
(or) bus-bar.

Frequency ofthe incoming altemator should be equal to the existng altemator (or) bus-bar
frequency.

Phase sequenee ofthe voltage ofthe incoming alternator should be the same as that ofthe
existing altemator (or) bus-bar.

11.13. Methods ofSynchronisation

Synchronisation orparallel conneetion ofaltemators can be achieved by anyone ofthe tollovvng


threc methods a) Dark lamp method b) Bright lamp method e) synchroscope method.
201

a) Dark Lamp method

The fig: 11.13 shows the arrangement ofparalleling two alternators by dark lamp method. In
this method three lamps as shown in fig. 11.13. can be used for checking the exact condtions suitable
for synchronization. Thrce lamps L" L 2 and L3 areto becormectedas shown in thefig: 1133. with the
s:ynchronous generator, dtiven ata rated speed, if all the lamps glowtogether and become dark together
then the conditions ofthe incoming alternator are the same as that ofthe bus-bar.

Busbar

Man
/Switch
closed

Alternator-1
Existing

Alternator-2
Incoming

Fig 11.13.

In case ifthe phase sequence and other conditions are not in exact conditions for paralleling,
the fol!O\ving adjustments can be made befare paralleling.

Generated voltage ofthe incoming alternator can be adjusted by adjusting the field excitation.

Frequency ofthe incoming alternator can be controlled are made equal to bus-bar frequency
by controlling the speed ofthe prime mover drving the altemator.

Phase sequence ofthe alternator and the bus-bar can be checked by a phase sequence indicator.

Once the three conditions mentioned above are satisfied the three lamps becomes completely
dark at one instan!. At this instant the incorning alternator can be switched on to the bus-bar. Now the
synchronization process is said to be completed.
11.14. b. Bright Lamp Method

In thls method of synchronizing an alternator, three lamps are connected as shovm in fig: 11.14.
Two lamps are cross cormected with the bus-bar. In thls method the brightness ofthe lamps will vary in
sequence.Aparticular sequence will indicate ifthe incoming alternatoris rurming too fast ortoo slow,
Perfect synchronizing will occur when lamp L1 is dark and lan1ps L2 and L3 are equally bright.

202

.Main
switch

_....
closed
- --~

Alternctor- 2

rncomtng

Fig.ll.l4.
The speed and voltage have heen adjusted to aehieve the exact three conditions. The switch of
the incoming synchronous machine can be closed only when lamp L 1 is dark while lamps 1 2 and L3 are
equal bright Ifthe frequency ofthe incoming altemator is higherthan the bus-bar frequency, the phasor
~- Y2-B2 representing the alternator voltages will be rotating faster than the phasors R 1- Y 1-B 1
representing the bus-bar voltages. At the instant when R 1 is in phase with R, lamp L 1 will be dark and
the othertwo lamps will be equally bright.
After one third ofthe cycle, B2 will be in phase with Y2, since thelamp L2 is connected across
B2 and Ys, it will be dark.After another one third ofa cycle, lamp L3 will be dark. Thus ifthe frequency
ofthe incoming alternator is higher, the lamps \'Ill become dark in the sequence Ll-L2-L3. Similar if
the frequency ofthe incoming altemator s lower, thelamps will beco me dark in the sequence Ll-L2L3. The speed ofthe altemator willtherefore have to be slowly adjusted so that the lamp Ll is dark and
lams L2 and L3 are bright. At this instant, the switch can be closed. The incoming maehine thus gets
connected in para!!el with the bus-bar.

h1 this thTee 1amp method, in addition to knowing the exact instant of closing of synchronizing
switch, it is also known whether the incoming alternators frequency is less or more than the bus-bar
frequency.
11.15. c. Syuchroscope Method

The fig. 11.15 shows the rurdllgement of the synchroscope method paralleling the altemators.
A s:rnchroscope determines the instant of synchronism more accurutely than the three lamp method. A
synchroseope consists of a rotor (movng coil) anda stator (fixed coi!) one ofthe which is connected to
the incoming altemator and the other to thc bus-bar as show in fig: 11.15. A pointer connected to the
Rotor will rotate ifthere. Is a difference in frequcncies ofthe incoming altemator and bus-bar.

203

------~------------~-----------------,-R

----~--r---------~,-----------------;rl-y
---T~~~~~~r-t-+-----------------;;-8

Fig.l1.15
Alternator-1

Alternator~2

Existing

lncomfng

Anticlockwise rotation ofthe rotor pointer indicates that the frequency ofthe ncoming altemator
is slower whereas clockwise rotaton ofthe pointer indicates thatthe frequency is higherthan the busbar frequency.
The speed ofthe prime mover drivingthe altemator will, therefore, haveto be adjusted such
that when the frequences are equal tbe pointer is stationed at 12'o clock position. The altemator can
be switched on to the bus-bar by closng the switch, "S" at ths instant.
Questions
Part-A

Choose the correct answer

J.

T11e machne whch generators altemating current is called as


a. Transformer
b. Alternator
c. Synchronous motor
d. A.C. Motor

2.

The standard frequency ofA.C supply is


a. 50 cycles /min
b. 50 cycles /sec
c. 100 cycles 1min
d. 60 cycled /sec

3.

The slprings are necessary for making


a. Connection with externa! load circuit
c. Ventilation

4.

5.

b. fieldtlu
d. Connection with interna! winding connection

The revolving fields are supplied witb direct cunent normally at


a. 230 V
C. 400 V

d. J.l0 V/ 220v

b. 1J5 V

The weight ofthe rotating field is


a.light
c.high

b.medium
d.none of these
204

6.

The number ofpoles is the turbo altemator rotor is

a. 16
7.

b.8

c.6

d. 2 i 4

Tbe advantage of para! le] operation of altemator is


a. easy operation

b. Production ofhigh voltage

c. continuous power supply

d. to improve the power factor

Part-B
Answer the following questions in one word:
l.

What is the basic principie of altemator?

2.

What is the phase difference of three phase winding in altemator?

3.

How many sliprings are used in rotating field S)''Stem of alternator.

4.

State the two types of the altemator.

5.

State the diameter and length ofthe salient poie alternator.

6.

Where the dan1perwinding is provided in the rotationfield?

7.

Write the rotor name ofthe high speed altemator.

Part- C
Answer the following questions in briefly:
1.

What are the advantages of a. e generation?

2.

\Vhat are the types of annature slots?

3.

What is meant by synchronising of altemators?

4.

Whatareconditions should befollowed in parallel operation?

5.

Write the methods of synchronisation.

Part-D
Answer the following questions in one page level:
l.

Explain the advantages ofrotation field and stationary armature system?

2.

Compare the salient pole rotor and cylindrical rotor.

3.

Explain the advantages ofparallel operation of altemators?

Part-E
Answer the following questions in two page Jevel:
l.

Explain the construetion of salient pole altemator v.,1th neat sketch?

2.

Explain the three methods of synchronisation with suitable diagram?

205

12.ACMOTORS
12.0. AC SINGLE PHASE MOTORS
Single phase motors perfonn a great variety ofuseful services at home, olce, fann, factory and in
bnsiness establishments. Single phase motors are generally manufactured in fractional HP ratings below
1 HPforeconomicalreasons.
Hence, those motors are generally referred toas fractional horsepower motors with a ratng of
less than l HP. Most single phasemotors full into this category. Single Phase Motors are also manufactured
in the range of 1.5, 2, 3 and upto HP as a special requirement.

TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE MOTORS


l. Singlephase induction motors:
(i) Split phase motors
(i) Capacitor-start, inducton-run motors

(m) Capacitor-start, capacitor-run1 motors

(iv) Shaded pole motors.


2. Single phase Commutator type motors:
(i) Repulsion motors

{ii) Universal motor:

SINGLE PHASE MOTOR ARE NOT SELF STARTING


A single phase induction motor is similar in construction to that of a polyphase induction motor
with differcnce that its stator ha<; only one winding. If such a stator is supplied with single phase altemating
cnrrent, the field produced by it changes in magnitude and direction sinusoidally.
Such an altematng filed is equivalent to two fields ofequal magnitude rotating in opposite directions
at equal speed as explained below:

12.1. .DOUBLE FIEL.D THEORY OF SINGLE PHASE IN.DUCTION MOTOR


Consider two magnetic fields represented by quantties OA and OB of equal magnitude revolving
in opposite directons as shown in fig: 12.1.

One magenetic
flux

Resultant
MME
1

-..,-f~"

3 Another
magnetic flux

'---vt
.
~:
1

'
Fig: 12.1
206

(1_

The resultan! ofthe two fields of equal magnitude rotating in opposite directions is alternating.
Therefore an altemating curren! can be considered as having two components which are ofequal in
magnitude and rotating in opposite directions.
From the above, it is clear that when a single phasc altemating current is supplied to the stator of
a single phase motor, the field produced will be of a!temating in nature which can be divided into rwo
components of equal rnagnitude one revolving in clockwise and other in counter c!ockwise direction.
If a stationary squirrel cage rotor is kept in such a field equal forces in opposite direction will act
and the rotor '.'.'ll simply vibrate and there will be no rotation.
But ifthe rotor is given a small jerk in any direction in this condition, it wi!l go on revol ving and wll
develop torque in that particular direction. It is clear from the above that a single phase induction motor
whenhaving only one winding is notaself staJting. To make ita self staJting anyone ofthe following car
beadopted.
(i)

By splittingin phase (called as splitphase motor).

()

By shading the poles (known as shaded pole motor).

12.1.1. PRINCIPLE OF SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

The basic principie of operation of a split phase inducton motor is similar to that of a polyphase
inductionmotor. The main difference is that the single phase motordoes not produce arotating magnetic
field but produces only a pulsating filed.
Hence, to produce the rotating magnetic field for self starting, phase splitting is to be done to make
the motor to work as a 1:\vo phase motor for starting.
12.1.2. WORKING OF SPLIT PHASE :\10TOR
In split phase motor two windings named as main vnding and starting \\~nding are provided. At
the time of startng, both the man and starting Vvindings should be connected across the supplyto
produce the rotating magnetic fe Id.

The rotor is of a squirrel cage type and the revolving magnetic filed sweeps part the stationary
rotor, inducing emf in the rotor. As the rotor bars are short-circuited, a curren! tlows through them
producing amagnctic field.
11ris magnetc field oppose..'\ the revolving magnetic filed and will combine with the main filed to
produce arevol ving fled. By this action, the rotor starts revolving in the same direction ofthe rotating
magnetic filed as in the case of a squirrel cage induction motor.
Hence, once the rotor starts rotating, the starting winding can be disconnected from the supply by
sorne mechanical means as the rotor and stator fields from a revolving magnetic field. There are severa!
types of split phase motors.
12.2. TYPES OF SPLIT-PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS

l. Resistance-start, induction-run motors


2. Capacitor-start, induction-runmotors

207

3. Capacitor-start, capacitor-nm motors


4. Shaded pole motors.
l. RESISTANCE-START, INDUCTION-RUN MOTORS

As the starting torque ofthis type ofmotor is relatively small and its starting curren! is high,
these motors are most commonly used forrating upto 0.5 HPwhere the load could be started easily.
The essential parts are shown in Fig: 12.2.

