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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

Michlmas 1996

Comments and corrections to pdm23@cam.ac.uk.

Revision: 1.9

Date: 2004/07/26 07:30:23

date

Paul Metcalfe

Contents

Introduction

1

Kinematics

1.1 Continuum Fields . . . . . . .

1.2 Flow Visualization . . . . . .

1.3 Material Derivative . . . . . .

1.4 Conservation of Mass . . . . .

1.5 Kinematic Boundary Condition

1.6 Incompressible Fluids . . . . .

1.7 Streamfunctions . . . . . . . .

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1

1

1

2

3

3

3

3

Dynamics

2.1 Surface and volume forces . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1 Applications of integral form . . . . . . .

2.3 Bernoullis Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Vorticity and Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.1 Vorticity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.2 Interpretation of vorticity . . . . . . . . .

2.4.3 Ballerina effect and vortex line stretching

2.4.4 Kelvins Circulation Theorem . . . . . .

2.4.5 Irrotational flow remains so . . . . . . .

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10

Irrotational Flows

3.1 Velocity potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Some simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.1 Uniform flow past a sphere . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.3.2 Uniform flow past a cylinder . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4 Pressure in irrotational flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5 Bubbles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.5.1 General theory for spherically symmetric motion

3.5.2 Small oscillations of a gas bubble . . . . . . . .

3.5.3 Total collapse of a void . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6 Translating Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6.1 Steady motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6.2 Effects of friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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iii

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iv

CONTENTS

3.7

3.8

3.6.4 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Translating cylinders with circulation . . . . .

3.7.1 Generation of circulation . . . . . . . .

More solutions to Laplaces equation . . . . . .

3.8.1 Image vortices and 2D vortex dynamics

3.8.2 Flow in corners . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1 Governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.1 Particle paths under a wave . . . . .

4.2 Standing Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.1 Rayleigh-Taylor instability . . . . .

4.3 River Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.1 Steady flow over a bump . . . . . .

4.3.2 Flow out of a lake over a broad weir

4.3.3 Hydraulic jumps . . . . . . . . . .

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23

23

24

24

24

24

25

26

27

Introduction

These notes are based on the course Fluid Dynamics given by Dr. J.R. Lister in

Cambridge in the Michlmas Term 1996. These typeset notes are totally unconnected

with Dr. Lister.

Other sets of notes are available for different courses. At the time of typing these

courses were:

Probability

Analysis

Methods

Fluid Dynamics 1

Geometry

Foundations of QM

Methods of Math. Phys

Waves (etc.)

General Relativity

Combinatorics

Discrete Mathematics

Further Analysis

Quantum Mechanics

Quadratic Mathematics

Dynamics of D.E.s

Electrodynamics

Fluid Dynamics 2

Statistical Physics

Dynamical Systems

Bifurcations in Nonlinear Convection

http://www.istari.ucam.org/maths/.

vi

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Kinematics

1.1

Continuum Fields

Everyday experience suggests that at a macroscopic scale, liquids and gases look like

smooth continua with density (x, t), velocity u(x, t) and pressure p(x, t) fields.

Since fluids are made of molecules this is of course only an approximate description. On large lengthscales we can define these fields by averaging over a volume V

smaller than the scale of interest but large enough to contain many molecules. The

effect of this averaging is to exchange an enormous number of ODEs that describe the

motion of each molecule for a few PDEs that describe the averaged fields.

This continuum approximation is not always appropriate. For instance the velocity structure about a spacecraft during re-entry has a lengthscale comparable with the

molecular mean free path. Similarly, blood flow in capillaries must take the red blood

cells into account.

1.2

Flow Visualization

There are many experimental techniques for obtaining a description of the velocity field

u(x, t). Three simple visualisation techniques give rise to the ideas of streamlines,

pathlines and streaklines. We will illustrate these ideas by application to the simple

two-dimensional example u(x, t) = (t, y).

