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Chapter 11
Of the Sun, his general and particular significations
* Sol: The Sun is placed in the middle of all the planets,285 and is called amongst the ancients,
both poets and historians, Sol,286 Titan,287 Ilios,288 Phoebus,289 Apollo,290 Paean,291 Osiris,292
Diespiter:293 Its needless to mention his colour, being so continually visible to all mortal
men. He passes through all the twelve signs of the zodiac in one year, or 365 days and
certain hours.
* Motion: His mean motion is 59 [min.] 8 [sec.], yet his diurnal motion is sometimes 57m 16
seconds, sometimes more, never exceeding 61 minutes and six seconds.294 He always
moves in the ecliptic, and is ever void of latitude, so that it is very improper in any
Astrologian to speak of the 0 his latitude.
* House: He has only the sign of e for his house, and k for his detriment. He is exalted in the
19th degree of a, and receives his fall in 19 g.
* Triplicity: The 0 governs the fiery triplicity, viz., a, e, i by day.
* Terms: He has no degrees of the twelve signs admitted him for his terms, though some affirm, if
he be in the six northern signs, viz. a, b, c, d, e, f, he shall be said to be in his

This comment may appear to describe the modern

heliocentric cosmic model, but this is the traditional
astrological principle which is embedded in geocentricity.
The seven planetary spheres extend from the earth, with
the most inferior being the Moon, and the most superior
being Saturn. The Sun sits in the middle and splits the
heavens into the superiors above (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn)
and the inferiors below (Moon, Mercury, Venus). The Sun
is recognised as the generating pulse of cosmic creativity
and so is described as the heart of the cosmos, or the king
who sits amidst his nobles. Firmicus, for example,
describes the Sun in his Mathesis (4th c. I.4) as
Best and Greatest, who holds the middle place in
the heavens; Mind and Moderator of the Universe,
Leader and Princeps of all, who kindles forever the
fires of the other stars.
286 Sol: seen in the worship of Sol Invictus (Invincible Sun), from which we get the adjective solar.
287 Titan: one of the indigenous, pre-Hellenic gods of Greece, referred to by Homer and associated with
Hyperion, father of Helios. Greek poets often confuse Hyperion with Helios or refer to the Sun as Titan.
288 Variant spelling of Helios, the Greek word for sun.
289 Phoebus: the Latin form of the Greek Phoibos meaning bright or radiating. See also note 286.
290 Apollo: a youthful god of music and art who was always associated with truth, light and honest revelation
(and divination as the patron god of Delphi). The mythological son of Zeus. The direct representation of the
Sun was made in the Hellenistic era when, as Apollo Helios, he became known as Titan god of the Sun,
brother of Selena Titan goddess of the Moon.
291 Paean: Greek Paion, Phainaeus or Phanaios; derivatives from Phaino the revealer /bringer to light.
292 According to J. Frazers Golden Bough, (ch. 42) the only ancient writers to identify Osiris with the Sun are
Diodorus and Macrobius. The death of Osiris is seen to mythologically depict the decay of winter.
293 Diespiter: Heavenly Father or God of the Day. The Latin word dies originates from the root div or diu
meaning day or bright/pure, from which we get divum sky, and divus or dius divine deity (and derivatives,
deus, dyeu, zeus, doivis, iovis and iovvis). The Latin piter or peter is a variant of pater father. Diespiter is therefore
sometimes used as an alternative spelling of Jupiter (from Iovis-piter or Dyeu-piter) but the more general
principle is that the name declares rulership over the sky, which (as in the triplicity rulership of the fiery
triplicity) is given to the Sun by day, and to Jupiter by night.
294 So on average the Sun moves just under 1 of longitude a day. The near-perfect match between the
degree and the solar day, and the symbolic resonance between the two, is one reason why ancient astrologers
felt no great compulsion to rectify the Suns motion more precisely (see n.296, p.71).

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terms, but because there is no reason for it, I leave it as idle.295

* Face: In the twelve signs he has these degrees for his decanate or faces:
In a
In c
In f
In h
In j

the 11
the 21
the 01
the 11
the 21










The 0 is always direct, and never can be said to be retrograde, [although] its true he
moves more slowly at one time than another.296
p.70 * Nature: He is naturally hot, dry, but more temperate than Mars; is a masculine, diurnal planet,
equivalent if well dignified to a fortune.
* Manner when well dignified: Very faithful, keeping their promises with all punctuality; a kind of
itching desire to rule and sway where he comes; prudent, and of incomparable judgement;
of great majesty and stateliness, industrious to acquire honour and a large patrimony, yet as
willingly departing therewith again; the solar man usually speaks with gravity, but not many
words, and those with great confidence and command of his own affection; full of
thought, secret, trusty, speaks deliberately, and notwithstanding his great heart, yet is he
affable, tractable297 and very humane to all people; one loving sumptuousness and
magnificence, and whatever is honourable; no sordid thoughts can enter his heart, &c.
295 Lillys account of this point is not very reliable. Usually, the equivalent dignity is said to be given to the
Sun when it is in the northern hemisphere summer signs: which begin with Leo and end with Capricorn,
(vice versa for the Moon which gets the same sense of dignity in the northern hemisphere winter signs, i.e.,
Aquarius to Cancer). This idea was noted by Ptolemy, (Tet., 1.7) although without any explicit connection to
term-rulership: they assumed the semi-circle from Leo to Capricorn to be solar, and that from Aquarius to
Cancer to be lunar, so that in each of the semi-circles one sign might be assigned to each of the five planets
as its own, one bearing aspect to the Sun and the other to the Moon. At least by the time of Al-Qabs (10th
century) we see the association being viewed as comparable to the benefits of term rulership:
The half of the circle from the beginning of Leo to the end of Capricorn is also called the greater half,
and this is the half of the Sun, because the same kind of lordship that planets have in their terms
belongs to the Sun in the whole of this half; the half from the beginning of Aquarius to the end of
Cancer is called the smaller half, and this is the half of the Moon, because in the whole of this half
also the Moon has the same kind of lordship as the Sun has in the greater half.
- Al-Qabisi, The Introduction to Astrology, tr. Burnett, Yamamoto, Yano (London, 2004); pp.21-23.
Bonatti (Liber Astronomiae I.II.iii) also refers to these hemispheres as the lunar half and the solar half,
stating that the luminaries have the same virtues in these hemispheres as the planets do in their terms.
296 The Suns speed of motion is notably steady, varying by only a few minutes during the course of the year
(dropping down to nearly 0 57' in the northern hemisphere summer, and rising to just over 1 1' in winter).
Because of this consistency of motion, and the fact that the Sun slows down just a little at the time of its
greatest influence in the northern hemisphere summer (and speeds up just a little at the time of its weakest
influence), the usual symbolic approach to planetary motion, by which planets are deemed dignified when
fast, and debilitated when slow (see CA p.115) cannot be applied to the Sun. In this, as in many other
matters, the Sun is the exception to the rule; its steady and constantly direct motion acting as a marker
against which the other planets are given a sense of proportion.
The average and extreme motions of the seven traditional planets are shown in the table below.


Daily Movement




000 2' 01"

Retrograde periods

1st station


2nd station

5 days

140 days

5 days

Average Motion

1 sign

30 years

2 years


000 7' 49"

00 04' 59"

00 14' 33"

5 days

120 days

4 days

12 years

1 year

00 31' 27"

00 48' 31"

2 days

80 days

1 day

321 days

57 days

00 59' 08"

0 57' 11"

01 01' 06"

1 year

1 month

01 12' 30"

01 15' 45"

2 days

42 days

2 days

1 year

24 days

02 14' 10"

1 day

24 days

1 day

1 year

18 days

27 days

2 days

01 23' 00"
13 10' 35"

11 06' 00"

15 02' 00"



All planets that can station and turn retrograde are capable of attaining zero velocity

Mercury and Venus revolve around the Sun, so have the same average transit of the zodiac as the Sun

Tractable: docile, easy going.

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* When ill dignified: Then the solar man is arrogant and proud, disdaining all men, cracking of his
pedigree, he is purblind in sight and judgement,298 restless, troublesome, domineering; a
mere vapour; expensive,299 foolish, endued with no gravity in words or soberness in
actions, a spendthrift,300 wasting his patrimony, and hanging on other mens charity; yet
thinks all men are bound to him, because a gentleman born.
* Corporature: Usually the Sun presents a man of a good, large and strong corporature; a yellow,
saffron complexion; a round, large forehead; goggle-eyes or large, sharp and piercing; a
body strong and well composed, not so beautiful as lovely, full of heat, their hair yellowish
and therefore quickly bald,301 much hair on their beard, and usually a high ruddy
complexion,302 their bodies fleshy. In conditions they are very bountiful, honest, sincere,
well-minded, of great and large heart, high-minded, of healthful constitution, very humane;
yet sufficiently spirited, not loquacious.303
In [regard to] the Sun, we can only say he is oriental in the figure, or in the oriental quarter
of the figure, or occidental, &c., all other planets are either oriental when they rise or appear
before him in the morning, occidental, when they are seen above the earth after he is set.304
* Quality of men and their professions: He signifies kings, princes, emperors, &c., dukes, marquises,
earls, barons, lieutenants, deputy-lieutenants of counties, magistrates, gentlemen in general,
courtiers, desirers of honour and preferment; justices of peace, majors, high-sheriffs, highconstables, great huntsmen, stewards of noblemens houses, the principal magistrate of any
city, town, castle or country village; yea though a petty constable, where no better or
greater officer is;305 goldsmiths, braziers,306 pewterers, coppersmiths, minters of money.
* Sicknesses: Pimples in the face, palpitation or trembling, or any diseases of the brain or heart,
tympanies,307 infirmities of the eyes, cramps, sudden swoonings, diseases of the mouth and
stinking breaths, catarrhs, rotten fevers; principally in man he governs the heart, the brain
and right eye, and vital spirit, in women the left eye.
* Colous & savours: Of colours he rules the yellow, the colour of gold, the scarlet or the clear red; some
say purple. In savours he likes well a mixture of sour and sweet together, or the aromatical
flavour, being a little bitter and stiptical,308 but withal confortative309 and a little sharp.
Purblind: dim-sighted, short sighted.
Used in the archaic sense of meaning someone who is given to lavish or unnecessary expenditure.
300 Someone who spends money wastefully (thrift in its archaic sense meaning prosperity/wealth, as
derived from the Medieval English verb thriven to prosper/thrive).
301 It is true that baldness is more common among blond-haired men. In ancient times it was also
noticed that Eunuchs, or men who were accidentally castrated in battle, did not suffer baldness; which
modern endocrinologists now know to be a result of altered testosterone levels.
302 A high complexion means a complexion with a lot of redness or flushed colour.
303 Loquacious: talkative.
304 To reiterate, if a passage of text describes a planet as oriental in the
figure (chart), it means that it is located near the ascendant, which is the
eastern angle; whilst occidental in the figure, means it is located near
the descendant, the western angle. But as Lilly illustrates here, unless the
text specifically states by figure or by angle traditional references to a
planet being oriental or occidental describe the planets relationship to
the Sun, these being descriptive terms which characterise a planets
phase as waxing or waning within its synodic cycle. See also CA p.114
and the accompanying footnote.
305 Meaning that the Sun will signify whoever is able to take charge of the particular situation, even if
that person is outranked in other situations.
306 Braziers: workers in brass.
307 Tympanies: since the Sun signifies the head, this is probably what we call tympanitis (inflammation of
the inner ear), or some problem with the chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve), although the
term also refers to a symptom of abdominal illness by which the stomach is distended with gas.
308 Stiptical: astringent, sharp.
309 Confortative: strengthening (L: con with + fort strength).