Mamvinding ornmning winding.

Auxiliary winding or starting vnding

Squirrel cage type rotor.

Centrifuga! s;'litch.

Sttlng
wtndin9

":::!)
a}Sd1amatic

t:Ji~rarn

(b)

(a)
Fig: 12.2

Thc starting winding is designed to have a higher resistance and lower reactance than the main
winding. This is achieved by using small conductors in the auxiliary winding than in the man winding.
The main winding will have higher inductance when surrounded by more iron, which could be made
possible by placing it deeper into the stator slots, it is obvious that the current would split as shown in
Fig: 12.2(b).
The starting curren! "l" start willlag the man supply voltage "V" !ine by 15 degree and the main
winding current. "f' main lags the main voltage by about 80 degree. Therefore, these currents vll differ
in time phase and their magnetic fields will combine to produce arotating magnetic fiel d.

t
Starting
Torque

Torque dueto combined winding

:zaoP

,/~R

lQ/)

'

..-./

/~

''

Torque dueto starting wnding


\

Torque dueto\.,

main winding

o~-------__..----~hA~-

Fig:I2.3
208

Wnen the motor has come upto about 75 to 80% of synchronous speed, the starting winding is
opened by a centrifuga] svv:iteh and the motor w:ill continue to operate as a single phase motor.
At the point where the starting win.ding is disconnected, the motor develops nearly as much torque
w:ith the main w:inding alone as w:ith both windings connected. Th:is can be observed from, the typical
torque-speed characterist:ics ofth:is motor, as shoVYn in F:ig: 12.3.
The direction of rotating of a split-phase motor is determ:ined by the way the main and auxilary
windings are connected. Hence, either by changing the main winding terminals or by changing lhe
starting winding term:inals, the reversal of direction ofrotating could be obtained.

APPLICATIONS
These motors are used for driving fans, grinders, wash:ing machines, and wood work:ing tools.

12.4. CAPACITOR-START, I:"<DUCTION-RUN MOTOR


A drive wh:ich requires a large starting torque may be fitted with a capacitor-start, induction-run
motor as it has excellence starting torque as cornpared to the resistance-start, induction-run motor.

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING


Fig:l2.4(a) shows the schernatic diagnnn ofacapacitor-start, induction-mnmotor.As shown, the
main v,inding is directly connected across the main supply whereas the starting \'I'nding is connected
across the main supply through acapacitor and centrifuga! svvitch.
Both these w:indings are placed in a stator slot at 90 degree electrical apart, anda squirrel cage
type rotor is used.
As shown 11 Fig: 12.4(b), at the time of starting the cunen! in the main winding lags the supply
voltages by 90 degrees, depending upon its inductance and resistance. On the other hand, the current
in the starting winding dueto its capacitar \Vil!lead the applied voltage, by say 20 degrees.
1

Single Running
AC

Supply

t\Starting

wnding

~
\
\

winding

\
\
\
\

'

' I

1.

Fig:12.4
Hencc, the phase difference between the rnain and starting Vvinding becomes near to 90 degrees.
Th:is in tumrnakes the line current to be more or less in phase w:ith its applied voltage, mak:ing the power
factor to be high, thereby creating an excellent startingtorque.
However, after attaning 75% of the rated speed, the centrifuga! switch operates opening the
starting winding and the motor then opera!es as aninduction motor, w:ith only the main ""inding connected
to the &11pply.
209

CHARACTERISTICS
As shown in Fig: 12.5, the displacement of current in the main and starting winding is about 80/90
degrees, and the power factor angle between the applied voltage and line current is ve1y small.
Torque due to
running winding

Torque dueto
starting winding

Fig:12.5
This results in producing a high power factor andan excellent starting torque, severa! times higher
than the normal nmning torque as shovvn in Fig: 12.5.

REVERSING THE DIRECTION OF ROTATIO~


In order to reverse the direction ofrotation ofthe capadtor-start, induction-run motor, eitherthe

starting orthe main winding terrninals should be changed.


This is due ro the fact that the directon of rotation depends upon the instantaneous polarities ofthe
main field flux and the tlux produced by the starting winding. Therefore, reversing the polarity of one of
the field will reverse the torque.

APPLICATION
Dueto the excellent starting torque and easy direction-reversal characteristics,
l. Used n belted fans,

2. Used in blowers dryers,


3. Used in washing machines,
4. Used in pumps and compressors.

12.6.CAPACITOR-START, CAPACITOR-RUN MOTORS


As discussed earlier, one capacitor-start, induction-runmotors have excellent starting torque, say
about 300% ofthe fullload torque and their power factor during starting in high.
However, their rnnning torque is not good, and their power factor, while running is Iow. They also
have lesser efficiency and cannot take overloads.
These problems are eliminated by the use of a two valve capacitar motor in which one large
capacitor of electrolytic (short duty) type is used for starting whereas a smaller capacitar of oil filled
(continuous duty) type is used for running, by connecting them with the starting winding as shown in
Fig: 12.6. A general view of such a two valve capacitor motor is shown in Fig: 12.6.
210

Slngle

Phase

A4xillary

supply
AC 230V
50Hz

windin.g

Fig:12.6
This motor al so works in the same way as a capacitor-start, indnction-run motor, with exception,
that the capacitor C 1 is always in the crcuit, altering the running perfonnance toa great extenL
The startng capacitar which is ofshort duty ratiug will be discom1ected from the starting winding
with the help o fa centrifuga! switch, when the starting speedattans about 75% ofthe rated speed.

L'HARACTERISTICS
Start & Run Capacitor

Centrifuga! switch
- Operatior.

l 4QOC/o
1
!1l

::>

300%

--- Run Capacitar oniy

,_[ ooo".
100%

oL-----------~~~
Speed............... SYN SPEED

Fig:12.7
The torque-speed characteristies ofthis motoris shown in Fig: 12. 7. Thismotor has the followiug
advantages:

The starting torque is 300% ofthe fullload torque

The staJ1ing current s low, say 2 to 3 tU1es ofthe runnng curren!.

Startng and ruoong power factor are good.

Highlyefficientrunniug.

Extremely noseless operation.

Can be loaded upto 125% ofthe fui! load capacity.

APPLJCATION

Used forcompressors, refrigerators, air-conditioners, etc.

Higher startingtorque.

High efficiency, higher power factor and overloading.

Costlier than the capacitor-start- Induction run motors of the same capacity.
211

12.8.SHAPED POLE MOTOR


111e motor consists of a yoke to which salient poles are fitted as shown in Fig: 12.8(a) and it has a
squilTel cage type rotor.

CONSTRUCTION OFA SHADED POLE

-J\1ain \vnding
Rotor

..,
\

Single
phase

supply

Shading col

\Vinding

(b)

(a)

Fig:12.8
A shaded pole made oflaminated sheets has a slot cut a"Toss the lamination at about one third the
distance from the edge of the poi e.
Around the smaller portion ofthe pole, a short-circuited copper ring is placed which is called the
shading coi!, and this part ofthe pole is knov,nas the shaded part ofthe pole. The remainingpart ofthe
pole is called the unshaded part which is clearly shown inFig: 12.8(b).
Around the poles, exciting coils areplaced to whichanAC supply is connected. \VhenAC supply
is effected to the exciting eol, the magnetic axis shifts from the unshaded part of the pole to the shaded
pmtas -vvill be explained in details in the next paragraph. This shifting ofaxis s equivalen! to the physical
movement ofthe pele.
This magnetic axis, which is moving, cuts the rotor conductors and hence, a rotational torque is
developed in the rotor.
By this torque the rotor starts rotating in the direction ofthe shifting ofthe magnetic axis that is from
the unshaded part to the shaded part.

SHII<'TING OFTHE MAGNETIC FLUX


As the shaded coi! is ofthick copper, it will have very low resistance but as it is embedded in the
iron case, it v.'II have high inducta.nce. When the exciting windng is connected toan AC supply, a sine
wave curren! pa..~ses through it.
Let us considerthe positivo half cycle oftheAC current as shownin Fig:l2.9.

212

Fig:12.9.

'Wben the currentraises frorn "Zero"Value ofpoint "O" te a point "a" the change in curren! is very
rapid (Fast). Hence, t reduces an ernfin the shaded coi! on the basis ofFaraday's law ofelectromagnetic
induction.
The inducedernfin the shaded coi! produces acurrent which, in tum, produces a flux in accordance
v.ith LenzLaw.Tis induced flux opposes the main flux in the shaded portian and reduces the main flux
in that area toa minll:num value as shovm in Fig: 12.9.
Tis makes the magnetic axis to be in the center ofthe unshaded portian as shown by the arrow in
part offig: 12.9. On the other hand as shovm in par! 2 of3 when the curren! raises frorn point "a" to
point "b" the change in curren! is slow the nduced emf and resulting current in the shading coi! s
mnimum and the main flux is able to pass through the shade portion.
This makes the magnetic axis te be shfted te the center ofthe whole poie as shov.m in bythe arrow
in part2 ofFig: 12.9.
In the next instan!, as shown in part 3 ofFig: 12.9. When the curren! falls from "b'' to "e" the
change in curren! is fast but the change ofcurren! is from maximurn to minimum.
Hence a large curren! is induced in the shading ring which opposes the dminishing main tlux,
thereby increasing the flux density in the arca ofthe shaded part. Ths makes the magnetic axis to shift
1o the right portian of the shaded patt as shovvn by the arrow in part.
From the above explanation it is clear the magnetic axis shifts from the unshaded part to the
shaded part which is more or less a physica\ rotary movement ofthe poies.
Simple motors ofthis type cannot be reversed. Specially designed shaded poi e motors have been
constructed for reversing operations. Two such types:
a. The double set of shading coils method
b. The double set of cxcitingwinding method.
Shaded pole motors are built comrnercially in very small sizes, varying approximately from 1/250
HP to 1/6 HP. Although such motors are simple in construction and cheap, there are certain disadvantages
with these motor as stated below:

Low starting torque.

Very little overload capacity.

Low efficiency.
213

APPLICATIONS

Record players

Fans

Hair driers.

12.10. COMMUTATOR TYPE SINGLE PHASE MOTORS


11ris type ofmotors have a wound rotor with brush and commutator arrangernent like a de annatnre.
Connnutator motors consistoftwo classes, namely, those operating on the principie of repulson and
those operating on the principie of series motor.

1. REPULSO N MOTOR
Repulsion motors, though complicated in constmction and lgher in cost, are
still used in certan industries dueto their exeellent :.1arting torque, low starting current,
abiliiy to vvithstand long spell of starting currents to drivc heavy loads and their easy
method ofreversal ofdirection.

1_

__.,._,...._,

li

Now there is a condition that the rotornorth poi e will be repelled by the main
north pole and the rotor south pole is repelled by the main south pole, so that a
torque could be developed in the rotor. Now duelo the repulsion action between 1
the stator and the rotor poies, the rotor will startrotating in a clockwise direction. As ;
the motor torque is dueto repulsion action, this motor is named as repulsion motor.

