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Fluid Dynamics

Dr. J.R. Lister


Michlmas 1996

These notes are maintained by Paul Metcalfe.


Comments and corrections to pdm23@cam.ac.uk.

Revision: 1.9
Date: 2004/07/26 07:30:23

The following people have maintained these notes.


date

Paul Metcalfe

Contents
Introduction
1

Kinematics
1.1 Continuum Fields . . . . . . .
1.2 Flow Visualization . . . . . .
1.3 Material Derivative . . . . . .
1.4 Conservation of Mass . . . . .
1.5 Kinematic Boundary Condition
1.6 Incompressible Fluids . . . . .
1.7 Streamfunctions . . . . . . . .

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3
3

Dynamics
2.1 Surface and volume forces . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Applications of integral form . . . . . . .
2.3 Bernoullis Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Vorticity and Circulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Vorticity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Interpretation of vorticity . . . . . . . . .
2.4.3 Ballerina effect and vortex line stretching
2.4.4 Kelvins Circulation Theorem . . . . . .
2.4.5 Irrotational flow remains so . . . . . . .

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Irrotational Flows
3.1 Velocity potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Some simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Uniform flow past a sphere . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Uniform flow past a cylinder . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Pressure in irrotational flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 Bubbles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 General theory for spherically symmetric motion
3.5.2 Small oscillations of a gas bubble . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Total collapse of a void . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Translating Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 Steady motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Effects of friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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iii

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iv

CONTENTS

3.7
3.8

3.6.3 Accelerating spheres . . . . . . . . . .


3.6.4 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Translating cylinders with circulation . . . . .
3.7.1 Generation of circulation . . . . . . . .
More solutions to Laplaces equation . . . . . .
3.8.1 Image vortices and 2D vortex dynamics
3.8.2 Flow in corners . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Free Surface Flows


4.1 Governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Particle paths under a wave . . . . .
4.2 Standing Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Rayleigh-Taylor instability . . . . .
4.3 River Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Steady flow over a bump . . . . . .
4.3.2 Flow out of a lake over a broad weir
4.3.3 Hydraulic jumps . . . . . . . . . .

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27

Introduction
These notes are based on the course Fluid Dynamics given by Dr. J.R. Lister in
Cambridge in the Michlmas Term 1996. These typeset notes are totally unconnected
with Dr. Lister.
Other sets of notes are available for different courses. At the time of typing these
courses were:
Probability
Analysis
Methods
Fluid Dynamics 1
Geometry
Foundations of QM
Methods of Math. Phys
Waves (etc.)
General Relativity
Combinatorics

Discrete Mathematics
Further Analysis
Quantum Mechanics
Quadratic Mathematics
Dynamics of D.E.s
Electrodynamics
Fluid Dynamics 2
Statistical Physics
Dynamical Systems
Bifurcations in Nonlinear Convection

They may be downloaded from


http://www.istari.ucam.org/maths/.

vi

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1

Kinematics
1.1

Continuum Fields

Everyday experience suggests that at a macroscopic scale, liquids and gases look like
smooth continua with density (x, t), velocity u(x, t) and pressure p(x, t) fields.
Since fluids are made of molecules this is of course only an approximate description. On large lengthscales we can define these fields by averaging over a volume V
smaller than the scale of interest but large enough to contain many molecules. The
effect of this averaging is to exchange an enormous number of ODEs that describe the
motion of each molecule for a few PDEs that describe the averaged fields.
This continuum approximation is not always appropriate. For instance the velocity structure about a spacecraft during re-entry has a lengthscale comparable with the
molecular mean free path. Similarly, blood flow in capillaries must take the red blood
cells into account.