Streamlines are curves that are everywhere parallel to the instantaneous flow. They

are visualised experimentally by the short-time exposure of many brightly-lit particles

the streamlines are obtained by joining the resulting short segments in a manner

analogous to obtaining magnetic fields from iron filings.

Mathematically, a streamline is a curve x(s; x0 , t) at a given fixed time t with s

varying along the curve and passing through a given point x0 that satisfies

x

= u(x, t)

s

x(0; x0 , t) = x0 .

y(s; x0 , t) = y0 es .

x(s; x0 , t) = x0 + ts

1

CHAPTER 1. KINEMATICS

This gives the curve

x x0

y

= log .

t

y0

Pathlines are particle paths: paths traversed by particles moving with the flow. They

are visualised experimentally by the long-time exposure of a few brightly-lit particles.

Mathematically, a pathline is a curve x(t; x0 , t0 ) corresponding to a particle released from x = x0 at t = t0 . The differential equation is

x

= u(x, t)

t

x(t0 ; x0 , t0 ) = x0 .

x(t; x0 , t0 ) = x0 +

t2 t20

2

y(t; x0 , t0 ) = y0 ett0 .

y = y0 e 2(xx0 ) .

Streaklines give the position at some fixed time of dye released over a range of

previous times from a fixed source (e.g. an oil spill).

Mathematically, a streakline is a curve x(t0 ; x, t) with t0 varying along the curve

and a fixed observation time t. To obtain it, we still solve

x

= u(x, t)

t

x(t0 ; x0 , t0 ) = x0 ,

but then fix t instead of t0 . Suppose we observe our flow at t = 0 we can use

our previous solution to get a streakline

y = y0 et0 = y0 e 2(x0 x) .

Note that for this unsteady flow we get different results from each method of visualisation. The different methods give the same result if the flow is steady.

1.3

Material Derivative

This is a rate of change moving with the fluid. For any quantity F , the rate of change

in that quantity seen by an observer moving with the fluid is the material or Lagrangian

derivative DF

Dt .

F (x + x, t + t) F (x, t)

t

F

+ smaller terms.

= (x ) F + t

t

F =

Hence

DF

F

= (u ) F +

.

Dt

t

1.4

Conservation of Mass

Consider an arbitrary (at least smooth this is applied maths) volume V , fixed in space

with bounding surface A and outward normal n. The mass inside V is

Z

M=

dV,

V

and the mass changes due to the flow over the boundary, so

Z

M

=

u n dA.

t

A

Application of the divergence theorem gives

Z

Z

dV +

(u) dV = 0.

V t

V

Since V is arbitrarily small,

+ (u) = 0,

t

or rewritten using the material derivative

D

+ u = 0.

Dt

1.5

This is an expression of mass conservation at a boundary. If the velocity of the boundary is uA , the condition for no mass flux is

u(x, t) uA (x, t) nAt = 0,

which gives that u n = uA n. For a fixed surface, uA = 0, so the surface is a

streamline.

1.6

Incompressible Fluids

For this course, we restrict ourselves to fluids with = const. Mass conservation

reduces to u = 0. Such a velocity field u is said to be solenoidal.

1.7

Streamfunctions

in 2D Cartesians, any velocity field u = (u, v, 0) is solenoidal if there exists (x, y, t)

such that u =

y and v = x .

and u = r .

In axisymmetric cylindrical polars, we want such that uz = 1r

r and ur =

1

r z . is called a Stokes streamfunction.

1

In axisymmetric spherical polars, we want such that ur = r2 sin

and u =

1

r sin r .

CHAPTER 1. KINEMATICS

Chapter 2

Dynamics

2.1

Two types of force are considered to act on a fluid: those proportional to volume (e.g.

gravity) and those proportional to area (e.g. pressure). This is a simplification appropriate to the continuum level description e.g. surface forces in a gas are the average

result of many molecules transferring momentum by collision with other molecules

over the very short distance of the mean free path.