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* Herbs and plants: Those plants which are subject to the Sun do smell pleasantly, are of good
flavour, their flowers are yellow or reddish, [and] are in growth of majestical form, [and]
they love open and sunshine places. Their principal virtue is to strengthen the heart and
comfort the vitals, to clear the eyesight, resist poison, or to dissolve any witchery or
malignant planetary influences; and they are Saffron,310 the Laurel,311 the Pomecitron,312 the
Vine,313 Enula Campana,314 Saint Johns Wort,315 Amber,316 Musk,317 Ginger,318
Herbgrace,319 Balm,320 Marigold, Rosemary, Rosa Solis,321 Cinnamon, Celandine, Eyebright,
Peony, Barley,322 Cinquefoil,323 Spikenard,324 Lignum Aloes,325 Arsenic.326
310 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64 (see n.201). In recognition of its solar signature, Saffron spice has been
used as a curative against many Saturnine conditions. During the 14th century black death, demand for
saffron medicine was so intense that the theft a shipment by a nobleman sparked a 14 week long European
War. Saffron spice is renowned as a treatment against arthritis of the joints and infertility.
311 A.k.a Bay (or Sweet Bay, True Laurel). Leaves, berries and oil have excitant and narcotic properties; the
leaves are diaphoretic (induce sweating) and in large quantities emetic (vomiting), and so were anciently used
as remedies against poison. Internal use is now recommended only in veterinary practice but Oil of Bays is
still purchased as an external treatment of sprains, bruises, and earache. The solar association is also evident
in the giving of laurel leaves as a symbol of victory, triumph and glory.
312 Pomecitron: citrus fruits; oranges or lemons, etc.
313 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
A.k.a. Elecampane, Scabwort or Wild Sunflower. The Roman historian Pliny records in his Natural History
that Julia Augusta let no day pass without eating some of the roots of Enula, considered to help digestion
and cause mirth and that the root being chewed fasting, doth fasten the teeth. William Fernies Herbal
Simples (1897) also records in his entry for Elecampane Prior to the Norman Conquest, and during the
Middle Ages, the root of Elecampane was much employed in Great Britain as a medicine; and likewise it was
candied and eaten as a sweetmeat. Some fifty years ago the candy was sold commonly in London, as flat,
round cakes, being composed largely of sugar, and coloured with cochineal. A piece was eaten each night and
morning for asthmatical complaints, whilst it was customary when travelling by a river to suck a bit of the
root against poisonous exhalations and bad air.
315 Paracelsus referred to St. Johns Wort as an example of the doctrine of signatures, saying the porosity or
holes in the leaves, signify to us that this herb helps both inward and outward holes or cuts in the skin
(quoted by Gordon, Green Magic). Dylan Warren-Davis wrote about the solar associations of this yellowflowering herb, used to ward off witchcraft and valued for its anti-bacterial and anti-viral actions, in his
article St Johns Wort: A Solar Herb (TA 12, 1996; www.skyscript.co.uk/johnswort.html; Nov. 2010).
316 Fossilized pine resin which in crushed form is taken for its antiseptic and skin-healing properties. Noted
as being sedative, emmenagogue, diuretic, and lithotriptic (able to dissolve and discharge urinary and gall
bladder stones and gravel). In traditional Chinese medicine it is reputed to calm the spirit, invigorate and
move blood, promote healing, and prevent coronary heart disease.
317 Originally a secretion obtained from the testicular gland of the male musk deer (musk, in Sanskrit, means
testicle), although the term was later applied to glandular secretions from other animals or plants emitting a
similar fragrance. In Scents That Heal (2001) F. Alakbarov tells how medieval Islamic herbalists used these
animal secretions in curative medicine (www.azer.com/91_scents.html; July 2010):
The scent of musk, it was believed, would strengthen the heart and nerves and help to get rid of
melancholy. To alleviate a headache, musk was mixed with saffron; a single drop on one nostril would
be sufficient. Castor, a substance secreted by male beavers to attract mates, often served as a
substitute for musk. One or two drops of castor applied to the face and arms would make a person
more appealing, it was believed. In 1311, Kabir Khoyi wrote that a bandage with a few drops of
castor was good for treating headaches. Beverages containing castor and vinegar were also used to
treat abdominal pain.
318 Sweet and pungent in aroma and taste, ginger is stimulating and warming, and so used to improve
circulation and counter cold diseases. It is anti-inflammatory and antibacterial, and widely reputed to have a
beneficial effect upon the secretion of bile and gastric juices. Also listed under Mars, CA p.67, see n.251.
319 Rue; also listed under Saturn, CA p.59 (see n.146). At one time holy water was sprinkled from brushes
made of rue, for which reason it became known as the Herb of Repentance or the Herb of Grace. Its effect
is strongly stimulating, antispasmodic, mildly stomachic (increases appetite) and it is supposed to sharpen
physical eyesight and to encourage second sight. Besides its many medicinal uses it was traditionally used as
a cleansing herb (reputed to kill fleas) and widely employed as a defence against witchcraft.
320 Also listed under Venus. Culpeper (CH) says Jupiter, which Lilly gives to balsam, a type of balm.

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(Wild Sunflower)


(Great Fleabane)

Lignum Aloes
(Old Agarwood)

St Johns Wort
(Chase Devil)

Rosa Solis




(Compass Plant)

* Trees: Ash tree, Palm, Laurel tree, the Myrrh tree, Frankincense, the Cane tree or plant,327 the
Cedar, Heliotrope, the Orange and Lemon tree.
* Beasts: The lion, the horse, the ram, the crocodile, the bull, goat, night-worms or glow-worms.
Nott, in his Cooks and Confectioners Dictionary (1726) wrote:
ROSA SOLIS: The herb Sundew drosera rotundifolia. The Italian cordial rosolio was prepared wholly
from the juice of the plant... Potter says that sundew is so called because of the numerous red hairs
on the leaves upon which the moisture settles and does not disperse even on the hottest day. The sun
shining on the hairs produces a dew-like effect.
The word cordial means relating to the heart, (L. cordi heart + lis pertaining to). Bright yellow and
golden coloured cordials became very popular around the 1400s, as infusions of herbs and minerals which
were reputed to invigorate the heart, revitalise the spirits and free the body from melancholia. Some included
very precious ingredients like gold flecks, saffron and ground amber or pearls see the online article Cordial
Waters by Ivan Day (2003) at www.historicfood.com/rosolio.htm (06/11/10).
322 It is difficult to recognise the solar correspondence in barley, which is usually listed with wheat under
Jupiter because of its soothing effect upon inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. Hippocrates taught
that a drink made from barley is the best remedy for acute febrile diseases such as pleurisy and pneumonia
for the mucilage of it is smooth, consistent, pleasant, lubricant, moderately diluent, quenches thirst if this be
required, and has no astringency (Hippocratic Writings, On Regimen in Acute Diseases; IV, tr. Francis
Adams, Encyclopedia Brittanca, 1952). Galen explained that the heat and dryness of a fever is countered by its
cooling and moistening properties. Culpeper however, regarded barley as a notable planet of Saturn saying
that it is more cooling than wheat, so that bread made from barley is very unwholesome for melancholy
people. He agreed with the ancients that barley-water gives great nourishment to persons troubled with
fevers, agues and heats in the stomach.
Potentilla, which bears bright yellow or orange flowers and leaflets arranged in groups of five, resembling
the shape of a human hand. The name cinquefoil is French, meaning five leaves.
324 A.k.a. Horse-heal or Great Fleabane, because it is anti-fungal, sedative, and the smell of the plant deters
fleas and its leaves are burnt as an insecticide. Traditionally considered a good nerve tonic and wound herb,
so it was taken in decoction for bruises and ulcers, and as an emmenagogue to have a balancing effect on the
menstrual cycle (for which reason it is also listed by Culpeper (CH) under Venus).
325 Aquilaria Agallocha: the resinous centre of old agar wood, which is used as a fragrant incense and taken
inwardly as an extract produced by boiling the wood in water. It is diuretic, laxative, carminative and used to
as a tonic for the heart, brain and liver, and to treat gout and rheumatism.
326 The mineral arsenic (as opposed to the element) is orpiment, a bright golden arsenic sulfide which forms
naturally, but in relatively small deposits. This was known to the Greeks as arsenikon, meaning male, strong,
virile and to the Persians in a word meaning gold (zar). The name orpiment comes from a shortening of the
Latin title auripigmentum, golden pigment.
327 Bamboo.
321 John

