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Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I

Texts: Chapter 2

1.

BASIC UNITS
Fill in the gaps:
A text is a set of _______ combined according to certain _______.
Which is the basic component of texts?
What do you need to combine in order to produce a word?
What do you obtain when you put two or more words together?
Do you know any linguistic unit smaller than a morpheme?
What do you get with you combine together units larger than single words?

2.

BEFORE WORDS: MORPHEMES


Identify the individual morphemes in the following word list and classify them into free or bound
(inflectional or derivational):
pigs, barked, unlikely, motherhood, salty, cherry, taller, hammer, displease,
superheroes, player, hardship

3.

PUTTING WORDS TOGETHER


Here is a text written by a student to her family:
Sometimes I feel homesick for my family. There are five people in my family. They are my
father, mother, two elder brothers, and myself. My father is a government official. He tells funny
jokes, cooks delicious meals for the family, and grows vegetables in his garden. His jokes and his
cooking are two of my favourite things. My mother is a nurse. She is outgoing, hardworking, and still
curious about learning new things in her profession. She has recently changed jobs, and her new
hospital is a very difficult place to work. I will write about my brothers another time.
1. Mark each subject with an S and each verb with a V and put a number at the beginning of
each sentence.
2. How many clauses are there in the text?
3. How many sentences?
4. Can you find any connection between the number of main verbs in the text and the number
of clauses or sentences?

Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

4.

COMPLEX SENTENCES IN NARRATIVE TEXTS

Look at the pictures above and then fill in the blanks in these sentences (one missing word
per blank). Each sentence corresponds to the picture with the same number:

1. Liz __________ up.


2. She __________ a __________.
3. She gets __________.
4. She listens __________ the news while she __________ her lunch.
5. She __________ the bus to work.
6. She __________ at a stand to pick __________ coffee and a __________.
7. She __________ to the office and __________ hello.
8. She __________ her e-mail.
9. She __________ paperwork and goes to meetings.
10. She __________ lunch at her __________.
11. She __________ at her computer and __________ clients.
12. She __________ telephone calls.
13. She gets __________ work.
14. She gets __________ with friends or works __________ at the gym.
15. She goes __________ bed.
16. She dreams __________ the __________ and her __________ vacation.
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Texts: Chapter 2

5.

Mark the subject and verb in both clauses in these sentences. Then underline the subordinate
clause and find the word signalling the type of subordination involved:
1. After Liz gets up, she takes a shower.
2. She makes her own lunch because she wants to save money.
3. While she makes her lunch, she listens to the news.
4. When she gets off the bus, she stops at a stand to pick up coffee.
5. Before Liz has her lunch, she does paperwork.
6. Lizs daily routine is very helpful although it is often boring.
Notice that two of the sentences above do not have commas. How are they different from the
others? Rewrite them, using commas.

6.

Now complete these complex sentences by adding a main clause. Use a comma when necessary:

0. After Liz gets dressed,

she makes her lunch

1. _______________________________________ before she gets to the office.


2. _______________________________________ after she says hello.
3. Although Liz uses a computer at work, __________________________________.
4. Because Liz works out at the gym, ___________________________________.
5. _______________________________________ before she goes to bed.
6. While she sleeps, she _______________________________________.

7.

Now write a paragraph. Form complex sentences with the sixteen sentences you read after the
picture and add the sentences and phrases below where suitable.

1. Lizs weekday routine is often monotonous, but it helps her deal with her busy life.
2. Liz Lee is a busy person with a useful daily routine.
3. Lizs Weekday Routine
4. at 5 p.m.
5. At 5:30 p.m.
6. About 10 p.m.
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Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

8.

Correct the mistakes in the paragraph below.


Weekday Routine Liz
She is a busy person her daily routine helps she a lot. Every week day, she wakes up 5:30 a.m.
After she gets dressed. She listens the news. While she makes your lunch. Then, after she took the
bus to work, she stops at stand to pick up coffee and a snack. After she gets to the office and says
hello. She checks her e-mail she does paperwork and goes to meetings. She has a lunch at your desk,
she works at her computer. And, sees clients. Before she leave the office, she returns telephone call.
After she gets off work 5:30 p.m. She gets together with friends or works out at the Gym. She uauslly
goes to bed 10 p.m. and dream about the weekend and she next vacation. Her weekday routine
often is monotonous, it helps her with her busy life

9.

Work with a partner and take turns in interviewing each other using the questions below. When
you finish, think of two or three opinion adjectives. You will use them later in your topic and
concluding sentences.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

When do you wake up? Do you get up immediately?