Volume forces

We denote the force on a small volume element V by FV (x, t)V . The volume force

is often conservative, with a potential energy per unit volume , so that FV =

(or potential energy per unit mass , so that FV = .

The most common case is

FV (x, t)V = gV.

Surface forces

We denote the force on a small surface element nA by FA (x, t, n)A, which depends

on the orientation n of the surface element. A full description of surface forces includes

the effects of friction of layers of water sliding over each other or over rigid boundaries

(viscosity).

Viscous effects are important when the Reynolds number

UL

1,

where U is a typical velocity, L a typical length and is the dynamic viscosity, which

is a property of the fluid.

In many cases fluids act as nearly frictionless and in this course we neglect frictional

forces completely. For a treatment of viscous fluids see the Fluid Dynamics 2 course

in Part IIB.

For inviscid (frictionless) fluids the surface force is simply perpendicular to the

surface with a magnitude independent of orientation:

5

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

where p is the pressure. The minus sign is so that pressure is positive.

2.2

Momentum Equation

Consider an arbitrary (at least smooth this is applied maths) volume V , fixed in space

with bounding surface A and outward normal n. The momentum inside V is

Z

u dV,

V

and the momentum changes due to the flow over the boundary, surface forces and

volume forces, so

Z

Z

Z

Z

d

u dV =

u(u n) dA +

pn dA +

FV dV,

(2.1)

dt V

A

A

V

which is the momentum integral equation. Written in component form

Z

Z

Z

Z

d

ui dV =

ui uj nj dA +

pni dA +

FiV dV

dt V

A

A

V

ui uj is called the momentum flux tensor.

R

i

V is fixed, so LHS is V u

t dV , and using the divergence theorem on the RHS,

then letting V be arbitrarily small, we achieve the Euler momentum equation

u

+ (u ) u = p + FV .

(2.2)

t

The associated dynamic boundary condition is that given forces are applied at the

boundary (i.e. p is given).

2.2.1

Uncoiling of hosepipes

gravity. Now (2.1) becomes

Z

Z

+

(u(u n) + pn) dA = 0.

walls

ends

Z

pn dA = force on pipe,

walls

(U 2 + p)A(2 1)

and so the force on the pipe is F = (U 2 + p)A(1 2).

Pressure change at abrupt junction

Apply a momentum balance to the sketched shape. Neglect gravity, and also neglect

the time derivative, which is zero on average.

The momentum integral equation (2.1) becomes

Z

(u(u n) + pn) dA = 0.

The horizontal component gives

u21 A1 + p1 A1 = u22 A2 + p2 A2 ,

and mass conservation gives u1 A1 = u2 A2 . Then we see that

A1

A1

1

> 0.

p2 p1 = u21

A2

A2

2.3

Bernoullis Theorem

t = 0) with potential forces (FV = ),

(u ) u = (p + ),

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

1

2

u u ( u) = (p + ).

2

(2.3)

H = u . Now u H = 0, so H is constant on streamlines. This is Bernoullis

theorem.

Note also that H = 0 and that H is constant on vortex lines.

The constancy of H means that p is low at high speeds.

2.3.1

Application

Neglect gravity, so that on the surface streamline p = pa the speed is constant. Let

this speed be U .

Now apply the momentum integral equation (2.1) to get

Z

uu n + (p pa ) n dA = 0.

A

aU = a1 U + a2 U.

Now balance the momentum parallel to the wall to get

aU 2 cos = a2 U 2 a1 U 2 .

Thus

a1 =

1 + cos

a

2

and

a2 =

1 cos

a.

2

2.4

2.4.1

Vorticity Equation

Start with the Euler momentum equation (2.2) with potential forces

u

+ (u ) u = (p + )

and take its curl to obtain

= ( ) u (u ) + u u.

t

Now u = 0 and = 0, so we obtain

= ( ) u (u )

t

or

D

= ( ) u.

