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of trees in Mediterranean olive groves

B. Velazquez-Mart a,*, E. Fernandez-Gonzalez a, I. Lopez-Cortes b,

D.M. Salazar-Hernandez b

a

b

Departamento de Ingeniera Rural y Agroalimentaria, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia, Spain

Departamento de Produccion Vegetal, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia, Spain

article info

abstract

Article history:

This research quantified the available residual biomass obtained from pruning olive trees.

The additional biomass quantified could be used as a source of energy or as raw material for

the wood industry and would provide additional income for fruit producers and also a more

18 April 2011

sustainable system. Several factors were analyzed: Variety, aim of the pruning, age of the

plants, size of the plantation, crop yield and irrigation. Regression models were also calcu-

lated to predict the weight of dry biomass obtained per tree and tonnes of dry biomass

obtained per hectare according to the significant factors. These equations could implement

Keywords:

logistic planning as the Borvemar model, which defines a logistics network for supplying bio-

Borvemar model

energy systems. Olive tree varieties were classified into two groups for annual pruning: high

Biomass supply

residual biomass productivity (average yield 10.5 kg dry biomass tree1) and low productivity

Biomass logistics

(average yield 3.5 kg dry biomass tree1). Some varieties are in transition between the two

Biomass assessment

groups. There are no differences in biennial pruning, reaching an average residual biomass of

Ligneous biomass

33 kg tree1. This means that in Mediterranean areas the residual biomass from olive pruning

Energy wood

reaches an average 1.31 t ha1 in annual pruning and 3.02 t ha1 in biennial pruning.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1.

Introduction

pruning operations carried out in Mediterranean fruit plantations [1]. These residues can be used as a source of energy

and also has other industrial uses [2]. In order to be used as an

energy source it has to be transformed by diverse physical or

chemical processes into solid, liquid or gaseous biofuels [3]. At

present these residues are usually destroyed by in-field

burning or crushing onto the soil, so there is no direct

economic benefit [4] but collecting this additional biomass to

use as a source of energy or raw material for the wood

industry could provide additional economic benefits to fruit

producers and also amortization of management operations

biomass produced in fruit plantations has not been used to

produce bio-energy because of unsolved technical problems

in harvesting or lack of information on the quantity and

quality of the residues. Sometimes the most expensive costs

of the chain biomass utilization are located in the harvesting

and logistics operations. Knowing the amount of residual

biomass available in each type of orchard allows planning

logistics operations and achieving a cheaper supply chain.

Many logistic models have been developed to determine the

best alternative for supplying bio-energy systems, including

the Bioloco Model (Biomass Logistics Computer Optimization)

[5,6] and Borvemar Moldel [7]. By means of purpose-built

computer models, either one specific objective can be

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: borvemar@dmta.upv.es (B. Velazquez-Mart).

0961-9534/$ e see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.04.042

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

objectives can be combined by applying goal programming:

maximize profits, minimize costs, minimize greenhouse gas

emissions, maximize energy returns, minimize energy use,

and maximize energy profit [8]. These parameters are cost data

(e.g. transport costs per km, pre-treatment costs and energy

conversion costs) along with capacity constraints or parameters such as storage losses or seasonal variations in supply or

demand. To be able to combine GIS spatial studies with linear

programming models it is necessary to build a network from

a digital map [8]. The Borvemar model is a mathematical

calculation method to select the actual points on the map at

which biomass can be collected and which can subsequently

be considered as biomass sources in a network model [7]. The

algorithm provides the location of points where biomass can

be concentrated with a minimum amount of available biomass

and a limited area. Therefore the amount of biomass in every

plot in an area must be studied to apply the method. These

biomass source points should be connected with the other

possible consumption points (e.g. power plants). Using these

concepts, a network structure can be built. Optimization of the

selection of the source points to supply the power plants can

therefore be solved by linear programming of the structured

network from a digital map.

The input data for the construction of digital maps with

spatial distribution of available biomass requires quantification studies for all crops. Time and cost of technology for

collecting the biomass are also necessary for planning the

logistics. The analysis of the supply chain of biomass can be as

shown in Fig. 1 [9].

