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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

ХХ CENTURY: EVENTS AND FACES

Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов

Составители:

Н.В. Ильичева, А.А. Махонина

Издательско-полиграфический центр

Воронежского государственного университета

2010

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Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской филологии ВГУ 16 марта 2010 г., протокол № 3

Рецензент канд. филол. наук, доц. И.В. Фомина

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английского языка в профессиональной международной деятельности факультета романо-гер- манской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендуется для студентов 2-го курса факультета международных отно- шений.

Для специальности 030700 – Международные отношения и направления 032300 – Регионоведение

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Contents

Unit 1. Leaders and Leadership

4

Unit 2. Harry Truman and the Beginning of the Cold War

21

Unit 3. U.S. President Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis

33

Unit 4. General Charles de Gaulle and his Politics of Grandeur

47

Unit 5. Willy Brandt and his Ostpolitik

62

Unit 6. The World Leader in the Era of Globalization

76

Appendix 1. Tapescripts

90

Appendix 2. Word Lists

99

Appendix 3. Functional Bank

107

Appendix 4. Hints for Speaking Activity

112

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Unit 1

Leaders and Leadership

Lead-in 1. Work in groups. Discuss the questions.

What does a history-making individual mean?

Should strong leaders be feared or admired?

Do you think that a strong leader needs fasces?

A: I suppose a history-making individual is an outstanding person because…

B: I completely disagree with you because all people have an equal

opportunity to become a political leader.

C: I also share this point of view. Every day we see young men and women all

over the country – in high schools, colleges, civic groups and local governments

– who demonstrate their leadership abilities…

Listening

2. a. You are going to listen to some information about important criteria

which can be applied to characterize a good leader. Before listening, discuss

the following in pairs.

Look at the bar chart and put a dot on each bar according to your opinion.

Tell the class what features of character a good leader should possess.

contumelious docile alluring pleasing compliant obstinate impulsive cautious eloquent expressive
contumelious
docile
alluring
pleasing
compliant
obstinate
impulsive
cautious
eloquent
expressive

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How do these features of character can help him/her? A: In my opinion, a good political leader should be a contumelious person,

because he should know what to do. B: There is something in what you say, but being too aggressive won’t bring any benefits as…

b. Look at the statements below. Which one do you agree with more? Tell

your partner. “The challenge of leadership is to be strong but not rude, be kind but not weak, be bold but not bully, be thoughtful but not lazy, be humble but not timid, be proud but not arrogant, have humor but without folly” (Jim Rohn). “The real leader has no need to lead – he is content to point the way” (Henry Miller).

c. The following words and phrases appear in the passage. How do you think they will be related to the theme of the passage? to move beyond appearances a containable situation to show poise a perilous situation to make it through being articulate and compelling to be persuasive in communication to acquire charisma

d. Now listen to the passage. For questions 1-3, match the extracts with the

criteria A-C. There are two criteria you will not need.

A. Ability to control oneself

B. Ability to take active steps

C. Ability to be cooperative

D. Ability to ease people’s pain

E. Ability to be inspiring and

influential

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1.
1.
2. 3.
2.
3.

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d. Discuss in groups.

Do you agree with the suggested criteria?

Which is better for a country to have a routine leader or a charismatic one?

Reading 1 3. a. Look at the title of the article. What do you think the message of the article is? How far do you agree with it?

b. Read the article below and say whether you consider repulsive features of

character to be an integral part of a political leader.

If You're a Liar, a Bully or a Cheat, then You Too Could Be a Great World Leader

If you want to get ahead, be egotistical, stubborn and disagreeable. And a bit of untidiness will help too. The research presented yesterday to the American Psychological Association conference in Washington, examined the traits of the most successful men in the US history — all 41 Presidents — and compared them to more average individuals. The truth is that being nice gets you nowhere — not to the White House or Number 10 or even on to a parish council.

The researchers discovered that the great Presidents were low on straightforwardness, vulnerability and order. "The very characteristics which mark people out as an unattractive choice as a spouse or a neighbour make them successful as leaders", said Rubenzer. "One real surprise was that people who are

a

little disorganized do a bit better. Abraham Lincoln was notoriously untidy, and

it

certainly seems to be an asset".

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The psychologists asked 100 biographers and historians to help them fill in questionnaires and then scored them on different characteristics. Forcefulness, the willingness to flatter and manipulate, egotism and assertiveness all seemed to help push Presidents up the ladder of greatness. "As far as UK goes, Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher fit right into our model. Stubborn, assertive and socially often obnoxious — just the right stuff to make them great figures in history", said Ruberzer. The team further categorized the Presidents into seven personality types — innocents, autocrats, introverts, actors, philosophers, extroverts and maintainers.

Innocents: too nice for their own good, these people make it to the top

through a fluke. In Britain John Major and the late Alec Douglas-Home, a Tory Prime Minister in the sixties, are in this category.

Autocrats: the disagreeable, bossy bullies. Using the rules applied by the

researchers, Margaret Thatcher, Winston Churchill and the US Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Richard Nixon are in this group.

Introverts: erratic, anxious and tense, like British PMs Ramsey MacDonald

and Anthony Eden, and US President Herbert Hoover.

Extroverts: publicity-hungry, assertive, dominant, but somehow low on

organizational skills. Bill Clinton — destined for the history books if only for his sex life, say researchers — and Tony Blair are examples.

Actors: similar to extroverts but less open. They have low concentration.

Ronald Reagan and Harold Macmillan are examples.

Philosophers: their interests are wide and they are not afraid of change —

like Clement Attlee, Labour's post-war election victor.

Maintainers: traditional, holding family values and not open to new

experiences. George Bush and Harry Truman are in this group.

(Tracy McVeigh, the Observer)

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c. For questions (1-6), choose the best answer (A, B or C).

1. According to the research, if a person is pleasant to deal with, kind and

friendly

A it won’t do him/her any good.

B it is necessary for him/her to conceal these features of character.

C it will bring some positive result in the future.

2. Leaders who don’t have good and effective organization

A will never gain a high position in life or their job.

B are destined to succeed.

C can become leader easier than others.

3. Psychologists evaluated all leaders according to

A their influence on other people.

B the number of points they got for their qualities.

C the proportion of their negative features to the positive ones.

4. Presidents were classified on the grounds of

A their attitude to success.

B their nature and character.

C personal opinions of biographers and historians

5. Autocrats and extroverts show similarities in

A their behaviour in their private life.

B the way they treat weaker people.

C their abilities to organize.

6. Philosophers and maintainers represent an opposition because

A they regard everything new differently.

B they have different experience.

C other people don’t share their values.

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Vocabulary practice

4. a. Match the words/phrases from the text to their meaning.

A

1. a parish (council)

2. vulnerability

3. a spouse

4. notorious

5. an asset

6. assertiveness

7. obnoxious

8. erratic

9. anxious

10. tense

B

a. famous or widely known for something bad b. very unpleasant and offensive c. confident belief in one’s own authority d. having, showing or causing nervous anxiety e. a husband or wife f. feeling worried and frightened, nervous g. changeable in behaviour without reason h. a valuable person or quality i. a quality of being easily hurt or sensitive j. (in Britain) a small area (esp. a village), having its own local government

b. Explain the meaning of the highlighted words and phrases.

