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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY THROUGH SPEED BREAKER


MECHANISM
Department Of Mechanical Engineering
RACHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, GUJRANWALA
(A Constituent College of UET Lahore.)

SESSION 2010

Submitted By

Samiullah Kakar

(2010-ME-442)
Project Supervisor

Engr. Muhammad Qasim Tatla


Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
RACHNA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, GUJRANWALA.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

As partial fulfillment of the requirements for the


Bachelors Degree
In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
This report is submitted to
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala

This is declaring that work submitted in this report is my own, and any work that is not mine has
been quoted and acknowledged in the references.

Approved On------------------------------

Internal Examiner:

Engr. Muhammad Qasim Tatla

Signature: ----------------------------------------External Examiner:

Signature: -------------------------------------------

Department of Mechanical Engineering,


Rachna College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala
(A Constituent College of UET, Lahore)

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Dedication
I dedicate this work to my beloved parents for always supporting
me, because they are the driving force in my life and career.
Without their love, none of this would matter. Throughout my life,
they have actively supported me in my determination to find and
realize my potential, and to make this contribution to our world.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Acknowledgements
Thanks to ALLAH ALMIGHTY that enabled me to work in this project because without His approval
man can do nothing. After almighty Allah to his prophet, HAZRAT MUHAMMAD (PBUH), the most
perfect an exalted forever source of guidance and knowledge humanity as a whole.
There are a number of people without whom this project might not have been written, and to whom I am
greatly indebted.
I will forever be thankful to my advisors, Engr. Muhammad Qasim Tatla for supporting me during this
study. He has provided insightful discussions about the research. His support and penetrates has allowed
me to complete one of my many life goals. I would also thankful to our Honorable teacher Engr.
Nouman Javed for guiding me on all my work and project. I value the guidance that was giving to me.

Regards
Samiullah Kakar

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Contents
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................ 1
chapter number 1
INTRODUCTION OF THE PROJECT .............................................................................................. 3
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 4
2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ...................................................................................................... 4
chapter number 2
DEMONSTRATION OF THE PROJECT .......................................................................................... 5
1. WORKING PRINCIPLE .......................................................................................................... 6
2. BLOCK DIAGRAM ................................................................................................................ 7
chapter number 3
CMODELLING, SIMULATION AND RESULTS ............................................................................... 8
1. FABRICATION DETAILS .......................................................................................................... 9
2. FABRICATION MODEL SHOWING INNER PARTS ............................................................. 9
3. MATERIALS USED ................................................................................................................. 10
4. SPECIFICATIONS ................................................................................................................. 10
5. ADVANTAGES....................................................................................................................... 11
6. DISADVANTAGE ................................................................................................................... 11
chapter number 4
ACCESSORIES REQUIRED ............................................................................................................ 12
1. RACK AND PINION............................................................................................................. 13
2. SPROCKET ............................................................................................................................ 14
3. DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS ..................................................................................................... 14
4. BEST ARRANGEMENTS........................................................................................................ 15
5. OTHER ACCEPTABLE ARRANGEMENTS ............................................................................ 15
6. LEAST RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENTS ...................................................................... 16
7. SPROCKET DIMENSIONAL SPECIFICATIONS................................................................. 17

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

chapter number 5
CHAIN DRIVES ............................................................................................................................... 19
1. Chain Drives .......................................................................................................................... 20
2. Chain Drive Design............................................................................................................... 22
3. Vibrations .............................................................................................................................. 23
4. Avoiding vibration ................................................................................................................ 24
5. Chain Types ........................................................................................................................... 24
6. Chain Failures........................................................................................................................ 26

chapter number 6
WHEELS AND SPRINGS ................................................................................................................ 28
1. Freewheel ............................................................................................................................... 29
2. Flywheel ................................................................................................................................. 30
3. Springs ................................................................................................................................... 32
chapter number 7
DESIGN PARAMETER`S AND LIMITATION .................................................................... 38
1. OUTPUT POWER CALCULATIONS ................................................................................... 39
2. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS.................................................................................................. 41
3. SPROCKET WHEEL AND CHAIN ....................................................................................... 41
4. SPRINGS ............................................................................................................................... 41
5. SPUR GEARS ......................................................................................................................... 41
COST ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 42
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... 46