The available residual biomass obtained from pruning

operations in olive trees in Phase 1 was quantified in this

work. The collecting systems for these materials had already

been presented by Velazquez and Fernandez (2009) [10]. The

additional biomass quantified could be used as a source of

energy or as raw material for the wood industry, providing

additional income for fruit producers and also a more environmentally sustainable system [11].

2.

different crops depends on the agricultural system used. This

3209

from normal pruning of olive trees. The area studied was on

the Spanish Mediterranean coast and included the provinces

of Catalonia, Valencia, Murcia, Albacete and southwest

Andalucia. The procedure of each trial consisted of the

selection of significant number of plots with different

combinations of factors that can influence the residues

generated: variety, type of formation, conditions of irrigation,

age and size of the plant. Table 1 shows the factors studied

and their different levels.

Depending on the technical criteria, olive trees can be

pruned annually or biennially. The biennial pruning, that is

carried out every two years, nevertheless it is less recommendable by the several researchers than annual pruning, is

still practiced by a lot of producers for decreasing the

economic investment [12]. Therefore, annual and biennial

pruning were treated separately in the analysis. Between 8

and 10 trees were selected for analysis from each of 238 plots.

Some plots had several varieties. The number of trees to

sample in each plot depended on plot sizes and the number of

varieties cultivated.

Previous to pruning, the following data were determined:

- Plantation Data: Variety, rootstock, age of the plantation,

fruit yield, irrigation or no irrigation, year of the last pruning

and aim of the pruning

- Tree Data: Trunk diameter, diameter of crown, distance

from soil to crown, and height of the tree.

After pruning, bundles of the residual materials were

weighed by means of a dynamometer. Mass measurement in

the field was carried out with moist materials for each

sampled tree. Five branches of each tree were manually

defoliated and weighed to determine the percentage mass of

leaves and wood. Samples of wood were then put into plastic

containers to measure moisture content and to calculate dry

ligneous biomass of all pruned materials. The moisture

content wet basis was measured for each sampled orchard.

From this value the dry matter was calculated for each tree.

From the distance between the trees (space of plantation) and

the average biomass obtained for each variety in each

orchard, the amount of dry biomass per hectare was estimated. The evolution of the drying process was studied under

two types of conditions: open-air drying at an average

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b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

quantification of pruned biomass in olive trees.

Factor

Number

of levels

Levels

Variety

12

Royal, Blanqueta, Villalonga,

Marons, Farga, Serrana, Franotio,

Grossal, Arbequina and Regnes.

< 66 m2

66 < x < 102 m2

> 102 m2

< 5 t ha1

5 < x < 10 t ha1

> 10 t ha1

< 10 years

10 < x < 40 years

> 40 years

Shaping

Production

Annual

Biennial

Rejuvenation

No irrigation

Irrigated

Fruit yield

Age

Aim of pruning

Pruning intensity

Irrigation

temperature of 17 C and relative humidity of 35%; and stovedried at 105 C. Daily measurements of both types were

carried out until the weight of the samples was stabilized.

different plots. Table 2 gives the average results obtained in

the quantification of the residual biomass for different varieties in annual and biennial pruning. It can be noted that leaves

formed 48% of the weight of all material pruned before drying.

The average values obtained for dry matter and matter after

cutting are shown in the Table 2. The average moisture

content of materials after cutting is 40.79% as wet basis. The

averages and dispersions obtained on comparing all the trees

analyzed are shown in Table 3. These results can be compared

with those of other studies carried out on olive trees. Romero

et al. (2007) [13] obtained average values for residually damp

wood of around 3 t ha1 generated in annual pruning (low

intensity pruning); and 6 t ha1 in high intensity or biennial

pruning. The results obtained in our trials were smaller, but

nevertheless were in harmony with the data obtained by Di

Blasi in 1997 [14], who quantified 2.2 t per hectare of damp

residues olive trees. In 2007 Spinelli et al. [15] also obtained

2 t ha1. These authors did not analyze the influence of the

variety or the other factors in the production of residual

biomass from olive trees.