L i- - - " ' - . : . . _ . : . . _

Fig:12.10

DIRECTION OF ROTATION
To change the direction of rotation ofthis motor, the brush axis needs to be shifted from the right
side as shown in Fig: 12.11 to the left side ofthe man axis na cmmter clockvvise direction as shown in
Fig: 12.11.

Angle positlon
of Srushes

, \
1

Fig:12.11
214

~~'

,.~

1
1
1

' b:.,..

C~CTERJSTICS

As explaned earlier, the torque developed in a repulsion motor will depend upon the amount of
brush shaft as shown in Fig: 12.11, whereas the direction of slft decides the direction ofrotation.

Further, the speed al so depends upon the amount ofbrush shift and the magnitnde ofthe load.
Relationslp between the torque and brush-position angle in a repulsion motor.
Though the starting torque from 250 to 400% ofthe full load torque, the speed will be dangerously
lgh during light loads.
Tls is dueto the fact that the speed of the repulsion motor does not depend on frequency or
nurnber ofpoles but depends upon the repulsion principie.
Further, there is a tendency of sparking in the brushes at heavy loads, and the PF will be poor at
low speeds. Hence the conventional repulsion motor is not much and the other three irnproved types
are popular.
12.12. UNIVERSAL MOTOR (SERIES MOTOR)

It is al so cornmutatortype motor. A universal motor is one which operates both onAC and DC
supplies. It develops more horsepower per Kg. weight than any other AC motor rnainly dueto its high
speed.
The principie of operation is the same as that of aDC motor. 'Though a universal motor resembles
a DC series motor, it required suitable modfication in the construction, winding and brush grade to
achieve sparkles commutation and reduced heating when operated onAC supply, dueto increa~ed
inductance and arrnature reacton.

A.C(or)
+

D.C. Supply~

Fig:12.12.

A uuiversal motor could therefore be defmed as a series ora compensated series motor designed
to operate at approximately the same speed and output at either direct current or single phase altemating
current ofa frequency not greater than 50HZ, and ofapproxirnately the same R!VlS voltage. Universal
motor is also named asAC single phase series motor.
The rnain purts of a universal motor are an armature, field winding, stator starnpings, frame and
plates and brushed. The increased sparking at the brush position inAC operaton is reduced by the
folloVv'ingmeans:
215

Providing commutating interpoles in the stator and connecting the interpole winding in series with
the annature winding. Providing high contact resstance brushed to reduce sparking at bmsh positions.
OPERATION

A universal motorworks on the same principies as aDC motori.e. force is created on the annature
conductors dueto the interaction between the main fieldflux and the flux created bythe current carrying
annatute conductors. A universal motor develops unidreetional torque regardless ofwhether itoperated
on AC or DC supply.
Fig: 12.12 shows the operation of a universal motor onAC supply. In AC operation, both field and
annature currents change their polarities, at the same timeresulting in unidirectional tOJ-que.
CHARACTERISTICSANDAPPLICATIONS

The speed of a universal motor inverselyproportional to the load i.e. speed is low at fui! load and
high, onno load.
DIRECT

CURRENT
OPERATlON

Al.TERNATING
CURRENT
OPERATION

100

200

300

400

500

TORQUE -

Fig:l2.13

'!be speed reaches a dangerously high value dueto !ow field flux at no loads in fact the no load
speed is limited only by its own friction and windage losses. As such thesc motors are connected vvith
permanent loads or gear ttains to avoid running at no load thereby avoiding high speeds.
Fig: 12.13 shows the typical torque-speed relation of a universal motor, both for AC and DC
operations. This motor develops about 450% of fui! load torque at starting, as such higher than any
othertype ofsingle phase motor. Universal motors are used in vaccum cleaners, food mixers, portable
drills and domestic sewage machines.
CHAl~GE OFROTATION

Direction ofrotation of a universal motor can be reversed by reversing the flow ofcurrent through
either the arrnature or the field windings. It is easy to interchange the leads at the brush holders.
However, when the arrnature tenninals are interchanged in a universal motor having compensating
winding, care should be talcen to interchange the compensating >vinding also to avoid heavy sparking
vvtrile nmning.
216

12.14. THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


INTRODUCTION

The most common type ofAC motor being used throughout the work today is the "Induction
Motor" .Applications ofthree-phase induction motors of size varying from half akilowatt to thousands
ofkilo"trtts ate numerous. They ate found everywhere fi:oma small workshop toa large manufacturing
industry.
The advantages ofthree-phaseAC induction motor are listed below:

Simple desigu
Rugged construction
Reliable operation
Low initialcost
Easy operation and sin1ple maintenance
Simple control gear for startng and speed control
Hgh elliciency.

Induction motor is originated in the year 1891 with crude construction. Then an improved
construction with distributed stator windings anda cage rotor was built.
The slipring rotor was developed after a decade or so. Since then a lot of improvement has taken
place on the design ofthese two types ofinduction motors. Lotofresearch workhas been carried out
to improve its power factor and to achieve suitable methods of speed control.
PRINCIPLE OF 3 PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Induction motor works on the same principie as a DC motor, that is, the current cmrying conductors
kept in amagnetic field will tend to create a force.
However, the induction motor differs fi:om the DC motor in the fact that the rotor of the induction
motor is not electrically connected to the stator, but induces a voltage/current in the rotor by the
transformer action, as stator magnetc field sweeps across the rotor.
The inducton motor, derives its name from the fact that the current in the rotor is not drawn
directlyfi:om the supply, but is induced by the relative motion ofthe rotor conductors and the maguetic
field produced by the stator currents.

~lative

motiQn

of the Rotor
(b}

217

Fig:l2.l4.

"Ibe stator of the three-phase induction motor is sinlat to that of a 3 phase a!temator, a revolving
field type. If a three phase supply is connected to the three phase winding in the stator that produces a
rotatingmagnetic iield in the stator core. 'The rotor ofthe induction motor may have either shorted rotor
conductors in t11e form of a squirrel cage or in the form of a three phase windng to faclitate the
cireulation ofcnrrent through a closed circuit.

Let us assume that the stator field ofthe induetion motor is rotating in a clocbvise directon as
shmcvn in Fig: 12. 14. This makes forthe relative moton ofthe rotor in an anti-clockwise direction as
shown in Fig: 12. 14(b).
Applying Fleming's right hand rule, the direction of emfinduced in the rotor will be towards the
observer as shoVvn in Fig: 12.15. As the rotor conductors have a closed electric path, dueto their
shorting a current will flow through them as in a short circuted secondary ofa transfonner.

Fig:12.15

The magnetc filed produced by the rotor current will be in counter-clockwise directon as shoVvn
in Fig:l2.15.
Of The Sta ter

Fig:12.16

Accordingly to Maxwe!ls Corkscrew Rule, the interaction between the stator magnetic field and
tlle rotor magnetic field results in a force to move the rotor in the san1e direction as that ofthe rotating
magneticfield ofthe stator as shoVvTI in Fig: 12.16. As such the rotor follows the stator filed in the same
direction by rotating ata speed lesser that the synchronous speed of tlle stator rotatng fiel d.
At higher speeds of the ro tornearing to synchronous speeds, the relative speed between the rotor
and the rotating magnetic field ofthe stator reduces and results in a smaller induced emfn the rotor.
Theoretcally, if we asSUllle that the rotor attains a speed equal to the synchronous speed ofthe rotating
magnetic field ofthe stator fieldand the rotor and thereby no induced emfor cunent wil! be there in the
rotor.

218

Consequently, there will not be anytorque in the rotor. Hence, the rotor ofthe induction motor
cannot run ata synchronous speed at all. As the motor s loaded, the motor speed has to fall to cope up
with the mechanical force, thereby the relative speed increased, and the induced crnfand curren! increases
in the rotor result:ing in an increased torque.
12.17. ROTATING :VIAGNETIC FIELD
A rotating magnetic tleld is that which rotales in space at sybehronous speed, inside an induction

motor starter.
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELD FROMA3 PHASE STATOR

The operation ofthe induction motor is dependent on the presence of a rotating magnetic field in
the stator. The stator ofthe induct:ion motor contains 3 phase windings placed at 120 degree electrical
apart from each other. These windings are placed on the stator core to fonn non-salient stator field
poles when the stator is energized from the three phase voltage supply each phase winding \\till step up
a pulsating field, however, by virtue ofthe spacing between the \\tindings and the phase difference the
magnetic fields combine to produce afield rotating ata constan! speed around the inside surface ofthe
stator core. This resultan! movement ofthe flux is called the "Rotating magnetic field" and its speed is
called the "Synchronous speed".
The manner is which the rotating field is set up may be described by consideling the direction of
the phase currents at successive instants during a cycle.
Fig: 12.17 (a) shows a simplified star-conneeted, three phase stator winding. The winding shown
is for a two-pole induction motor. Fig: 12.1 7(b) shows the phase currents for the three phase windings.

IR

'

lB

'

'

(b}

Fig:12.17

The phase currents will be 120 electrical degrees apartas shown n Fig: 12.17(b). The resultan!
magnetic field produced the combined effect ofthe three currents is shown at increments of 60 degree
for the cycle ofthe current.
12.18. CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAlL S OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Three phase induction motors are constructed into two major types:
l. Squirrel cage Induction Motors

2. SlipringinductionMotors.
219

1. SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR


(a) Stator Construction

rarne
-Stator core

, pider

f-_.::~;:;;~;;sq:::;;;;""-1-....cstator slot
Fig:12.18

The induction motor stator resembles the stator of a revolving field, three phase altemator. The
stator or the stationary pmt conssts ofthree phase winding held in place in the slots ofa laminated steel
core which is enclosed and supported by a cast iron ora steel frallle as shmvn in Fig: 12.18.
The phase windings are placed 120 electrical degrees apart andmay be connected in either star or
delta extemally, forwhich sx leads are brought out toa terminal box mounted on the frame ofthe
motor. \Vhen the stator is energized from a three phase voltage it vvll produce a rotating rnagnetic field
in the stator core.
12.19. (b) Rotorof a squirrel cage induction motor

The rotor ofthe squirrel cage motor shown in Fg: 12.19 contains no windings. Instead it is a
cylindrical core constructed of steella~ninations with conductor bars mounted parallel to the shaft and
embedded nearthe surface ofthe rotor core.
These conductor bars are short circuited by an end rings at both end of the rotor core. In large
machines, these conductor bars and the end rings are made up of copper with the bars brazed or
welded to the end rings shownn Fig: 12.19.
In small machines the conductor bm'S and end rings are sometimes made of alurninium with the
bars and rings cast in as part ofthe rotor core.
RotorShaft
Skewed Rotor sitos

Ring

Bnbearing
Fig: 12.19

220

The rotor or rotating part is not connected electricallyto the power supply but has voltage induced
in it by transformer action from the stator.
For this reason, the stator is sometimes ca!Jed the primary and the rotor is referred toas the
soeondary ofthe motor since the motor operates on the principie ofinduction andas the construction of
the rotor with the bars and end rings resembles a squirrel cage, the squirrel cage induction motor is
used.