1.2

Flow Visualization

There are many experimental techniques for obtaining a description of the velocity field
u(x, t). Three simple visualisation techniques give rise to the ideas of streamlines,
pathlines and streaklines. We will illustrate these ideas by application to the simple
two-dimensional example u(x, t) = (t, y).
Streamlines are curves that are everywhere parallel to the instantaneous flow. They
are visualised experimentally by the short-time exposure of many brightly-lit particles
the streamlines are obtained by joining the resulting short segments in a manner
analogous to obtaining magnetic fields from iron filings.
Mathematically, a streamline is a curve x(s; x0 , t) at a given fixed time t with s
varying along the curve and passing through a given point x0 that satisfies
x
= u(x, t)
s

x(0; x0 , t) = x0 .

For our example we have


y(s; x0 , t) = y0 es .

x(s; x0 , t) = x0 + ts
1

CHAPTER 1. KINEMATICS
This gives the curve
x x0
y
= log .
t
y0

Pathlines are particle paths: paths traversed by particles moving with the flow. They
are visualised experimentally by the long-time exposure of a few brightly-lit particles.
Mathematically, a pathline is a curve x(t; x0 , t0 ) corresponding to a particle released from x = x0 at t = t0 . The differential equation is
x
= u(x, t)
t

x(t0 ; x0 , t0 ) = x0 .

Our example gives


x(t; x0 , t0 ) = x0 +

t2 t20
2

y(t; x0 , t0 ) = y0 ett0 .

For a particle released at t0 = 0 this gives a curve

y = y0 e 2(xx0 ) .
Streaklines give the position at some fixed time of dye released over a range of
previous times from a fixed source (e.g. an oil spill).
Mathematically, a streakline is a curve x(t0 ; x, t) with t0 varying along the curve
and a fixed observation time t. To obtain it, we still solve
x
= u(x, t)
t

x(t0 ; x0 , t0 ) = x0 ,

but then fix t instead of t0 . Suppose we observe our flow at t = 0 we can use
our previous solution to get a streakline

y = y0 et0 = y0 e 2(x0 x) .
Note that for this unsteady flow we get different results from each method of visualisation. The different methods give the same result if the flow is steady.

1.3

Material Derivative

This is a rate of change moving with the fluid. For any quantity F , the rate of change
in that quantity seen by an observer moving with the fluid is the material or Lagrangian
derivative DF
Dt .
F (x + x, t + t) F (x, t)
t
F
+ smaller terms.
= (x ) F + t
t

F =

Hence
DF
F
= (u ) F +
.
Dt
t

1.4. CONSERVATION OF MASS

1.4

Conservation of Mass

Consider an arbitrary (at least smooth this is applied maths) volume V , fixed in space
with bounding surface A and outward normal n. The mass inside V is
Z
M=
dV,
V

and the mass changes due to the flow over the boundary, so
Z
M
=
u n dA.
t
A
Application of the divergence theorem gives
Z
Z

dV +
(u) dV = 0.
V t
V
Since V is arbitrarily small,

+ (u) = 0,
t
or rewritten using the material derivative
D
+ u = 0.
Dt

1.5

Kinematic Boundary Condition

This is an expression of mass conservation at a boundary. If the velocity of the boundary is uA , the condition for no mass flux is

u(x, t) uA (x, t) nAt = 0,
which gives that u n = uA n. For a fixed surface, uA = 0, so the surface is a
streamline.

1.6

Incompressible Fluids

For this course, we restrict ourselves to fluids with = const. Mass conservation
reduces to u = 0. Such a velocity field u is said to be solenoidal.

1.7

Streamfunctions

This gives a representation of the flow satisfying u = 0 automatically. For example,


in 2D Cartesians, any velocity field u = (u, v, 0) is solenoidal if there exists (x, y, t)

such that u =
y and v = x .

In 2D polars, we want such that ur = 1r


and u = r .
In axisymmetric cylindrical polars, we want such that uz = 1r
r and ur =
1
r z . is called a Stokes streamfunction.