Discussion

5. Discuss in groups.

Can you think of other examples of political leaders to fall into the given categories? Think of any other types of political leaders.

Rank the following factors according to how important you think they are for a person to become a good leader (1= most important, 10 = least important). Then compare your ranking with that of another student. What other factors can you think of?

attractive appearanceimportant). Then compare your ranking w ith that of another student. What other factors can you

charismaThen compare your ranking w ith that of another student. What other factors can you think

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reputationCopyright « « » & «A K -C » circumstances close-knit team public support willingness to

circumstances« « » & «A K -C » reputation close-knit team public support willingness to compromise

close-knit team» & «A K -C » reputation circumstances public support willingness to compromise ruthlessness

public supportK -C » reputation circumstances close-knit team willingness to compromise ruthlessness ability to delegate

willingness to compromise» reputation circumstances close-knit team public support ruthlessness ability to delegate foresight A: Personally I

ruthlessnessclose-knit team public support willingness to compromise ability to delegate foresight A: Personally I think that

ability to delegateteam public support willingness to compromise ruthlessness foresight A: Personally I think that first of all

foresightwillingness to compromise ruthlessness ability to delegate A: Personally I think that first of all a

A: Personally I think that first of all a good politician should have an attractive appearance because… B: I partly agree with this idea but sometimes circumstances are the most important thing as they help to reveal a personality…

Reading 2

6. a. Study two opposing points of view on the question of leadership below. Compare them and decide which one you agree with more. Tell your partner.

1. The subject of political leadership appears to be outdated. The division

of society into leaders and followers is rooted in a predemocratic culture of deference and respect in which leaders "knew best" and the public needed to be led, mobilized or guided. Democratic politics has certainly placed powerful constraints on leadership, notably by making leaders publicly accountable and establishing an institutional mechanism through which they can be removed.

2. The politics of leadership has become increasingly significant, helping

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to contribute to the establishment of a separate discipline of political psychology, whose major concerns include a study of the psychological makeup and motivations of political leaders. Furthermore, as society becomes more complex and fragmented, people may increasingly look to the personal vision of individual leaders to give coherence and meaning to the world in which they live. A: On the one hand, I agree with the first statement because… B: Yes, I see what you mean. Nevertheless there is a lot to be said for looking at it differently…

b. What are the incentives for the growing focus on leadership? Decide how

much the following stimuli influence the growth. Discuss in pairs.

- the desire of leaders to gain electoral support

- modern means of mass communication

- manipulation of leaders’ public images

- individual leaders determine the world in which ordinary people live

с. Read the title of the text. What styles of leadership can you think of? Discuss in groups.

d. Look at the following styles of leadership. What do you think they mean?

A. transactional leadership

B. transformational leadership

C. laissez-faire leadership (“laissez-faire” means “not to interfere”)

e. Read the text and decide which paragraph describes the given styles of

leadership.

Styles of Leadership A style of leadership refers to the strategies and behavioural patterns through which a leader seeks to achieve his or her goals. Quite simply, leaders are not all alike: leadership can be exercised in a number of different ways. The factors that shape the adoption of a particular leadership strategy or style are, of

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course, numerous. Amongst the most obvious are the personality and goals of the leader, the institutional framework within which he or she operates, the political mechanisms by which power is won and retained, the means of mass communication available, and the nature of the broader political culture. Three distinctive styles of leadership have been identified:

1

1

The reluctance of the leader to interfere in matters outside his or her personal responsibility is the chief feature of this style of leadership. Such leaders have a “hands off” approach to cabinet and departmental management. An example of such leadership could be found in the Reagan White House, and the relatively slight interest that Reagan took in the day-to-day workings of his administration. George W. Bush, similarly, was strongly inclined to delegate responsibilities to key advisers, but the so-called 'war on terrorism', launched in 2001, forced him to adopt a more forthright leadership style. The strengths of this approach to leadership are that, because subordinates are given greater responsibility, it can foster harmony and teamwork, and it can allow leaders to concentrate on political and electoral matters by relieving them of their managerial burdens. On the other hand, it can also lead to the weak coordination of government policy, with ministers and officials being allowed too much freedom to pursue their own interests and initiatives. The Iran-Contra affair, for example, demonstrated how little President Reagan knew about the activities of the Central Intelligence Agency officers and White House officials for whom he was supposedly responsible.

2

2

In contrast, the second type of leadership is a more “hands-on” style of leadership. Such leaders adopt a positive role in relation to policy-making and government management, but are motivated by essentially pragmatic goals and considerations. Prominent amongst these are likely to be the maintenance of party unity and government cohesion, and the strengthening of public support and

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electoral credibility. Such leaders act as brokers who are concerned to uphold the collegiate face of government by negotiating compromises and balancing rival individuals, factions and interests against one another. In the USA, Lyndon Johnson and George Bush Sr could be seen as leaders of this type, as could Harold Wilson and John Major in the UK. This is above all a managerial, even technocratic, style of leadership, its advantage being that it is fiercely practical and allows scope for tactical flexibility. Its central drawback, however, is that such leaders may be seen as opportunistic wheeler-dealers who are devoid of firm principles or deep convictions. This was illustrated by George Bush's damaging admission during the 1992 US presidential election that he did not understand what he called “the vision thing”.

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3

In the third style of leadership the leader is not so much a coordinator or manager as an inspirer or visionary. Not only are such leaders motivated by strong ideological convictions, but they also have the personal resolution and political will to put them into practice. Instead of seeking compromise and consensus, this type of leaders attempts to mobilize support from within government, their parties and the general public for the realization of their personal vision. The effectiveness of such a leader hinges on the degree to which the leader in question 'embodies' the story, and the extent to which the story resonates with the broader public. General de Gaulle, for instance, recast the nature of political leadership in France as much by presenting himself as a 'father figure' and 'national leader' as by establishing a presidential system in the form of the Fifth Republic. A very similar style was adopted in the UK by Margaret Thatcher, whose avowed aim when coming into office was to run a 'conviction government'. The continued use of terms such as Gaullism and Thatcherism bears witness to the enduring impact of these leaders' ideological visions. Not uncommonly, the third type of leadership is linked to populism, reflecting the desire of such leaders to demonstrate that they are articulating the concerns and

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interests of “the people”. Although the strength of this leadership is that it provides a basis for pushing through radical programmes of social, economic or political reform, it may also encourage a drift towards authoritarianism and lead to ideological rigidity.

Vocabulary Practice

7. a. Match the words in columns A and B to form collocations. Then make sentences using these collocations as in the example.