Dt

2.4.2

(2.4)

Interpretation of vorticity

Consider a material line element (ie a line element moving with the fluid). Then in a

time t, l l + (l ) ut, which gives that l

t = (l ) u. Hence the tensor

ui

determines

the

local

rate

of

deformation

of

line

elements.

xj

ui

xj

+

xj

ui

1

= eij + jik k .

2

1

ui

=

xj

2

1

+

2

ui

xj

xj

ui

The local motion due to eij is called the strain. The motion due to the second term

= 12 ( l) is rotation with angular velocity 12 .

1

2 jik k lj

2.4.3

The vorticity equation (2.4) can be interpreted as saying that vorticity changes just like

the rotation and stretching of material line elements. This is just the conservation of

angular momentum.

Consider a rotating fluid cylinder, initially with angular velocity 1 , radius a1 and

length l1 . Conservation of mass gives a21 l1 = a22 l2 and conservation of angular momentum gives a41 l1 1 = a42 l2 2 . These combine to give

1

l1

= ,

2

l2

which says that vorticity increases as the fluid is stretched. This explains the bathtub

vortex.

2.4.4

material curve (t) by

I

C(t) =

u(x, t) dl.

(t)

Then

C(t)

=

t

I

(t)

Du

d

dl + u

dl

Dt

dt

10

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

since moves with the fluid. But from the momentum equation

d

dt dl = (dl ) u. Hence

C(t)

=

t

=0

(t)

1 2 p+

u

2

Du

Dt

= p+

and

dl

since is closed

So, for an inviscid fluid of constant density with potential forces, the circulation

around a closed material curve is constant.

2.4.5

vorticity equation (2.4) becomes D

Dt = 0, implying that = 0 for all times t 0.

This isnt quite true, vorticity can leave a stagnation point, especially at sharp trailing edges.

Chapter 3

Irrotational Flows

You will want to find a table of vector differential operators in various co-ordinate

systems. There is one in the back of Acheson.

3.1

Velocity potential

The vorticity equation tells us that an initially irrotational flow remains so for all time.

Since u = 0 for all time there exists a velocity potential (x, t) such that u = .

Note both the + sign and that any function f (t) can be added to . Given u, we can

find from

Z x

=

u(x, t) dl.

x0

in 2D if there are holes with

I

u dl 6= 0.

hole

we have to solve 2 = 0.1

The kinematic boundary condition uA n = u n is

uA n = n

.

n

Thus solving the Euler momentum equation (2.2) reduces to solving the more familiar Laplaces equation with Neumann boundary conditions. The flow is only non

zero because of the applied boundary conditions on n

(on bodies, surfaces and at

infinity).

3.2

sum of separable solutions in suitable co-ordinate systems. See the Methods course for

details.

1 Hence

11

12

Cartesians

= U x gives u = U. This is uniform flow with velocity U (e.g. flow in a

straight pipe).

= (ekz or cosh kz or sinh kz) (ekx or cos kx or sin kx) gives a flow

which is periodic in x (e.g. waves).

Spherical polars

The general axisymmetric solution of 2 = 0 in spherical polars is

X

=

An rn + Bn rn1 Pn (cos ),

n0

where the Pn are the Legendre polynomials. We will only use the first few modes.

m

m

r

= 4r

gives u = 4

r 2 . This is a radial flow. The total outflow over a sphere

2

of radius R is 4R ur = m, which is independent of R by mass conservation.

This is a point source of strength m. (If m < 0 it is a point sink.)

r2 cos gives dipole flow.

Plane polars

The general solution of 2 = 0 in plane polars is

X

= K + A0 log r + B0 +

An rn + Bn rn en .

n1

=

m

2

log r gives u =

m

r

2 r .

= 2

gives u = 2

r . The circulation about a circle of radius R is , which is

independent of R by u = 0. This is a line vortex of circulation .

r1 cos is a 2D dipole.

r2 cos x2 y 2 is a 2D straining flow.