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* Fishes: The sea calf or sea fox,328 the crabfish, the starfish.
p.72 * Birds: The eagle, the cock, the phoenix, nightingale, peacock, the swan, the buzzard, the fly
basddcantharis,329 the goshawk.
* Places: Houses, courts of princes, palaces, theatres, all magnificent structures being clear and
decent; halls, dining rooms.
* Mineral or metals: Amongst the elements the Sun has domination of fire and clear shining
flames; over metals he rules gold.
* Stones: The hyacinth,330 chrysolite,331 adamant,332 carbuncle,333 the aetites stone334 found in
eagles nests,335 the pantaure, if such a stone be the ruby.336
* Weather: He produces weather according to the season; in the spring gentle moistening showers;
in the summer heat in extremity if with Mars; in autumn mists; in winter small rain.
* Winds: He loves the east part of the world; and that wind which proceeds from that quarter.
* Orb: Is 15 degrees before any aspect; and so many after separation.
* Years: In age he rules youth, or when one is at the strongest; his greatest years are 1460, greater
120, mean 69, least 19.
* Countries: Italy, Sicily, Bohemia;337 and the fourth climate,338 Phoenicia,339 Chaldea.340
* Angel: Michael.341
* Day of the week: He rules Sunday, the first hour thereof and the eighth; and in numbers the first
and fourth; and in conceptions the fourth month. His friends are all the planets except
Saturn, who is his enemy.342

Commonly known as Spanish fly, cantharis is a beetle found in Southern France and Spain, which
produces a highly caustic irritant (if touched, the skin will blister). Powdered cantharis was (and is) used as a
medicine, taken as a remedy for various complaints (cystitis, diarrhoea, stings) and as a general tonic to
increase vitality, restore lost appetite and alleviate feelings of anxiety and rage.
330 Semi-precious stone which is a lustrous orange-red, or yellow-brown type of zircon (a.k.a. jacinth). Topaz and
garnets of this colour are also referred to as hyacinth and a hyacinth opal is one that is yellow/orange.
331 Chrysolite is a broad term. In Victorian times, it included chrysoberyls, which range from yellow to brown
and include the cats eye which features a bright, pupil-like slit which seems to move slightly as the stone is
moved. Chrysolite can also refer to peridot, a yellow-green semi-precious stone (in Lillys day the term
probably referred to most yellowish gems).
332 Generally this refers to a lustrous diamond. The Latin word adamant means invincible or unbreakable
and was applied to extremely hard minerals. The Webster Dictionary 1913 defines it as a precious stone or
gem excelling in brilliancy and remarkable for extreme hardness.
333 Specifically dark red rounded garnet although in Lillys day this term was applied to any rounded red gem.
334 Aetites are stones which hold some kind of internal concretion being either made of semi-transparent
material through which the internal substance can be seen, or surrounding a hollow interior which allows the
inner material to rattle. They were known as pregnant stones, and were believed to resonate vitality.
335 It was common belief that eagles were especially attracted to these stones and that they collected them to
weigh down and help balance their nests.
336 According to Lillys contemporary Thomas Vaughan (Magia Adamica) this is the pantarve, a mythical stone
of magical powers, supposedly fiery, shining, and able to attract to itself gold and other precious metals.
(Transcribed as pantaure by Marsilio Ficino, and listed as a solar stone by that name by Cornelius Agrippa).
337 The modern Czech Republic.
338 Longest day is 14 hours, 30 minutes (see n.222, p.65).
339 Lebanon.
340 Approximates to modern South Iraq.
341 For more on the astrological association of angels, see n.158, p.60.
342 See n.159, p.60.

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Chapter 12
Of the planet Venus and her several significations and nature
* Names: After the Sun succeeds Venus;343 who is sometimes called Cytherea,344Aphrodite,345
Phosphoros,346 Vesperugo,347 Ericina.348
* Colour in the element: She is a bright shining colour, and is well known amongst the vulgar by the
name of the Evening Star or Hesperus;349 and that is when she appears after the Sun is set.
Common people call her the Morning Star, and the learned Lucifer,350 when she is seen long
before the rising of the Sun.
* Motion: Her mean motion is 59 min. and 8 seconds: her diurnal motion is sometimes ...
62 min. a day; 64, 65, 66 or 70, 74, 76 minutes; but 82 min. she never exceeds.351
343 The Roman name Venus conveys a meaning of to charm and derives from the same root as the Latin
verb venire to come together, and such words as venerate worship, honour and venereal sexual.

The goddess Venus is depicted as Venus Cythereia in Quentin Massys oil-painting (1561); the name,
meaning of Cythera commemorates the Greek island which claims her birth. According to Hesiods
Theogony (II. 176-206) after arising from the foamy ocean, Venus first approached the Ionic island of Cythera,
then went to Cyprus, (and as she moved flowers sprang beneath her feet, and all who saw her loved her).
345 Greek equivalent of Roman Venus (Gk. aphros foam/ocean + deato to bring to light). The name relates
to Hesiods account (above) and depicts Venus role as a pre-dawn illuminator.
346 Literally light bringer or bearer of dawn/day, from the Greek phs (light) + phoros (bearer); an
alternative form of Eosphorus: east/dawn bearer which translates into Latin as Lucifer (lucis, light/dawn +
ferre, to bear/produce/bring).
347 The manuscript says Desperugo but means Vesperugo, the name by which Venus is referred by Roman
playwright Plautus. This is the personification of the evening star, Vesperus being the patron of the eve, the
star of lovers, and the mythological brother of Lucifer the morning star (L: Vesperus/Vespers, setting,
western or evening, night; hence Venus is also sometimes called noctifer or nocturnus).
348 Venus Erycina: the name of a goddess cult which originates from Eryx (now Erice) in Sicily, where a
famous temple was dedicated to Venus at the top of the mountain now known as Monte San Giuliano. The
cult also gained prominence in Rome, with two temples dedicated to Ericina in the 3rd century BC.
349 Hesperus: another Latin term for setting, equivalent to Vesperus and used by poets to represent Venus as
the star of eve. It may also be used in a general sense to mean declining, sunset, or western, etc.
350 Lucifer: bringer of light (see n.3461). The use of this name for Satan originates from a biblical passage
which criticizes the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar whilst making an analogy between his brilliance and
the star of dawn. The King James Version of the Book of Isaiah (14.12) reads:
How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the
ground. For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the
stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation; I will ascend above the heights of
the clouds; I will be like the most High. Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the
pit. They that see thee shall look upon thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble,
that did shake kingdoms; that made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that
opened not the house of his prisoners?.
The analogy to the dawn-star presents the warning of an illustrious king being cut down in his ascension.
Since Venus remains within 48 degrees of the Sun, and so is only visible in the east for a short period before
sunrise, it can never shine in the upper heavens; (like Mercury, it can only make appearances close to the
horizon). This King James Version is the only biblical reference to Lucifer, from which Bible commentators
have suggested that Lucifer must be the anti-Christ, since he assumes the title day-star which is truly
belonging to Christ (Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary, Isaiah 14:12). It is also tempting to draw
parallels between the 40 day average retrograde period of Venus during its inferior debilitated state, and the
biblical theme of 40 days of temptation in the wilderness.
351 This account of the mean motion of Venus (and of Mercury, CA p.76, also given as 5908) is misleading
because it is averaged out to the mean daily motion as the Sun. Since Mercury and Venus revolve around the
Sun as they move along the ecliptic, a mean measure of their motion through the zodiac, over the course of a
year, is forced to assume that they move at the same average rate as the Sun. However, on a daily basis
Venus is able to generate much higher speeds of motion than the Sun, as well as much slower periods of
motion too, reaching zero velocity in its stationary periods. The actual mean of its extremes in daily motion is
11230, and it is this figure which should be used as the mean by which it is determined fast or slow in
motion. See table of planetary motions in n.296, p.71, and n.421, p.81 which demonstrates how this point
relates to the motion of Mercury.

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* Lat: Her greatest north or south latitude is 902 ; in February 1643 she had 836 for her north latitude.
* Houses: She has b and g for her houses, she is exalted in 27l; she receives detriment in a
and h, and has her fall in 27 f.
* Triplicity: She governs the earthly triplicity by day viz. b, f, j; she is 2 days stationary before
retrogradation, and so many before direction, and does usually continue retrograde 42 days.
* Her terms:
She has these degrees in every sign for her terms.
In a
In b
In c
In d
In e
In f

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1 2 34 5 6 7 8
15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
14 15 16 17 18 19
8 9 10 11 12 13

In g
In h
In i
In j
In k
In l

7 8 9 10 11
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
9 10 11 12 13 14
1 2 3 4 5 6
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