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

ABSTRACT
Man in his lifetime, uses energy in one form or the other. In fact whatever happens in
nature, results, out of the conversion of energy in one form or the other. The blowing of the
wind, the formation of the clouds and the flow of water are a few examples that stand
testimony to this fact. The extensive usage of energy has resulted in an energy crisis, and
there is a need to develop methods of optimal utilization, which will not only ease the crisis
but also preserve the environment. Energy conservation is the cheapest new source of
energy. This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly
used system, the generation of electricity through the speed breaker mechanism.
Generation of electricity through the speed breaker mechanism is one of the most recent
power generation concepts. This device converts the kinetic energy of the vehicles
into electric energy by installing movable speed breaker on the road, it takes the stroke
motion of the vehicles and converts it to the rotary motion by rack and pinion mechanism
and it generates the electricity. This project also explains clearly, the working principle of
the designed system, its practical implementation, and its advantages. Design of each
component has been carried out using standard procedures, and the components have
been fabricated and assembled. A similar model of the system has been modeled using
AutoCAD 2007. Practical testing of the system has been done with different loads at
different speeds. The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. One
might conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous, a human being needs to
consume more and more energy. And this project is best source of energy that we get in
day to day life.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY
THROUGH SPEED BREAKER
MECHANISM

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 1

Introduction of the project


1. INTRODUCTION
2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. INTRODUCTION:This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly
used system- the road speed-breakers. The number of vehicles passing over the speed
breaker in roads is increasing day by day. A large amount of energy is wasted at the
speed breakers through the dissipation of heat and also through friction, every time a
vehicle passes over it. There is great possibility of tapping this energy and generating
power by making the speed-breaker as a power generation unit. The generated power
can be used for the lamps, near the speed-breakers. In this model we show that how we
can generate a voltage from the busy traffic. Conversion of the mechanical energy into
electrical energy is widely used concept. Its a mechanism to generate power by
converting the potential energy generated by a vehicle going up on a speed breaker into
rotational energy. We have used that simple concept to the project.

2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. For example,
World average per capita electricity consumption is 2730 kWh compared to Pakistans
per capita electricity consumption of 451 kWh. Pakistan has an installed electricity
generation capacity of 22,797MW. The average demand is 17,000MW and the shortfall
is between 4,000 and 5,000MW. One might conclude that to be materially rich and
prosperous, a human being needs to consume more and more energy.
Pakistan is facing serious energy crisis at this time .Pakistan as third world developing
country is lot affected by this energy crisis in the world .The major issue is electric crisis
which is known as load shedding Pakistans small manufacturing markets are lot affected
by the rise of energy prices.
By just placing a unit like the Power Generation Unit from Speed Breakers, so much of
energy can be tapped. This energy can be used for the lights on the either sides of the
Roads and thus much power that is consumed by these lights can be utilized to send power
to these villages.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 2

Demonstration of the Project


1.
2.

WORKING PRINCIPLE
BLOCK DIAGRAM

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1 WORKING PRINCIPLE:The project is concerned with generation of electricity from speed breakers-like set
up. The load acted upon the speed breaker - setup is there by transmitted to rack and
pinion arrangements.
Here the reciprocating motion of the speed-breaker is converted into rotary motion
using the rack and pinion arrangement. The axis of the pinion is coupled with the sprocket
arrangement. The sprocket arrangement is made of two sprockets. One of larger size and
the other of smaller size (free wheel). Both the sprockets are connected by means of a
chain which serves in transmitting power from the larger sprocket to the smaller sprocket.
As the power is transmitted from the larger sprocket to the smaller sprocket, the speed
that is available at the larger sprocket is relatively multiplied at the rotation of the smaller
sprocket. The axis of the smaller sprocket is coupled to a fly wheel. The fly wheel is
coupled to the shaft at axis of the smaller sprocket. Hence the speed that has been
multiplied at the smaller sprocket wheel is passed on to this fly wheel of larger dimension.
The smaller sprocket is coupled to the larger fly wheel. So as the larger fly wheel rotates
at the multiplied speed of the smaller sprocket, the smaller sprocket following the larger
sprocket still multiplies the speed to more intensity. Hence, although the speed due to the
rotary motion achieved at the larger sprocket wheel is less, as the power is transmitted to
fly wheel, finally the speed is multiplied to a higher speed. This speed which is sufficient to
rotate a shaft connected to generator. The rotor (shaft) rotates the generator. The
generator produces the DC current. This DC current is now sent to the storage battery
where it is stored during the day time. This current is then utilized in the night time for
lighting purposes on the either sides of the road to a considerable distance.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

