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Name: Maisarah Mohd

Student ID: I13003833


Subject: BIO121
Lecturers name: Miss Ummul Khair
Date
February 24, 2014
Title
Enzymes
Aim
To know the effect of temperature on enzyme activity, to know the effect of
pH on enzyme activity, to know the effect of enzyme concentration on
enzyme activity, and the catalase activity in different tissues.
Procedure

Refer to the procedures in BIO121 lab manual (page 24 to 29)

Results

A) Control

Positive Control
Negative Control

Enzyme Activity (1-5)


Description
4
Bubbles produced rapidly
0
No reaction occurred

1) Did the reaction give off heat? =The reaction give off heat, but turn
cold immediately because the surrounding temperature was lower.
B) Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity

Tube 1 (ice bath)


Tube 2 (room
temperature)
Tube 3 (37C)
Tube 4 (100C)

Temperature
(C)
4.0
22.5

Enzyme Activity (1-5)

37.0
100.0

5
0

2
4

Enzyme Activity
6
5
4
Enzyme Activity
3
2
1
0
4.0C

22.5C

37C

100C

1) Is there a temperature at which the catalase activity was the most


effective? Was it the temperature you were expecting? If it was not,
how can you explain the results?
Yes, there is a temperature at which the catalase activity was the
most effective, which is at 37C. This is the temperature that I
expected.
2) Why put the tubes of HO (and not just the liver tubes) into the water
baths? So that both solutions can react together at the same
temperature.

C) Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity

pH 3
pH 7
pH 11

Enzyme Activity
(1-5)
0
5
4

1) At what pH does catalase exhibit the greatest activity? =pH 7


2) Plot a graph (enzyme activity was pH) that corresponds with the
results of your test.

Enzyme Activity
6
5
4
Enzyme Activity
3
2
1
0
pH 3

pH 7

pH 11

D) Effect of Enzyme Concentration on Enzyme Activity


[Enzyme]
100%

Enzyme Activity
(1-5)
4

10%

1%

Description
Highly liver concentrated solution,
vigorous reaction occurred
Medium liver concentrated solution, less
reaction occurred
Low liver concentrated solution, no
reaction occurred

1) Were the results of this experiment as you expected? If they were


not, can you explain why they were not?
Yes, because reaction occurred most effective (vigorous) at
presence of 100% concentration of enzyme, and the following
reactions (10% and 1%) becomes slower.
2) How effective the catalase? In this experimental setup, do you
think you would detect a difference reaction rates between a 100%

and a 50% liver solution?


The catalase is effective proportional to the concentration of
enzyme because more activation energy of a reaction can be
lowered down. I think I would detect the difference reaction rates
between a 100% and a 50% liver solution because,
E) Catalase activity in Different Tissues
Tissues
Liver

Enzyme Activity
(1-5)
5

Chicken
Apple
Potato
Carrot

3
1
1
1

Description
Rapid effervescence, a lot of bubbles
produced
Turns white, white bubbles produced
Little reaction, color remains the same
Little reaction, slightly to light brown
Little reaction, color remains the same

1) What do your results tell you about the functions of the different types
of tissues?
Different tissues have different amount of various enzymes. Activity of
most enzymes differs from one type tissue to another. As for liver,
with its detoxifying functions, has a higher level of catalase enzyme
compared to chicken tissue, apple tissue, potato tissue and carrot
tissue.
2) Why was it important that the puree of each substance is obtained by
blending the same amount of substance in a similar volume of water?
So that we can make comparison effectively between the level of
reactivity of catalase enzyme in different type of tissues.
Conclusion
s

37C is the best temperature for catalase enzyme activity works optimum,
and pH 7 is another most suitable condition for catalase enzyme to work at
its best. Besides, catalase enzyme will react effectively against hydrogen
peroxide if it is fully presented (100% concentrated). Last but not least,
catalase enzyme activity is higher in liver compared to other different
tissues.

Questions

1) List the conditions you tested to determine which catalase exhibited


the greatest activity. How do these conditions compared to those of a
cell in the body?
The conditions which catalase exhibited the greatest activity are at
37C, concentration of 100%, and in liver. All these conditions are
available readily in our body; hence, the catalase enzyme can react
effectively in the body.
2) HO is commonly used as a disinfectant for scrapes and cuts. What
exactly are you trying to do when you apply HO to your scraped
knee? What on your knee causes the HO to bubble up when you
apply it?
HO can kill bacterial cells, thus avoiding the cells to affect the
scrapes and cuts. There is the presence of catalase enzyme which
reacts with HO on the scraped knee, thus causing the HO to bubble
up when we apply it.
3) The browning that occurs when fresh potatoes and apples are cut is a
result of this reaction:
Catechol + O catecholase
Benzoquinone
(colorless)
(reddish brown)
Why do mashed potatoes stay white?
Potatoes contain starch. The starch causes the potato to turn black
when the skin is peeled. When boiling the potatoes in the water, the
heat break down the starch molecules and the amount of starch in
potatoes is decreasing. As the amount of starch decreases the will be
less possibility for the potatoes to turn black in open air.
4) Some people put fresh lemon juice on fruit salad to keep it from
browning what might the chemical explanation be for this practice?
The browning of the flesh of fruit is due to oxidation, but this process is speeded up
by an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase in the tissues of the fruit. Just like any
other enzyme, polyphenol oxidase is sensitive to extremes of pH because it
interferes with weak ionic bonds that hold its 3D structure together. When enzymes
lose their 3D structure, the enzyme is considered denatured and cannot continue its
work. So fresh lemon juice has a low pH, this denatures the polyphenol oxidase, so
the browning (oxidation) process that is catalyzed by this enzyme can be slowed
down greatly.

5) (a) The U.S. Food & Drug Administration recommends that cooked
beef be refrigerated for no more than 3-5 days before it is eaten; for
cooked fish they recommend only 1-2 day(s). Why do you think fish
might not keep as long in the refrigerator?
(b) It is recommended that uncooked ground beef is refrigerated for

only 1-2day(s) as well. Why might this be?


6) Fever is a symptom of a viral or bacterial infection. What are two
different functions of a rise in body temperature in this case? What
would the danger be if the temperature got too high (above about
42C, in humans)?
Two different functions of a rise in body temperature are first, to fight
the infection, second, to slow down the bodys function. It can cause
the enzyme in the body denature, thus can lead human to death.

7) Lizards and snakes may often be found sitting in sunny spots (on
exposed rocks, in the middle of a road) in the morning. They do not
use the heat generated by their bodies to heat themselves; they
obtain heat from the environment. After a cold night, they are sluggish
and must heat up before they can be active.
(a) What do they need heat for?
They need heat for helping them to metabolize and function as a
living organism.
(b)From where does the body heat from mammals and birds come?
(The Second Law of Thermodynamics might help you answer this
one.)