A avowed to pursue to be devoid of electoral fiercely to delegate government enduring

B practical cohesion responsibilities one’s own interests firm principles aim impact credibility

own interests firm principles aim impact credibility It is generally know n that the council’s avowed
own interests firm principles aim impact credibility It is generally know n that the council’s avowed

It is generally known that the council’s avowed aim is to stop the growing spread of racism. b. Find a word in the text that has the same or similar meaning to the words given below. Then make your own sentences using the words from the text.

held (past participle)

unwillingness (n)

disposed (adj)

inferiors (n)

breed (v)

administrative (adj)

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freedom (n)

beliefs (n)

perception (n)

depends on (v)

changed (v)

c. Explain the highlighted words and phrases from the text.

Discussion

8. a. Discuss in groups.

Can you think of other examples of the present day world leaders to fit into each category?

Do you agree that if you can control your feelings, you can control the world?

Do we get political leaders we deserve?

To what extent is leadership compatible with freedom and democracy?

Does leadership inspire and motivate, or does it subdue and repress?

A: If you ask me, people choose politician through voting, so we choose our future ourselves… B: I completely disagree with you. No nation deserves a dictator because…

b. Comment on the statements.

The personality of a leader has a great influence on the destiny of a nation.

“Whenever you have an efficient government, you have a dictatorship” (Harry S. Truman).

Use of English

9. Fill the gaps with one word. There is an example.

Regardless 1)

of

the leadership style they adopt, there are reasons to

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believe that modern political leaders face greater challenges 2) …… their predecessors 3) …… . This is important, because attitudes 4) …… leaders, and the perceived effectiveness of leadership, do much to influence people's general view of the political process. The first difficulty 5) …… leaders face is that modern societies have perhaps become 6) …… complex and enmeshed with global influences that politicians find it almost impossible to get things done. Leaders are therefore doomed to disappoint, to fail to live up 7) …… expectations. 8) ……, leaders suffer because old ideological and moral certainties are breaking down, and this makes 9) …… more difficult to construct compelling narratives that have wide popular resonance. Third, modern societies are becoming more diverse and fragmented. Political leaders are therefore finding it increasingly difficult to construct a political appeal 10) …… on a common culture and a set of shared values. Fourth and finally, a cultural gap has perhaps developed between the political and the nonpolitical worlds. Political leaders are increasingly career politicians 11)

…. lifestyles, sensibilities and even language are remote from the concerns of private citizens. 12) …… from being seen as providing inspiration and articulating popular hopes and aspirations, modern leaders tend to be viewed 13) …… self- serving and 14) …… of touch. To the extent that this is true, people become alienated from conventional politics, and perhaps look elsewhere 15) …… a source of political leadership.

Speaking Activity 10. Get ready to discuss the problem of political ambition at a round-table talk. Before it we should study its scenario. Read the following scenario and the list of participants. Chose the part you are going to play.

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Political Ambition: a Virtue or a Sin.

The scenario

Stage 1 Chairperson’s introductory speech Stage 2 Debating Statement of position on the 1 st
Stage 1
Chairperson’s introductory speech
Stage 2
Debating
Statement of position on the
1 st problem
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
Clarifying the position
Discussing
Conclusions on the 1 st
problem
Statement of position on the
2 nd /3 d /etc. problem
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
Clarifying the position
Discussing
Conclusions on the 2 nd /3 d
/etc. problem
Stage 3
Chairperson’s concluding remarks

List of participants

Chairperson, hippie, family psychologist, clergyman, politician, primary

school teacher, journalist, sociologist, celebrity, historian.

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Study your role card and think of a number of arguments, examples and illustrations to prove your stance. Get ready to defend it against criticism. Make use of the conversational patterns given in Functional Bank.

Politician

Hippie

“Ambition is the linchpin of

society

it

holds society

“A world without ambition would probably be a kinder world: without demands, without abrasions, without disappointments. Competition would never enter in. Conflicts would be eliminated, tension become a thing of the past”.

together.

To

discourage

ambition

is

to

discourage

dreams

of

grandeur

and

greatness”.

Family psychologist

“Ambition is intimately connected with family, for men and women not only work partly for their families but harbour some of their most ardent ambitions for their children”.

Primary school teacher

“One can be ambitious for the public good, for the alleviation of suffering, for the enlightenment of mankind – so we should bring our children up according to the principles of sacrifice”.

Clergyman

“Ambition is jesuitical. It can argue those obsessed by it into believing that what they want for themselves is good for everyone, that the satisfaction of their own desires is best for the common will”.

Sociologist

“The person strongly imbued with ambition ignores the collectivity; socially detached, he is on his own and out for his own”.

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Celebrity

Historian

“Individuality and ambition are firmly linked. The ambitious man or woman sees the world as a battle; rivalry is their principal emotion because he desires a rank, fame or power”.

“Though ambition was once

the

domain

chiefly

of

monarchs and

aristocrats, it

has,

in more recent times,

increasingly

become

the

domain

of

the

middle

classes”.

Journalist

“All politicians and people in high places, thought to be ambitious, are understood to be without moral scruples. Those who achieved the common goals of ambition – money, fame, power – have achieved them through corruption of a greater or lesser degree”.

Chairperson

Stage 1 Ladies and Gentlemen,

I now declare open the round table devoted to the subject

"Ambition in politics". On behalf of the University allow me to express our great appreciation for your presence here today and for the contributions you are ready to make to the coming discussion. The questions to be debated today are highly controversial and allow for a variety of opinions. The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles; its public defenders are

few and unimpressive, though they are not extremely unattractive. Yet, all those who assembled here today feel that the young generation needs to know the answers. The questions are as follows:

1. What is “political ambition”? Is ambition a virtue or a sin?

2. What can cause political ambition?

3. How does ambition manifest itself in our society?

I propose a time limit on statement of position of two minutes and one minute for all оther speakers during the debate.

Is that agreed? Thank you.

Stage 2 Will participants please identify themselves clearly to the Chair if they wish to speak or ask a question.

I call

, thank you for that stimulating speech.

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I now welcome

, you have the floor.

Мay I remind the participants to identify themselves clearly to the Chair if they wish to ask a question or make an objection. Does anyone else wish to speak?

We can't all speak at once; Mr

first?

I shall have to call you to order,

Would you like to speak

Now let me summarize the points of view on the first/second/third problem expressed by the participants. According to the majority of the opinions …, though we should mention … Stage 3 To sum up our discussion today, it seems we all agreed that The discussion revealed that… We weighed the pros and cons of … Consequently, we took a closer look at … Basing on the discussion we have had and the facts and

arguments you’ve presented to us today, I’d like to point out that …

I declare the discussion closed. Thank you, Ladies and Gentle- men.

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Unit 2

Harry Truman and the Beginning of the Cold War

Lead-in

1. a. Read the quotation. Discuss the questions.

“The 20th century was marked by change faster than at any previous time in

human history. The period witnessed radical alterations in almost every area of

human endeavors. It saw a remarkable shift in the way that vast numbers of

people had lived, as a result of technological, medical, social, ideological, and

political innovation. Above all, the century is distinguished from most of human

history in that its most significant trends transformed the world in those hundred

years more than at any time in the past.”(Brian O’Neil)

1. What innovations in technological, medical, social, political and other

spheres of life which took place in the 20 th century can you name?