The moisture content evolution under two types of

conditions studied, are shown in the Fig. 2. It can be seen that

the minimum moisture content achieved in open air is 20%

after 25 days. Nevertheless, the material are completely dried

in 5 day in oven conditions.

3.1.

3.

obtained from annual and biennial pruning of olive trees are

presented. The frequency of pruning has a strong influence on

the quantity of biomass produced, and therefore on the

quantity of pruning material. The results obtained are

analysis of variance. The results obtained from the ANOVA

and the groups of homogeneous varieties of the residual

biomass obtained from the pruning are shown in Table 4. The

varieties that did not have significant differences are identified with an X in the same position. In Table 4 the varieties are

ordered from smaller to greater quantities of residues

Variety

Annual

Pruning

Biennial

Pruning

Arbequina

Blanqueta

Cornicabra

Frantoio

Grossal

Manzanilla

Picual

Royal

Serrana

Villalonga

Cornicabra

Farga

Manzanilla

Marons

Morrat

Regnes

Royal

Number

sampled

trees

127

128

126

124

125

127

132

123

128

129

125

126

131

125

123

120

123

kg biomass with

leaves tree1

kg biomass without

leaves tree1

20.651

28.765

16.254

8.006

4.399

37.800

39.091

9.850

33.645

15.218

52.000

131.41

79.700

172.22

111.283

78.173

43.100

10.876

14.771

8.403

4.239

2.174

19.443

20.309

5.192

17.294

7.167

26.384

67.439

41.205

89.138

57.433

40.315

22.183

6.271

8.735

4.936

2.431

1.336

11.479

11.871

2.991

10.218

4.621

15.792

39.907

24.204

52.301

33.795

23.740

13.089

1.003

1.549

0.589

0.724

0.371

2.050

1.317

0.437

2.838

1.540

1.381

2.985

3.530

4.590

2.948

1.727

1.309

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b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

Type of

pruning

Average weight of

damp wood t ha1

t ha1

Stn. Dev.

dry weight per ha

Annual

Biennial

2.312

4.520

1.504

2.646

1.305

3.025

0.883

1.555

such as Arbequina and Royal produced results that overlapped both groups.

In the biennial group, there were no significant differences

between the varieties with respect to the residues obtained.

The fact that significant differences in residual biomass

appeared between the varieties in the annual pruning but not

in the biennial pruning means that if all varieties have sufficient time to develop they will reach similar size.

Fig. 2 e Moisture content evolution under two types of

conditions studied.

can be classified in two groups:

a) The first group of the highest residues, which includes: the

Blanqueta, Serrana, Manzanilla, and Picual varieties.

b) The second group of the lowest residues: containing the

Grosal, Frantoio, Villalonga and Conicabra varieties.

3.2.

The most common olive tree growing spaces are 88 m2,

1010 m2 and 1212 m2 and these were the three sizes

studied. The categories chosen were: Lower than 66 m2(num.

trees 710, num. plots 79), between 66 and 102 m2 (num. trees

714, num. plots 79), and greater than 102 m2 (num. trees 718,

num. plots 80). In Fig. 3, the result obtained in the ANOVA LSD

intervals are depicted. When the residual biomass obtained in

annual pruning was evaluated, significant differences did not

exist for the sizes studied; nevertheless, in biennial pruning

we found that growing spaces greater than 103 m2 produced

Fig. 3 e LSD intervals at 95% level of confidence in the influence of plantation size in residual biomass generated by pruning

of olive trees.

3212

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

Table 4 e Contrast multiple of the residual biomass yielded by each variety in annual and biennial pruning.