These degrees are allowed for her face

In a
In d
In f
In h
In l











Element, nature: She is a feminine planet, temperately cold and moist, nocturnal, the lesser fortune,
author of mirth and jollity; [of] the elements, the air and water are venereal; in the
humours, phlegm with blood, with the spirit and genital seed.
* Manners & quality when well placed: She signifies a quiet man, not given to law,352 quarrel or
wrangling, not vitious,353 pleasant, neat and spruce,
loving mirth in his words and actions, cleanly in apparel; rather drinking much than
gluttonous; prone to venery, oft entangled in love-matters, zealous in their affections,
musical, delighting in baths and all honest merry-meetings, or masks and stage-plays; easy
of belief, and not given to labour or taking any pains, a company-keeper, cheerful, nothing
mistrustful, a right virtuous man or woman, oft had in some jealousy, yet no cause for it.
* When ill: Then he is riotous, expensive, wholly given to looseness and lewd companies of women,
nothing regarding his reputation, coveting unlawful beds, incestuous, an adulterer;
fantastical,354 a mere skip-jack,355 of no faith, no repute, no credit; spending his means in alehouses, taverns, and amongst scandalous, loose people; a mean lazy companion, nothing
careful of the things of this life or anything religious; a mere atheist and natural man.
* Corporature: A man of fair, but not tall stature, his complexion being white, tending to a little
darkness, which makes him more lovely. Very fair lovely eyes, and a little black; a round
face and not large, fair hair, smooth, and plenty of it, and it usually of a light brown colour;
a lovely mouth and cherry lips, the face pretty fleshy, a rolling wandering eye, a body very
delightful, lovely and exceedingly well shaped, one desirous of trimming and making
himself neat and complete both in clothes and body, a love dimple in his cheeks, a
steadfast eye, and full of amorous enticements.
* Oriental: When oriental the body inclines to tallness; or a kind of upright straightness in person,
not corpulent or very tall, but neatly composed. A right venerian person, is such as we say,
a pretty, complete, handsome man or woman.
* Occidental: When she is occidental the man is of more short stature, yet very decent and comely
in shape and form, well liked of all.
* Qualities of Men & their professions: Musicians, gamesters, silk-men, mercers,356 linen-drapers,
painters, jewellers, players, lapidaries,357 embroiderers, women-tailors, wives, mothers,
I.e., not given to legal disputes or seeking conflicts through lawsuits.
Wicked, vicious, corrupt (from the Latin vitio, vice)
354 Subject to (or expressing) fantasies, illusions, distortions of the truth, and unchecked imaginations.
355 Someone who is shallow and superficial (the term originally applied to fish that leap and skip, swimming
close to the surface of the water).
356 A dealer in textiles, fabrics and fine cloth.
357 A person who cuts, polishes, sets or deals in gemstones.

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virgins, choristers, fiddlers, pipers; when joined with the Moon: singers, perfumers,
semsters,358 picture-drawers, gravers,359 upholsterers, limners,360 glovers, all such as sell
those commodities which adorn women either in body (as clothes) or in face, (as
* Sicknesses: Diseases by her signified are principally in the matrix361 and members of
generation;362 in the reins,363 belly, back, navel and those parts; the gonorrhoea or running
of the reins, French or Spanish pox; any disease arising by inordinate lust. Priapismes,364
impotency in generation, hernias, &c, the diabetes or pissing disease.
*Savours, colours: In colours she signifies white, or milky sky-colour mixed with brown, or a little
green. In savours she delights in that which is pleasant and toothsome; usually in moist and
sweet, or what is very delectable; in smells what is unctuous365 and aromatical, and incites
to wantonness.
*Herbs and Plants: Myrtle Always-green;366 all herbs which she governs have a sweet flavour, a
pleasant smell; a white flower; of a gentle humour, whose leaves are smooth and not jagged.
She governs the Lily,367 white and yellow, and the Lily of the Valley, and of the Water.368 The
Satyrion or Cuckoo-Pint,369 Maidenhair,370 Violet;371 the white and yellow Daffodil.372
360 Someone who illuminates manuscripts.

Womb: from the Medieval English matris, parent stem; derivative of mter mother.
I.e., the generative (reproductive) organs.
363 Loins or kidneys.
364 Priapism: prolonged and painful erection of the penis; derived from priapus, in classical antiquity the god
of male procreative power.
365 Greasily charming.
366 In ancient times the evergreen quality of myrtle produced a symbolic association with immortality. In
Greek myth this is the sacred plant of Aphrodite, and in Mediterranean nations it is traditionally used to
adorn wedding rituals and taken as an extract to promote youthfulness and rapid hair growth.
367 Culpeper (CH) says Moon for Lilys and Water Lilies.
368 Although traditionally associated with Venus and favoured in bridal bouquets Culpeper (CH) suggests a
Mercury rulership for Lilly of the valley because:
it without doubt strengthens the brain and renovates a weak memory. The distilled water dropped
into the eyes helps inflammations thereof. The spirit of the flowers, distilled in wine, restores lost
speech, helps the palsy, and comforts the heart and vital spirits.
Modern medicine confirms that Lilly of the Valley, like Foxglove, strengthens the heart whilst slowing the
heart rate, and so provides an antidote to heart attacks.
369 Arum Maculatum. Common names include Lords and Ladies Kings and Queens and Parson and Clerk,
all of which associate the appearance of the spathe and spadix with female and male genitalia. Satyrion is the
name of the aphrodisiac which Pliny records is made from this, although parts of the plant are dangerously
poisonous and so Culpeper (CH) lists it under the rulership of Mars.
370 Not Maidenhair Fern (listed under Mercury by Culpeper) but Ladys Bedstraw, a strewing herb which was
traditionally used for stuffing beds and also known as Wild Rosemary and Maidens Hair (because of the
custom, recorded in time of Henry VIII, of ladies blonding their hair from its yellow flowers). Culpeper (CH)
calls it a herb of Venus, which strengthens the parts, internal and external, which she rules.
371 The heart-shaped leaves are looked upon as a signature of Venus and since ancient times violets have
been used in cosmetics, perfumes, sedatives and colouring agents. A 10th century manuscript records their
use to counter wicked spirits and Culpeper (CH) says of them:
They are a fine pleasing plant of Venus, of a mild nature, no way harmful. All the Violets are cold and
moist while they are fresh and green, and are used to cool any heat, or distemperature of the body,
either inwardly or outwardly, as inflammations in the eyes, in the matrix or fundament, in
imposthumes also, and hot swellings
372 Narcissus so called because of the strongly narcotic properties of the bulb (from the Greek narkao to
benumb). Its numbing effect upon the nervous system has led it to be used as an antispasmodic and in the
treatment of hysteria and epilepsy. However it is powerfully emetic and feared for its paralysing effect upon
the heart muscles, for which reason Culpeper (CH) associates it with Mars.

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(M. Communis)

Lily of the Valley

(Convallaria Majalis)

(Arum Maculatum)

(Galium Verum)

(Viola Odorata)


Common Fig
(Ficus Carica)

(Artemisia vulgaris)

Ladys Mantle
(Alchemilla Vulgaris)

(Sanicula Europaea)

* Trees:373 Sweet Apples, the White Rose, the Fig,374 the White Sycamore; Wild Ash, Turpentinetree,375 Olive, Sweet Oranges, Mugwort,376 Ladys-Mantle,377 Sanicle,378 Balm,379 Vervain,380
Walnuts,381 Almonds, Millet, Valerian, Thyme,382 Amber,383 Ladanum,384 Civet or Musk,385
Although the margin notation says trees, the list continues to add smaller herbs such as Mugwort.
Culpeper (CH) placed the tree under Jupiter. The fruit is demulcent and used as a mild laxative.
375 Terebrinth.
376 In his Herbal, Culpeper begins his description of Mugwort by saying:
This is an herb of Venus, therefore maintains the parts of the body she rules, remedies the diseases of
the parts that are under her signs, Taurus and Libra. Mugwort is with good success put among other
herbs that are boiled for women to apply the hot decoction to draw down their courses, to help the
delivery of the birth, and expel the after-birth...
377 Although astringent, and very drying and binding Culpeper (CH) explains the Venusian association:
Venus claims the herb as her own. Ladies Mantle is very proper for those wounds that have
inflammations, and is very effectual to stay bleeding, vomitings, fluxes of all sorts, bruises by falls or
otherwise, and helps ruptures; and such women as have large breasts, causing them to grow less and
hard, being both drank and outwardly applied; the distilled water drank for twenty days together helps
conception, and to retain the birth It is one of the most singular wound herbs.
378 Like other wound herbs, Sanicle is given to Venus because of its curative action; as Culpeper explains:
This is one of Venuss herbs, to cure the wounds or mischiefs Mars inflicts upon the body of man. It
heals green wounds speedily, or any ulcers, imposthumes, or bleedings inward, also tumours in any
part of the body And briefly, it is as effectual in binding, restraining, consolidating, heating, drying
and healing, as Comfrey, Bugle, Self-heal, or any other of the vulnerary herbs whatsoever.
379 Also listed under the Sun; see n. 320, p.73.
380 Also listed under Saturn (see n.128, p.56) and Mercury (as Vervine, CA p.79). Although drying in effect,
Culpeper agrees it is a herb of Venus because of its strengthening effect upon cold griefs of the womb and
and all the defects of the reins and bladder (hence its other names: Herba Veneris and Herb of Grace).
381 Also listed under Mercury, CA p.79.
382 Culpeper (CH) describes Thyme as a strengthener for the lungs, a remedy for those who suffer shortness
of breath and a purge for phlegm; he also says that it being a notable herb of Venus, provokes the terms,
gives safe and speedy delivery to women in travail, and brings away the afterbirth.
383 Also listed under Sun (see n. 316, p.73); associated with Venus because of its emmenagogue properties.
384 An aromatic gum resin obtained from the Rockrose plant (Cistus creticus); prized in perfumery.
385 Also listed under the Sun (see n. 317, p.73).

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Coriander,386 French Wheat,387 Peaches, Apricots, Plums, Raisins.

* Beasts: The hart,388 the panther, small cattle, coney,389 the calf, the goat.
* Birds: Stockdove,390 wagtail, the sparrow, hen,391 the nightingale,392 the thrush,393 pelican,
partridge,394 ficedula, a little bird feeding on grapes;395 the wren, eagles,396 the swan,397 the
swallow,398 the ousel or black bird,399 the pye.400
* Fishes: The dolphin.401
* Places: Gardens, fountains, bride-chambers, fair lodgings, beds, [wall-]hangings, dancing
schools, wardrobes.
* Metals and minerals: Copper, especially the Corinthian402 and white; brass, all latten ware.403
*Stones: Cornelian,404 the sky-coloured sapphire, white and red coral, marcasite,405 alabaster, lapis
lazuli because it expels melancholy, the beryl, chrysolite.406
p.76 * Wind and weather: She governs the south-wind being hot and moist; in the temperament of the
jljljljlk air, she rules the Etesia;407 she foretells in summer serenity or clear weather; in winter, rain
jljljljlk or snow.
* Orb: Her orb is 7 before and after any aspect of hers.
* Years: Her greatest years are 151, her greater 82, her mean 45, her least 8. In man she governs
youth from 14 to 28.
* Countries: Arabia, Austria, Campagna,408 Vienna, Polonia the Greater,409 Turing,410 Parthia,
Media,411 Cyprus, and the sixth climate.412
* Angel: Her Angel is Anael.413
* Day of the week: Her day of the week is Friday, of which she rules the first and eighth hour; and
in conception the first month. Her friends are all the planets except Saturn.