2. How did these innovations improve the quality of life in the 20 th century?

3. What new problems and fears appeared in the 20 th century compared to

the 19 th century?

b. Complete the table and get ready to give a brief talk on the main

cornerstones of the 20 th century.

Event

Time

Causes

Aftereffects

World War I

the rise

of communism

Great Depression

industrial

revolution

Fascism

World War II

the Holocaust

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Event

Time

Causes

Aftereffects

decolonization

the Cold War

nuclear arms race

space exploration

environmental

movement

the founding of

the League of Nations and

the United Nations

European

integration

c. Work in groups. Discuss the following.

How challenging were the political events of the 20 th century for the 20 th

century leaders?

Can you think of examples which illustrate that leaders of the 20 th century

could shape the way in which the world history was made?

What new features of character did the leaders have to possess to meet the

requirements of the 20 th century?

Listening

2. a. You are going to hear some information about the relationship between

the United States and the Soviet Union at the beginning of the Cold War.

Before listening, comment on the following.

War reached an unprecedented scale and sophistication in the 20 th century.

There appeared a new perverted type of war - a cold war.

The Cold War enhanced insecurities and increased a possibility of war in

the world.

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b. The phrase Iron Curtain is associated with the Cold War. Read an extract

from Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech and decide what message Churchill wanted to send. Discuss in groups. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain had descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Bucharest, and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow… I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines.”

c. The Cold War is considered to be a period of tension and competition

between the two superpowers following the Second World War – the United

States and the Soviet Union. Study the reasons why these two superpowers were so distrustful of each other and complete the table. There is an

example.

The USA

The USSR

Capitalist

Communist

……………

Free elections

Autocratic / Dictatorship

……………

“Survival of the fittest”

…………….

Personal freedom

Freedom of the media

………………

Government controlled economy

………………

………………

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Can you think of any similarities between the Soviet Union and the USA at the beginning of the Cold War? Compare the countries in terms of military development, economic position and political system.

d. The following words and phrases appear in the passage you are going to

hear. Explain their meaning in your own words. Then make up sentences using them. a full-scale war a proxy war to trace to relieve the pressure an ally private ownership of assets a state-run market dissolution of private property to bemoan to set precedents far reaching implications

e. Now listen to the recording about the relations between the USA and the

USSR. Decide whether the sentences given below are true (T) or false (F). The relations between the USA and the USSR of that period can be characterized in the following way:

1.

America and the Soviet Union had hostile intention towards each other

1. America and the Soviet Union had hostile intention towards each other

2.

They led a full-scale war

 
2. They led a full-scale war  

3.

Both the USA and the USSR were highly suspicious towards each other

3. Both the USA and the USSR were highly suspicious towards each other

4.

They were scared of each other and uncertain about their foreign policy

4. They were scared of each other a nd uncertain about their foreign policy

5.

The two countries were eager to relieve the pressure they experienced

5. The two countries were eager to relie ve the pressure they experienced

6.

The

relations

between

the

countries

were

strained

with

much

 

apprehension

 

7. The Soviets wished to export communism to the West

 
7. The Soviets wished to e xport communism to the West  

8. The USA were sure to cope with Soviet aggressive expansion

 
8. The USA were sure to cope w ith Soviet aggressive expansion  

9. The ideologies of the USA and the USSR were incompatible

 
9. The ideologies of the USA and the USSR were incompatible  

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10.

Both countries competed militarily as well as philosophically

10. Both countries competed militar ily as well as philosophically

11. Both the USA and the USSR were not interested in developing countries

 

12. They resorted to overt and covert actions in their policy

12. They resorted to overt and covert actions in their policy

13. The superpowers were reluctant to shape the future

13. The superpowers were reluctant to shape the future

14. A new world order was threatening

14. A new world order was threatening

f. Discuss in groups. Was the opposition of two superpowers inevitable?

Do you agree with the idea that the Cold War teaches us “the perils of choosing allies based on common enemies instead of common ideals”?

Reading 3. a. You will read an article about President Truman and the beginning of the Cold War. Before you read the text, list the main features of the Cold War. Check with your partner. Then read the information below and add up more. When the conflict ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two most powerful nations, and while they had been allies in the war, they soon became hostile to one other. The military alliances headed by these nations were prepared to wage total war with each other throughout the Cold War (1947–1991). The period was marked by a new arms race, and nuclear weapons, the most devastating ones yet to have been developed, were produced in their tens of thousands, sufficient to end most life on the planet had they ever been used. This, paradoxically, ensured that the cold war never became hot; both sides had too much to lose.

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b. Read the text. Nine sentences have been removed. Choose which of the sentences (A-I) fit into the gaps (1-9).

Harry Truman and the Origins of the Cold War

Pam Vaughn Westside High School President Truman dealt with the challenges presented by the aftermath of World War II, the nuclear age, and the threat from the Soviet Union. The emergence of the United States as a superpower, with global responsibilities, obligations, and interests, placed President Truman on a world stage.

and interests, placed President Truman on a world stage . The relations between the Soviet Union

The relations between the Soviet Union and the United States were acknowledged to be spoilt by mutual suspicion and growing distrust after the

WWII and through 1963.

These limits and remembrances constantly

factored into the practical questions concerning what was desired and what was possible.

However, the application of this doctrine required actions that were less than ideal. Democratic ideals are certainly worthy of pursuit. However, the Cold War teaches us that goodness, like power, has its limits. On February 22, 1946, George Kennan working out of the American Embassy in Moscow sent a telegram that changed the course of history.

Truman and his staff reviewed it carefully, and this telegram formed the basis for the policy of containment . Kennan provided efully, and this telegram formed the basis for the policy of containment. Kennan provided an insightful representation of the motivating factors behind Soviet aggression. He explained that this was a nation grown accustomed to insecurity because the Soviets had been a country surrounded by enemies with few natural frontiers. Kennan’s position was that the Soviets, threatened by their lack of development, feared exposure to the West.

Kennan’s position was that the Soviets, threatened by their lack of development, feared exposure to the
Kennan’s position was that the Soviets, threatened by their lack of development, feared exposure to the

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Copyright « « » & «A K -C » Kennan also posited that in his view,

Kennan also posited that in his view, Stalin himself was ill informed and held a conspiratorial interpretation of world events. In Kennan’s view, the Soviets would respond to force and resistance by withdrawing from its course of aggressive action. Churchill delivered his famous Iron Curtain speech in Fulton, Missouri only two weeks before The Long Telegram was received at the state department (March 1946). The speech created a widespread condemnation. This caught Truman off guard. He had anticipated the opposite reaction. All of the bad press and criticism of both Truman’s foreign policies and the speech caught Truman by surprise and kind of took the wind out of him.

He later denied that he knew what was going to be in the speech. This may explain why the Long Telegram, at was going to be in the speech. This may explain why the Long Telegram, while eventually creating substantive and significant change in U.S. foreign policy, was not initially put forward as the foundation for new foreign policy.