Annual

Pruning

Biennial

Pruning

Variety

kg tree1

Sigma LSD

Grossal

Frantoio

Villalonga

Cornicabra

Arbequina

Blanqueta

Royal

Serrana

Manzanilla

Picual

1.335

2.431

4.621

5.281

6.271

8.735

9.049

10.217

11.479

11.851

1.310

1.310

1.310

1.400

1.657

0.926

1.657

1.310

2.139

11.657

X

X

X

Cornicabra

Regues

Manzanilla

Morruda

Farga

Morons

16.000

23.739

24.203

33.795

39.907

52.300

16.498

8.249

11.665

9.525

7.380

8.249

X

X

X

X

X

those under 66 m2. On the other hand, there were no significant differences when they were compared with the intermediate size (between 67 and 102 m2). In spite of the fact that

groves with smaller growing areas had a greater number of

plants per hectare, the biomass obtained in these was not

significantly larger, because the development of each tree is

influenced by the separation with its neighbours. Among

closely separated trees there is increased competition for

water, nutrients and light. This makes for slower tree growth

and consequently lower production of residual biomass.

Larger separation provides bigger crowns and therefore

greater residual biomass per tree. In this respect, the olive tree

is different to other species of fruit trees, for which a greater

number of plants per hectare leads to greater residual

biomass.

3.3.

selected to verify whether significant differences exist in the

production of residual biomass. The levels analyzed were:

Trees younger than 10 years old (num. trees 719, num. plots 80),

trees between 10 and 40 years old (num. trees 711, num. plots 79),

and trees older than 40 years (num. trees 712, num. plots 79). The

LSD intervals obtained from the ANOVA analysis are shown in

Fig. 4. The trees younger than 10 years old have been missed in

the biennial pruning because they always are pruned every

year.As can be observed, significant differences exist among

the age levels studied. When the quantity of biomass obtained

from each tree is compared according to the age levels chosen,

it can be seen that the trees which generated the greatest

quantity of residual biomass were those older than 40 years,

both in annual and biennial pruning. Nevertheless, the

quantity of biomass from these trees showed no statistical

differences with respect to trees between 10 and 40 years old.

When the production of biomass per hectare is analyzed

for annual pruning, trees older than 40 years produce the

greatest amount of dry biomass per hectare (2.3 t ha1),

Homogeneous Groups

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

years (1.4 t ha1 and 0.8 t ha1). This occurred because the

older trees in this group were planted closer together, so that

when the production of residual biomass is calculated per

hectare, a higher amount is obtained, even though the

biomass generated per tree is lower. Furthermore, in the

biennial pruning, there was no difference in the tons of dry

matter produced per hectare. In this case, a longer growth

time means that the residual biomass generated is not influenced by the different separation among the older trees.

3.4.

Aim of pruning

regular pruning, and rejuvenation. The following analysis

compares the amount of residual biomass produced in annual

old (num. trees 379, num. plots 42) and biennial regular

pruning old (num. trees 890, num. plots 99) with rejuvenation

pruning old (num. trees 873, num. plots 97). The results show

that rejuvenation pruning generates the largest amount of

biomass (42 kg tree1, 3.52 t ha1). After rejuvenation pruning,

biennial pruning (33 kg tree1, 3.02 t ha1) produces more

biomass than annual regular pruning (6.23 kg tree-1,

1.31 t ha1). This occurs because rejuvenation pruning

removes all the old branches at the top of the tree. Only the

primary branches are not cut, so that the trimmed branches in

rejuvenation pruning are usually thicker and heavier than in

other types of pruning. The results obtained were as expected

(Fig. 5).

3.5.

Fruit production

than 10 t ha1 had the greatest amount of residual biomass in

annual pruning. Fruit production is highly related to the

quantity of branches that produce fruit, and therefore produce

a greater quantity of biomass to be eliminated in pruning,

which is carried out after harvesting, especially when the tree

has had a high fruit yield, in order to prevent the tree from

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

3213

Fig. 4 e LSD intervals for the "age" factor in the amount of residual biomass from olive tree pruning at 95% level of

confidence.

significant differences did not exist among plantations at

different levels of production. This is due to the fact that

during the long growth period many branches have to be

removed to ensure a good crop for the following year. Therefore, a two-year growth period decreases the influence of the

fruit production factor. The results obtained in the ANOVA

are shown in Fig. 6.