3.3

3.3.1

Applications

Uniform flow past a sphere

We have to solve the equations

2 = 0

=0

r

and U r cos

in r > a,

at r = a,

as r .

13

3.3. APPLICATIONS

We can satisfy the Laplace equation and boundary condition at infinity with

B

= U cos r + 2 .

r

The boundary condition at r = a yields B =

u=

a3

2 .

Thus

a3

a3

U cos 1 3 , U sin 1 + 3 , 0

r

2r

3.3.2

Consider a hard cylinder of radius a in a fluid with a uniform velocity U at infinity and

with a circulation .

We have to solve

2 = 0

=0

r

and U r cos

in r > a,

at r = a,

as r .

14

We further need

I

r=a

u dl = = []r=a

a2

= U cos r +

+

.

r

2

In plane polars (r, ), we therefore have

u=

3.4

a2

a2

.

U cos 1 2 , U sin 1 + 2 +

r

r

2r

+ (u ) u = (p + )

t

and

(u ) u =

1 2

u

2

1 2

+ u + p + = 0,

t

2

which integrates to give

1 2

+ u + p + = f (t) independent of x.

t

2

(3.1)

Application

We can apply this theory to the free oscillations of a manometer. We need to calculate

Z

u dl.

(x, t) =

x0

15

3.5. BUBBLES

Let s be the arc length from the bottom, with the equilibrium points at s = l1 , l2 .

From mass conservation the flow is uniform, so that u = h everywhere. Therefore

and so

= hs,

= hs.

t x

At the interfaces the pressure is constant. Using the equation for potential flow

(3.1) we get

+ 1 h 2 + pa gh sin = (l2 + h) + 1 h 2 + pa + gh sin .

(l1 + h)h

2

2

This simplifies to give

= g(sin + sin ) h,

h

l1 + l 2

and so we have SHM (even for large oscillations).

3.5

3.5.1

Bubbles

General theory for spherically symmetric motion

The pressure is p(r, t), and the far-field pressure is p(, t). We have radial motion,

u r12 . If the radius of the bubble is a(t), then a = ur at r = a, which gives that

a

a2 +2a 2 a

2

u = rr2 aa

2 = . So = aa

. Putting all this together

r and t =

r

r

gives

a

a2 + 2a 2 a a 2 a4

+

+ p(r, t) = p(, t).

r

2 r4

At r = a

3

2

or

d 1 3 2

a a

= a2 a (p(a, t) p(, t)) .

dt 2

This can be interpreted as rate of change of kinetic energy equals rate of working by

pressure forces.

Another rewrite gives

a 1 2 a a4

4

p(r, t) p(, t) = (p(a, t) p(, t)) + a

r

2

r

r

3.5.2

Assume a(t) = a0 + a(t) and that a (t) is small, p is constant in time and that the

a

gas in the bubble has pressure such that pgas = p 3

a0 (**which can be obtained

from P V constant for ideal adiabatic gas**). Neglect surface tension. Linearising

3

aa a 2 = p(, t) p(a, t)

2

about a = a0 and a = 0 we obtain

3p a

a0 a =

,

a0

12

.

a2

o

16

3.5.3

Bernoulli implies that the pressure decreases as the speed increases. If this makes the

pressure negative, then the liquid will break to form a void filled only with vapour. This

has important consequences for valves and propellors (cavitation).

Consider a spherical void (ie p(a, t) = 0) at rest with a = a0 and a = 0 at t = 0

with a constant background pressure p . Now

d 1 3 2

a a

= a2 a (p(a, t) p(, t)) ,

dt 2

so

1 3 2

1

a a = p a30 a3 .

2

3

Integrate this again (numerically!), to get

tcollapse = 0.92

3.6

a20

p

12

.

3.6.1

Steady motion

Use the inertial frame moving steadily with the sphere. It was shown in 3.3.1 that

uniform flow past a fixed sphere has

a3

= U cos r + 2 and

2r

a3

a3

u = U cos 1 3 , U sin 1 + 3 , 0, .

r

2r

Hence at r = a, |u| = 23 U sin . Potential flow means we can apply

with

1 2

+ u + p + independent of x,

t

2

9

1

p(a, ) = p + U 2 1 sin2 .