It was only eighteen minutes long, but it was a landmark point in foreign policy. Its message came from a report that analyzed U.S.-Soviet relations, which had been influenced by the Long Telegram. “It is the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure”. Truman in a very straightforward way had delineated the threat from the Soviets and asked the Congress to provide support for this new policy. The Truman administration was riding the wild and new notion of a global super power, whose military and economic superiority was without rival.

During the postwar years, the U.S. established a global military presence and stepped into the role of the benevolent super-cop, out to defend freedom, and presence and stepped into the role of the benevolent super-cop, out to defend freedom, and more importantly, contain communism.

stepped into the role of the benevolent super-cop, out to defend freedom, and more importan tly,
stepped into the role of the benevolent super-cop, out to defend freedom, and more importan tly,

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A He went on to make the case that it was the Soviet intention to destroy western traditions, authority, and power in order to preserve its own existence.

B It was a tremendous blow.

C This false assumption led to a narrow set of strategies and tactics consistently and tragically exercised in resisting the spread of the communism in the developing world.

D He had to consider almost every foreign policy decision in terms of how it would affect the balance-of-power with the Soviet Union.

E The Truman Doctrine was the manifestation of American idealism.

F Truman read The Long Telegram, of course, but he remained for a time at least, relatively quiet on the substance of this message.

G The events of this era show that President Harry S. Truman inherited a changing world in which the limits of power would be tested, the costs of war remembered.

H Kennan articulated in a compelling way, the sources of Soviet behavior and their view of the world. This message is known as The Long Telegram.

I Truman delivered the famous Truman Doctrine speech before Congress on March 12, 1947.

Vocabulary Practice 3. a. Find synonyms for the following words. Then reproduce the situations in which they are used in the text.

an aftermath

to factor into

insecurity

to posit

to withdraw

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to anticipate

to delineate

benevolent

an assumption

a manifestation

b. Explain the highlighted words and phrases. Choose five words or phrases

and make up your own sentences using them.

Discussion 4. a. Discuss in groups. Was the Cold War an unavoidable event or it was President Truman who made fatal errors of judgment that precipitated the world's slide into the Cold War?

How did President Truman manage to balance a view of a changing world and a changing role for America in the world with international, universal ideals? A: In my opinion, Harry Truman failed to meet the requirements of a new world because, always characterized as stubborn, he stuck to the policy of American superiority. B: I completely agree with you. The "Truman Doctrine" has become a metaphor for emergency aid to keep a nation from communist influence. C: I would object saying that the Truman Doctrine was the first in a succession of containment moves by the United States, followed by economic restoration of Western Europe through the Marshall Plan…

b. Comment on the statements.

According to Harry Truman, “totalitarian regimes coerced free peoples and

represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States”.

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“The man who became US President in 1945 was less an incipient

(Liz Blackstock)

statesman than an intense nationalist

Use of English 5. In most of the lines of this text there is an unnecessary word. For questions 1–18, find the unnecessary words and write them on the lines provided. If you think a line contains no unnecessary words, put a tick next to it. There are two examples (0), (00).

Cold War history, studied from other varied perspectives, provides

0

other

a

contradictory story. Talk of brinkmanship, containment,

00

V

resistance, subversion focuses on military force, proliferation of a nuclear power, and spheres of influence. No comprehensive treatment of the Cold War is complete without examining of the most tragic mistake made of U.S. foreign policy during this period. The Truman administration was riding the wild and new notion of

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

a

global super power, whose military and its economic superiority

6

 

was without a rival. It possessed moral credibility backed off by unquestioned superiority. After the war years time, the U.S. became a military globocop assuming the role of the magnanimous superpower, to safeguard liberal rights and to circumscribe on communism. The U.S. main principle was that so as the developing world progressed and had attempted to join an industrialized, commercialized world, anything other rather than a pure, free market, friendly to American institutions, had to have be opposed. Foreign policy objectives, based on exaggerated threats instead of common interests, pursued with by military means and therefore limited to achieving only those goals which reached by the

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8

 

9

 

10

 

11

 

12

 

13

 

14

 

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16

 

17

 

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application of power instead of any diplomacy, led to costly

campaigns, crusades, missed opportunities and war.

Speaking Activity

18
18

6. Points of view on the beginning of the Cold War vary greatly. Consider

possible opinions and take part in a role play “Interviewing diplomats”.

Decide who would like to play the roles of journalists and politicians: a

foreign journalist is interviewing a Russian diplomat and a Russian

journalist is interviewing an American diplomat. The aim of the interview is

to find out what the representatives of different ideologies think about the

beginning of the Cold War. Make use of the conversation patterns given in

Functional Bank.

Each diplomat has his own background information. Study your stance.

Background information for a Russian diplomat

the “imperialist” United States is responsible for the Cold War; the Americans tried to strangle the Soviet Union during its infancy and sought ever since, with the brief interlude of World War II (known as the Great Patriotic War) to contain Russia by surrounding it with hostile states; the United States and its allies menaced the Soviet Union with the atomic bomb and tried to isolate and destroy the “motherland” with their economic power and trade restrictions; the Soviet Union depicted itself as a defensive outpost of progressive reform in a world dominated by ruthless but ultimately doomed capitalist imperialists; the United States, not just the Soviet Union, had been an expansionist power throughout its history.

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Background information for an American diplomat

the responsibility for the Cold War is placed on the Soviet Union; the breakdown of postwar peace was the result of Soviet expansionism into Eastern Europe in the immediate postwar years; U.S. officials were forced to respond to Soviet aggression with the Truman Doctrine, plans to contain communist subversion around the world, and the Marshall Plan; the United States was facing a new type of enemy and had to adapt accordingly; the Soviet Union is to blame for arms race and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, as well as apportioning an overriding share of the blame for a series of local wars around the world.

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Unit 3 U.S. President Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis

Lead-in

1. a. What Cold War events that influenced the development of the confrontation between the two blocks can you think of?

b. Analyze the approaches of the opposing blocks to liberalism given below

and discuss the roots of the conflict with your partner. 1. Khrushchev in a speech bragged about how revolutionist the Soviet Union was and referred to Soviet support for wars of national liberation. He said that colonialists did not grant independence, that resistance to imperialism was inevitable, and that wars of national liberation would lead to communism. 2. Kennedy was alarmed by Khrushchev’s bluster, and he was moved to include in his inaugural speech defiant words about paying any price, bearing any burden, meeting any hardship “in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”

A: I suppose the opposition is rooted in confronting ideologies because…

B: I can’t but agree with you but we should not forget about the colonial policy of the Soviet Union and the United States, which could have led to the crisis.

c. Read the abstract given below and guess what country is being discussed.

Work in groups and decide why it was important for the USSR to have such an ally. Why was the USA against this cooperation? The revolution in this country on January 1, 1959 initially attracted little attention in Moscow because Soviet planners, resigned to U.S. dominance over the Western hemisphere, were unprepared for the possibility of a future ally in the region.

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Listening

2. a. You are going to hear some information about the Bay of Pigs Invasion and its consequences. Before listening, compare the two historic facts about Kennedy’s policy towards the invasion in Cuba below. Discuss in pairs Kennedy’s decisions.