1
In axisymmetric spherical polars, we want such that ur = r2 sin
and u =
1
r sin r .

CHAPTER 1. KINEMATICS

Chapter 2

Dynamics
2.1

Surface and volume forces

Two types of force are considered to act on a fluid: those proportional to volume (e.g.
gravity) and those proportional to area (e.g. pressure). This is a simplification appropriate to the continuum level description e.g. surface forces in a gas are the average
result of many molecules transferring momentum by collision with other molecules
over the very short distance of the mean free path.

Volume forces
We denote the force on a small volume element V by FV (x, t)V . The volume force
is often conservative, with a potential energy per unit volume , so that FV =
(or potential energy per unit mass , so that FV = .
The most common case is
FV (x, t)V = gV.

Surface forces
We denote the force on a small surface element nA by FA (x, t, n)A, which depends
on the orientation n of the surface element. A full description of surface forces includes
the effects of friction of layers of water sliding over each other or over rigid boundaries
(viscosity).
Viscous effects are important when the Reynolds number
UL
1,

where U is a typical velocity, L a typical length and is the dynamic viscosity, which
is a property of the fluid.
In many cases fluids act as nearly frictionless and in this course we neglect frictional
forces completely. For a treatment of viscous fluids see the Fluid Dynamics 2 course
in Part IIB.
For inviscid (frictionless) fluids the surface force is simply perpendicular to the
surface with a magnitude independent of orientation:
5

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

FA (x, t)A = p(x, t)nA,


where p is the pressure. The minus sign is so that pressure is positive.

2.2

Momentum Equation

Consider an arbitrary (at least smooth this is applied maths) volume V , fixed in space
with bounding surface A and outward normal n. The momentum inside V is
Z
u dV,
V

and the momentum changes due to the flow over the boundary, surface forces and
volume forces, so
Z
Z
Z
Z
d
u dV =
u(u n) dA +
pn dA +
FV dV,
(2.1)
dt V
A
A
V
which is the momentum integral equation. Written in component form
Z
Z
Z
Z
d
ui dV =
ui uj nj dA +
pni dA +
FiV dV
dt V
A
A
V
ui uj is called the momentum flux tensor.
R
i
V is fixed, so LHS is V u
t dV , and using the divergence theorem on the RHS,
then letting V be arbitrarily small, we achieve the Euler momentum equation


u

+ (u ) u = p + FV .
(2.2)
t
The associated dynamic boundary condition is that given forces are applied at the
boundary (i.e. p is given).

2.2.1

Applications of integral form

Uncoiling of hosepipes

Assume a steady uniform flow U through a pipe of constant cross-section A. Neglect


gravity. Now (2.1) becomes
Z
Z
+
(u(u n) + pn) dA = 0.
walls

ends

2.3. BERNOULLIS THEOREM

The integral over the walls is


Z
pn dA = force on pipe,
walls

since u n = 0 on the walls. The integral over the ends is


(U 2 + p)A(2 1)
and so the force on the pipe is F = (U 2 + p)A(1 2).
Pressure change at abrupt junction

Apply a momentum balance to the sketched shape. Neglect gravity, and also neglect
the time derivative, which is zero on average.
The momentum integral equation (2.1) becomes
Z
(u(u n) + pn) dA = 0.
The horizontal component gives
u21 A1 + p1 A1 = u22 A2 + p2 A2 ,
and mass conservation gives u1 A1 = u2 A2 . Then we see that


A1
A1
1
> 0.
p2 p1 = u21
A2
A2

2.3

Bernoullis Theorem

For a steady flow ( u


t = 0) with potential forces (FV = ),
(u ) u = (p + ),

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

which can be written





1
2
u u ( u) = (p + ).
2

(2.3)

We define the vorticity = u and then let H = 21 u2 + p + . Then


H = u . Now u H = 0, so H is constant on streamlines. This is Bernoullis
theorem.
Note also that H = 0 and that H is constant on vortex lines.
The constancy of H means that p is low at high speeds.

2.3.1

Application

Consider a water jet hitting an inclined plane.