3.6.

Absence/presence of irrigation

cultivated in non-irrigated land (num. trees 968, num. plots

irrigation (num. trees 1174, num. plots 130). The latter

produced a greater amount of biomass in the residues

generated by annual pruning, where significant differences

exist among the different levels, in the absence and presence

of this factor. Fig. 7 shows a graph of the LSD intervals. Unlike

annual pruning, biennial pruning did not record significant

differences in the amount of residual biomass produced. This

is caused by the longer period between pruning and the

similar vegetative development of the trees with and without

irrigation, which generated similar quantities of biomass. In

this case, there were no significant differences when biomass

was quantified per tree or per hectare.

Fig. 5 e LSD intervals for the "aim of pruning" factor in the amount of residual biomass in olive tree pruning at 95% level of

confidence.

Fig. 6 e LSD intervals for the "fruit production" factor in the amount of residual biomass from olive tree pruning at 95% level

of confidence.

Fig. 7 e LSD intervals for the "irrigation" factor in the amount of residual biomass in olive tree pruning at 95% level of

confidence.

3215

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

Table 5 e Equations to predict the biomass obtained per tree from the pruning of olive trees.

Biennial pruning

BOTkg=tree 6:720 3:544,r 0:073,e 0:0283dc 2:608,h

BOTkg=tree 2:033 0:109,m 0:065,m,r 0:003,m,e 1:477,r,h 0:089,e,h

Annual pruning

BOTkg=tree 5:855 3:429,r 0:046,e 0:431,p 1:478,dc 0:024,hc 1:390,h

BOTkg=tree 1:036 0:2064,p2 0:535,p,dc 1:431,dc,h 0:769,h2

Linear model

Quadratic model

Linear model

Quadratic model

3.7.

Regression models for the prediction of the residual

biomass produced

Several regression models were developed to predict the dry

biomass obtained per olive tree in pruning operations (BOT )

from other variables that influence the available amount,

explicative or independent variables. A regression model was

also calculated that relates the residual biomass obtained per

hectare (BOH ) with these variables. Initial testing, for

simplicity, was by a linear model. Subsequently, to improve

the coefficient of determination (r2) non-linear relations

formed by the squares or products of the independent variables were analyzed. The results obtained are shown in Tables

5 and 6. The characteristic parameters of the regression

models calculated are indicated in Table 7. In the following

list, only the statistically significant variables in the present

analysis are named.

Qualitative variable:

- Non-irrigated land/Irrigation (r). Indicates presence or

absence of irrigation. To include this variable in the model, we

employed a dummy variable, which takes the value 0 when

the trees are cultivated in non-irrigated land and 1 when the

trees are cultivated with irrigation.

Quantitative variable:

- Height of tree (h). Indicates the height of the tree in meters.

- Age (e). Indicates the age of the tree in years.

diameters perpendicularly measured in m.

- Size of plantation (m). Represents the area occupied by each

tree in the plot in m2.

- Fruit production (p). The quantity of fruit in tons obtained

per hectare.

- Number of stems (n). Indicates the number of stems

emerging from the tree roots.

Since the p-value in the ANOVA tables is smaller than 0.01,

there is a statistically significant relationship among the variables of the models, with a 99% level of confidence. The r2 of the

linear models is situated around 0.65 in biannual and annual

pruning, whether the residual biomass is quantified in kg dry

matter tree1 or in t ha1. This indicates that the linear models

explain approximately 65% of the changeability in the quantity

of dry biomass obtained. Average absolute errors are 0.604 kg

tree1 and 0.101 t ha1 in annual pruning, and 2.091 kg tree1

and 0.370 t ha1 in biannual pruning. These values represent

the average error for the prediction obtained by using the linear

equations calculated, BOT and BOH, respectively. The standard

deviation indicates the prediction error dispersion. Introducing the quadratic components in the regression models can

be seen to substantially improve the coefficient of determination, which reaches 0.71 and 0.73 in annual pruning, and 0.66

and 0.73 in biennial pruning, and average absolute errors and

dispersion decrease, these being 0.083 kg tree1 in annual

pruning 0.183 t ha1 in biennial pruning.