1. “On April 12, Kennedy held a news conference at which he was asked

whether the U.S. was going to help an uprising against Castro. Kennedy answered: “First, I want to say that there will not be, under any conditions, an

intervention in Cuba by the United States Armed Forces. This government will do everything it possibly can, I think it can meet its responsibilities, to make sure that there are no Americans involved in any actions inside Cuba… The basic issue in Cuba is not one between the United States and Cuba. It is between the Cubans themselves.”

2. “Kennedy decided that nighttime landing at the Bay of Pigs would be

better than an early morning at landing Trinidad. The invading force learned at the last minute that they were heading for the Bay of Pigs. They landed at midnight as planned, but nothing else went right. They were exposed to Castro's airforce, and no air cover from the U.S. came to rescue them. The invaders felt betrayed, and they blamed Kennedy for not sending help. Although Kennedy had never promised it, they believed that there was supposed to be back-up insurance by the U.S. military. Kennedy blamed the CIA and asked how he could have been “so stupid.” But publicly he took responsibility for the failure.”

b. The following words and phrases appear in the passage you are going to hear. Explain their meaning in your own words. Choose five words or phrases and make up sentences using them. to launch an attack to overthrow/topple a government a refugee an exile substantial a defeat an initial objective inflammatory rhetoric to go through with a venture to call off to bring smth under the public eye a

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rallying point citizenry rapid counterattack to refrain from an uprising to capture to solidify one’s power a missile to spark to come to blows to be pilloried to unseat a stance to redeem a botched mission c. Now listen to the recording. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer (A, B or C) according to what you hear.

1. The Cuban government was supposed to

A be subverted by Cuban refugees.

B finance Cuban refugees.

C be supported by the United States.

2. The outcome of the attack was that

A Cubans joined American soldiers in their fight against Fidel Castro.

B the Cuban government was disrespected by many Cubans.

C more people in Cuba followed Fidel Castro’s concepts.

3. The American government considered Fidel Castro to be a threat

A because of his anti-American military campaigns.

B for his opposition to the American government’s policy.

C since Soviet protection for Cuba was very strong.

4. Kennedy took the decision to launch an attack on Cuba

A to appear sympathetic towards the communistic movement.

B as he wanted to become popular with American people.

C since the affair could have been disclosed if it hadn’t been put into practice.

5. The American mission wouldn’t have failed

A only if Cuban residents hadn’t joined the exiles.

B but for the absence of the necessary support from the USA.

C if the defense of Castro’s forces had been more active.

6. Casro’s power in Cuba became stronger after the attack,

A and consequently he had a chance to count on Soviet support.

B that is why the USA installed missile bases in Cuba.

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C which led to further controversies between the USA and the USSR.

7. Kennedy’s political objective after the military failure was

A the formation of sympathetic public opinion about its reasons.

B to atone for it by attributing the blame to his own maladministration.

C keeping his position of an irresolute person.

d. Discuss in groups.

What conclusions could the head of the Soviet government Nikita

Khrushchev have made about the American military might after the Bay of Pigs Invasion?

What were the consequences of the attack and what impact did it have on the situation in the world?

Reading 2. a. You will read the text about Cuban Missile Crisis. Before you read, think why it is regarded as one of the most critical moments in the Cold War. b. Read the text. Five paragraphs have been removed from it. Choose the most suitable paragraph from the list (A–G) for each part (1–5) of the text. There one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

At the beginning of September 1962, U-2 spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was building surface-to-air missile (SAM) launch sites. There was also an increase in the number of Soviet ships arriving in Cuba which the United States government feared were carrying new supplies of weapons. President Kennedy complained to the Soviet Union about these developments and warned them that the United States would not accept offensive weapons

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(SAMs were considered to be defensive) in Cuba. As the Cubans now had SAM installations they were in a position to shoot down U-2 spy-planes.

0

B

Kennedy feared that any trouble over Cuba would lose the Democratic Party even more votes, as it would remind voters of the Bay of Pigs disaster where the CIA had tried to oust Castro from power. One poll showed that over 62 per cent of the population were unhappy with his policies on Cuba.

1

1

At the first meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council, the CIA and other military advisers explained the situation. After hearing what they had to say, the general feeling of the meeting was for an air- attack on the missile sites. Several of the men were having doubts about the wisdom of a bombing raid, fearing that it would lead to a nuclear war with the Soviet Union. The committee was now so divided that a firm decision could not be made.

2

2

As well as imposing a naval blockade, Kennedy also told the air-force to prepare for attacks on Cuba and the Soviet Union. The army positioned 125,000 men in Florida and was told to wait for orders to invade Cuba. If the Soviet ships carrying weapons for Cuba did not turn back or refused to be searched, a war was likely to begin. Kennedy also promised his military advisers that if one of the U-2 spy planes were fired upon he would give orders for an attack on the Cuban SAM missile sites.

3

3

On October 24, President Kennedy was informed that Soviet ships had stopped just before they reached the United States ships blockading Cuba. That evening Nikita Khrushchev sent an angry note to Kennedy accusing him of creating a crisis to help the Democratic Party win the forthcoming election.

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4

4

While the president and his advisers were analyzing Khrushchev’s two letters, news came through that a U-2 plane had been shot down over Cuba. The leaders of the military, reminding Kennedy of the promise he had made, argued that he should now give orders for the bombing of Cuba. Kennedy refused and instead sent a letter to Khrushchev accepting the terms of his first letter. Khrushchev agreed and gave orders for the missiles to be dismantled.

5

5

Eight days later the elections for Congress took place. The Democrats increased their majority and it was estimated that Kennedy would now have an extra twelve supporters in Congress for his policies.

A President Kennedy’s first reaction to the information about the missiles in Cuba was to call a meeting to discuss what should be done. Fourteen men attended the meeting and included military leaders, experts on Latin America, representatives of the CIA, cabinet ministers and personal friends whose advice Kennedy valued. This group became known as the Executive Committee of the National Security Council. B Kennedy was in a difficult situation. Elections were to take place for the United States Congress in two month's time. The public opinion polls showed that his own ratings had fallen to their lowest point since he became president. In his first two years of office a combination of Republicans and conservative southern Democrats in Congress had blocked much of Kennedy’s proposed legislation. C The world waited anxiously. A public opinion poll in the United States revealed that three out of five people expected fighting to break out between the two sides. There were angry demonstrations outside the American Embassy in London as people protested about the possibility of nuclear war.

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Demonstrations also took place in other cities in Europe. However, in the United States, polls suggested that the vast majority supported Kennedy’s action.

D In September 1962, the U.S. Senate passed a resolution sanctioning the use of force against Cuba should it be necessary “to curb Cuban aggression and subversion in Latin America,” or to prevent the creation or use of “an externally supported offensive military capability endangering the security of the United States.”

E Taking everything into consideration Kennedy instructed Theodore Sorensen, a member of the committee, to write a speech in which Kennedy would explain to the world why it was necessary to impose a naval blockade of Cuba.

F Had the military men around Kennedy had their way a nuclear holocaust might have followed. Kennedy and McNamara struggled to keep the military from over-reacting and striking against the Russians, and the greatest of all tragedies was averted.