Neglect gravity, so that on the surface streamline p = pa the speed is constant. Let
this speed be U .
Now apply the momentum integral equation (2.1) to get
Z
uu n + (p pa ) n dA = 0.
A

Now u n = 0 except at the ends. Mass conservation gives


aU = a1 U + a2 U.
Now balance the momentum parallel to the wall to get
aU 2 cos = a2 U 2 a1 U 2 .
Thus
a1 =

1 + cos
a
2

and

a2 =

1 cos
a.
2

Balancing the momentum perpendicular to the wall we get F = aU 2 sin .

2.4
2.4.1

Vorticity and Circulation


Vorticity Equation

Start with the Euler momentum equation (2.2) with potential forces


u
+ (u ) u = (p + )

2.4. VORTICITY AND CIRCULATION


and take its curl to obtain

= ( ) u (u ) + u u.
t
Now u = 0 and = 0, so we obtain

= ( ) u (u )
t
or

D
= ( ) u.
Dt

2.4.2

(2.4)

Interpretation of vorticity

Consider a material line element (ie a line element moving with the fluid). Then in a
time t, l l + (l ) ut, which gives that l
t = (l ) u. Hence the tensor
ui
determines
the
local
rate
of
deformation
of
line
elements.
xj


ui
xj
+
xj
ui
1
= eij + jik k .
2

1
ui
=
xj
2

1
+
2

ui
xj

xj
ui

The local motion due to eij is called the strain. The motion due to the second term
= 12 ( l) is rotation with angular velocity 12 .

1
2 jik k lj

2.4.3

Ballerina effect and vortex line stretching

The vorticity equation (2.4) can be interpreted as saying that vorticity changes just like
the rotation and stretching of material line elements. This is just the conservation of
angular momentum.
Consider a rotating fluid cylinder, initially with angular velocity 1 , radius a1 and
length l1 . Conservation of mass gives a21 l1 = a22 l2 and conservation of angular momentum gives a41 l1 1 = a42 l2 2 . These combine to give
1
l1
= ,
2
l2
which says that vorticity increases as the fluid is stretched. This explains the bathtub
vortex.

2.4.4

Kelvins Circulation Theorem

Assume constant and FV = . Define the circulation C(t) around a closed


material curve (t) by
I
C(t) =
u(x, t) dl.
(t)

Then

C(t)
=
t

I
(t)

Du
d
dl + u
dl
Dt
dt

10

CHAPTER 2. DYNAMICS

since moves with the fluid. But from the momentum equation
d
dt dl = (dl ) u. Hence
C(t)
=
t

=0

(t)

1 2 p+
u
2

Du
Dt

= p+
and


dl

since is closed

So, for an inviscid fluid of constant density with potential forces, the circulation
around a closed material curve is constant.

2.4.5

Irrotational flow remains so

A flow with = 0 is said to be irrotational. If = 0 everywhere at t = 0, then the


vorticity equation (2.4) becomes D
Dt = 0, implying that = 0 for all times t 0.
This isnt quite true, vorticity can leave a stagnation point, especially at sharp trailing edges.

Chapter 3

Irrotational Flows
You will want to find a table of vector differential operators in various co-ordinate
systems. There is one in the back of Acheson.

3.1

Velocity potential

The vorticity equation tells us that an initially irrotational flow remains so for all time.
Since u = 0 for all time there exists a velocity potential (x, t) such that u = .
Note both the + sign and that any function f (t) can be added to . Given u, we can
find from
Z x
=
u(x, t) dl.
x0

The result is independent of path since u = 0. Note that can be multivalued


in 2D if there are holes with
I
u dl 6= 0.
hole

Mass conservation for an incompressible fluid reduces to = 0, and so if u =


we have to solve 2 = 0.1
The kinematic boundary condition uA n = u n is
uA n = n

.
n

Thus solving the Euler momentum equation (2.2) reduces to solving the more familiar Laplaces equation with Neumann boundary conditions. The flow is only non
zero because of the applied boundary conditions on n
(on bodies, surfaces and at
infinity).