2 BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

SPEED BRAKER
ARRANGE
MENT

GENERATOR

RACK & PINION


AND CHAIN
SPROCKET
ARRANGEMENT

BATTERY

INVERTER

Fly wheel

STREET
LIGHTS

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 3

Modeling, Simulation and


Results
1.FABRICATION DETAILS
2.FABRICATION MODEL SHOWING INNER
PARTS
3.MATERIALS USED
4.SPECIFICATIONS
5.ADVANTAGES
6.DISADVANTAGE

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. FABRICATION DETAILS:The frame structure for the total unit is fabricated using L-Angle frames and
ordinary frames. These frames are made of mild steel. They are held to proper dimensions
are attached to form a unit with the help of welding. Then the bearings which are of
standard make are kept in place with their respective shafts through them and are welded
to the frame structure. The shafts are also made of mild steel. Hinges are used to move the
speed breaker arrangement by welding it to the frame structure. These hinges are
responsible for the movement of the speed breaker in an up and down motion. A rack
which are made up of mild steel is welded to the speed breaker arrangement. A pinion
which is also made up of mild steel and which has Thirty six teeth is fitted on the shaft
initially, and welded. This pinion tooth is exactly made to mate with the teeth of the rack.
A bicycle sprocket and chain arrangement of standard make is fitted with the larger
sprocket on the top shaft and its smaller sprocket on the bottom shaft. The sprocket wheels
are welded to the shafts. A fly wheel that is made of cast iron is machined suitably to the
precise dimensions in a lathe and is placed on the shaft with its axis coinciding with the
axis of the shaft and is welded. A special stand arrangement is made to seat the 12v DC
generator using frames. A 12v DC generator is placed within the seat and is held firm
using bolts and nuts.

2. FABRICATION MODEL SHOWING INNER PARTS:Wires are connected to the terminals of the DC generator and its other ends are
connected to a Lead-Acid battery. Another wire is taken from these points on the battery
and its other ends are connected to the positive and negative terminal of an inverter. An
output wire from the inverter is sent to the light.

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

3. MATERIALS USED: Rack

Mild steel

Pinion

Mild Iron

Sprocket wheels- Mild steel


Chain

Mild steel

Spur gears -

Cast Iron

Springs

Mild steel

Shaft

Mild steel

Speed breaker - Mild steel

4. SPECIFICATIONS:Generator - 12v DC generator


Battery

- lead acid battery

Inverter

250 w AC inverter

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

5. ADVANTAGES: Pollution free power generation.


Simple construction, mature technology, and easy maintenance.
No manual work necessary during generation.
Energy available all year round.
No fuel transportation problem.
No consumption of any fossil fuel which is non-renewable source of energy.
Uninterrupted power generation during day and night.
Maximum utilization of energy.
Load to the piston cylinder arrangement is freely got by movement of vehicles.
No fuel storage is required.
.It will work with light weight and heavy vehicle

6. DISADVANTAGE: We have to check mechanism from time to time


It can get rusted in rainy season.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 4

Rack, Pinion and Sprocket


1.RACK AND PINION
2.SPROCKET
3.DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS
4.BEST ARRANGEMENTS
5.OTHER ACCEPTABLE ARRANGEMENTS
6.LEAST RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENTS
7.SPROCKET DIMENSIONAL
SPECIFICATIONS

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. RACK AND PINION: A rack and pinion gears system is composed of two gears. The normal round gear is
the pinion gear and the straight or flat gear is the rack.
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which
convert rotational motion into linear motion. The circular pinion engages teeth on a
linear "gear" bar which is called the rack.

Rotational motion applied to the pinion will cause the rack to move to the side, up to
the limit of its travel.
For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted on a locomotive or
a railcar engages a rack between the rails and pulls a train along a steep slope.
The rack and pinion is also used to convert between rotary and linear motion. The
rack is the flat, toothed part, and the pinion is the gear. Rack and pinion can convert
from rotary to linear of from linear to rotary motion.
It converts the linear motion of the speed breaker into the circular motion needed to
turn the shaft.
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