G On October 26, Khrushchev sent Kennedy another letter. In this he proposed that the Soviet Union would be willing to remove the missiles in Cuba in exchange for a promise by the United States that they would not invade Cuba. The next day a second letter from Khrushchev arrived demanding that the United States remove their nuclear bases in Turkey.

Vocabulary Practice

3. a. Choose the best variant, a, b, c, or d, to illustrate the meaning of the words in italics.

1. The CIA had tried to oust Castro from power.

a. remove

b. expel

c. leave

d. retain

2. Three out of five people expected fighting to break out between the two sides.

a. escape

b. burst out

c. develop

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3. It should be necessary to curb Cuban aggression.

a. conquer

b. incite

c. prohibit

d. subdue

4. Kennedy would explain to the world why it was necessary to impose a naval

blockade of Cuba.

a. foist

b. inflict

c. accept

d. assail

5. Several of the men were having doubts about the wisdom of a bombing raid.

a. indiscretion

b. feat

c. sense

d. enlightenment

6. Nikita Khrushchev sent an angry note to Kennedy accusing him of creating a

crisis to help the Democratic Party win the forthcoming election.

a.

impending

b. responsive

c. preceding

d. up-to-date

7.

The greatest of all tragedies was averted.

 

a.

facilitated

b. distracted

c. effected

d. prevented

b. Match the words in columns A and B to form collocations. Then make sentences using these collocations as in the example.

A B to call polls attend a meeting vast a resolution firm majority pass the
A
B
to call
polls
attend
a meeting
vast
a resolution
firm
majority
pass
the meeting
public opinion
decision

Finance ministers from many countries will attend the meeting. c. Explain the highlighted words and phrases from the text.

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Discussion 4. a. Discuss in groups.

What does the president’s rating depend on? How far do you agree with

the following judgment about the influence of the Cuban Missile Crisis on Kennedy’s reputation as a political leader? Do you think Kennedy acted as a peacekeeper in case of Cuban Missile Crisis? “Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kennedy's status rose in the eyes of his countrymen and many others around the world. Just 18 months after the bungled invasion of Cuba, the missile crisis had become a showcase for Kennedy's diplomatic savvy and bravado.”

A: I suppose Kennedy’s actions in the Cuban Missile crisis were protective

as…

B: I see what you mean. On the other hand, many people would say that he acted this way just to gain votes before the elections

Read an abstract about Kennedy’s meeting with Khrushchev in 1961 and

explain Kennedy’s statement. In May 1961 Kennedy met with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in Vienna. Kennedy was hoping that he and Khrushchev could find a solution to avoid confrontation. Khrushchev moved to close off the flow of refugees from Communism in Berlin. He threatened that if Kennedy intervened, there would be war. The summit ended without resolution. Kennedy met Khrushchev's challenge with a force of his own, increasing the size of America's combat forces and obtaining billions of dollars for nuclear and conventional weapons. That summer, the Russians built the Berlin Wall. The crisis eased. “A wall is better than a war,” Kennedy said.

Read an abstract about Kennedy’s policy towards promoting human rights. How revolutionary do you think such policy was for those times?

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In the 1960 presidential election campaign John F. Kennedy argued for a new Civil Rights Act. During the first two years of his presidency, Kennedy failed to put forward his promised legislation. However, Kennedy's civil rights bill was eventually brought before Congress in 1963 and in a speech on television on 11th June, Kennedy pointed out that: “The Negro baby born in America today, regardless of the section of the nation in which he is born, has about one-half as much chance of completing high school as a white baby born in the same place on the same day; one third as much chance of completing college; one third as much chance of becoming a professional man; twice as much chance of becoming unemployed; about one-seventh as much chance of earning $10,000 a year; a life expectancy which is seven years shorter; and the prospects of earning only half as much.” b. Comment on the statements. “Ask not what your country can do for you, but rather what you can do for your country” (John F. Kennedy).

“Kennedy’s role as a peacekeeper proved to transform the history of mankind” (Daniel C. Stowers).

Use of English 5. For questions 1–5, read the following text and choose from the list (A–G) given below the best of the phrases to fit each gap. There is one phrase which does not fit in any gap. There is an example (0). Newly elected President John F. Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. It proved to be one of the most innovative 0) ……F…… During the course of his campaign for the presidency in 1960, Kennedy floated the idea that a new “army” should be created by the United States. This force would be made up of civilians who would volunteer their time 1) …………

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Kennedy sent a message to Congress asking for its support 2) ………… to the United States. The people of these nations were “struggling for economic and social progress.” “Our own freedom,” Kennedy continued, “3) …………, depend, in a very real sense, on their ability to build growing and independent nations where men can live in dignity, liberated from the bonds of hunger, ignorance, and poverty.” Many in Congress, and the U.S. public, were skeptical about the program's costs 4) …………, but Kennedy's warning about the dangers in the underdeveloped world could not be ignored. Revolutions were breaking out around the globe 5) ………… – were in danger of becoming Cold War battlefields. Several months later, Congress voted to make the Corps permanent. Overall, the program was judged a success in terms of helping to “win the hearts and minds” of people in the underdeveloped world.

A and many of these conflicts – such as in Laos, the Congo, and elsewhere

B and they were not always welcomed by foreign people suspicious of American motives

C and made clear the significance of underdeveloped nations

D and the effectiveness of American aid to what were perceived to be "backward" nations

E and the future of freedom around the world

F and highly publicized Cold War programs set up by the United States.

G and skills to travel to underdeveloped nations to assist them in any way they could.

Speaking Activity 7. Get ready to discuss the problem of the role of a politician in resolving a conflict at a round-table talk. Make sure you remember the scenario of a round-table talk (See Unit 1). Read the list of participants. Chose the part you are going to play.

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Study your role card and think of a number of arguments, examples and illustrations to prove your stance. Get ready to defend it against criticism. Make use of the conversational patterns given in Functional Bank.

List of participants Chairperson, politician, clergyman, diplomat, pacifist, NGO representative, warmonger, sociologist, historian, psychologist

Psychologist

so commonplace in the world today, most people take for granted that that’s the way life is supposed to be. It seems we are content to solve political conflicts with brutal force. As a society, we are numb to the horrors of warfare. But unless we simply refuse war and violence as the status quo, we further human suffering by perpetuating violence in the name of nation or in the name of fighting terrorism, or in the name of defending a country, etc. Leaders can not change people’s mentality and psychology.”

“Conflicts are

Warmonger

“The 21 st century is doing its part to keep the drums of war beating. Nothing can help diplomatic efforts more than military success. A politician should not forget about the great destiny of his nation. The role of a leader is to show how powerful and influential his nation is. In this case any conflict is resolved by persuading other nations to accept the country’s might.”

Sociologist

“We should not underestimate the role of public nowadays. Public opinion polls are everywhere. Politicians devote substantial time, effort and money to tracking public opinion, not for the purposes of policymaking. Polling has turned leaders into followers. Therefore, common people are the only force that can impact the solution to the conflict.”