2

4

This pressure distribution is symmetric fore and aft and around the equator, so

no force is exerted on a steadily moving sphere (**or indeed any 3D body**). This

surprising result is called DAlemberts paradox.

3.6.2

** Effects of friction **

in the absence of friction forces are needed only for acceleration and not for uniform

motion.

17

This potential flow result is a good approximation for bubbles in steady motion,

because they have slippery surfaces. It is a bad approximation for rigid spheres in

steady motion. What is observed in experiments is separation and a wake.

The small amount of friction produces a thin layer of fluid next to the rigid surface

that is slowed down from the potential flow. This thin boundary layer is sensitive to the

slowing down of the surrounding potential flow from the equator to the rear stagnation

point, and detaches from the sphere into the body of the fluid to produce a shear layer

of concentrated vorticity (this is called separation). Separation also occurs behind

other bluff bodies in steady translation but can be suppressed to a certain extent behind

streamlined/tapered bodies. Boundary layers are covered in more detail in Part IIB and

Part III courses.

We can estimate the drag force as proportional to the projected area (A) times the

pressure difference: applying Bernoulli gives

drag force = 12 CD U 2 A,

where CD is a dimensionless coefficient that must be measured experimentally (0.4 for

a sphere, 1.1 for a disc, 1.0 for a cylinder).

3.6.3

Accelerating spheres

Potential flow is useful for slippery bubbles, rapid accelerations of small (rigid) particles and small oscillations.

For the accelerating sphere, it is best to have the fluid at at rest. Consider a

sphere of radius a and centre x0 (t) and velocity u(t) = x 0 (t). The velocity potential

problem is then

2 = 0 in r a,

0 as r ,

= u(t) n on r = a.

r

t

with solution

=

=

U cos a3

2r2

u (x x0 (t)) a3

3

2 |x x0 (t)|

u ra3

=

+ u (terms linear in x 0 ) .

t r

2r3

18

Now = terms linear in u. These linear terms must be the same as for steady

1

2

motion. Hence the pressure on the sphere is p = p + ur

1 94 sin2 .

2 + 2 U

The force on the sphere is given by

Z

Z

r

pn dA =

(u r) dA

2 r=a

a

r=a

R

rr

r=a i j

dA =

4a4

3 ij ,

so

1 4a4 1

F = u

= m u

2

3 a

3

where m = 21 fluid 4a

3 , the added (or effective or virtual) mass.

3.6.4

Kinetic Energy

Z

T =

1 2

u dV

2

V

Z

2

=

() dV

2 V

Z

=

() 2 dV

2 V

Z

=

() dS

2

Z S

(n ) dS

=

S 2

3.7

a2

= U cos r +

+

,

r

2

with

u=

a2

a2

U cos 1 2 , U sin 1 + 2 +

.

r

r

2r

On r = a, |u| = 2 sin U +

2a ,

thus

2

1

2

p(a, ) = p + U

2U sin

2

2a

and so (by doing the integral), F = (0, U ) (in Cartesians). This is a lift force

perpendicular to the velocity. The same lift force applies to arbitrary aerofoils (at least

to the first approximation).

3.7.1

19

** Generation of circulation **

In order to calculate the lift on an aerofoil we thus need to know the circulation .

Potential flow without circulation would have very large velocities around the sharp

trailing edge.

This is strongly opposed by friction, and the flow avoids these high velocities by

shedding an eddy as the aerofoil starts to move. This eddy is of such a size as to

streamline the flow on the aerofoil.

The circulation around C1 + C2 is initially zero and so remains zero at all times

(by Kelvins theorem). Hence the circulation around the aerofoil (the bound vortex) is

equal in magnitude to the circulation in the shed starting vortex (but opposite in sign).