2. SPROCKET:A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth or cogs that mesh with
a chain, track or other perforated or indented material. The name "sprocket" applies
generally to any wheel upon which are radial projections that engage a chain passing
over it. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets are never meshed together directly,
and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth and pulleys are smooth. The word
"sprockets" may also be used to refer to the teeth on the wheel.
Sprockets are used in bicycles, motorcycles, cars, tracked vehicles, chainsaws and
other machinery either to transmit rotary motion between two shafts where gears are
unsuitable or to impart linear motion to a track, tape etc. Perhaps the most common form
of sprocket may be found in the bicycle, in which the pedal shaft carries a large sprocketwheel, which drives a chain, which, in turn, drives a small sprocket on the axle of the rear
wheel. Early automobiles were also largely driven by sprocket and chain mechanism, a
practice largely copied from bicycles.
Sprockets are of various designs, a maximum of efficiency being claimed for each by its
originator. Sprockets typically do not have a flange. Some sprockets used with timing
belts have flanges to keep the timing belt centered. Sprockets and chains are also used
for power transmission from one shaft to another where slippage is not admissible,
sprocket chains being used instead of belts or ropes and sprocket-wheels instead of
pulleys. They can be run at high speed and some forms of chain are so constructed as to
be noiseless even at high speed.

3.

DRIVE ARRANGEMENTS:-

Relative position of sprockets in drives should receive careful consideration. Satisfactory


operation can be secured with the centerline of the drive at any angle to the horizontal, if
proper consideration is given. Certain arrangements require less attention and care than
others are, therefore, less apt to cause trouble. Various arrangements are illustrated in the
diagrams. The direction of rotation of the drive sprocket is indicated.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

4. BEST ARRANGEMENTS:Arrangements considered good practice are illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. The
direction of rotation of the drive sprockets in Figs. 1 and 4 can be reversed.

5. OTHER ACCEPTABLE ARRANGEMENTS:If none of the above arrangements can be followed, an attempt should be made to use an
arrangement as illustrated in Figs. 5, 6, and 7.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

When the large sprocket is directly above the small sprocket, Fig. 8, a drive cannot
operate with much chain slack. As the chain wears, shaft-center distance must be adjusted
or an idler be placed against the outside of the slack strand (near the small sprocket) to
adjust slack and keep the chain in proper contact with the small sprocket. With the drive
slightly inclined, Fig. 5, less care will be required, because the weight of the slack chain
strand helps to maintain better contact between the chain and the sprockets. Where center
distances is short, or drives nearly horizontal, the slack should be in the bottom strand,
especially where take-up adjustment is limited, Fig. 6 rather than Fig. 9. An accumulation
of slack in the top strand may allow the chain to be pinched between the sprockets, Fig. 9.
When small sprockets are used on horizontal drives, it is better to have the slack strand on
the bottom, Fig. 7, rather than on the top, Fig. 10. Otherwise, with the appreciable amount
of slack, the strands may strike each other.

6. LEAST RECOMMENDED ARRANGEMENTS:-

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

American sprocket manufacturers have adopted 4 specific types of sprocket


Construction styles as American Standards. In addition to the standard sprockets,
Special sprockets may be available in the same styles.

Style A - Flat sprocket with no hub extension either side.


Style B - Sprocket with hub extension one side.
Style C - Sprocket with hub extension both sides.
Style D - Sprocket with a detachable bolt on hub attached to a plate.

7. SPROCKET DIMENSIONAL SPECIFICATIONS:a. Bottom Diameter (B.D.):


The diameter of a circle tangent to the bottoms of the tooth spaces.
b. Caliper Diameter:
Since the bottom diameter of a sprocket with odd number of teeth cannot be
measured directly, caliper diameters are the measurement across the tooth spaces nearly
opposite.
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

c. Pitch Diameter (P.D.):


The diameter across to the pitch circle which is the circle Followed by the centers of
the chain pins as the sprocket revolves in mesh with the chain.
PD =

PITCH
SIN (180/Nt)

d. Outside Diameter (O.D.):


The measurement from the tip of the sprocket tooth across to the corresponding
point directly across the sprocket. It is comparatively unimportant as the tooth length is not
vital to proper meshing with the chain. The outside diameter may vary depending on type
of cutter used.
OD = (Pitch) (.6 + COT [180 / Nt])
e. Hub Diameter (HOD):
That distance across the hub from one side to another. This diameter must not
exceed the calculated diameter of the inside of the chain side bars.
f. Maximum Sprocket:
Maximum Sprocket Bore is determined by the required Bore hub wall thickness for
proper strength. Allowance must be made for keyway and setscrews.
g. Face Width:
Face width is limited in its maximum dimension to allow proper clearance to provide
for chain engagement and disengagement. The minimum width is limited to provide the
proper strength to carry the imposed loads.
h. Length thru Bore:
Length Thru Bore (or L.T.B.) must be sufficient to allow (LTB) a long enough key to
withstand the torque transmitted by the shaft. This also assures stability of the sprocket on
the shaft.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 5