Table 6 e Equations to predict the biomass obtained per hectare from the pruning of olive trees.

Biennial pruning

Linear model

Quadratic model

Linear model

Quadratic model

BOHt=ha 0:841 0:087,e 0:636,h 0:0011,m,e 0:0036,m,h 0:1178, r,h 0:0003,e,dc 0; 013,e,h 0:0032,dc,h

Annual pruning

BOHt=ha 0:438 0:526,r 0:011,e 0:1123,dc 0:0079,hc

BOHt=ha 0:184 0:0051,r,e 0:098,e 0:135,dc 0:093,hc

Table 7 e Characterization of models to predict the biomass obtained from the pruning of the olive trees.

Annual pruning

2

BOT

(kg tree1)

BOH

(t ha1)

Linear model

Quadratic model

Linear model

Quadratic model

Biennial pruning

2

Average

absolute error

Standard dev.

Error

p-value

68

71

65

73

0.604

0.307

0.101

0.083

0.561

0.292

0.090

0.070

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

61

66

63

73

Average

absolute error

Standard dev.

error

p-value

2.091

1.904

0.370

0.183

0.656

0.498

0.118

0.033

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

<0.01

3216

4.

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

Conclusions

varieties of olive trees was quantified and the influence of the

different factors involved was analyzed. The regression equations for the prediction of the biomass produced, based on the

influence of these factors, were also obtained. These estimations will permit surveys to be carried out of the available

biomass in a given zone from the cadastral register divided into

plots and the agronomic characteristic of the different olive

groves. From these basic data, it will thus be possible to apply

logistic models such as the Borvemar model, developed by

Velazquez and Annevelink (2009) [7]. This model provides the

location of actual points in the area where biomass can be

concentrated with a minimum amount of available biomass

and a limited area. These biomass source points should be

interconnected with other points containing consumption

facilities (power plants). A network structure was built using

these concepts. Optimization of the selection of the supply

source points for power plants can be solved by linear

programming in the structured network from a digital map GIS,

so that the data analyzed in the present investigation are basic

for its implementation. Another possibility is the Bioloco

model (Biomass Logistics Computer Optimization) developed

by Annevelink and de Mol, (2007) [5], and Diekema, et al, (2005)

[6]. This algorithm analyzes a logistic network formed by origin

nodes (sources of biomass) and destination nodes (biomass

transformation plants), connected by arcs that represent prices or distances. This model calculates the optimum source

nodes and the destination node supply routes for any given

time of the year. The Bioloco model uses the Borvemar model to

construct the network. The Borvemar model needs basic data,

such as the production of the different types of orchards.

The results show that for the purpose of annual pruning,

olive tree varieties can be classified into two groups according

to the residual biomass generated:

a) High production of residual biomass (average yield 10.5 kg

dry biomass tree1) that includes varieties such as: Blanqueta, Mountain, Chamomile and Picual

b) Low production (average yield 3.5 kg dry biomass tree1):

Grosal, Frantoio, Villalonga and Conicabra

There are also varieties such as Arbequina and Royal, which

can be considered as transition varieties and show an intermediate production of pruning residues, although these differences

do not exist in biennial pruning, reaching an average residual

biomass 33 kg tree1. This means that in Mediterranean areas

the residual biomass from olive pruning reaches an average

1.31 t ha1 in annual and 3.02 t ha1 in biennial pruning.

From the statistical analysis it can be concluded that for

the amount of residual biomass generated per tree in pruning

operations there are no significant differences in trees older

than 10 years. Nevertheless, analysis of the production of

biomass per hectare shows that in annual pruning the

orchards over 40 years old produce the biggest amount of

residual biomass per hectare (2.1 t ha1), presenting significant differences with trees less than 40 years old, which

produce 1.4 t ha1 between 10 and 40 years and 0.8 t ha1 if the

trees are younger than 10 years old. This is due to the fact that

in the oldest olive groves the trees had a smaller growing

space and therefore produced more biomass per hectare,

although the residues generated per tree were smaller. On the

other hand, in biennial pruning, the biomass obtained per

hectare does not differ according to the age or irrigation. This

means that the production of residual biomass is similar for

all trees if they have enough time for development (two years).