The strength is chosen to avoid a singularity at the sharp trailing edge, a condition

which gives lU sin , provided < 14 . For > 14 the flow separates and

the aerofoil stalls.2

Since = 0 vortex lines cannot end in the fluid, and in fact the bound vortex

on the wing is connected to the starting vortex by two vortices shed from the wingtips.

These are responsible for the observed vapour trails.

2 See

20

3.8

3.8.1

Image vortices and 2D vortex dynamics

=

, with u =

(y, x).

2

2r

Since the potential flow equations are linear we can superpose solutions.

=

X i i

i

This gives us a new method of finding solutions in nice geometries. For instance,

consider a vortex near a plane wall as shown.

The velocity field is the same as if there was an image vortex of opposite strength

so that normal velocities cancel. This image produces a velocity 4d

and so the vortex trundles along parallel to the wall as shown.

21

We have vortices at (x0 (t), y0 (t)) and so we need to add images at (x0 (t), y0 (t)).

Now

x 0 =

This gives

3.8.2

dy0

dx0

x20

4 y0 (x20 + y02 )

and

y 0 =

y02

.

4 x0 (x20 + y02 )

y3

= x03 , or

0

1

1

+ 2 = C.

x20

y0

Flow in corners

= 0 on = .

Now |u| r1 , and so there are infinite velocities as r 0 if < 1. The effect

of friction here is to introduce a circulation.

22

Chapter 4

4.1

Governing equations

The flow is assumed to start from rest and is thus irrotational (and remains so). Let the

free surface be at (x, y, t), || sufficiently small for nice things to happen. So

2 = 0 z h,

1

2

+ || + p + gz = f (t),

t

2

p = pair at z = ,

+

+

=

,

t

x x z= y y z=

z z=

= 0.

z z=h

We will restrict to the 1-D case but even so, to have any hope of solving this we

have to linearise it.

1. Throw out the nonlinear terms.

2. Evaluate at z = using information at z = 0.

3. Throw out new nonlinear terms.

2 = 0

0 z h,

+ g = f (t),

z=0

p = pair at z = ,

=

,

t

z

z=0

= 0.

z z=h

23

24

+ g = f (t), we obtain the disperUsing the dynamic boundary condition

t

z=0

sion relation

2 = gk tanh kh.

p

In deep water, h k1 , so tanh

kh 1, giving 2 = kh and c = kg 1 . In shallow

water, tanh kh kh giving = k gh and c = gh.

4.1.1

ia cosh k (z0 + h) i(kx0 t)

e

sinh kh

a sinh k (z0 + h) i(kx0 t)

z(t) = z0 +

e

,

sinh kh

x(t) = x0

which is elliptic motion. x0 and z0 are the mean positions of the particles in the

(x, z) plane.

In the deep water limit we get circular motion and in the shallow water limit we get

mainly horizontal motion.

4.2

Standing Waves

linearised waves with displacement (x, y, t). Try separable solutions to obtain

(x, y, z, t) = A cos

ny kz it

mx

cos

e e

.

s

b

2

n2

m

+

,

k2 = 2

a2

b2

and the dynamic boundary conditions determine 2 = gk. This is to be expected, since

a standing wave is the sum of progressive waves.

4.2.1

Rayleigh-Taylor instability

down (or equivalently replace g with g).

This makes imaginary, leading to a e gkt term, which quickly magnifies any deviations from = 0. The largest growth rate is for large k, but this is cancelled by surface

tension in the real world.

4.3

River Flows

These are nonlinear problems, but can be solved since the shallowness of the river in

comparision to its length means that the flow is nearly unidirectional.

1 The

wave speed...

25

4.3.1

We assume that

the river has vertical sides and constant width;

it varies only slowly in the x direction, so that the flow is (to a good approximation) horizontal and uniform across any vertical section (since u

z = y = 0);

the flow is steady;

far from the bump (x ), 0, h h and U U .