The rotor bars are not insulated from the rotor core because they are made of mctals having Iess
resistance than the core. 1be induced current will flow mainly in them. Also the rotor bars are usually
not quite parallel to the rotor shaft but are mOlmted in a slightly skewed position. This feamre tends to
produce a more uniform rotor field and torque. Al so it helps to reduce sorne ofthe interna! magnetic
noise when the motor is running.
(e) End Shields

The function ofthe two end shields is to supportthe rotor shaft. They are fitted with bearings and
attached to the stator f'rame with the help of studs or bolts attention.
12.20. SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR
a. Stator Construction

The consteuction ofthe slipring induction motoris exactly similar to the construction of squirrel
cage nduction motor. There is no difference between squirrel cage and slipring motors.
b. Rotor Construction

SlipRng

Rotorcore

Fig:12.20

The rotor ofthe slipring induction motor is also cylindrical or constructed oflamination.
Squirrel cage motors have a rotor with short circuited bars whereas slipring motors have wound
rotors having "three vvndings" each connected instar.
The winding is made ofcopper wire. The tenninals ofthe rotorwindngs ofthe slipring motors are
brought out through sliprings which are in contact with stationary brushes as shovm in Fig: 12.20.

221

THEADVM!AGES OFTHE SLIPRING MOTORARE

It has susceptibilty to speed control by regulating rotor resistance.

High startng torque of200 to 250% of fhllload value.

Low starting curren! of the order of250 to 350% ofthe fu!! load cwTent.
.Hence slipring motors are used where one or more ofthe above re<}nirements are to be met.

12.20.1. COMPARISON OF SQUIRREL CAGEAND SLIPRING MOTOR


S.No.
l.

Squirrel cage motor

Property
Rotor Construction

Bars are used in rotor. Squirrel cage


motor is very simple, rugged and
long lasting. No slip rings and gear
need frequent maintenance.

Slipring motor
Winding wre is to be used.
Wound rotor required
attentioiL
Slipring and brushes are
needed

2.

Starting

Can be started by D.O.L., stardelta, auto transforrner starters

Rotor resistance starter is


required.

3.

Startng torque

Low

Veryhigb

4.

Starting CwTent

High

Low

5.

Speed variation

Not easy, but could be varied in


large steps by pole changing or
through smaller incremental steps
througb thyristors or by frequency
variation.

Easy to vary speed but


speed change with pole
changing is not possible.
Speed change is possible by
inserting rotor resistance
using thyristors or by using
frequency varialion injecting
emf in the rotor crcuil
eascading.

6.

Acceleration
onLoad

Just satsfactory

Verygood

7.

Maintenance

Almost Ni! maintenance

Requires frequent
maintemmce

8.

Cost

Low

222

12.21. DOUBLE SQUIRREL CAGE MOTOR

In order to overcome the dsadvantages ofthe cage motor, and to avoid having to the use the
more expensve slipring motor and its associated gear, increasing attention is being given to the use of
the double cage rotor is ncreased temporarily while starting.

Fig: 12.21

The double cage rotor in its simple fonn consists oftwo separate cages. The outeror staring cage
is made ofhigh resistance material and is arranged to have the smallest possble reactance.
The inuer cage s ofthe ordinary low resistance type, and snce t is sunk deep into the iron, has a
high reactance ofthe nner and outer cage can be varied in an indefinite number ofcombinations and
many shapes of speed torque curve can be obtained.
At starting, the frequency ofthe cunents in the rotor conduetors is the same as the supply iequency.
Thus the high reactance ofthe inner cage produces a choking effect and reduces the currency flowing
in this >vnding.
Most ofthe starting curren! is confined to the outer cage despite its high resistance. The outer cage
being ofhigh resistance develops ahigh starting torque depending largely on the value ofits resistsnce.
A punchng of such a double cage rotor lamination is shown in the Fig: 12.21. As the rotor speed
increases, and approaches synchronism, the frequency ofthe emf's on its conductors falls and the
choking effect in the inner cage is reduced.
The inner cage now carries practically all the current until final! y the rotor operates with the
characteristics of an ordnary low- resistance rotor. The general result is to produce a machine having
ahigh startingtorque anda high running efficiency, v..ith reasonably small value ofstarting current.

223

Questions
PartA
Choose the correct answer:
l.

The a. e supplyis given to the statorwinding ofthe 1~ motorthe flux wil beproducedas
a. Steady magnetic flux.

b. Rotatingmagnetic flux

c. Altemating magnetic flux

d. none ofthese.

In 1~ motor to make ita self starting techniques can be adopted

3.

a. By increasing the supply voltage

b. By increasing the line curren!

c. By reducing the load

d. By splitting in phase

In the splt phase motor the main winding curren! 1m lags the supply voltage by about
a. 90

4.

5.

7.

b 15

c. 80

d. 120

The starting \Ninding is opened by a centrifuga! switch when the motor has come up to about
a. 75- 80% of synchronous about

b.l00%ofsynchronous speed

c. 50% of synchronous speed

d. l/3 ofthe synchronous speed

In the capacitor start motorthe starting capacitor leads the starting curren! by about
a. 90

6.

b. 120

c. 70

..

d. 20'

The startit1g torque of slipring induction motoris


a. 200- 250% ofthe fui! load value

b. 300-450% offullload value

c. 350-400% ofthe fU.llload value

d. 250-350% offullload value

outer cage ofDouble squirrel cage rotor is made up of

a. brass

b. copper

c.Aluminitun

d. Bronze
Part-B

Answer the following questions in one wore:

l.

What is the power rating ofii'a.Ctional horse power?

2.

What are the two types of capactors used in capacitor start, capacitor run motor?

3.

Write the metal to be used for the shading coi!

4.

What about the repulsion motor cost?


224

5.

State the name ofthe motorwhich works onAC/ DC

6.

Wbythe end rings ofthe squirrel cage rotors are short circuited?

7.

Gveone advantages ofthe slp1ingmotor

Part-e
Answer the following questions in briefly:
l.

What are the types of single phase motnrs?

2.

\Vhat are the advantages of capacitar start, capacitar run motor?

3.

State the wversal motor rotational drection can be changed?

4.

What are the advantages ofthreephase induction motor?

5.

What is the rotating magnctic field?

6.

\Vhat are the two types of3$ inductions motors?

Part-D

Answer the following questons in one page level:

l.

Explain the construction and operation of 1$ capacitar start capacitor run motor?

2.

EJ,:plain the construction and operation of 1$ shaded pole motor?

3.

Compare the squirrel cage motor and slipring motor?

PartE

Auswerthe following questions in two page level:


l.

Explain the constructional details of squirrel cage Induction motor?

2.

Explain the com;tructional details of slipring Inductionmotor.

225

13. MOTOR STARTERS


13.0.AC.MOTORSTARTERS
N ecessity of starters

Induction motors when direct-switched take five to seven times oftheir fullload current and
develop only 1.5 to 2.5 times their fui! load torque. This initial excessive cunent is objectionable.
Because, it will produce large line voltage drop that, in tum, \Nill affect the operation of other electrical
equipment connected to the sa:me lines. Hence, it is not advisable to !ine start motors ofrating above 30
to 50 HP.
The initial inrush of curren! is controlled by applying a reduced voltage to the stator during the
starting period and full normal voltage is applied when the motor has run at the rated speed. For the
above reason starters are used.
Indan Elecuicity Rule strictly prohibits direct ON-starting ofthree phase induction motors above
5HP.
TYPES OF INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS
l. Full voltage Direct-on-line stalting
(a) D.O.L. starter.
2. Reduced voltage starting.
(a) Start-delta starter (b)Auto transforrner Starter.
3. Rotor Resistance Starter- Rotor Control.
FULL VOLTAGE DIRECT ON LINE STARTING
13.1. D.O.L. Starter
3-Phase supply

R--.-~~~~~----

~ =j::::::::;::::====
Sealing

contact

Stop

(b)

Fig: 13.1

226

It is recommended that large three phase squirrel cage induction rnotors be started with reduced
voltuge applied across the stator tenninals at sturting. But small motors upto 5 HP ratings may however
be started Direct-On-Line (DO L).

Direct-on-line rnethod of starting ofinduction motors applicable upto a rating of 5 HP is shown in


Fig: 13.1.1n the circuit in addition to fuses, therrnal ovcrload relay has been used to protect the motor
windings against over load.
When the "start" push button is pressed, the contactor coi! 'A' becomes energized and it's open
contacts are el osed. The motor gets connected across the supply mains through the rnain contacts of
the contactar. The motor continues to get supply even when the pressnre on the push button is released,
since the contactar coi! will then get supply through the sealing contact 'a' ofthe contactor.
Contactar 'a' ofthe contactarAis therefore called the hold on contact. When the STOP push
buttonis pressed the foil gets de-energised, the man contacts ofthe contactor opens and the motor
stops. In case of overload on the motor, the contact 'e' ofthe overload relay (OLR) will open and
subsequently the motor vvill stop. Fuses are provided for short circuit protection.

13.1.1. REDUCED VOLTAGE STARTING


Reduced voltage can be applied across the stator circuit either by use of an auto ttansforrner or by
connecting resistor or inductors in series with the stator v,inding or by connecting the statorwinding at
the time of starting instar. These methods are described as follows:
l. Star Delta Startng

2.Auto Transforrner Starting.


13.2. Star Delta Method of Starting

In ths method the stator-phase windings come first eonnected in "STAR" and full voltage is
connected across its freeterminals.As the motor pck.s up speed, the vvindings are disconnected through
a switch and they are reconnected in "DELTA" across the supply terrninals. The cunent drawn by the
motor from the lines is reduced to 1/3 as cornpared to the current it would have draw11 if connected in
delta.

REDUCED TORQUE DUETO STAR CONI'"ECTION:

R----------T------------------

Y------........,--+-

B-----r-+-4~----------------

Fu ses

Al

Delta

o o
o
o o

Star

.~~
~

,.)l"

o!

Rotor
C>

'------...J

Fig: 13.2

227

,,

Torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the square ofthe applied voltage. As
the phase voltage is reduced to 113 times that instar connection, the starting torque will be reduced to
one third. To get fui! torque in the motor it must be switched over to Delta connection. A simple manual
Star-Delta Starter is shown in Fig: 13 .2.
The making connections for star delta starting, care should be taken such that sequence of supply
connections to the winding terminals does notchange while changing from Star-connection to delta
connection. Otherwise the motor will start rotating in the opposite direction, when connections are
changed from star to delta. Star-delta starters are available for manual operation using push button
control. An automatic star-delta starter uses time delay relays (TDR) through which star to delta
connections take place automatically with sorne pre-fixed time de lay. The del ay time of the TDR is
fixed keeping in view the starting time ofthe motor.

13.3. AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTER:


An auto transformer starter consists of an auto transformer anda switch as shown in Fig: 13.3.

Fuses

Auto

o
o

Fig:13.3
When the switch 'S' is put on "START" position, a reduced voltage is applied across the motor
terminals. When the motor picks up speed, say to 80 percent of its normal speed the switch is put to
"RUN" position. Then the auto transformer is cut out ofthe circuit and full rated voltage gets applied
across the motor terminals.
The circuit diagram in Fig: 13.3 for a "manual auto transformer starter". This can be made pushbutton operated automatic controlled starter so that the contacts switch o ver from start to run position
as the motor speed picks up of 80% of its speed. Overload protection re lay has not been shown in
Fig:l3.3.
The switch "S" is air break type for small motors. More than one tapping to enable the u ser to
select any suitable starting voltage depending upon the conditions.