What do you do before you go to school?
When do you leave home?
How do you get to work or school? What do you do on the way? How long does it take
you?
When does your school start? Are you always on time?
What do you do at school? When do you take breaks?
When do you get out of school? Do you leave immediately after that?
Do you go directly home? If not, what do you do?
How do you get home?
When do you get home?
What do you do as soon as you get home? Do you always do the same things?
When do you eat? Do you cook? How often do you eat out?
When do you go to bed? Do you go to sleep at once?
How long do you sleep? Do you remember your dreams?

Now write a paragraph about your partners routine day using your notes from the interview.
Follow these instructions:

Use a title.

Begin with a topic sentence that includes your opinion of your partners routine.

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Texts: Chapter 2

Remember to use time indicators (now, then, afterwards...) to show the chronological
order of events.

Try to use compound and complex sentences to combine events.

Write a concluding sentence that repeats the opinion adjective(s) in your topic sentence.

Exchange your paragraph with a partner. Read your partners text and comment with him/her any
mistakes you find in it.

10.

WRITING A FORMAL PARAGRAPH

Step 1. Look at the following list of writing topics. Add more possible topics.

Three ways of making new friends


Three ways of getting rid of unwanted visitors
Three ways of getting over a broken heart
Three ways of celebrating a birthday
Three ways of giving up smoking
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
Step 2. There are different ways to express your opinion about the three ways you will
write on, e.g., Three easy ways of making new friends. Here are some adjectives that express an
opinion. Add three more of your own.

quick

easy

stupid

boring

dangerous

humorous

modern

successful

polite

inexpensive

________

_________

_________

Step 3. Now choose a topic to write and take 10-15 minutes to write a first draft of your
short paragraph (75-120 words) about your topic, using the previous outline and a formal style. Do
not worry about grammar mistakes or vocabulary at this point; leave a blank or use a Spanish word
if you cant think of the word in English.

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Texts: Chapter 2

Step 4. Once you finish writing, read the following paragraph carefully. Compare it with
yours as far as style and content are concerned. Use the paragraph as a model for any changes you
may think necessary in the text you wrote.

Three Polite Ways of Getting Rid of Unwanted Visitors


There are three polite ways of getting rid of unwanted visitors. The first way is asking one
of them whether they have to get up early the following morning. After he or she replies, you
remark that you have to get up very early yourself. The second way is starting picking all the
dishes, glasses and cups from the table and taking them to the kitchen. In this case, you must
remember not to offer them any more coffee or tea! The third way is yawning repeatedly and
closing your eyes over and over while they talk to you. This will show them how tired you are and
how much you need to get some rest, for which you need them to leave. All three ways will be
really useful to you if you cannot get rid of your unwanted visitors one day.
(134 words)

Step 5. Exchange your draft with a partner. Read your partners essay and answer the
following questions about formal style:

Does the paragraph have a topic sentence?

Is it just one paragraph?

Does it have clear enumeration connectors?

Does it have a concluding sentence?

Does the paragraph have correct format (centred title, margins, double spaced, no
underlining or other unnecessary ornaments, correct font size...)?

Is it written in third person? Third person is ideal for formal stuff, whereas first and second
person pronouns tend to make the text more informal.

Are contractions used?

How many words did your partner write?

Step 6. Now revise your draft and take a few minutes to make any changes necessary to it.
When you are done, hand it in to your teacher.

Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

11. TURNING A PARAGRAPH INTO AN ESSAY

Answer the following questions on the text of the dictation:

What is the main of this paragraph? Give your answer in few words.

What are the points made about Texas? Mark them in the text and say what sentences are
devoted to each.

Is there any difference between the topic sentence and the concluding sentence?

Now read the following extended essay on the same topic.

Texas: More than Cowboys and Oil Wells


Bang! Bang! Cowboy? I often heard these words while travelling in Europe years ago when
I said that I was from Texas. The next words were usually, Do you have an oil well? Although my
home state is known around the world for its cowboys and oil wells, Texas has other interesting,
though lesser known, features, which are its varied geography, its cultural heritage, and its strong
pride.
The first interesting feature of Texas is its varied geography. Texas is located at the
intersection of several geographical regions. It has mountains, hills, plains, beaches, deserts, and
forests. In one long day of driving, a person can start the morning beside rice fields in the humid
south-eastern part of the state and, in the evening, stop beside wild cactus plants in the dry western
part. On a winter day, a person in the northern tip of Texas can be playing in the snow while another
person in the southern tip is picking oranges near palm trees.
The second interesting feature of Texas is its cultural heritage. The Institute of Texan
Cultures, a museum in San Antonio, explains the cultural history of Texas and contains permanent
exhibits on twenty-six cultural groups that helped build Texas. These groups range from Native
Americans and Mexicans to Japanese and Chinese. Today, visitors to Texas can still see elements of
the ranching and cowboy culture, the culture of the rural Old south, and the cultures of German and
Czech immigrants, mixed with the generic culture of modern America. However, the past and the
future of Texas are most closely associated with Mexico. For example, the 2000 census shows that
about 28 percent of Texans speak Spanish in their homes, and this number is likely to grow.
In addition to its geography and cultural heritage, the third interesting feature of Texas is the
regional pride of its people. Supermarkets sell Texas-shaped pasta and people wear Texas-shaped
earrings. Bumper stickers say, Native-born Texan and I wasnt born in Texas, but I got here as fast
as I could. Many people think of themselves as Texans first and as U.S. citizens second. This strong
Texas identity is rooted in the history and size of Texas. From 1836 to 1845, Texas was an
independent country. Then, after it became a state, it was the biggest in area for over one hundred
years, and Texans loved to say that everything was bigger in Texas. When Alaska became the fortyninth and largest state in 1959, proud Texans joked that, because Alaska was mainly ice, it could
melt. According to them, Texas was still the biggest state.

Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

In conclusion, Texas is an interesting place because of its varied geography, its cultural
heritage, and the strong pride of its people. When I travel outside Texas or meet international visitors
in Texas, I know the stereotypic images of Texas that they probably have. Therefore, I make sure to
tell them that Texas is very diverse and has much more to see than cowboys and oil wells.

Find and underline the sentences from the dictation in the long version of the text.

What is in your opinion the main difference between both texts?

How are both introductions different?

Of particular importance is the first paragraphs last sentence, for it states the main idea of
the essay and introduces the paragraphs to follow.

12.

How are the three main ideas enlarged and elaborated on?

How are the two conclusions different?

COHESION
Once upon a time, there was a house on top of a hill, looking down on a large valley. The house
was indeed a very old one. It belonged to an elderly gentleman who had inhabited it for more than
thirty-five years. This gentleman's name was Sir John Judicious, Earl of Theramore. He was a whitehaired, tender-hearted widower who had one main passion: his niece Aurora. She also lived in the
house with her uncle, but spent long periods of time away from it due to her job as a teacher.
Unfortunately, the grumpy old nobleman did not approve of his favourite niece's occupation and that
caused frequent quarrels between the two.

13.

COHESION

Read the following text (sentences have been numbered for your convenience).

1.

Allow the fruit to steam in its own juice for a further 15 minutes.

2.

So she hated it when that infuriating Keith Scott seemed to go out of his way to suggest
that her heart wasnt in the affair.

3.

Thats why we created Portfolio, a brand new concept in saving.

4.

Put them into a fireproof dish with the water, and a tablespoon of the sugar.

5.

She knew that he loved her in a calm settled way rather than any grand passion and
that he would make her a good, kind husband.
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Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

6.

Ensuring that the lid is tightly sealed, put the dish into a preheated oven, Gas Regulo 6.

7.

So that way, you can have your cake and eat it too.

8.

Pour over the top, and serve with double cream.

9.

Melodie Neil and Jed Martin were old friends.

10.

Mix juice with the brandy, mulled wine, and rest of the sugar.

11.

We do, too.

12.

Wash and core the apples, taking care to remove all pips.

13.

In short, when she became engaged to him she knew exactly what she was doing.

14.

Spoon out the cooked apples and arrange them attractively in round on a serving plate.

15.

Do you feel that you never get a fair slice of the capital cake?

16.

Slice finely.

17.

Portfolio is a high interest investment account that makes your money work for you,
while still giving you instant access to your capital.

18.

Reduce temperature to 3 after 10 minutes.

Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

14.

PAPER FORMAT
Consider the following texts:

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Anlisis de textos en lengua inglesa I


Texts: Chapter 2

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Texts: Chapter 2

15.

REGISTER
To enable you to see what formality of vocabulary might mean in practical terms, read the
following texts. In each one, the level of formality has been disrupted at various points by the
insertion of inappropriate vocabulary. Can you pinpoint where this happens, and suggest some
vocabulary in each case which would be more in keeping with the style of the passage? Try also to
identify the different types of text and provide a context for each. Explain your answers.

A.

Dear Ms Allen,
Thank you for your letter of 1st September, requesting overdraft facilities of 500. In order that this
overdraft facility can be granted we would first need sight of your contract of employment. Would
you therefore kindly inform us of the School at which you will now be earning your daily crust.
Yours sincerely,

A. Curtis

B.

James needs to realise that success is the result of hard work and consistent effort. At present, he is
being a real pain because he is so bone idle in class. If he wishes to do well in the examination, and
achieve a grade which will do justice to his considerable ability, he must pull his socks up and
sharpish.

C.

The hotel endeavours to have rooms ready to receive guests by noon, and it is hoped that departing
guests will courteously assist in making this possible by getting a move on and not hanging about in
bedrooms on the day of departure.

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