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NGO Representative

“Public institutions can agree, disagree, or intervene to achieve a desirable culmination or comprehensive process result. In addition to politicians, religious groups, journalists and special interest groups may all have influence on decisions in conflicts. Thus, the role of a politician in solving conflicts nowadays is of secondary importance.”

Pacifist

“The quickest way of ending a war is to lose it. Thus, instead of shooting bullets on civilian population politicians should act as mediators to create conversations across battle lines. Without vain political ambitions and the fear of defeat, mediators would have an impact on the willingness of embittered and intransigent opponents.”

Politician

“The role of a leader is to bring about a social as well as political change. It is an open secret that a wise politician with a strong will can decide on a viable tool to minimize civilian casualties, prevent humanitarian catastrophe and solve a conflict. Only a proper decision of a politician shapes the political settlement of a conflict.”

Clergyman

“Politicians can not help people in non-violent solutions to the conflicts because it isn’t easy to change age-old mental habits and persuade mankind to live without war. Moreover, some leaders can fanatically support conflicts. It is the Holy Bible that is the source of meekness and wisdom which teaches us that the only way to change anything is to change it on a personal level, treat everyone the way you want to be treated.”

Historian

“Throughout the history the role of leaders was crucial. They implemented necessary policy, waged wars and solved conflicts. Their role in turning points in history has always been paramount. People are not mature enough to make wise political decisions. History has proved that everybody should do what they are destined to:

render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s. Thus, we need a leader to avoid chaos.”

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Diplomat

“A real leader should be a genuine diplomat to be able to establish connections between religions and cultures because we have a world in which an unprecedented number of people are running back to religion and tradition as a source of identity. Leaders need new strategies to reach those people who have lost faith with modernity. Diplomacy needs to catch up with the idea that it is not just persuasion of the enemy sitting across the table from you but persuasion of large populations so that they become involved into a constructive change.”

Chairperson

Stage 1 Ladies and Gentlemen,

I now declare open the round table devoted to the subject “The

role of a politician in resolving a conflict”. On behalf of the University allow me to express our great appreciation for your presence here today and for the contributions you are ready to make to the coming discussion. The questions to be debated today are highly controversial and allow for a variety of opinions. The issues on the agenda today can be seen from various angles and the attitudes to them are ambivalent. Yet, all those who assembled here today feel that the young generation needs to know the answers. The questions are as follows:

4. Are political conflicts inevitable in the present day world?

5. What is the role of a political leader in solving conflicts?

6. Are there any other forces which can help to resolve a

conflict?

I propose a time limit on statement of position of 2 minutes and one minute for all other speakers during the debate. Is that agreed? Thank you. For Stage 2 and Stage 3 use necessary phrases in the Chairperson’s card (See Unit 1)

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Unit 4 General Charles de Gaulle and his Politics of Grandeur

Lead-in 1. a. In groups brainstorm the main events in French domestic and foreign policy at the end of 1950s. Were there any problems and challenges France had to overcome?

b. Read an abstract from famous War Memoirs by Charles de Gaulle about

his vision of France and think why foreign observers named his politics the “politics of grandeur” (politique de grandeur). All my life I had a certain idea of France. This is inspired by sentiment as much as by reason. The emotional side of me naturally imagines France, like the princess in the fairy stories or the Madonna in the frescoes, as dedicated to an exalted and exceptional destiny. Instinctively I have the feeling that Providence has created her either for complete successes or for exemplary misfortunes. If, in spite of this, mediocrity shows in her acts and deeds, it strikes me as an absurd anomaly, to be imputed to the faults of Frenchmen, not to the genius of the land. …But the positive side of my mind also assures me that France is not really herself unless in the front rank; …In short, to my mind, France cannot be France without greatness.

c. French policy that de Gaulle thought would provide a path for France to

regaining her glory is called Gaullism. According to Philip H. Gordon, there are five characteristics of it. Read the following quotations from de Gaulle’s

speeches and guess what these characteristics are. 1. “What is independence? Certainly not isolationism or narrow nationalism. A country can be a member of an alliance, such as the Atlantic Alliance, and remain independent…to be independent means that one is not at the mercy (à la discrétion) of any foreign power.”

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2. “No nation has friends only interests.”

“You may be sure that the Americans will commit all the stupidities they can think of, plus some that are beyond imagination.”

3. “France cannot be France without greatness.”

“Once upon a time there was an old country, wrapped up in habit and caution. We have to transform our old France into a new country and marry it to its time.”

4. “The state provides the legitimate representation and is the only way to make

real achievement in the world.” “The state is the only unit that can act with sufficient power, authority, and skill.”

5. “There is no defense except national defense.”

“No country without an atom bomb could properly consider itself independent.” d. Discuss in pairs what the reasons for de Gaulle to develop a strategy to regain France’s proper place in the world were. Read the passage and compare your ideas with the opinion of a researcher Marcus R. Young. “First, de Gaulle was born in the late 1800s at the time the decline of French power began. He also served in WWI and WWII, which saw France’s influence further diminish. From those experiences, he learned valuable lessons; perhaps the most prominent was the strong development of his realist approach to world politics and the inability to trust the US.”

Listening 2. a. Study the abstract below about the creation of the European Community. Following de Gaulle’s idea of politics of grandeur, what do you think the role of France in the European Community was supposed to be? The political climate after the end of World War II favoured Western European unity, seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent. One of the first successful

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proposals for European cooperation came in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Community. This had the aim of bringing together control of the coal and steel industries of its member states, principally France and West Germany. This was with the aim that war between them would not then be possible, as coal and steel were the principal resources for waging war. The other founding members were Italy, and the three Benelux countries: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. Two additional communities were created in 1957 in Rome: the European Economic Community (EEC) establishing a customs union, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. b. The following words and phrases appear in the passage you are going to hear. Explain their meaning in your own words. Then make up sentences using them. a clear vision to affirm a supranational school an architectonic political direction essential “pillars” eminently abundant advantages a cohesive political configuration ambivalence a means to approximate c. Listen to a historian talking about de Gaulle’s idea of Europe, and decide if the statements (19) are true (T) or false (F).

1. De Gaulle stood by the process of European collaboration.

1. De Gaulle stood by the process of European collaboration .

2. According to De Gaulle’s point of view, a federation should be ruled

2. According to De Gaulle’s point of view, a federation should be ruled

by all members of the organization.

3. European states should become homogeneous in their character.

3. European states should become homogeneous in their character.

4. De Gaulle believed that supra-national organizations help nations to

4. De Gaulle believed th at supra-national organiza tions help nations to

coordinate their activities. 5. The European Community should become independent from

coordinate their activities. 5. The European Community sh ould become independent from

American influence.

6.

For de Gaulle free trade benefits were essential.

6. For de Gaulle free trad e benefits were essential.

7. De Gaulle strived to avoid the process of standardization and depoliticization of France.

7. De Gaulle strived to avoid th e process of standardization and depoliticization of France.

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8. Britain was not permitted in the Community because of its pro-

8. Britain was not permitted in the Community because of its pro-

American visions. 9. The role of France was to assist t