228

13.4. ROTOR RESISTAN CE STARTER

OFF

Starting Resista'1Ce
-"1

'--...,:

''
'''
'
L~====Ol-~~ J
1
1

Fig:13.4.

The easiest method of starting wound-rotor (slip ring) induction motors to connect some extra
resistance in the rotor crcuit as shown in Fig: 13.4.
Connection of extra resistance in the rotor circuit decreases the starting current and at the satne
time increases the starting torque.
As the motor starts rotating the extraresistance is gradually cut out. When the motor attains rated
speed the resistanee is fully cut out and slipring terminals are short cireuited. The motor now operates
on its own characteristics which givcs rise to maximum torque ata low slip.

13.5. DC MOTOR STARTER


THREEPOINTSTARTER

r - - - - - - - - - -

- - - -

+o-- :o
,p
OC
Supply

-o

~-

--

F,

F,

'S
'T

229

!:J

Fig: 13.5

Three point starter s used to start the shunt and compound motor. In three point starter, three
terminals L,A,F (Line, Armature and Field) are available. In this starter, the resistance elements are
mounted on the back side of a slate board. On the front si de ofthe board, brass studs are provided and
the resistance junctions are connected with each brass stud. Two protective device overload re!case
and no volt release are incorporated in the circut as sho'-'<n in the diagram. The handle ofthe starter is
fixed in such a way to move the brass studs.
\\lhen the handle touches the first stud, the fui] resstance is conneeted in series with the annature.
The field circuit is connected across the full supply voltage. As the handle is moved overthe studs, the
resistance conneeted in series with the armature circuit is gradually cut out. The handle move against
spring force as shown in the diagram.

A soft iron piece is attached to the handle. The soft ron piece is attached by the electro-magnet
(NVR), when thehandle reaches the "ON" postion. In case of a failure ofthe supply orthe voltage is
very low, the electro magnet de-energises and release the armatu:re. The spring force bring the handle
to "Off<~' position.
PROTECTIVE DEVICES:

No Volt Release (NVR)

This consists of an electro magnet (NVR). This is connected in the field circuit.As soon as the field
circuit gets supply, this is energized. It holds the handle in the "ON" position. As explained above, in
case of a failure ofthe supply, this becomes de-energised and the handle is released from "ON" position.
The handleretums to "OFF" postion, dueto the action ofthe spring. Ifthis provision is not provided,
when the supply were resto red, the current through the armature is high and this will damage the
armanrre windings.
OVERLOAD RELEASE (OLR)

This also consists of an electro magnet. This electro magnet coil is energized by the line current.
When the load on the motor is increased above a pre-determined value, the magnetizing force established
is sufficient to lift tl1e movable iron. When it is lifted by the electro magnet of OLR it short circuits the
terminals ofthe cols ofthe No volt release. Hence, the No volt coil is de-energised and the starter
handle returns to "OFF" position. Thus the overload release protects the motor aganst over loads.
This starter is not generally used where the field curren! is often adjusted for a higher speed than
the normal speed, the handle returns to the OFF position. This may cause for reduetion in field cun-ent.
This is disadvantageous in Three point starter and it is eliminated in Four point Starter.
13.6. FOURPOINT STARTER

The fourpoint starter s used for starting shunt and compound motors.
The fourpointsturter, thefourtenninals L+, L",AandF (Une+, Line-,AnnatureandField) are
available.
The c.onstructional details andan operational details are the same as that ofthe three point starter,
except the follo,;,ing difference.
230

@~,:

'

+~~-L_R: ___ E_~;


'

'
'

- o-L.-~:-C><:>--'----'--'
Fig:13.6
ln three point starter, the coi! ofthe No voltrelease is connected in series with the field circuit. But
in four point starter, the coi! ofthe no voltrelease does not carry the field current. lt is connected across
the supply line through a protective resistance Rp. The no volt coilis independent of the field curren!, so
any change in shunt filed current do no effect the curren! through the no volt coi!. The curren! through
the no volt coi! does not decrease e ven when the field reneostat is adjusted for speed variations. The
electro magnetic pull produced by the no volt coi! wll always be the same and sufficient to hold the
handle in "ON" postion. Thus, the misoperation as in three point starternevertakes place in Fourpoint
Starter.

QUESTION
PartA

Choose the correct answer:


l.

2.

3.

30 nduction motors draw the very large curren! at time of starting as


a. 3 times offullload value

b. 2 112 times of fullload value

b. 7 times offullload value

d. none ofthese

Reduced voltage starting types of induction motor starter is


a. Star- delta starter

b. D.O.L starter

c. Rotor resistance slarter

d. 3 Point starter

Fuses are provided in the D.O.L Starter for


a.limitthe supplyvoltage

b.limit the cmrent

c. reduce the starting curren!

d. short circuit protection

231

4.

The supply voltage is reduced instar connection as


a. 1/>/3 times

5.

6.

b. 1/3 times

d. 2/3 time

In the three point starter l\vR Coi! is connected in the


a. armature circuit

b. Field circuit

c. Across the supply main

d. in between armature and field circuit

Over Joadrelease coil protects the motor against


a. over loads

7.

e.l/2 times

b. over voltage

c.overspeed

d. overheat

In tour point starter the NVR coi! is connected in the


a. field circuit

b. Annature circuit

c. across the supply line through a protective resistance

d. across the supply line

Part-B
Answer the following questions in one word:
l.

Mention the suitable starter for 5 HP squirrel cage induction motor.

2.

Mention the suitable starter for 30 HP squirrel cage induction motor.

3.

\ilhat type of connection is done in the winding at the time of starting start delta starter operation?

4.

Write the method of starting by using auto transfonner starter?

5.

Where the extra resistance should be added in the slipring induction motor?

6.

State the protective divices ofthree point staJ.ter?

7.

Write the four points of the four point starter.

Part- C
Answer the following questions in briefly
l.

What are the types ofinduction motor starters?

2.

What are the methods of reduced voltage starting?

Part- D
Answer the following questions in one page leve!
l.

Explain the operation ofD.O.L starter?

2.

Explain the operation of auto transfonner starter?

3.

Explain the operation of rotor resistance starter?

Part-E
Answer the following questions in two page leve!
l.

Explain the operation of three point starter?

2.

Explain the operation offour point starter?

232

14. ELECTRONICS
14.0.ATOMIC STRUCTURE

All matters eonsist of atoms. According to Bohr's theory, an atom consists ofthree partid es,
namely- electron, pro ton and neutron. The proton is a positively charged particle the electron is a
negatively charged particle and the neutron is an electrically neutral part ele. The protons and neutrons
are clustered together to forma hard central area, called nucleus (positive cha:rges). The electrons
revolve around the nucleus, in a well defined path called orbit.
In a normal atom, the number ofprotons is equal to the numbcr of electrons. Hence, the entire
atomis said to be electrically neutral.
Number of eleetrons

Atomic number

Number of protons.
Number of protons + Number of neutrons.

Atomic weight of an atom

14.1. ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMS

The eleetrons revolve around the nucleus, in different energy levels, called K,L,M,N, etc. shells.
The K shell is placed in elose to the nucleus, the next shell is L and so on. The maximum number of
electrons in any shell is given by the relation of2n2 (i.e. n -order ofthe shell, counted from nucleus).
The rnaximm.n munber of electrons placed in different shells are given below:
1 orbit

K Shell (First Shell)


L Shell (Seeond shell)

2 x l sq.

2 electrons.

2 orbits = 2 x 2sq. = 8 electrons

M Shell (Third shell)

9 orbts = 2 x 3sq. = 18 electrons

N Shell (Fomth shell)

16 orbts = 2 x 4sq. = 32 electrons.

Fig: 14.1

Each shell contains one or many orbts. Each orbit contains only two electrons, wlrich revolve
around the nucleus in opposite directions. The arrangement of electrons in silicon (Si) and gennanitun
(Ge) atoms, is shm:vn in the Fig: 14.1. The atomic numberofsilicon is 14 and germaniun1 is 32.
In Si atom, the electrons are arranged in the following ma:tmer.

Si(l4), K(=2), L(=8), M(=4)


233

The maximum number of electrons to be placed in the M shell is 18. But in Si, it contains only 4
electrons. Similarly in Gennanium atom, the electrons are arranged as:
Ge(32), K(=2), 1(=8), M(=l8), N(=4).

The outer shell contains only 4 eleetrons rrespective of32 electrons.


The electrons placed in the orbits el ose to the nucleus are called bound electrons. Similarly, the
electrons placed in the orbits away from the nuclens are free electrons. The electrons placed in the
outermost orbit are called Valence Electrons. The conduction ofan atom depends on Valence Electrons.

14.2. ENERGY LEVELS


The energy band occupies by Valence Eleetrons is called Valence Band. During conduction, the
or from one atom to another atom. This energy band is
called conduction band. Dnring condu,ion, the electrons are moved from valence band to conduction,
the electrons are moved from valence band to conduction band. The energy gap bet\veen valence band
to conduction band. The energy gap bet\veen valence band and conduction band is called orbidden
energy gap. The energy leve! diagrams ofinsulator, semi-conductor and conductor are shown in the
Fig:l4.2.
electroiL~ are moved from one orbit to another,

Ernpty o::nr.duclln hanJ

Conduction hand

Corduction blind

(e: V)

(a) lmmlaton

{b) Scrncondu>:'ton

{r) Metuls

Energy band diagram

Fig:14.2
lnsulator
In insulators (wood, glass), the forbidden energy gap is very high (-15ev). Ifthe energy applied to
the insulator is more than 15ev, the electrons are moved from valence band to conduction band. But
this energywill destroy the insulators, not possible to apply in nsulators.

Semi-conductor
In semi-conductors (silicon, gennanum) the forbidden energy gap is only 1eV. Therefore, a small
amount of energy is required for moving the electrons from valence band to eonduction band.

Conductor
In conductors (Aiuminium, Copper), the valence band and condnetion band are overlapped with
each other. Hence, without applying any energy, large number offree electrons are available in the
conduction band. Hence large eurrent flows in conduetors.

234

14.2.1. TYPESOFSEYII-CONDUCTORS:
In every elements. the atoms. are tied together by the bending aetion of valence e!ectrons. S and

Ge atoms contain only 4 valence electrons. These electro!h~ have a tendency to 11! the las! outennost
orbit In this way, theelectrons plaeed in thelastorbitofan atom share the electrons ,...,fu their neighbouring
atoms. Similarly, al! electrons are tied together with their neighbouring atoms. For this, they fonn a band
called co-valent bond.
The semi conductors are classified as follows:
Semi-conductors

E:>.:trinsic
Intrinsic Semi conductors

Semi conductors

P.Type Semi-conductors.