Chain Drives
1.Chain Drives
2.Chain Drive Design
3.Vibrations
4.Avoiding vibration
5.Chain Types
6.Chain Failures

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. CHAIN DRIVES:
Chain drives are a means of
transmitting power like gears,
shafts and belt drives
Characteristics
High axial stiffness
Low bending stiffness
High efficiency
Relatively cheap
History and development
First belt drives: China
c100 BC
First chain drives: Roman c200 AD

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Leonardo DaVinci: sketch of leaf type chain c1500 AD many similarities to


modern chains.

Galle chains: 19th century first mass produced roller chains (no bushes).

Hans Renold (Switzerland)


1880 invented modern bush
roller chain
Bush Roller Chains:
Parts of a bush roller chain,

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Terminology:

Manufacture:
Bushes and pins: cold drawn,
cropped, turned/ground, case
hardened, ground again and shot
peened.
Side-plates are stamped from
plate.
Assembly
Pins and bushes are press-fitted into appropriate side plates.

2. CHAIN DRIVE DESIGN:Chain length and center distance:


Chain must contain even integer number of links
Hence cannot pick an arbitrary center distance and chain pitch
Nearest chain lengths (in pitches) for a contemplated center distance, CC
, are calculated by empirical formulae like (for a two sprocket system:

Where N1and N2 is the numbers of teeth on sprockets and P is the chain pitch.
The result of which should be ROUNDED UP to the next even number to calculate the
actual center separation, CA:

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Inertial force in chain:


In addition to the tension required to transmit power, chain tension also provides
centripetal force to move links around sprockets
The extra inertial force, Fcf, is given by:

3. Vibrations:
Chain between sprockets can vibrate like a string

Basic
equation for natural frequency, fn, of taught string

Where F is the tension, m is the mass per unit length, L is the length and k is the mode
number

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

For tight side of chain there are typically ranges of resonant frequencies given by:

Where,
Fc is the tight span tension (excluding inertial contribution)

4. Avoiding vibration: To avoid the chain resonating, need to avoid having sources of excitation with
frequencies near possible resonant frequencies
Obvious source is impact of sprocket teeth on chain
Frequency of these occurs at:

Where is the sprocket rotation speed and N is the number of teeth.

5. Chain Types:1) Transmission chains


Chains to transmit rotary power between shafts
Bush roller chains are transmission chains
For more power capacity, multi-strand transmission chains are used

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

2)

Conveyor chain
Rollers sit proud of links and
can roll along supporting
surface.
Can be used for transporting
materials, as roller scan support
weight.
Can also be used just to support
weight of chain if transmitting
power over long distances.

3) Inverted tooth (or silent) chain


Sprocket teeth mesh with shaped links instead of rollers on chain
Joints between links use rolling rather than sliding contact
Profile of links are more like involute gear teeth Overall effect is to
reduce noise

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

4) Leaf (or lifting) chain


Designed for lifting rather (than
power transmission)
Do not have to mesh with sprockets,
hence no rollers
Therefore can narrower than roller
chain with equivalent strength
Example: fork-lift truck

6. Chain Failures: Failures caused by poor selection


Overload
Failure of side plates due to cyclic load fatigue
Failure of bush or roller due to impact fatigue

Above failures can still occur due to poor installation or


maintenance
Misalignment
Incorrect or failed lubrication system

If correct chain is selected, installed and maintained the overall


life is determined by wear
Causes and effects of chain wear
Caused by material removal as chain components slide relative to
each other
Effect of wear is to cause the chain to gradually elongate

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

As pitch increases, chain sits at larger and large radius on sprockets


Limit is when chain jumps over sprocket teeth
Empirical extension limits are
2 % for sprockets with less than 200 teeth
200/N % for sprockets with more than 200 teeth

Wear life
Typically 15,000 hours for any power, chain or sprocket size if correctly
selected, installed and maintained.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 6

Wheels and springs


1.Freewheel
2.Flywheel
3.Springs

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. FREEWHEEL:A freewheels consists of either a single sprocket or a set of sprockets mounted on a body
which contains an internal ratcheting mechanism and mounts on a threaded hub.