Then mass conservation gives

U ( + h) = U h ,

(4.1)

1 2

1 2

U + patm + g = U

+ patm .

2

2

Now eliminate between (4.1) and (4.2) to obtain

1 2 gU h

1 2

U +

= U

+ gh.

2

U

2

We can now extract information from (4.3) graphically.

(4.2)

(4.3)

If the bump is too big then the assumption of steady/slowly varying flow must

fail. This gives a hydraulic jump see 4.3.3.

26

If the bump is just right then the flow can pass smoothly from one root the other

(e.g. flow over a weir in 4.3.2).

If the bump is not too large then the flow stays on the same root. This has two

subcases.

On the left hand root: U < gh flow slower than shallow water

waves we have

bump up h RHS u .

i.e. slow deep flow converts PE to KE to maintain the mass flux.

On the right hand root: U > gh flow faster than shallow water

waves we have

bump up h RHS u .

i.e. fast shallow flow converts KE to PE to maintain the mass flux.

Normal rivers are in the slow deep state.

4.3.2

This is the same as 4.3.1 but with a smooth change of branch. We need the bump just

right.

The lake is large and deep, so we take the limit h , U 0 with U h =

Q fixed. Mass conservation gives

U ( + h) = Q

and Bernoulli on the surface streamline gives

1 2

U + g = 0.

2

Eliminating as before gives

1 2 gQ

U +

= gh(x),

2

U

which is a cubic for unknown U (x) given h(x).

(4.4)

27

The flow starts high on the LH branch in the lake, but comes out of the weir high

on the RH branch. The minimum of h(x) (the crest of the weir) must be at the join of

the branches, and so

12

8 3

Q=

ghmin

,

27

giving the flow rate as a function of the height of the weir.

1

At the crest of the weir, U = 23 gh3min 2 and mass conservation gives

1

crest = hmin

3

2

= g(fluid depth)crest , so that the flow is

and the fluid depth is 23 hmin . Also, Ucrest

travelling at the speed of shallow water waves at the crest. There can therefore be no

communication from after the weir back to the lake.

4.3.3

Hydraulic jumps

Given U1 and h1 from river data and h2 from tidal theory can we predict the speed V

of the jump (and the flow U2 )?

The energy loss in the turbulent jump makes Bernoulli inapplicable (friction is important in the small-scale unsteady motions). However the flat-bottomed case provides

an application of the momentum integral equation.

Change to a frame moving with the jump. Away from the jump there is no vertical

acceleration and so the pressure is hydrostatic there.

28

d

dt

Z

u dV =

Z

(u(u n) + pn) dA +

FV dV,

and noting that the flow is steady on average we obtain (from the area integral)

1

(V + U1 )2 h1 + (pa h1 + gh21 ) + pa (h2 h1 )

2

1

= (V U2 )2 h2 + (pa h2 + gh22 ),

2

which boils down to

(V + U1 )2 h1 (V U2 )2 h2 =

1

g(h22 h21 ).

2

between these equations gives (eventually)

(V + U1 )2 =

g(h1 + h2 )h2

.

2h1

(V U2 )2 =

g(h1 + h2 )h1

2h2

for U2 .

Note that if h2 > h1 then V U2 < gh2 and V + U1 > gh1 the jump

travels faster than shallow water waves on the river side and overtakes all information

of its future arrival.

References

D.J. Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics, OUP, 1990.

This is an excellent book, easy to read and with everything in. It is also good for Fluids

IIB. Highly recommended.

The lecturer recommended this, and it is a reasonably good book for Fluids IIB. Personally I think youd be wrong in your head to buy it for this course, but YMMV.

Lots of pictures of flows. An excellent book. Go out and buy it. Now.

Related courses

In Part IIA there are courses on Transport Processes and Theoretical Geophysics. The

IIB fluids courses are Fluid Dynamics 2 and Waves in Fluid and Solid Media, both of

which use the material in this course to some extent.

29

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