N.Type Semi-conductors

14.3. INTRINSIC SEMI CONDUCTORS

Va!ence eJectron

Fig:14.3

Apure semi conductor is called intrinsic semi conductor. The silicon and gennanium atoms
contains onlyfoure!ectrons in the outennost orbit So they are called tetravalent atoms. The co-valent
band stmcture of gennanium atom is shown in the Fig: 14.3.
At lowtemperature (O K), the semiconductor behaves as a perfect co!lBnlator. Nowno electrons
get away fi:om the co-valent band. So the curren! flow(electron flow) is zero. At room temperature,
sorne ofthe valence electrons may acquire sufticient energy. The bonds may be broken, the electrons
become free anclare shifted to the conduction bandas shown in the Fg: 14.4.

235

.. . . .
. (.G! /""f!ee
.
.
. . . b> . . ~

v;alen

.
. l~

' lU;
. (

"';e

Hole...J

j-0valem bond

Elec 'o

' [G<

of

anium

(,

Conduction bnnd

1
/
:-~

F(~t'

Eg

Elt:etrons

.lole

elect

l'-'~

l<J~

Energy band diag:ram of

intrinsic :>miconductor

Germanum crystal with a broken covalent bond

1<1g:l4.4
The motion of eleetrons constitutes electron current. The vacancy created by tls electron in the
valence band is known as boles, and acquires a positive charge. Ibe combination of electron and hole
is kno'\NTI as eleetronhole paid. In the intrinsc sem-conductors, the number of electrons s equal to the
number ofholes. The amount of cunent flow depends upon the number of electron-hole pairs broken,
depends upon the applied electric field (Voltage).
\Vhen an externa! electric tleld is applied across the intrinsic semi conductor, more number of
electron hole pair combinations will be broken. According to the amount of electric field, many free
electrons are moved to the positive potential throughholes calledeleetron current. Nowthe holes are
moved towards the negative potential called hole current. The sum of electron curren! and hole current
is known as electric current.
EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR

The electrical conductivity ofpure semiconductor is increased by addiug some impurities in it. The
resultant semi-conductor is called extrinsic semi wnductor. The process ofadding impurities to apure
semi conductor is known as doping. The purpose of adding impurities in the pure semi conductor s to
increase the number of free electrons or holes, for increasng their conductivty.
The extrnsic semi conductors are dvided into two types. They are N-t)-pe semi conductors and
P-type semi conductors.
14.5. N-Type Semi conductors

N-type semi conductor is formed by adding a small amount of pentavalent mpurities (such as
arsenic, antimony orphosphorous) toa semi conductor (such as silicon or germanium) material. The
added impurities are called donar impurites because they will donate electrons.
Germauium atomhasfourvalence electrons, andantimony has five valence electrons. The antimony
forms co-valent bonds with their surrounding for germauium atoms. The co-valent bond structure and
energy band diagram ofN -type semi conductor is shown in Fig: 14 .5.

236

im>tt~iy

~A

_::e~

(i't
,,.

(k

()t

l'ellfln~lent

H<>m

();<

'

[(Ji

Go

b) Energy band diagram

a) Covalent bond

Fig:14.5
The four valence electrons of antimony atom fonn co-valent bonds 'Aith four valence electrons of
individual gennanium atom. The fifth valence electron of antimony s left free, loosely bound to the
antimony atom.
This loosely bound electron can be easily excited from the valence band to the conduction band
by the application of small electtic field. The extra electron creates impurity because it can donate one
electron for conduction.
Thus the addition of pentavalent impurities increases the nun1ber of electrons in the conduction
band, thereby increasing the conductivity ofthe semi conductor. Now the semi condllctor contains
more electrons and Iess holes. Hence it is called N-type semi conductor. So the electrons are called
maj ority caniers and holes are called minority carriers.

14.6.P-TYPESEMICONDUCTOR
P-type semi-conductor is formed by adding a small an1ount oftrivalent impurities (such asAiuminium
or Boron) toa pure semiconductors (such as SiliconorGennanium) material. Three valence electrons
in aluminium from co-valent bond \Vth four surrounding atoms ofGc. Now one co-valent bond is
incomplete, which gives rise to ahoJe. The co-valent bond structure and energy band diagram are
sho'All in the Fig: 14.6.
Forthis, more number ofholes (positive charge) are generated. The holes increase the conductivity
ofthe P-type semiconductor.

Oe

Trivnlerlt
impuri!y
aiom

Ge

Ge

Al

Ge

Conducfion band

o \o--Hole

Ge

~
G~!

1 Ge

Hole

(e V1-;;-;:--.-=-#-,

t 1--'_'~:::1-..:::0-Free

Ge

a) Cova1ent bond

Fig:I4.6
237

b) Energy band diagram

Electrons

This impurities are knmvn as acceptor impurities, because the holes created can accept electrons. The
number ofholes s more than the nurnber of electrons. In P-type semiconductors holes are majority
carriers and electrons are minority carriers.
14.7. P-N Junction Diode (Semiconductor Diode)

A PN Junction is formed by suitably joining a P-type semi-conductor and a N-type


semiconductor. A PN Junction is shown in the Fig: 14.7.
+

G
+

G
+

G
+

- '''

G
'
G '' G
+ '
G ' G
'

(!)

''

<!)
:

(')

(j

rli

1 o;pleh~n reg)nJ'
''
'
'

(j

()

'<>

1
Fig:14.7

The P-type semiconductor has more holes and less electrons. The N-type semconductors has
more electrons and less holes. Therefore at the juncton, the electrons in the :N-side have a tendency to
move towards the P-side. Smilarly, the holes on the P-side have a tendencyto m ove towards the Nsido. According to that, the electrons and holes recombine with each other to fonn a region at the
jtmction. It s "depletion regon". When the free electrons move from N-type to P-type, the donar irons
becomes positively charged. These tvvo charges, on either sides make a potential across the depletion
region called "barrier potental".
lhe barrier petentia! opposes the flow of carriers through the junction, maintain an equilbrium
leve!. The barrier potental ads the tlow of minority carriers and opposes the flow of majorty carriers
through the junction. For both these opposite effects, no eharge carriers are flow through thejunction at
normal conditions.
The netcurrent that flows through a PN junction diode contains two components. They are (i) drift
current and (ii) difilision current.
Drift current

When an electric field is applied across the semiconductor materials, the charge carriers attain
sorne energy. Now the holes move towards the negative terminal and the electrons move towards the
positivo tenninals ofthe battery. This combined effect ofmovement of charge carriers constitutes a
curren! known as :Drift Curren!".
Diffusion curreut

When no electric field is applied, the charge carriers in the semiconductor materials may produce
concentration gradient. The charge carriers have the tendeney to move from the higher concentration
region to that oflower concentraton region. Nowthe movement of charge carriers produces a eurrent
known as "Diffusion curren!".
238

Working of a PN Junction Diode

The construction of any diodes, depends on their bia~ing. There are two types ofbiasing, known
as Forward biasing and Reverse biasing.
l.Forward Biasing:
In forward biasing, the positive terminal ofthe battery is connected to the P-type and the negative
terntinal ofthe battery is connected to the N-type materials ofthe diode, shown in the Fig: 14.8.
p

'
ID; $ $ $
e e :e
+ '
'
e e e
0
+
+
+
e e e :,e _:, J $ ) $
0

,.....--

e! :

'

+j ...

Fig:14.8

Underthe forward bias condition, the applied positive potential repels the holesinP-type region.
The negative potential repels the electrons in N-type regions. Nowthe electrons in N-typeregionand
the hales in the P-type region move towards the jtmction. This reduces the v.idth ofthe depleton regan
and also the barrier potential.
Ifthe applied potential is greaterthan barrierpotential, the majority carriers on both regions move
towards the junction. It makes current flow through the junction. The amount of current flow depends
upon the magnitude of applied potential.
The VI characteristics ofa PNjunction diode under forward bias condition is shown in the Fig: 14.9.
\Vhen thc applied potential is less than cut-in orthreshold voltage, the curren! flow is very low. The cut
in voltagc s generally 0.3V for Germanium andO. 7V for slicon diodes respectively. At the cut-in
voltage, the appled potental overcomes the barrier potential, increases the current rapidly.
Ge

Si

O.JV

il.TV

Fig:l4.9.
2. Reverse Biasing
In reverse biasing, the positive terminal ofthe battery s connected to the N-type and the negative
terminal ofthe battety s eonnected to the P-type materials ofthe dio de shown in fig: 14.! O.

239

e--,
1

+
+

1Holes flow

N
+

+
+

1
,e
e
1
e
1'e
le e
1

Gl

Gl

Gl

Gl

Gl

Gl

1
1

'V
-1

1
1
1

Electrons ilow

'1
Under reverse bias condition, the majority carriers with P and N regions are moved towards
the battery respective!y. The holed in P-type and the electrons in the N-type regions move to the
negative and positive terminals ofthe battery respectively. Hence, the width ofthe depletion region is
increased which prevents the flow of majority carricrs through the junction.
v,

Bre:ukdown
Vohage

Fig:14.11
\Vhen the applied voltage is slowly increased the minority carriers (electrons) in P region and the
minority carriers (holes) in N -region make a small amount ofcurrent flow through the junction. This
current is called "reverse saturation curren!" shown in Fig: 14.11.
When the applied reverse voltage is futther increased, breakdown occurs in the junction. Now
large reverse curren! flo""'S tbrough the junction. Tne mnimum voltage that nees to breakdown occurs
in the junctionis called "breakdmvn voltage".
According to the operations, the diode is an uni-directional device. The diode generally permits
the curren! in onlythe direction. Hence, it is used in rectifiers, clippers, clampers, etc.
DIODEAPPLICATIONS
l.

Rectifier in power supples.

2.

S>vitch in digitallogic circuit

3.

Clan1ping networks used as de restorer in TV receivers and voltage multipliers.

4.

Clipping circuits used as wave shaping circuits used in Computers, radars, radio and TV receivers.

5.

Demodulation circuits used as wave shaping circuits used in Computers, radars, radio and TV
rece1vers.

240

14.12. RECTIFIER
Introduction

Mostly all electronie devices require DC powerfor their proper opemtions. DC batteries are used
for moving vehicles and rarely in commercial appliances, but they are costly and require frequent charging
or replacement. So we can get DC power from AC lines by nsng regulated DC power supply. ll
consists oftransformer, rectifier, filter andregulator.
Classification of Rectificrs

The unidirectional characteristic active element diode is used forthis purpose. Ihe rectifier converts
an AC signa! into DC si gnal. There are three diflerent types ofrectifiers, namely:
a. Halfwave rectifier
h. Full wave rectifier
c. Bridge rectifier.

HALFWAVE RECTIFIER

A.C.Supply

L~'

Fig: 14.12

'This rectifier converts anAC input voltage into DC pulsating voltage foronly one halfcycles ofthe
applied voltages. The circuit diagram of a halfWave rectifier is shovm in the Fig: 14 .12. This circuit
contains o:nly onediode. So the output contains o:nlypositive half cycles ofthe input
OPERATION

During the positive halfcycles ofthe input signa!, terminal Ais positive with respect to terminal B.
Now diode D conducts in forwards bias. So the current flows from terminals Ato B through diode D
and load resistor RL. Hence, input voltage is fully dropped across the load resistor RL
During the negatve halfcycles ofthe input signa!, terminal 'B' is positive 'INith respect to terminal
A Now diode D conducts in reverse bias. So no current flows through the diode and load resstor.
Now the output voltage is Zero.
In this circuit, the output contains only the positive half cycles of input signed. So it is called half

wave rectfier. The input and output waveforms are shovm in the Fig: 14.13.
In this rectifier, the diode co:nducts onlythe positive half cycles ofthe input signa!. So the cUJTent
flows throngh the transformer is in only one direction. Hence, DC saturation ofthe tmnsfmmer takes
place. The peak inverse voltage of the dode should be atleast equal to Vm.
241

Vm

-V m

1-- .