Mechanics:
The simplest freewheel device consists of two saw-toothed, spring-loaded discs pressing
against each other with the toothed sides together, somewhat like a ratchet. Rotating in
one direction, the saw teeth of the drive disc lock with the teeth of the driven disc, making
it rotate at the same speed. If the drive disc slows down or stops rotating, the teeth of the
driven disc slip over the drive disc teeth and continue rotating, producing a characteristic
clicking sound proportionate to the speed difference of the driven gear relative to that of
the (slower) driving gear.
A more sophisticated and rugged design has spring-loaded steel rollers inside a driven
cylinder. Rotating in one direction, the rollers lock with the cylinder making it rotate in
unison. Rotating slower, or in the other direction, the steel rollers just slip inside the
cylinder.

Advantages:
Free wheel mechanism acts as an automatic clutch, making it possible to change
gears in a manual gearbox, either up- or downshifting, without depressing the clutch
pedal, limiting the use of the manual clutch to starting from standstill or stopping.

Disadvantages:
The major disadvantage of the multiple sprocket freewheel design is that the driveside bearing is located inboard of the free wheel, and as sprockets were added over
time, moved the bearing farther from the drive-side axle support. This resulted in more
flexing stress is placed on the axle which can bend or even break.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

2. FLYWHEEL:A flywheel is a rotating


mechanical device that is used to
store rotational energy. Flywheels
have a significant moment of
inertia and thus resist changes in
rotational speed. The amount of
energy stored in a flywheel is
proportional to the square of
its rotational speed. Energy is
transferred to a flywheel by
applying torque to it, thereby
increasing its rotational speed, and
hence its stored energy.
Conversely, a flywheel releases
stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, thereby decreasing its rotational
speed.

Energy Stored in a Flywheel:


A flywheel is shown in Fig. when a flywheel absorbs energy its speed increases and when
it gives up energy its speed decreases.
Let

m= Mass of the flywheel in kg,


k = Radius of gyration of the flywheel in meters,
I = Mass moment of inertia of the flywheel about the axis of rotation in kgm2=m.k2,
N1and N2 = Maximum and minimum speeds during the cycle in r.p.m,
1and 2 = Maximum and minimum angular speeds during the cycle in rad / s,
N= Mean speed during the cycle in r.p.m.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

The radius of gyration (k) may be taken equal to the mean radius of the rim (R), because
the thickness of rim is very small as compared to the diameter of rim. Therefore
substituting k= R in equation (ii), we have
E=m.R2.2.CS= m.v2.CS

( v= .R)

From this expression, the mass of the flywheel rim may be determined.
Notes: 1.In the above expression, only the mass moment of inertia of the rim is considered
and the mass moment of inertia of the hub and arms is neglected. This is due to the fact
that the major portion of weight of the flywheel is in the rim and a small portion is in the
hub and arms. Also the hub and arms are nearer to the axis of rotation, therefore the
moment of inertia of the hub and arms is very small.
2. The density of cast iron may be taken as 7260 kg / m3 and for cast steel, it may taken
as 7800 kg / m3.
3. The mass of the flywheel rim is given by
m= Volume Density = 2 R A
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

From this expression, we may find the value


of the cross-sectional area of the rim.
Assuming the cross-section of the rim to be
rectangular, then
A=b t
where

b= Width of the rim, and


t = Thickness of the rim.

Knowing the ratio of b/twhich is usually


taken as 2, we may find the width and
thickness of rim.
4. When the flywheel is to be used as a
pulley, then the width of rim should be taken
20 to 40 mm greater than the width of belt.

3. SPRINGS:A spring is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and
to recover its original shape when the load is removed. The various important applications
of springs are as follows :
1. To cushion, absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibration as in car springs,
railway buffers, air-craft landing gears, shock absorbers and vibration dampers.
2. To apply forces, as in brakes, clutches and springloaded valves.
3. To control motion by maintaining contact between two elements as in cams and
followers.
4. To measure forces, as in spring balances and engine indicators.
5. To store energy, as in watches, toys, etc.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Types of Springs:
Though there are many types of the springs, yet the following, according to their
shape, are important from the subject point of view.