3.2

Some simple solutions

For simple geometries it is often possible to write down solutions of 2 = 0 as a


sum of separable solutions in suitable co-ordinate systems. See the Methods course for
details.
1 Hence

irrotational flows are sometimes called potential or harmonic flows.

11

12

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

Cartesians
= U x gives u = U. This is uniform flow with velocity U (e.g. flow in a
straight pipe).
= (ekz or cosh kz or sinh kz) (ekx or cos kx or sin kx) gives a flow
which is periodic in x (e.g. waves).

Spherical polars
The general axisymmetric solution of 2 = 0 in spherical polars is
X

=
An rn + Bn rn1 Pn (cos ),
n0

where the Pn are the Legendre polynomials. We will only use the first few modes.
m
m
r
= 4r
gives u = 4
r 2 . This is a radial flow. The total outflow over a sphere
2
of radius R is 4R ur = m, which is independent of R by mass conservation.
This is a point source of strength m. (If m < 0 it is a point sink.)

= U r cos U z gives uniform flow again.


r2 cos gives dipole flow.

Plane polars
The general solution of 2 = 0 in plane polars is
X

= K + A0 log r + B0 +
An rn + Bn rn en .
n1

We again use only the first few modes.


=

m
2

log r gives u =

m
r
2 r .

This is a radial flow, a line source of strength m.


= 2
gives u = 2
r . The circulation about a circle of radius R is , which is
independent of R by u = 0. This is a line vortex of circulation .

r1 cos is a 2D dipole.
r2 cos x2 y 2 is a 2D straining flow.

3.3
3.3.1

Applications
Uniform flow past a sphere

Consider a hard sphere of radius a in a fluid having a uniform velocity U at infinity.


We have to solve the equations
2 = 0

=0
r
and U r cos

in r > a,
at r = a,
as r .

13

3.3. APPLICATIONS
We can satisfy the Laplace equation and boundary condition at infinity with


B
= U cos r + 2 .
r
The boundary condition at r = a yields B =

u=

a3
2 .

Thus



 

a3
a3
U cos 1 3 , U sin 1 + 3 , 0
r
2r

in spherical polars (r, , ).

3.3.2

Uniform flow past a cylinder

Consider a hard cylinder of radius a in a fluid with a uniform velocity U at infinity and
with a circulation .
We have to solve
2 = 0

=0
r
and U r cos

in r > a,
at r = a,
as r .

14

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS


We further need

I
r=a

u dl = = []r=a

to obtain a unique solution. These conditions give




a2

= U cos r +
+
.
r
2
In plane polars (r, ), we therefore have

u=

3.4






a2

a2
.
U cos 1 2 , U sin 1 + 2 +
r
r
2r

The pressure in irrotational potential flow with potential forces

The momentum and vorticity equations (2.2, 2.4) become





+ (u ) u = (p + )
t
and

(u ) u =

1 2
u
2

respectively, and these combine to give




1 2
+ u + p + = 0,

t
2
which integrates to give

1 2
+ u + p + = f (t) independent of x.
t
2

(3.1)

Application

We can apply this theory to the free oscillations of a manometer. We need to calculate
Z

u dl.

(x, t) =
x0

15

3.5. BUBBLES

Let s be the arc length from the bottom, with the equilibrium points at s = l1 , l2 .
From mass conservation the flow is uniform, so that u = h everywhere. Therefore
and so
= hs,

= hs.
t x
At the interfaces the pressure is constant. Using the equation for potential flow
(3.1) we get
+ 1 h 2 + pa gh sin = (l2 + h) + 1 h 2 + pa + gh sin .
(l1 + h)h
2
2
This simplifies to give
= g(sin + sin ) h,
h
l1 + l 2
and so we have SHM (even for large oscillations).