Transformer secondary vol!age

Vm

,,''t /

or----+~--~----~---+~---i:rr
,2;_
31t
41!
l

'

Voltage across RL

Rectified

cum~nt

J<'ig: 14.13

14.14. Fullwave Rectifier


Full wave rectifier eontains two diodes, so these diodes conduet full cycles ofthe input signa!. 'Ine
cireuitdiagramofafullwave rectifier is shown in the Fig: 14.14.1bisreetifieruses centretap transformer
which produces two equal magntude ofvoltages at the opposite terminals. One end tetminal voltage is
out of phase with the other end terminal voltage with respect to centre tap terminal.

w,
D1

o,---...,

~)

RL

l'------11
B

"'

Fig.l4.14
Operation
During the positivo half cycles ofthe input voltage, termua!Ais positive, and Bis negative with
respect to terminal O. Now the diode D 1 conducts in forward bias and diode D2 conducts in reverse
bias. So the currentLl flows from the terminal Ato the load through diode Dl. No current flows
through the diode D2.
Similar!y, during the negative halfcycle ofthe input voltage, terminal B is positve andA is negativo
with respect to terminal O. Nowthe diode D2 conducts in forward bias and the diode D.l. conducts
in reverse bias. So the current i2 flows from terminal B to the load through the diode D2. The ctments
242

il and i2 t1ows through the load n same direction. Ifthe magnitude of applied voltage at terminal A is
equal to tenninal B voltage, the current i 1 is equal to 2.

"'Time

OIL----'"--::-"""='-::--.JL.---'---to-Time
Load Current
Input and output
waveforms
Fig:14.15

The input and output signa! wave forms are sho"'n in the Fig: 14.15.
In this rectifier, the two diode currents tlow in opposite drections through the transformer. So, DC
saturation of the transformer does not take place. The peak inverse voltage of the diode should be
atleast equal to 2vm.
14.16. Bridge Rectifier

Bridge rectifier is also a fullwave rectfier. It contain four dodes andan ordinary stepdown
transformer. l11e crcuit diagram ofbridge reetfier is shown in the Fig: 14.16.

,E~l

L_J

04

01

--------,

Vm sinO

,o~

243

il
02

1'

Fig:14.l6

Operation

During the positive cycle ofthe input signa!, termina!Ais positive with respect to tenninal B. Now
the current flows thtough D 1, RL and D2. Thus the input signa! is fully dropped across the resistor RL
Now the diodes D2 and D4 are not conducting.
During the negative halfcycle ofthe input, terminal Bis positive vvith respect to terminal A. Now
the current flows through D2, RL and D4. Thus the input signa! is also fully dropped across the resistor
RL Nowthe diodes DI and D2 are not conducting.

rr

'

'

'

'

Curre,nt due \) D1&D3:

'

'

'
':
Input yoltage
''
''

to
=

Time

'
'

Time

'

o
o

Current dueto D2 & D4


!
!
'
1'
1'
1
1

Load Current

'

--Time

'
!

Time
Input and output
waveforms

Fig:14.17.

During both half cycles, the cutTent flows through the load resistor, RL in san1e direction.Ibe input
and output signa! waveforms are shovvn in the Fg: 14.17. The peak inverse voltage ofthe diode s egua!
toVm.
Rectifier Applications
i. DC motor drivers.

i. Weldingpower supples.

ii. Unintem1pted Power Supplies (UPS)


iv. Industrial systems that require de voltage.

244

14.18. Filters

Filter is a circuit contains only passive components. It is used to convert pulsating DC signa! into
a steady (pure) DC signaL Generally the output of the rectifier eontains DC eomponents as well as AC
components. The presence ofAC components in the DC signal is undesirable. So it must be removed
using filters. The filter circuitremoves (ormininlizes) the unwantedAC signa! present in the rectified
output DC signa!.
]1Ie various types of filters are:
i. Capacitor Filter

ii. Inductorfilter
iii. LC (Inductor Capacitar Filter) LC (Inductor Capacitar Filter)

iv. n Filler
v. RC Filter.
4.19. CAPACITORFILTER

The circuit diagram of a capacitar tilteris showLI in the Fig:14.18. The capacitor C is placed
across the rectifier output and also parallel to the load resistor RL.
The pulsating DC voltage ofthe rcctifier output is applied across the capacitor. The capacitor
opposes the sudden variation ofthe voltage applied aeross to it. During the rising voltage of the input
the eapacitor charges, and during failing voltage ofthe inputthe eapacitor diseharge5 through RL.

Fig:14.19 (a)

At the maximurn input voltage, the capacitor charges toa maximurn voltage Vm. In between the
input voltage levels the capacitor does not discharge the full Vm voltage.

Vm

-8

'"""'
~

Fig:l4.19. (b)
1

"'

\.!

O L..--+---!::--~=1::----rl--ITime
-r,;
lt
1t
Filter output wavcform

245

So, it wll reduce the amount ofAC componen! present in the DC signa!. The input and output
signal wavefonns are shown in the Fig: 14.19.
14.20. INDUCTORFILTER

t+
Filtered
output

Rectified output

Series Inductor filer

Fig:14.20
The circuit diagram of an Inductor filteris shovvn in the Fig: 14 .20. The inductor opposes the
sudden variation of current which is cmmected in series with the load resistor RL

or----~---o,~--~+---~~~ti
1t

time

l
!
!

l Rectified otput
:
/-..,.
1
.... - ,
1 1
\
1 "
\

/
,..

\ 1'

\ 11
\!!

~/

'~1

111

'

Filtered outpu
wavefom1

---7:-----

(le.-----;------,~--!:;'

Jn

time

Fig:l4.21.
So the inductor reduces the amount of variations of ripple current. Hence, AC ripple will be
reduced. The input and output wavefonns are shown in the Fig: 14.21.
14.22. LC Filter

-~

Rectfied
Output

CI
Fg:l4.22.

246

RL

Vo

Filtered
Output

This filter is a combination of capacitor and inductor filters.lt provides low ripples than capacitor
and inductor filters. The circuit diagrams ofLC filter is shown in Fig: 14.22.

I/

\ j

'-'----=-

1!1

w
1

11:

Filtcrcd out:mt

!1

\11

wavefonn

-~,.-'
2n:

Fig: 14.23.

Thc inductor provides high reactance to theAC components ofthe rectified output and it also
blocks theAC components.lt passes the DC components to the load. TheAC componen! is also once
again filtered by capacitor C. Sop the output contains almost onlypure DC components. The input and
outputsignal wavefonns are shown in the Fig: 14.23.
14.24. (Pn) FILTER

t
Rectified

Filtered

Output

Output

j_
Fig:14.24.

The 1t filler contain two capacitors and only one inductor, onn a symbol of n. lt is also called
capacitar input filler as shown in the Fig:l4.24. The capacitor Cl offers low reactance to the ac
components to the rectfied output. So the AC components are bypassed to ground through C l.
The inductor L pro vides Hgh reactance to the ac components. So the ac components are dropped
across the inductor, it passes onlythe de components.
The capacitar C2 against remo ves the ac components present in the de signa!. As a result the
output eontains only pnre de components. The large values of capacitors produce high de output
voltage.
14.25. Zener diode

Zener diode s a specially desgned PN junction dode. Itis aheavily doped PN junction diode.
The symbol and equivalent circut of a Zener diode is shownin the Fig: 14.25(a) and (b).

247

lf(mA)

\;,(V)
IF(mA)

(a) Symbol

Qt--'---il(Zma:>:)

(bl Equivalen!
circuit

Fig:14.25

The operation of the Zener diode is same as that of an ordinary PN junction diode in forward
biascd condition. But in reverse biased condition, break down may occur in the junction of the diode.
TI1e breakdown voltage depends upon the amount of doping. Heavily doped diodes breakdown at Iow
voltage levels. Similarly, lower dopes diodes breakdown at high voltage levels. The VI characteristics
ofZener diodeis shown intheFig:l4.25 ( C).
In forward biasing, the current is linearly increased with respect to applied voltage. Now the
conduction depends upon ihe majority carriers. In reverse biasing ihe current is very low before
bre.akdown levels. After breakdown ihe current increases rapidly. The reverse breakdown ofthe Zener
diode may occur dueto the following mechanism.
i.Avalanche breakdown
ii. Zener breakdown.

ZENER DlODEAPPLCATIONS

i.Zener diode used as a Voltage regulator.


ii. Zener diode used to meter protection purpose.

iii. Zener diode uscd to convert sine wave into almost squarc wave.
14.26. LIGIIT EMITTING DIO DE (LED)

LED is a special!y made forward biased PN Junction diode which emits light when current flows
lhroughit.
CONSTRUCTIOI'i

r
N

...
--V

(b)Symhol

Fig:l4.26.

248

The construction and symbol of LED is shown in the Fig: 14.26. In this diode, a P-type
semconductivematerial is deposited on the N-type substrate !ayer byusing diffusion method. Metal
contacts (Anode) are made at the outer edge ofthe P-!ayer. A cathode connection is al so formed by
coating a metal film at the bottom ofthe N-substrate. Tlle metal fihn reflects more lights to it~ surface.
The colour ofthe light emits from the diodes depending upon the type ofmaterial used as given below:
i.GaAS

Infrared radiation

ii. GaP

Red or Green Light

iii. GaAsP

Redor Yellow Light.

Principie of Operation

When a forward bias supply is applied to the diode, the electrons and boles moves towards the
junetion and recombination take place. Afterrecombination, the electmns lying in the conduction band
ofN-region move towards the holes laying in the valence band ofP-region. The energy difference
between valence band and conduction band is radiated in the form oflight.
Characteristics

t
...,

e.
ij

!:!

~
.l>

100

80
60
4{)

20

.i!

-;;

""

o
~

20

}{l

50

forwanl oum:nt (mA)

Fig: 14.27.

The illumination characteristics, between current and brightness is sho-vvn in the Fig.l4.27. The
amount oflight emitted from the diode s direetly proportonal to the forward current flows through the
diode.
APPLICATIONS

a. Used in ON and OFF indicators.


b. Used in programmable advertisement boards.
c. Used in optical commwrications
d. Used in 7 segment and 14 segment displays.
e. Used in optical svvitching applications.
f. Used for solid video displays

g. Used inimage sensing circuits.


249

14.28. SEVEN SEGMENT LED DISPLAY


CA

*****~
U
*

(Qb

(b) Common anode type

ri

(;_

ce

{C) Common cathode type

Fig:14.28.