Its properties are stimulant, aromatic and carminative, and it is widely reported to be an aphrodisiac.
Buckwheat a poultice of its flour was traditionally used for restoring the flow of milk in wetnurses.
388 The stag, also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
389 Rabbit; also listed under the Moon, CA p.82. Hares are listed under Saturn, CA p.60.
390 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
391 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
392 Also listed under the Sun, CA p.72.
393 Also listed under Saturn, CA p.60.
394 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
395 Ficedula flycatchers are a genus of old world flycatchers.
396 Also listed under the Sun (CA p.71) Jupiter (CA p.64) and Mars (CA p.68).
397 Also listed under the Sun (CA p.72).
398 Also listed under Mercury (CA p.79).
399 The black bird is also listed under Saturn. CA p.60.
400 Also listed under Mars (CA p.68) and Mercury (CA p.79).
401 Also listed under Jupiter, CA p.64.
402 The ancient port of Corinth in Greece was famed for its supply of copper and its worship of Aphrodite
(the former possibly prompting the latter).
403 Household goods made out of a mixture of brass or pewter.
404 A translucent, semiprecious reddish brown stone, highly valued and used in rings in classical times.
405 White iron pyrite, or iron sulfide (which is what the term marcasite means in medieval alchemy).
406 Also listed under the Sun (CA p.72).
407 Summer or the summer wind.
408 Region in Italy.
409 Poland.
410 Thuringia (Germany).
411 Parthia and Media: modern Iran.
412 Venus is usually said to rule the fifth climate (longest day 15 hours); Mercury rules the sixth.
413 Or Haniel: the name behold God shared by the archangel and angel, (for meaning see n.158, p.60).

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Chapter 13
Of the planet Mercury


and his signification, nature and property

* Names: He is called Hermes, Stilbon,416 Cyllenius,417 Arcas.418 Mercury is the least of all the
planets,419 never distant from the Sun above 27 degrees;420 by which reason he is seldom
visible to our sight.
* Colour: He is of a dusky silver colour; his mean motion is 59 min. and 8 seconds; but he is
sometimes so swift that he moves 1 degree and 40 min. in a day, never more;421 so that you
are not to marvel if you find him sometimes go 66, 68, 70, 80, 86 or 100 in a day. He is
stationary one day, and retrograde 24 days.
* Latitude: His greatest south latitude is 3 degr. 35 min. His greatest north latitude is 3 deg. 33 min.
* House: He has c and f for his houses, and is exalted in the 15 of f; he receives detriment in
i and l, his fall is in l.
* Triplicity: He rules the airy triplicity by night, viz. c g k.
* Terms: He has these degrees in every sign for his terms.

In a
In b
In c
In d
In e
In f


15 16 17 18 19 20 21
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

In g
In h
In i
In j
In k
In l

20 21
22 23
15 16
7 8 9
7 8 9
15 16



26 27
19 20
19 20

* Face: These subsequent degrees are his faces or decanate:

In b
In d
In f
In i
In k











* Nature: We may not call him either masculine or feminine, for he is either the one or other as
joined to any planet; for if in conjunction with a masculine planet, he becomes masculine;
if with a feminine, then feminine; but of his own nature he is cold and dry, and therefore
melancholy; with the good he is good, with the evil planets ill.422

The Roman god Mercury was associated with trade, exchange and commerce; the name deriving from the
Latin mercatus, trade, which is reflected in such English words as merchant and mercantile.
415 Hermes: Greek equivalent to Roman Mercury. The name dates back to the 6th century BC in Arcadia,
Southern Greece, deriving from (herma) a pillar of stones (these being used as monuments and
boundaries at temple sites). The name was originally a generic reference to any deity or temple.
416 Stilbon: the Glistener; probably noting the planets unreliable light (Gk: stilb to gleam/glisten).
417 Cyllenius: Cyllene is the mountain (now called Kyllini) in the historic region of Arcadia, Southern Greece,
which was the mythological birthplace of Hermes. A temple dedicated to Hermes, and his statue, once stood
at the summit. In his 1st century poem Astronomica, Manilius writes You, God of Cyllene, are the first
founder of this great and holy science; through you has man gained a deeper knowledge of the sky (I.34).
418 Arcas: the name for someone who comes from Arcadia, where Mercury is said to have been born.
419 Meaning the lowest and lightest of the five visible planets (not including the luminaries).
420 It goes over 27 but stays within 28; e.g., Mercurys elongation is 2747 in March 2013.
421 In fact Mercury can move as much as 214'10" per day when near superior conjunction; see the table
n.296, p.71, and n.351, p.76, for explanation of why Lillys mean motion of Venus and Mercury is misleading.
The actual mean of Mercurys extremes in daily motion is 123 per day a figure which recognises that as
the Sun moves through the ecliptic in a perpetually direct and relatively consistent motion, Mercury
(encircling the Sun) moves forwards, backwards, and forwards again, to move through the zodiac at the same
annual rate. When Mercury covers the same daily distance as the Sun (about 1 longitude) it moves slowly
compared to its own mean, as footnote 296 demonstrates.
422 The qualities of the planets, as listed by Lilly, tabulate as follows:

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*Elements: In the elements the water;423 amongst the humours, the mixed; he rules the animal
spirit.424 He is author of subtlety, tricks, devices, perjury, &c.
* Manners when well placed: Being well dignified he represents a man of a subtle and political brain,
intellect, and cogitation; an excellent disputant or logician, arguing with learning and
discretion, and using much eloquence in his speech; a searcher into all kinds of mysteries and
learning; sharp and witty, learning almost anything without a teacher; ambitious of being
exquisite in every science, desirous naturally of travel and seeing foreign parts: a man of an
unwearied fancy, curious in the search of any occult425 knowledge; able by his own genius to
produce wonders; given to divination and the more secret knowledge; if he turn merchant,
no man exceeds him in a way of trade or invention of new ways whereby to obtain wealth.
* Manners, when ill placed or dignified: A troublesome wit, a kind of phrenetic426 man, his tongue and
pen against every man, wholly bent to spoil his estate and time in prating427 and trying nice
conclusions to no purpose;428 a great liar, boaster, prattler, busybody, false, a tale-carrier,
given to wicked arts, as necromancy and such like ungodly
p.78 knowledges; easy of belief, an ass or very idiot, constant in no place or opinion,
cheating and thieving everywhere; a newsmonger, pretending all manner of knowledge, but
guilty of no true or solid learning; a trifler; a mere frantic fellow. If he prove a divine,429
then a mere verbal fellow; frothy, of no judgement, easily perverted, constant in nothing
but idle words and bragging.
* Corporature: Vulgarly he denotes one of an high stature and straight thin spare body, an high
forehead and somewhat narrow long face, long nose; fair eyes, neither perfectly black or
grey, thin lips and nose, little hair on the chin, but much on his head, and it a sad brown
inclining to blackness; long arms, fingers and hands; his complexion like an olive or
chestnut colour. You must more observe B than all the planets; for having any aspect to a
planet, he does more usually partake of the influence of that planet than any other does: if
with L then heavy, with K more temperate, with F more rash, with 0 more genteel,430
with C more jesting, with 5 more shiftier.
* Oriental: When he is oriental his complexion is honey colour, or like one well sunburnt; in the
stature of his body not very high, but well jointed; small eyes, not much hair; in very truth,
according to the height of body, very well composed, but still a defect in the complexion,
viz. swarty brown, and in the tongue, viz. all for his own ends.431
















cold & dry

temperately hot & moist

hot & dry

temperately hot & dry temperately cold & moist



cold & dry

cold & moist





airy, watery









Author of



quarrels & strife

mirth & jollity

subtlety & tricks


greater infortune

greater fortune

lesser infortune

lesser fortune

423 This reflects alchemical logic, where the chemical element of mercury is associated with water (or fluidity)
because of its power to dissolve and blend. The chemical mercury is particularly important in alchemy:
Paracelsus identifies it along with sulphur and salt as the tria prima: sulphur signifying spirit, salt the earth and
base matter, and mercury signifying the fluid interchange between above and below.
424 Animal spirit: the nervous responses (intellective and sensitive) which allow emotional sensation (from L.
anima mind, soul, life, breath, wind). Culpeper (CH) gives a philosophical and astrological definition of this
and other human virtues in his English Physician and Family Dispenstory (1653) (reproduced with explanatory
annotations by D. Houlding at www.skyscript.co.uk/astrodiscourse.html).
425 Occult: meaning concealed, hidden, obscured, undiscovered rather than specifically supernatural topics.
426 Variant spelling of frenetic: distracted or frantic; filled with extreme excitement; frenzied.
427 To talk with too many words about unimportant things; from M.E. praten to prattle or chatter.
428 In its archaic sense, nice means, petty, trivial, stupid, or superfluous to anyones actual needs, (as in
niceties); its derivation is from the Latin nescius ignorant, not informed.
429 A divine (or diviner): a priest, member of the clergy, theologian or scholar in religion.
430 Genteel: in its archaic sense genteel means noble; from the Old French gentill, high-born.
431 a defect in the tongue, viz. all for his own ends the phrase suggests that Mercury oriental signifies a
self-serving wit, so that the spoken words (or tongue) may spin the truth or present falsehoods.