3.5
3.5.1

Bubbles
General theory for spherically symmetric motion

The pressure is p(r, t), and the far-field pressure is p(, t). We have radial motion,
u r12 . If the radius of the bubble is a(t), then a = ur at r = a, which gives that

a
a2 +2a 2 a
2
u = rr2 aa
2 = . So = aa
. Putting all this together
r and t =
r
r
gives
a
a2 + 2a 2 a a 2 a4

+
+ p(r, t) = p(, t).
r
2 r4
At r = a
3

aa a 2 = p(, t) p(a, t),


2
or


d 1 3 2
a a
= a2 a (p(a, t) p(, t)) .
dt 2
This can be interpreted as rate of change of kinetic energy equals rate of working by
pressure forces.
Another rewrite gives


a 1 2 a a4
4
p(r, t) p(, t) = (p(a, t) p(, t)) + a
r
2
r
r

3.5.2

Small oscillations of a gas bubble

Assume a(t) = a0 + a(t) and that a (t) is small, p is constant in time and that the
a
gas in the bubble has pressure such that pgas = p 3
a0 (**which can be obtained

from P V constant for ideal adiabatic gas**). Neglect surface tension. Linearising
3

aa a 2 = p(, t) p(a, t)
2
about a = a0 and a = 0 we obtain
3p a
a0 a =
,
a0

 12

which is SHM with = 3p


.
a2
o

16

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

3.5.3

Total collapse of a void

Bernoulli implies that the pressure decreases as the speed increases. If this makes the
pressure negative, then the liquid will break to form a void filled only with vapour. This
has important consequences for valves and propellors (cavitation).
Consider a spherical void (ie p(a, t) = 0) at rest with a = a0 and a = 0 at t = 0
with a constant background pressure p . Now


d 1 3 2
a a
= a2 a (p(a, t) p(, t)) ,
dt 2
so


1 3 2
1
a a = p a30 a3 .
2
3
Integrate this again (numerically!), to get

tcollapse = 0.92

3.6

a20
p

 12
.

Translating sphere & inertial reaction to acceleration

3.6.1

Steady motion

Use the inertial frame moving steadily with the sphere. It was shown in 3.3.1 that
uniform flow past a fixed sphere has


a3
= U cos r + 2 and
2r






a3
a3
u = U cos 1 3 , U sin 1 + 3 , 0, .
r
2r
Hence at r = a, |u| = 23 U sin . Potential flow means we can apply

with

1 2
+ u + p + independent of x,
t
2

= 0 (since steady motion) to compare r = a and r = . This gives




9
1
p(a, ) = p + U 2 1 sin2 .
2
4

This pressure distribution is symmetric fore and aft and around the equator, so
no force is exerted on a steadily moving sphere (**or indeed any 3D body**). This
surprising result is called DAlemberts paradox.

3.6.2

** Effects of friction **

DAlemberts paradox can be understood only by analogy with Newtonian dynamics:


in the absence of friction forces are needed only for acceleration and not for uniform
motion.

17

3.6. TRANSLATING SPHERE

This potential flow result is a good approximation for bubbles in steady motion,
because they have slippery surfaces. It is a bad approximation for rigid spheres in
steady motion. What is observed in experiments is separation and a wake.

The small amount of friction produces a thin layer of fluid next to the rigid surface
that is slowed down from the potential flow. This thin boundary layer is sensitive to the
slowing down of the surrounding potential flow from the equator to the rear stagnation
point, and detaches from the sphere into the body of the fluid to produce a shear layer
of concentrated vorticity (this is called separation). Separation also occurs behind
other bluff bodies in steady translation but can be suppressed to a certain extent behind
streamlined/tapered bodies. Boundary layers are covered in more detail in Part IIB and
Part III courses.
We can estimate the drag force as proportional to the projected area (A) times the
pressure difference: applying Bernoulli gives
drag force = 12 CD U 2 A,
where CD is a dimensionless coefficient that must be measured experimentally (0.4 for
a sphere, 1.1 for a disc, 1.0 for a cylinder).