Helical springs:
The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and is
primarily intended for compressive or tensile loads. The cross-section of the wire from
which the spring is made may be circular, square or rectangular. The two forms of helical
springs are compression helical springas shown in Fig. (a) and tension helical spring as
shown in Fig. (b).

Advantages:
(a) These are easy to manufacture.
(b) These are available in wide range.
(c) These are reliable.
(d) These have constant spring rate.
(e) Their performance can be predicted more accurately.
(f) Their characteristics can be varied by changing dimensions.
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Conical and volute springs:


The conical and volute springs, as shown in Fig. are used in special applications where a
telescoping spring or a spring with a spring rate that increases with the load is desired.
The conical spring, as shown in Fig.(a), is wound with a uniform pitch whereas the volute
springs, as shown in Fig. (b), are wound in the form of parabolic with constant pitch and
lead angles. The springs may be made either partially or completely telescoping. This
characteristic is sometimes utilized in vibration problems where springs are used to support
a body that has a varying mass.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Torsion springs:
These springs may be of helical or spiral type as shown in Fig. The helical type may
be used only in applications where the load tends to wind up the spring and are used in
various electrical mechanisms. The spiral type is also used where the load tends to increase
the number of coils and when made of flat strip are used in watches and clocks.
The major stresses produced in torsion springs are tensile and compressive due to
bending.

Laminated or leaf springs:


The laminated or leaf spring (also known as flat spring or carriage spring) consists
of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of
clamps and bolts, as shown in Fig. These are mostly used in automobiles.
The major stresses produced in leaf springs are tensile and compressive stresses.

Laminated or leaf springs.

Disc or Bellevile springs.


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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Values of allowable shear stress, Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rigidity for various
spring materials.

36

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Standard Size of Spring Wire:


Standard wire gauge (SWG) number and corresponding diameter of spring wire.

37

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Chapter Number 7

Design Parameter`s and


Limitations
1.
2.
3.
4.

OUTPUT POWER CALCULATIONS


DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
SPROCKET WHEEL AND CHAIN
SPRINGSSPUR GEARS

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

1. OUTPUT POWER CALCULATIONS:Let us consider,


The mass of a vehicle moving over the speed breaker = 10Kg (Approximately)
Height of speed brake

10 cm

Work done

Force x Distance

Here,
Force

= Weight of the Body


= 10 Kg x 9.81
= 98.1 N

Distance traveled by the body = Height of the speed brake


= 10 cm
Output power = Work done/Sec
= (89.1 x 0.10)/60
= 0.1485 Watts (For One pushing force)
Power developed for 1 vehicle passing over the speed breaker arrangement for one
minute
=

0.1485 watts

Power developed for 60 minutes (1 hr)

8.91 watts

Power developed for 24 hours

213.84watts

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Velocity Ratio of Chain Drives:


The velocity ratio of a chain drive is given by
. . =

1 2
=
2 1

N1= Speed of rotation of smaller sprocket in r.p.m.,


N2= Speed of rotation of larger sprocket in r.p.m.,
T1= Number of teeth on the smaller sprocket, and
T2= Number of teeth on the larger sprocket.
. . =

1
2
=
2
1

. . =

36
19

= 1.894

Experimentally,

Revolution
Revolution of shaft by one push:
Using tachometer, 100 rpm =1.666rps

Torque:
Torque produce in on push:
=

60
2

0.148 60
= 0.851
21.666
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

2. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS: SHAFT (DIA)

= 65 mm

Diameter of flywheel

= 540 mm

Thickness of flywheel

= 20 mm

3. SPROCKET WHEEL AND CHAIN: No of teeth on large sprocket =36


No of teeth on small sprocket =19
Dia of large sprocket

=460 mm

Dia of small sprocket

= 230 mm

Length of chain

=1620 mm

Optimum centre distance

= 560 mm

4. SPRINGS: Diameter of wire

= 2 mm

Mean dia of coil

= 12 mm

Free length of spring

= 300mm

5. SPUR GEARS: No Of Teeth On Rack

= 36

Rack Length

= 230mm

No Of Teeth On Pinion

=36

Diameter Of Pinion Gear

=270mm

Thickness of pinion gear

=20mm

Length of speed breaker

=290mm

Width of speed breaker

=220mm

Height of speed breaker

=130mm
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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