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* Occidental: When occidental, a tawny visage,432 lank body,433 small slender limbs, hollow eyes,
and sparkling and red or fiery; the whole frame of body inclining to dryness.
* Quality of men and professions: He generally signifies all literary men, philosophers, mathematicians,
astrologians, merchants, secretaries, scriveners,434 diviners, sculptors, poets, orators,
advocates,435 schoolmasters, stationers, printers, exchangers of money, attorneys,
emperors embassadors, commissioners, clerks, artificers,436 generally accomptants,437
solicitors, sometimes thieves, prattling muddy ministers, busy sectaries, and they unlearned;
grammarians, tailors, carriers, messengers, footmen, usurers.438
* Sicknesses: All vertigos, lethargies or giddiness in the head; madness, either lightness, or any
disease of the brain; phthisis,439 all stammering
... and imperfection in the tongue; vain and fond imaginations,440 all defects in the memory;
nnnnhoarseness, dry coughs, too much abundance of spittle, all snaffling and snuffling in the
nnnnhead or nose; the hand and feet gout, dumbness, tongue-evil,441 all evils in the fancy and
nnnnintellectual parts.
* Colours & savours: Mixed and new colours, the grey mixed with sky-colour, such as is on the neck
of the stock-dove, linsie-woolsie colours,442 or consisting of many colours mixed in one. Of
savours an hodge-podge of all things together, so that no one can give it any true name; yet
usually such as do quicken the spirits, are subtle and penetrate, and in a manner insensible.
*Herbs and plants: Herbs attributed to B are known by the various colour of the flower, and love
sandy barren places; they bear their seed in husks or cobs, they smell rarely or subtlety, and
have principle relation to the tongue, brain, lungs or memory; they dispel wind and
comfort the animal spirits and open obstructions. Beans, Three Leaved-Grass,443 the
Walnut and Walnut-tree;444 the Filbert-tree and nut;445 the Eldertree, Adders-tongue,446
Dragonwort,447 Twopennygrass,448 Lungwort,449 Aniseeds,450 Cubebs,451 Marjoram. What


Tawny: dull, yellowish brown (lacking redness); from M.E. tauny, past participle of taner: tan.

Lank: long and limp; gaunt; unduly tall and slender ; from O.E. hlanc: loose and empty, slender, flaccid.
Scrivener: a person who writes out formal documents and deeds.
435 Advocate: Legal counsellor, who pleads for another in a court of law.
436 Artificer: a skilled craftsman, designer.
437 Accomptants: accountants.
438 Usurers: money-lenders.
439 Phthisis: consumption (tuberculosis), lung disease.
440 I.e, false hallucinations; from the archaic use of vain (L. vanus empty) and fond (M.E. fonne foolish).
441 Tongue-evil: Tourettes syndrome.
442 Linsey-woolsey: a thin rough fabric of cotton or wool, used in tartans or cloths with interlocking designs.
443 Wood Sorrel; Culpeper recommends infusions of its leaves for ulcers in the mouth saying the same juice
taken and gargled in the mouth, and after it spit forth doth wonderfully help a foul stinking canker or ulcer
therein. It is singularly good to heal wounds, or to stay the bleeding of thrusts or stabs in the body.
444 Walnuts are also listed under Venus (CA p.75); Culpeper (CH) says the Sun, listing many medicinal uses. The
Solar/Mercurial signature is evident in the brain-like appearance of the nut, and its use in the treatment of
quinsy, to vitalise the spirit and cure poisons, and the expulsion of wind and cholic. William Coles (16261662),
in his The Art of Simpling demonstrates the doctrine of signatures, writing The Kernel hath the very figure of the
Brain, and therefore it is very profitable for the Brain. It has been established that walnuts have a marked
effect upon the development of the brains neuron-transmitters.
445 Hazelnut-tree and nut.
446 Adders Tongue Fern, a.k.a. Serpent Tongue; a vulnerary which may be associated with Mercury because
of its signature tongue-like appearance.
447 Bistort; which has highly astringent properties and was renowned for stopping internal and external
bleeding. The name Dragonwort comes from its use in the treatment of insect stings and snake bites, and
the belief that it could cure the wounds of dragons.
448 Moneywort, a.k.a Creeping Jenny; the older name comes from the pairing of rounded leaves which look
like pennies. Culpeper (CH) prescribes its use against haemorrhaging, coughs and lung complaints.
449 Widely used as a treatment for treatment for asthma and bronchial complaints; Paracelsus demonstrated its
adherence to the doctrine of signatures in describing how its spotted leaves bear resemblance to diseased lungs.

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herbs are used for the muses and divination, as Vervine,452 the Reed.453 Of drugs,
Treacle,454 Hiera,455 Diambra.456


(Oxalis Acetosella)

(Polygonum Bistorta)




*Beasts: The hyena, ape, fox, squirrel, weasel, the spider, the greyhound, the hermaphrodite, being
partaker of both sexes; all cunning creatures.
* Birds: The linnet, the parrot, the popinian,457 the swallow, the pye, the beetle, pifinires,458
locusts, bees, serpent, the crane.
* Fishes: The fork-fish, mullet.
* Places: Tradesmens-shops, markets, fairs, schools, common halls, bowling-alleys, ordinaries,459
tennis courts.
* Minerals: Quicksilver.
* Stones: The millstone,460 marcasite or fire-stone, the achates,461 topaz, vitriol, all stones of
diverse colours.
* Winds & weather: He delights in windy, stormy and violent, boisterous weather, and stirs up that
wind which the planet signifies to which he applies; sometimes rain, at other times hail,
lightning, thunder and tempests. In hot countries earthquakes, but this must ...
... be observed really from the sign and season of the year.
* Orb: His orb is seven degrees before and after any aspect.
* Years: His greatest years are 450; his greater 76; his mean 48; his little or least 20: in conceptions
he governs the sixth month.
* Countries: He has Greece, Flanders,462 Egypt, Paris.
* Angel: His Angel is named Raphael.463
* Day of the week: He governs Wednesday, the first hour thereof, and the eighth. His friends are
Jupiter, Venus, Saturn; his enemies all the other planets.
The seed pods of the Anise plant (Pimpinella Anisum), whose flavour resembles liquorice and fennel, which
are listed under Mercury by Culpeper (CH) (like fennel, aniseeds contain the phytoestrogen anethole, which
prevents bacteria, yeast, and fungi); amongst its medicinal uses it provides relief from intestinal cholic.
451 Cubeb, also known as java pepper; a member of the black pepper family. The berries are traditionally used
for the relief of bladder and lung conditions.
452 A.k.a. vervain; also listed under Saturn and the Sun (see n.128, p.56 and n.380, p.79).
453 Reed grass (Arundo) traditionally used as a remedy for catarrh and hay fever.
454 A drug of varying composition; e.g., Venice Treacle: the famous counter-poison compound.
455 An apenent compounded of aloes; e.g., Hiera Picra (white cinnamon and aloe vera).
456 Indigestion medicine made from a compound of spices, ambergris and musk.
457 A type of parrot.
458 A.k.a. pismires: flying ants.
459 Ordinaries: this word had various 17th century meanings; in this context it might refer to an inn which
served a set meal at a standard price at a set time, or it might refer to common land belonging to the church.
460 A.k.a. millstone grit, sandstone.
461 A.k.a. agates.
462 Belgium, Netherlands, and France; also listed under the Moon (CA p.83).
463 For discussion of the angels see n.158, p.60.

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Chapter 14
Of the Moon and her properties and significations
* Name: The Moon464 we find called by the Ancients: Lucina,465 Cynthia,466 Diana,467 Phoebe,468
Latona,469 Noctiluca,470 Proserpina.471 She is nearest to the Earth of all the planets; her colour
in the element is vulgarly known.
* Motion: She finishes her course through the whole twelve signs in 27 days, 7 hours and 43 min.
or thereabouts; 472 her mean motion is 13 degr. 10 min. and 36 seconds, but she moves sometimes less and sometimes more, never exceeding 15 degr. and two min. in 24 hours space.
* Latitude: Her greatest north latitude is 5 degr. and 17 min. (or thereabouts). Her greatest south
latitude is 5 degr. and twelve min. (or thereabouts). She is never retrograde, but always
direct; when she is slow in motion, and goes less in 24 hours than 13 degr. and 10 min. she
is then equivalent to a retrograde planet.
* House: She has the sign d for her house, and j for her detriment; she is exalted in 3 b and
has her fall in 3 grad473 h. She governs the earthly triplicity by night, viz. b, f, j.
* Triplicity: The Sun and she have no terms assigned them.
In the twelve signs she has these degrees for her decanate or face:
In b
In d
In g
In i
In k





14 15
24 25
40 50
14 15
24 25






* Nature: She is a feminine, nocturnal planet, cold, moist and phlegmatic.

* Manners or actions when well placed or dignified: She signifies one of composed manners; a soft,
tender creature; a lover of all honest and ingenious sciences; a searcher of, and delighter in
novelties, naturally propense to flit and shift his habitation; unsteadfast, wholly caring for
the present times, timorous, prodigal, and easily frightened; however loving peace, and to
live free from the cares of this life: if a mechanic, the man learns many occupations, and
frequently will be tampering with many ways to trade in.
* When ill: A mere vagabond, idle person, hating labour; a drunkard, a sot, one of no spirit or
forecast, delighting to live beggarly and carelessly, one content in no condition of life,
either good or ill.
The English word Moon derives from the Medieval English word mone, month. The equivalent Latin
term for month is mensis and the Greek is mene, both of which have contributed to Moon-themed words such
as mensuration (measurement) and menstruation. The Latin name for the Moon Luna describes the Moons
appearance and derives from the verb lunare: to be made crooked or bent like a crescent.
465 Lucina: Roman goddess of childbirth; the name means she who brings to light/life (L. lux light).
466 Cynthia: epithet of the Greek Moon-goddess Artemis, who according to Greek mythology was the twin
sister of Apollo, and was born on Mount Cynthus on the island of Delos in Southern Greece.
467 Diana: Roman goddess corresponding to the Greek Artemis. After her brother Apollo had been
associated with the Sun, philosophers naturally linked Artemis to the Moon.
468 Phoebe: Greek Phoibe; Moon goddess associated with radiance who in Greek myth was one of the original
Titans, daughter of Uranus (sky/air) and Gaia (earth). Her consort was Koios, Latinised as Polus, the
celestial axis. Phoebe was mother to Leto who gave birth to Apollo (Gk: Phoibos) and Artemis. She was the
third goddess to hold the oracular seat at Delphi which she later bestowed upon Apollo.
469 Latona: Latin derivative of the Greek Lato/Leto; mother of Artemis, possibly from the Lycian lada lady.
470 Noctiluca: loosely light of the night or she who shines at night (L: noctu by night + lucere to shine/be light).
471 Proserpina: (L: proserper to emerge) ancient Roman fertility goddess, daughter of Ceres and wife of Pluto.
Her theme is equivalent to the Greek myth of Persephone, daughter of Demeter and wife of Hades.
472 This is the tropical or sidereal month the time it takes for the Moon to return to the same ecliptic degree
or fixed star. A synodic month, which measures the Moons return to the Sun, is about 29-30 days because
the Sun moves forward during the interlude, adding approx. 30 to the distance travelled.
473 Grad: degree (abbreviation from the Latin gradus degree, step).