3.6.3

Accelerating spheres

Potential flow is useful for slippery bubbles, rapid accelerations of small (rigid) particles and small oscillations.
For the accelerating sphere, it is best to have the fluid at at rest. Consider a
sphere of radius a and centre x0 (t) and velocity u(t) = x 0 (t). The velocity potential
problem is then
2 = 0 in r a,
0 as r ,


= u(t) n on r = a.
r
t

with solution
=
=

U cos a3
2r2
u (x x0 (t)) a3
3

2 |x x0 (t)|

To calculate the force, we need




u ra3
=
+ u (terms linear in x 0 ) .

t r
2r3

18

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

Now = terms linear in u. These linear terms must be the same as for steady


1
2
motion. Hence the pressure on the sphere is p = p + ur
1 94 sin2 .
2 + 2 U
The force on the sphere is given by
Z
Z

r
pn dA =
(u r) dA
2 r=a
a
r=a
R

Now by the isotropy of the sphere,

rr
r=a i j

dA =

4a4
3 ij ,

so

1 4a4 1
F = u
= m u
2
3 a
3

where m = 21 fluid 4a
3 , the added (or effective or virtual) mass.

3.6.4

Kinetic Energy

The kinetic energy of fluid motion in a volume V is


Z
T =

1 2
u dV
2

V
Z

2
=
() dV
2 V
Z

=
() 2 dV
2 V
Z

=
() dS
2
Z S

(n ) dS
=
S 2

For the translating sphere we get T = 21 m U 2 .

3.7

Translating cylinders with circulation

The potential for flow past a uniform cylinder with circulation is




a2

= U cos r +
+
,
r
2
with


u=






a2
a2

U cos 1 2 , U sin 1 + 2 +
.
r
r
2r

On r = a, |u| = 2 sin U +

2a ,

thus


2 
1
2
p(a, ) = p + U
2U sin
2
2a

and so (by doing the integral), F = (0, U ) (in Cartesians). This is a lift force
perpendicular to the velocity. The same lift force applies to arbitrary aerofoils (at least
to the first approximation).

3.7. TRANSLATING CYLINDERS WITH CIRCULATION

3.7.1

19

** Generation of circulation **

In order to calculate the lift on an aerofoil we thus need to know the circulation .
Potential flow without circulation would have very large velocities around the sharp
trailing edge.

This is strongly opposed by friction, and the flow avoids these high velocities by
shedding an eddy as the aerofoil starts to move. This eddy is of such a size as to
streamline the flow on the aerofoil.

The circulation around C1 + C2 is initially zero and so remains zero at all times
(by Kelvins theorem). Hence the circulation around the aerofoil (the bound vortex) is
equal in magnitude to the circulation in the shed starting vortex (but opposite in sign).
The strength is chosen to avoid a singularity at the sharp trailing edge, a condition
which gives lU sin , provided < 14 . For > 14 the flow separates and
the aerofoil stalls.2
Since = 0 vortex lines cannot end in the fluid, and in fact the bound vortex
on the wing is connected to the starting vortex by two vortices shed from the wingtips.
These are responsible for the observed vapour trails.

2 See

Fluids IIB or Acheson for more details.

20

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

3.8
3.8.1

More solutions to Laplaces equation


Image vortices and 2D vortex dynamics

Recall that a single line vortex has


=

, with u =
(y, x).
2
2r

Since the potential flow equations are linear we can superpose solutions.

This configuration would give


=

X i i
i

This gives us a new method of finding solutions in nice geometries. For instance,
consider a vortex near a plane wall as shown.

The velocity field is the same as if there was an image vortex of opposite strength

at the real vortex,


so that normal velocities cancel. This image produces a velocity 4d
and so the vortex trundles along parallel to the wall as shown.

3.8. MORE SOLUTIONS TO LAPLACES EQUATION

21

Application to dispersal of wingtip vortices

We have vortices at (x0 (t), y0 (t)) and so we need to add images at (x0 (t), y0 (t)).
Now
x 0 =
This gives

3.8.2

dy0
dx0

x20

4 y0 (x20 + y02 )

and

y 0 =

y02
.
4 x0 (x20 + y02 )

y3

= x03 , or
0

1
1
+ 2 = C.
x20
y0

Flow in corners

We use = r sin , which satisifies

= 0 on = .