For biennial pruning the space allocated to each tree is

significant in the amount of residual biomass obtained per tree,

the greatest quantities of biomass being obtained from trees

with the largest space for growth. Although groves with

smaller allocated growing space have a greater number of

plants per hectare, since the development of each tree is highly

influenced by the proximity to its neighbours, the biomass

obtained in this area does not increase significantly in olive

trees. Little separation among trees increases competition for

water, nutrients and light and therefore slow growth with low

production of residual biomass. On the other hand, wider

separation provides larger crown diameters and therefore

greater residual biomass per tree. In this respect the olive tree is

different to other species of fruit trees, in which a greater

number of plants per hectare leads to greater residual biomass,

although high fruit production also increases biomass in olive

trees, as does the presence of irrigation. Pruning for rejuvenation is the most productive for residual biomass, since all

except the primary branches are removed.

references

Overview of Biomass Bioresource Technology 2002;

83(1):37e46.

[2] FAO. The role of wood energy in Europe and OECD, WETTWood energy Today for Tomorrow. Rome: FOPW, Forestry

Department; 1997.

[3] Velazquez-Mart B. Aprovechamiento de los residuos

forestales para uso energetico. Universidad Politecnica de

Valencia; 2006. 2006e2766.

[4] Askew MF, Holmes CA. The potential for biomass and energy

crops in agriculture in Europe, in land use, policy and rural

economy terms. International Sugar Journal 2002;104(1247):

482e591 (Reprinted from Aspects in Applied Biology 2001; 65:

365e74).

[5] Annevelink E, de Mol RM. Biomass logistics. 15th European

biomass Conference 2007. Berlin, Germany.

[6] Diekema WH, De Mol RM, Annevelink E, Elbersen HW.

Combining goals in the logistics bio-energy chains. 14th

European biomass Conference 2005; Paris, France: 495e498.

[7] Velazquez-Mart B, Annevelink E. GIS application to define

biomass collection points as sources for linear

programming of delivery networks. Transactions of ASABE

2009;52(4):225e36.

[8] Berruto R, Busato P. Biomass Supply Chain Assessment by

Means of Web Application: Technical, Economic and

Energetic Aspects. Ageng conference 2008; Crete (Greece).

Paper OP-255

[9] Fernandez-Gonzalez E. esAnalisis de los procesos de

produccion de biomasa residual procedente del cultivo de

frutales mediterraneos. Cuantificacion, cosecha y

caracterizacion para su uso energetico o industrial. Doctoral

Thesis. Polytechnic University of Valencia 2009.

b i o m a s s a n d b i o e n e r g y 3 5 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 3 2 0 8 e3 2 1 7

process of biomass harvesting with collecting-chippers fed

by pick up headers in plantations of olive trees. Biosystems

Engineering 2009;52(4):225e36.

[11] FAO. WISDOM, wood Integrated Supply/Demand Overview

Mapping; 2003. 52 pp.

[12] Cantini C, Panicucci M. 2002. Managing of a traditional olive

orchard by timesaving biennial pruning. Acta Horticulturae:

IV International Symposium on Olive Growing. 586:

361e363.

3217

olivar como fuente de energa renovable: obtencion de

biocombustibles. Jaen (Espana). Congreso de la Cultura del

Olivo; 2007. 587e602.

[14] Di Blasi C, Tanzi V, Lanzetta M. A study on the production of

agricultural residues in Italy. Biomass Bioenergy 1997;12(5):

321e33.

[15] Spnelli R, Magagnotti N, Picchi G. The Jordan RH 25

chipper at work on olive prunings. Informatore Agrario

SRL 2007;63:55e8.

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