The Fig: 14.28(a) shows the structure ofa seven segment LED display, it contains sevenrectangular
LEDs. Each LED is called a segment because it forms a part ofthe character bcing displayed.
TI1ere are two possible connections in seven segment displays. They are common anode type and
common cathode type. The schematic diagram ofcommon anode ty}Je and common cathode type of
seven segment display is sbovvn in the Fig: 14.28 (b) and (e). In the common anode type, the anodes of
all segments are tied together and connected to positive supply voltage (+V ce). In the conunon cathode
type, the cathodes of all segments are tied together and connected to ground.
Generally, the seven segment LED is driven by decoders or code converters. The choice of
method selected out of common anode and common cathode depends upon the output of code
converters. Such common anode and common cathodc connections are available from many
manufacturers in dual-in-line package similar to !Cs.
Common anode connections requires active low configuration for the code con verter circuitry.
The active high output circuit is necessary for comrnon cathode connected LED display. The tennnals
marked a,b,c,d,e,f and g are connected to the outpnts of code converter. The output is generally a TTL
type circuit The value ofthe current flowing fhrough the chosen LED is set by a proper choice of series
resistor R.
14.29. BIPOLORJUNCTION TRANSISTORS
Emitter

J,

Base Collector

J, /

a) Structure of:-l'P!'-1 transistor

'Y

b) Symbol ofi'I'PN transistor

250

~B
a) Structure of P~P transistor

E..--~c
B

E- Emitter
B-Base
e- Colleclor

b) Symbol ofPNP transistor

Fig:14.29.

Transistor is a semiconductor device, containing three layers and two junctions. There are two
types of transistors narnely (i) NPM transistor and (ii) Pl\JP transistor.
In NPN transistors, a thin !ayer ofP type is sandwiched between two N type layers. In PNP
transistors, a thin !ayer ofN type s sandwiched between two P type layers. The strucmre and symhol
ofboth transstors are shown in the Fg: 14.29.
The three portions oftransstors are Emitter (E), Collector ( C) and Base (B). An ru.mw is marked
in the emitter terminal speeifies the direction of current. Emitter !ayer is heavily doped, so that it can
inject a large number of carriers into the base. Base is lightly dopes ru.1d very thin. It passes most ofthe
injected charge carriers from the emitter into the collector. Collector is moderately dopes. It collects
majority carriers from t11e emitter.
14.30. TRANSISTOR OPERATIONALBIASING

' . ''
L
V;.:

~
\th:

{a) NPN tr!lusi-'>lor hiJb.ing

(bl PNP

tn:m$i~>fflr hi.usill~

Fig:l4.30

Usual!y the emitter base junction is forward biased and collector base junction is reverse biased,
as shown in the Fig: 14.30. The fonvard bias voltage is quite small and fue reverse bias voltage is
considerably large.Ibe resistance ofthe forward biased base-emitter junction is low. Tbe resistance of
the re verse biased colleetor-base junction is high. In transistors, the weak signa! is applied to the low
resistance circuit, and the output is taken from the high resstru.1ce circuit. So a transistor transfers the
signa! from low resistanee side to high resistru.1ce side. Hence it is called "TRANS" ferres "ISTOR"
(Tra11sistor).
14.31. OPERATION OF ANPN TRANSISTOR

- - ----- ~i
- - ' -N

,,,
Oj

t - - Eh::ch'OCI tlow

~--

......_

-~

il
L_-

...,._

,.

f~
--1

~-

Fig:14.31.
251

1 "!"..-

__r

Htm flcw

A NPN transistor with proper biasing is shown in the Fg: 14.31. The emitter-base junction is
torward biased by the potential VEE. The collector-base junction is reverse biased by the potentia!
VCC.
The forward bias potential VEE, causes a lot ofthe electrons from the emitter region to cross over
the base region. This produces the emitter cnrrent IE. The base is lightly dopes, hence few number of
electrons from tbe emitter recombine with the boles in the base region, producing the base curren! IB.
Tbe remaining electrons, move towards tbe collector region, by the collector-base potental VCC,
wbicb produces collector cnrrent !C.
According to tbe reverse bias voltage (VCC) between the coliector and base, a small reverse
eurrent flows through the region. Now collector cnrrent conssts ofmajority carriers and mnority carriers,
so the transistor is called Bipolar Jtmction Transistor (BJT). The emitter cnrrent is approximately equal
to the sum ofbase current and collector cunent.
The electrons and boles move in opposite directions. Tite direction ofthe electric curren! s also in
opposte with the direction ofelectron rnovements. According to the biasing, proactically the transistor
operates in three regions, nUlllely- active, eut-offand saturation. During active regan, the input (BE
junction) s in forward basing and the output (BC junction) is in reverse basing. In saturation region
both, the inputand output are in forward biasing. Similarly in cut off region, both the input and output
are in reverse biasing.
14.32. OPERATION OF APNPTRANSISTOR

~
+

o-- o-<>-- <>--

-o--

.,.__,__

--- --

_,___
p

.,_........,

1!

V CE

e-..

f
jJB -~~~~--J
1' 1!
"""'
1i"

t.,..._...;q-

-o---too

-Eiectron flow
-Holeflow
le

Fig:14.32.

A P::-.IP transistonvith proper biasing is sbown in tbe Fig: 14.32. The operation ofPNP transistor
is identcal with the operation ofNPN transistor. Hence, the current flow depends upon the boles
(majority caiTiers) in the P-type ernitterregion.
Tbe forward bias (witb VEE) is applied in between base and emitter junction, and reverse bias
(wtb VCC) is applied in between base and col!ector junction ofthe transistor sbown in tbe figure.
The forward bia~ (VEE) causes a lot ofboles from the emitter regon and consttutes the emitter
cnrrent, to cross into tbe baseregion. The base s lightly doped with N-type mpurites. Therefore, only
a few holes (less than 5%) combine with the electrons constitute a base cnrrent lB. The remaning boles
(more !han 95%) cross into the collector region to consttute tbe collector cnrrentiC. Thus the addition
of collector curren! and base curren! gives the emitter current IE.

IE=IC + IB.
252

14.33. SCR (SILICON CONTROLLED RECTlFIER)

SCR is a three terminal (anode, cathode and gate) three junction and four !ayer semiconductor
switching device. The basic structure and symbol ofSCR is shown in tbe Fig: 14.33
J

13

12

A~j---oK
G
{tt) Constnlction

(b) Symbol

Fig:14.33.
14.34. PRINCIPLE UF OPERATION
RL

==>;--::-Ji!>-.-,

,.

Fig:l4.34.

In tbe normal operating conditions, a positive voltage is applied to the anode (A) anda small
positive voltage is applied to tbe gate (G) witbrespect to tbe cathode (K) as shovm in Fig: 14.34.
When tbe gate is kept open (V G=O), tbe SCR is similarto a PNPK diode. The functions J l and
J3 operate in forward bias and tbe junction J2 operates in reverse bias. So no current flows through the

SCR. Therefore, tbe SCR is in OFF state. The SCR now offers high resistance.
Vvben the anode voltage is gradual!y increased tbc junction, J2 attains breakdown ata pa1ticular
voltage. Now tbe SCR conducts heavily going to ON state. The anode voltage at which the SCR
conducs heavily (ON State) witbout gate voltage is called "Breakover Voltage".
When a small positive voltage is applied to tbe gate, the junction I3 is in f01ward biased and the
junction J2 is in reverse biased by this voltage. Nowtbe electronsmove from N-type Jayer (cathode) to
Ptype !ayer, through the junction J3. The electrons in junction, J3 are al so attracted by junction 12, and
gate current starts flowing. The holes also move frorn P !ayer (G) toN !ayer (K) which in turn increases
tbe anode current, and makes more electrons available at junetion J2. Tis cmnulative process makes to
breakdown tbe junction J2 in a short time. Now tbe SCR conducts heavily.
Once an SCR is tumed ON, the gate loses its control. Even ifthe gate voltage s removed, the
SCR does not go to OFF state. To turn the devce OFF is onltdone by lowering the anode voltage, and
makes the current less tban holding current (IH).

253

14.35. SCR. V.I. CHARACTERISTICS

~~ ___ _
D

Forward Brcakover
voltagc

Fig: 14.35.
TI1e high value of gate current can easily ON the device with low anode to cathode voltages. The
VI characteristics ofSCRare shown in the Fig: 14.35.
In forward biasing, as the anode-cathode voltage exceeds the forward breakover voltage (VBO)
the SCR turns ON, and the anode cathode voltage decreases quickly toa voltage marked as B.

The cunent at Bis called holding current (IH). It is mnimum value of anode current to keep the
SCR in ON state. The region between the point B and C is called conduction region.
When the anode voltage is negative with respective te cathode, the junction 11 and 13 operates in
reverso biasing and the junction 12 operates in forward biasing. When the reverse voltage is linearly
increased, avalanche breakdown occurs in a particular reverse voltage. Nowthe current increases
rapidly.

APPLICATIONS
i. Used in specd control ofAC and DC motors.
ii. Used in invertors and convertors.

ii. Used inAC and DC circuit brcakers.


iv. Used for phase control and heater control.
v. Used in battery chargers.

254

Questions

PartA
Choose tbe correct answer
l.

2.

3.

In insulator the forbidden enerygy gap is

a.:::: 15ev

b.:::!Oev

c. ::::1 ev

d. noneofthese

Apure senconductor is called


a. Extrinsic semiconductor

b. Intrinsic semiconductor

c. Conductor

d. Insulator

N- type semi conductor is ormed by adding


a. arsenic

4.

b. silicon

P- type semi eonductors is formed by adding


b. Gerrnanium
d. Phosphorous

a. silicon
c. Aluminum or Boron
5.

6.

7.

c. gennanium

The P - type seminconductor has


a. moreholes

b.less boles

c. More electrons

d. nonofthese

The dopping leve! ofZener diode is


a.Lightly

b. Heavily

c.Medium

d. none ofthese

SCRhasthreejunctionand
a. four !ayer semiconductor

b. two !ayer semiconductor

c. Three !ayer semiconductor

d. none of these

Part-B
Write the following questions in one word
l.

What are the types of extrinsic semiconductor?

2.

How many diodes are used in bridge rectifier?

3.

How many capacitors are used in 1t filter?

255

d.Boron

4.

What are the two types oftransistors?

5.

Mentan the name ofthe transistor three leads?

6.

State the three terminals ofthe SCR.

7.

What s the component used to removal ofAC components in the DC signa!?

Part-e
Answer thc following questions in briefly
l.

What are the applicaton of diode?

2.

Mentan the claqsification ofrectifiers

3.

State the various types of filters.

4.

What are the applications ofLED?

5.

What are the applications ofSCR?

6.

\Vhatis the:function offilters?

Part-D
Answcr the following questions in one page levcl
L

Drawthe circuir and explain the operaton of full wave rectiler?

2.

Explan the constructional details ofLED?

3.

Explain the operation of a NPN Transistor?

Part-E
Answer the following questions in two page Ievel:
l.

Explain the working of aPN Junction diode in forward biasing and reverse biasing?

2.

Explain the Principie operation ofSCR and discuss the VJ characteristics with neat sketch?

256