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* Corporature: She generally presents a man of fair stature, whitely coloured, the face round, grey
eyes, and a little louring;474 much hair both on the head, face, and other parts; usually one
eye a little larger than the other; short hands and fleshy, the whole body inclining to be
fleshy, plump, corpulent and phlegmatic: if she be impedited of the 0 in a nativity or question,
she usually signifies some blemish in or near the eye: if she be impedited in succedent
houses; in the sight if she be unfortunate in angles and with fixed stars, called nebulosae.475
* Qualities [of] men and women: She signifies queens, countesses, ladies, all manner of women; as
also the common people, travellers, pilgrims, sailors, fishermen, fishmongers, brewers,
tapsters,476 vintners, letter-carriers, coachmen, huntsmen, messengers, (some say the Popes
legate), mariners, millers, alewives, malsters, drunkards, oisterwives, fisherwomen,
charwomen,477 tripewomen, and generally such women as carry commodities in the streets;
as also, midwives, nurses, &c, hackneymen,478 watermen, waterbearers.
* Sicknesses: Apoplexies, palsy,479 the colic,480 the bellyache, ...
... diseases in the left side, stones, the bladder and members of generation, the menstrues
and liver in women, dropsies, fluxes of the belly, all cold rheumatic diseases, cold stomach,
the gout in the wrists and feet, sciatica, colic, worms in children and men, rheums or hurts
in the eyes, viz., in the left of men, and right of women: surfeits,481 rotten coughs,
convulsion fits, the falling sickness,482 kings-evil,483 apostems,484 small pox and measles.
* Colours & savours: Of colours the white, or pale yellowish white, pale green, or a little of the
silver-colour. Of saviours, the fresh, or without any flavour, such as is in herbs before they
be ripe, or such as do moisten the brain, &c.

(Agaricus Bisporus)

Linden Tree leaves



(Cichorium endivia)

(Brassica Oleracea)

(Brassica Napus)

Louring: scowling or frowning.

Nowadays nebula/ae (s/pl), a term given to star-clusters whose indistinct light offers a luminous glow
which symbolically suggests a lack of clear-vision (L: nebule: cloud/mist/fog). The association of eye
problems with the angular debilitation of luminaries or contacts to nebulous star clusters was reported by
Ptolemy (Tet. III.12); the most notorious nebulae in this regard being Praesepe (the multitude a.k.a. the
Beehive) in Cancer, and the Pleiades in Taurus. Danger to the eyes was also frequently associated with
particular violent stars such as the Spear-point of Sagittarius (Spiculum) or Sting of the Scorpion (Lesath).
476 Tapsters: innkeepers/barmen, who keep their ale on tap.
477 Charwomen: cleaning women.
478 Hackneymen: men who drive carriages; the term has been used since the 14th century in recognition of the
London district of Hackney where Hackney horses, known for being good trotters, were originally bred (the
term Hackney carriage remains the legal term for a taxicab in England).
479 Palsy: paralysis.
480 Colic: spasmodic pain caused through dissention or affliction of the colon (lower intestine) or bowels.
481 Surfeits: nausea through overindulgence.
482 The falling sickness: epilepsy.
483 Kings Evil: cervical tuberculosis or scrofula, a disease which causes swelling of the lymph glands, especially
around the neck area. It mainly affects children who drink unpasteurized milk from infected cows. The
traditional name reflects medieval belief that the touch of the ruling sovereign, as Gods Divine
representative on Earth, can effect the cure of this disease (the first English monarch to engage in
ceremonies to cure scrofula victims was Edward the Confessor (1003/4-1066), the last was Queen Anne,
final monarch of the House of Stuarts, who died in 1714).
484 Apostumes: derivation of impostumes, meaning abscesses (L: abscessus / Gk: apostema to separate off).

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* Herbs, plants and trees: Those herbs which are subject to the Moon have soft and thick juicy
leaves, of a waterish or a little sweetish taste; they love to grow in watery places, and grow
quickly into a juicy magnitude; and are: the colwort,485 cabbage, melon, gourd, pompion,486
onion,487 mandrake,488 poppy,489 lettuce,490 rape,491 the linden tree,492 mushrooms, endive, all
trees or herbs who have round, shady, great spreading leaves, and are little fruitful.
* Beasts or birds: All such beasts, or the like, as live in the water; [such] as frogs, the otter, snails,
&c the weasel, the cunny,493 all sea fowl, cuckoo, geese and duck, the night owl.
* Fishes: The oyster and cockle, all shell-fish, the crab and lobster, tortoise, eels.
* Places: Fields, fountains, baths, havens of the sea, highways and desert-places, port towns,
rivers, fishponds, standing pools, boggy places, common shores, little brooks, springs,
harbours for ships or docks.
* Minerals: Silver.
* Stones: The selenite,494 all soft stones, crystals.
* Weather: With L cold air; with K serene; with F winds [and] red clouds; with the 0 according
to the season; with C and B showers and winds.
* Winds: In Hermetical operation, she delights towards the north, and usually when she is the
strongest planet in the scheme, viz. in any lunation, she stirs up wind according to the
nature of the planet she next applies to.
p.83 * Orb: Is 12 degrees before and after any aspect.
* Years: Her greatest years are 320, greater 108, mean 66, least 25. In conceptions she rules the
seventh month.
* Countries: Holland, Zealand,495 Denmark, Nuremberg,496 Flanders.497
* Angel: Gabriel.498
* Day of the week: Her day is Monday; the first hour and the eighth after the rise of the Sun are
hers. Her enemy is L, and also F.
A.k.a kale: a coarse curly-leaved cabbage. Culpeper (CH) agrees to the lunar rulership and lists cabbages
and colworts together as a diet remedy for gout and numerous bodily ailments, warning that cabbages are as
windy a food as can be eaten, and so recommending colwort as being the more tolerable of the two.
486 Pompions: pumpkins, squash and gourds. Culpeper (CH) says that the pompkin has little use in physic, but
says of its virtue it is a moist plant under the dominion of the Moon. The seed is cooling, and of the nature
of the melon and other cold seeds, and may serve very well to make emulsions.
487 Also listed under Mars (CA p.68), to which Culpeper (CH) agrees.
488 Also listed under Saturn (CA p.59; see n.129, p.56).
489 Culpeper (CH) agrees that the poppy, and the juice of it, opium is lunar in virtue and to be used to
procure sleep and rest and to cool and temper inflammation.
490 Culpeper (CH) recommends it to cool and moisten what heat and dryness Mars causeth, because Mars
has his fall in Cancer. It is recommend to promote sleep and cure headaches, to aid digestion and soothe
491 Yellow-flowering member of the mustard family, grown for the commercial production of the oil pressed
from its seeds. The root is emollient and diuretic, and traditionally used in the treatment of chronic coughs
and bronchial catarrh. The oil combined with camphor is traditionally used as a remedy for rheumatism.
492 Usually known as the Lime Tree in Britain. Its extracts have been used in traditional herbal medicine as a
digestive tonic, a remedy against anxiety and insomnia, a diuretic and diaphoretic (promotes sweating),
expectorant, skin tonic, and to relieve high blood pressure (from its reported ability to relax muscle and allow
the widening of blood vessels).
493 Variant spelling of coney (pronounced cunny) for rabbit (see n.74, p.52); hares are listed under Saturn (CA p60).
494 Modern selenite is a crystalline form of gypsum, but the Latin word translates as moonstone, the name
given to a pale, semi-transparent gemstone which is admired for its adularescence (soft play of light) and
known to have been associated with lunar rays and lunar gods/goddesses since ancient times.
495 Netherlands.
496 Germany.
497 Belgium, Netherlands, and France; also listed under Mercury (CA p.80).
498 Gabriel: Strength of God. In biblical passages Gabriel acts as the messenger of God (see n.158, p.60).

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* The head of the dragon [P] is masculine, of the nature of Jupiter and Venus, and of himself a fortune;
yet the ancients do say, that being in conjunction with the good he is good, and in conjunction
with the evil planets they account him evil.499
* The tail [Q] is feminine by nature, and clean contrary to the head; for he is evil when joined with
good planets, and good when in conjunction with the malignant planets. This is the constant
opinion of all the ancients, but upon what reason grounded I know not. I ever found the P
equivalent to either of the fortunes, and when joined with the evil planets to lessen their
malevolent signification; when joined with the good to increase the good promised by them. For
the Tail of the Dragon, I always in my practise found when he was joined with the evil planets;
their malice or the evil intended thereby was doubled and trebled, or extremely augmented, &c.,
and when he chanced to be in conjunction with any of the fortunes who were significators in the
question, though the matter by the principal significator was fairly promised, and likely to be
perfected in a small time; yet did there ever fall out many rubs and disturbances, much wrangling
and great controversies that the business was many times given over for desperate ere a perfect
conclusion could be had; and unless the principal significators were angular and well fortified
with essential dignities, many times unexpectedly the whole matter came to nothing.500


Chapter 15
Another brief description of the shapes and forms of the planets

L Signifies one of a swart501 colour, palish like lead, or of a black earthly brown; one of rough skin,
thick and very hairy on the body, not great eyes, many times his complexion is betwixt black and
yellow, or as if he had a spice of the black or yellow jaundice. He is lean, crooked, or beetlebrowed,502 a thin whay503 beard, great lips, like the black Moors;504 he looks to the ground, is slow
in motion, either is bowlegged, or hits one leg or knee against another; most part a stinking
breath, seldom free from a cough.