COST ANALYSIS:Cost:
It is defined as the amount of expenditure occurred in bringing out a product.
Cost is expressed along with the atom viscose of bicycle axle Rs.15/- per axle cost of
bearing Rs.150/.Bearing.
Cost of Elements:
The different cost is placed in three categories.
Material Cost
Labor Cost
Other Expenses
Material Cost:
It is the cost on the material, which is converted into product. This is of two types:
Direct Material Cost
It is cost of all those materials which when worked upon become the integral part of the
product. For example lathe bed casting when machined, heat treated and grounded
becomes a lathe bed.
Indirect Material Cost
All those materials, which are consumed during manufacturing for processing a product,
but do not become part of product. For example electric energy, cutting oil, grease, water
and cotton waste.
Prime Cost
This is also known as direct cost. Prime Cost = direct material cost + direct labor cost and
expenses
Factory Cost
This is also known as factory cost. Factory cost = prime cost + factory expenses.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Office Cost
This is also known as production office cost = factory cost + administrative expenses + all
and the expenses.
Total Office
This is also known as selling cost. Total cost = office cost + selling and distribution expenses
Selling price of product
Selling cost = total cost + profit loss
Brake Even Chart:
This is graphical illustration to show loss and profit region. This type is deciding the no of
units to be made at which three is neither any loss nor any profit. It is arrived it a following
Fixed Cost:
This is the cost, independent of product. This cost is three even if the product is nil.
Labor cost
It is the labor which converts raw material into product which tools and machines and
hence the cost over the labor
Direct Labor cost
All the labors are working on the machines and material who can be identified with the
product, are called direct labor and hence cost over them. For example, a lathe operator,
a milling man.
Indirect labor cost
All the labors that help in manufacturing cycle but cannot be identified directly with a
particular product and hence cost over them. For example, Sweepers, gate keepers, rigors,
store keepers etc.
Other Expenses
All those expenses not covered under labor and material cost fall under this category.
They are also of two types.

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Direct expenses
All those expense, which can be assigned to a particular job, are placed in this category.
This will include the following.
Expenses incurred in preparing design, drawing and process sheet.
Cost of jobs, fixtures is any made / hired for the job.
Patterns used for the mold.
Any consultation fee paid for the job.
Indirect expenses
All other expenses left out for above. They make a major part of the cost. These expenses
are of following type.
Factory Expenses
This is also known as factory over heads, factory on cost on work on cost.
Administrative expenses
This is also known as office on cost.
Selling expenses
Distribution expenses
R & D expenses
Selling price of product, It can be calculated as follows:

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Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

Selling price of pipe bending machine:


Prime Cost:
Prime cost = material cost + labor cost + other cost.
=Rs,4500/.
Bearing, cutting tool, screw etc. = Rs500/.
Material cost = Rs3500.
Labor cost = 15hrs (no of machine operators * Rs50 per hour)
= 15 hour (5* Rs50 per hour)
= 500 Rs.
Other expenses:
= manufacturing process (painting + machines and energy consumed)
Other expenses = 500 + 15hours 10Rs/hour
= 650/.
Factory Cost:
Factory cost = prime cost + factory expenses
= 4500 + 500 = Rs5000.
Total cost:
Total cost = office cost + selling cost and distribution cost =Rs 10150.
Selling cost:
Selling cost = total cost + profit lose.
= 10150 + (10 % * total cost)
= 10150 + (10 * 10150/100) = Rs. 11155
By adding the general sales taxes = selling cost + 16% = 11155 + 16%
= Rs. 12939
Selling Cost = Rs. 12939
45

Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism

REFERENCES:I.
Department of Mechanical Engineering Queens Building, University
of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TR, UK
II.
A Textbook of Machine Design by R.S.KHURMI AND J.K.GUPTA.
III. Automobile Engineering , KirpalSingh.
IV. Automobile Engineering, S.M.Pandey& K.K. Shah.
V. www.wikipedia.com.
VI. Shigley Tata McGraw hills (Machine Design).
VII. Generation of Electricity through Speed Breaker Mechanism.
(Alok Kumar Singh, Deepak Singh, Madhawendra Kumar , Vijay Pandit,
Prof.SurendraAgrawal).
VIII. EVERY SPEED BREAKER IS NOW A SOURCE OF POWER.
(ASWATHAMAN.V ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING SONA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY SALEM, INDIA).
(PRIYADHARSHINI.M ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION
ENGINEERING SONA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY SALEM, INDIA).

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