499 Lilly is referring to comments such as can be found in the texts of Albumasar (Abbreviation, 4.19) and AlQabs (below, Introduction II.239; Burnett translation):
The Head of the Dragon is a benefic. Its nature is composed of the nature of Jupiter and Venus. It
indicates rulership, good fortune, and property. Some said its nature is increase. If it is with the
benefics it increases their good fortune; if it is with the malefics, it increases their bad fortune The
Tail of the Dragon is a malefic. Its nature is composed from the nature of Saturn and Mars. It
indicates lowness, falling and poverty. Some said that its nature is decrease. If it is with the benefics it
decreases their bad fortune. Thus it is said that the Head is a benefic with the benefics and a malefic
with the malefics; the Tail is a malefic with the benefics and a benefic with the malefics.
500 Al Biruni also mentions that the principle of the North Node augmenting planetary effect and the South
Node offering a benefic effect by diminishing the influence of the malefics was subject to controversy, saying
(Elements 383; Ramsey-Wright translation): It is related that the Babylonians held that the ascending node
increases the effect of both beneficient and malificient planets, but it is not everyone who will accept these
statements, for the analogy seems to be rather far-fetched.
501 Variant spelling of swarthy - dark complexioned.
502 Beetle-browed: the 17th century use of the term is given in Randle Cotgraves Dictionarie of the French and
English Tongues, 1611; online at www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cotgrave (06/11/10): Beetle-browed - Sourcilleux,
having very great eye brows, frowning, or looking sorely; surly or proud of countenance.
503 Variation of whey meaning pale (as in wheyfaced meaning a person with a pale, bloodless face).
504 The term Moors originally referred to European immigrants from northwest Africa (from the mediaeval
Latin Morus or the late Greek Maurus: black or inhabitant of Mauritania). By the 17th century the term was
used more loosely to refer to any dark-skinned nationality, especially Muslims (Persians, Arabs, etc.) and

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* This is where he is peregrine or unfortunate: He is crafty for his own ends, seducing people to his opinion,
full of revenge and malice, little caring for the church or religion; its a foul nasty, slovenly
knave,505 or a whore; a great eater, or one of a large stomach, a brawling fellow, big great
shoulders, covetous, and yet seldom rich, etc.
K We must describe Jupiter, and a Jovialist, to be one of a comely stature,506 full faced, full eyed, a
sanguine complexion,507 or mixed with white and red, a large space betwixt his eyebrows, usually
his beard is of a flaxen508 or sandy-flaxen colour; sometimes also when Jupiter is combust very
sad509 or black. His hair thick, his eyes not black,510 his teeth well set, good broad teeth, but
usually some mark of difference in the two foreteeth, either by their standing awry, or some
blackness or imperfection in them. His hair gently curls (if he be in a fiery sign). A man well
spoken, religious, or at least a good moral honest man; a person comely and somewhat fat (if
Jupiter be in moist signs) fleshy; if in airy signs, big and strong; if in earthly signs, a man usually
well descended; but if he be significator of an ordinary clown, as sometimes he may be, then is
he of more humanity than usually in such kind of men.
F A martial man is many times full-faced with a lively high colour, like sun-burnt, or like raw
tanned leather, a fierce
p.85 countenance, his eyes being sparkling or sharp and darting, and of yellow colour; his hair both
of head and beard being reddish (but herein you must vary according to the sign, in fiery signs
and airy, where F falls to be with fixed stars of his own nature, there he shows a deep sandy red
colour, but in watery signs, being with fixed stars of his own nature, he is of a flaxenish or
whitish bright hair; if in earthly signs, the hair is like a sad brown, or of a sad chestnut colour).
He has a mark or scar in his face, is broad-shouldered, a sturdy strong body, being bold and
proud, given to mock, scorn, quarrel, drink, game, and wench: which you may easily know by the
sign he is in; if in the house of Venus he wenches, if in B he steals, but if he be in his own house
he quarrels, in Ls [house he] is dogged;511 in the 0s [he] is lordly; in the 5s, [he] is a drunkard.
0 The Sun does generally denote one of an obscure white colour mixed with red; a round face, and
short chin, a fair stature, and one of a comely body; his colour sometimes betwixt yellow and
black, but for the most part more sanguine than otherways: a bold man and resolute, his hair
curling; he has a white and tender skin, one desirous of praise, fame and estimation amongst
men; he has a clear voice and great head, his teeth somewhat distorted or obliquely set; of slow
speech but of a composed judgement; using outwardly a great decorum in his actions, but
privately he is lascivious512 and inclinable to many vices.

Knave: generally a young man or male servant (from Old English cnafa boy) but often used as a synonym
for an unprincipled rascal or roguish dishonest person.
506 Comely: pleasing, attractive, personable and easily liked (from Old English cymlc, lovely).
507 The term sanguine is used descriptively to either mean well-mixed and in no way extreme, or (as here) to
suggest an active flow of blood that adds a flush of red to the complexion, which is often seen to signify
good health and strong vitality (see n.48, p.47).
508 Flaxen: blond or showing yellow in the hair (and so inclining towards the colour of flax in bloom).
509 For sad see n.103, p.55.
510 The word black is sometimes used traditionally to mean dark and lacking colour, suggesting shades of
darkness rather than the specific colour black (hence Lilly describes the colour of the 6th house as black
and the colour of the 7th house as dark black; CA p.54). The comment here probably means that the eyes
are not especially dark in colour, which may tie with Al-Qabss report (Introduction II.58) that Mashaallah
describes the appearance of someone signified by Jupiter as having a blue-grey colour in one of his eyes.
511 Dogged: tenacious, unrelinquishing and persistent in effort; these being dog-like characteristics.
512 Lascivious: very lustful with strong sexual interest (from Latin lasciviosus, lewd, uncontrolled, playful).

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C Who is signified by Venus, whether man or woman, has a goodly and fair round visage, a full
eye, usually we say goggle-eyed, red ruddy lips, the nether513 more thick or bigger than the upper,
the eye-lids black, however lovely and graceful; the hair of lovely colour (but most part according
to the sign as before repeated) in some its coal-black, in others a light brown; a soft smooth hair,
and the body extremely well shaped, ever rather inclining to shortness than tallness.
B We describe B to be a man neither white or black
p.86 but betwixt both, of a sad brown or dark yellowish colour, long visaged, high-forehead, black
or grey eyes, a thin-long sharp nose, a thin spare beard (many times none at all) of an auburn sad
colour next to black, slender of body, small legs, a prattling busy fellow, and in walking he goes
nimbly, and always would be thought to be full of action.
5 She by reason of her swiftness varies her shape very often, but in the general she personates one
having a round visage and full faced, in whose complexion you may perceive a mixture of white
and red, but paleness overcomes; if she be in fiery signs, the man or woman speaks hastily; in
watery signs, he or she has some freckles in his or her face, or is blub cheeked; not a very
handsome body, but a muddling creature; and unless very well dignified, she ever signifies an
ordinary vulgar person.
The colours of the planets and signs
L Gives black colour: Jupiter a colour mixed with red and green: F red, or iron colour: 0
yellow or yellow purple: C white or purple colour: B sky-colour or bluish: 5 a colour spotted
with white and other mixed colours.
a White mixed with red: b white with citrine:514 c white mixed with red: d green or russet:
e red or green: f black speckled with blue: g black or dark crimson, or tawny colour: h
brown: i yellow or a green sanguine: j black or russet, or a swart brown: k a sky-colour with
blue: l white glittering colour.515

Nether: the one beneath (so the nether lip is the lower lip).
Citrine: the amber-like colour of the stone citrine, ranging from greeny-yellow to dark golden brown.
515 The following table gives Lillys association between houses and colours (see also CA p.50-56 and table in
n.62, p.50):

Pale, white
Red and yellow,
Black and white, Black colour
or wan
or croceal
or honey-colour
A dark black colour Green and black Green and white Red and white Saffron or yellow
Lillys colour associations should not be taken too literally since 17th century conventions for describing
colours differed from ours. The reference to honey-colour for the 5th house, for example, may indicate
golden, whilst the reference to black and white may indicate both pale and dark shades, or a mixture
between the two which describes the hue as neither very dark or very light. As seen in the preceding
footnote (514) concerning citrine, colours were described by reference to commonly known objects,
gems or plants, and each of these had a range of shades attached to them.
David McCann gives an excellent exploration of the use of colour in traditional astrological signification
in his article Astrology of Colour (TA Magazine 18, Mar. 1999, p.30-33; online:
www.skyscript.co.uk/colour.html; (06/05/11)). In this he compares Lillys colour associations with those
given in the Picatrix and the astrological texts of Al Biruni, Ibn Ezra and Sepharial. He points out that
many ancient languages do not distinguish clearly between blue and green, so that light blue might be
referred to as green, dark blue as black; and violet as blue (as in the rhyme roses are red, violets are
blue). One of the significant points McCann makes is to point out that the basic contrast is between
warm and cool colours. The warm are yellow, red, magenta, and brown; the cool are violet, blue, green,
and grey. Warm colours are stimulating, cool ones calming.
An Annotated Lilly (iv) D. Houlding; all rights reserved, 2011. This serialised document is made available for free personal study use. No
part may be reproduced or redistributed in any form. The only authorised download is available at www.skyscript.co.uk/pdf/CA.html.