Now |u| r1 , and so there are infinite velocities as r 0 if < 1. The effect
of friction here is to introduce a circulation.

22

CHAPTER 3. IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

Chapter 4

Free Surface Flows


4.1

Governing equations

The flow is assumed to start from rest and is thus irrotational (and remains so). Let the
free surface be at (x, y, t), || sufficiently small for nice things to happen. So
2 = 0 z h,
1
2
+ || + p + gz = f (t),
t
2
p = pair at z = ,







+
+
=
,
t
x x z= y y z=
z z=


= 0.
z z=h

We will restrict to the 1-D case but even so, to have any hope of solving this we
have to linearise it.
1. Throw out the nonlinear terms.
2. Evaluate at z = using information at z = 0.
3. Throw out new nonlinear terms.

2 = 0

0 z h,

+ g = f (t),
z=0

p = pair at z = ,

=
,
t
z
z=0



= 0.
z z=h
23

24

CHAPTER 4. FREE SURFACE FLOWS

We seek separable solutions and obtain (x, z, t) = A cosh k (z + h) ei(kxt) .



+ g = f (t), we obtain the disperUsing the dynamic boundary condition
t
z=0
sion relation
2 = gk tanh kh.
p
In deep water, h  k1 , so tanh
kh 1, giving 2 = kh and c = kg 1 . In shallow
water, tanh kh kh giving = k gh and c = gh.

4.1.1

Particle paths under a wave

By linearising, we get that


ia cosh k (z0 + h) i(kx0 t)
e
sinh kh
a sinh k (z0 + h) i(kx0 t)
z(t) = z0 +
e
,
sinh kh

x(t) = x0

which is elliptic motion. x0 and z0 are the mean positions of the particles in the
(x, z) plane.
In the deep water limit we get circular motion and in the shallow water limit we get
mainly horizontal motion.

4.2

Standing Waves

Consider waves in a deep rectangular box, 0 x a, 0 y b and z 0. Look for


linearised waves with displacement (x, y, t). Try separable solutions to obtain
(x, y, z, t) = A cos

ny kz it
mx
cos
e e
.
s
b

The Laplace equation determines k from m and n by



 2
n2
m
+
,
k2 = 2
a2
b2
and the dynamic boundary conditions determine 2 = gk. This is to be expected, since
a standing wave is the sum of progressive waves.

4.2.1

Rayleigh-Taylor instability

Turn the box in the previous section upside


down (or equivalently replace g with g).

This makes imaginary, leading to a e gkt term, which quickly magnifies any deviations from = 0. The largest growth rate is for large k, but this is cancelled by surface
tension in the real world.

4.3

River Flows

These are nonlinear problems, but can be solved since the shallowness of the river in
comparision to its length means that the flow is nearly unidirectional.
1 The

wave speed...

25

4.3. RIVER FLOWS

4.3.1

Steady flow over a bump

What happens to the free surface at the bump?


We assume that
the river has vertical sides and constant width;
it varies only slowly in the x direction, so that the flow is (to a good approximation) horizontal and uniform across any vertical section (since u
z = y = 0);
the flow is steady;
far from the bump (x ), 0, h h and U U .
Then mass conservation gives
U ( + h) = U h ,

(4.1)

whilst applying Bernoullis equation (2.3) to the surface streamline gives


1 2
1 2
U + patm + g = U
+ patm .
2
2
Now eliminate between (4.1) and (4.2) to obtain
1 2 gU h
1 2
U +
= U
+ gh.
2
U
2
We can now extract information from (4.3) graphically.

(4.2)

(4.3)

There are thus two roots and three possibilities.


If the bump is too big then the assumption of steady/slowly varying flow must
fail. This gives a hydraulic jump see 4.3.3.

26

CHAPTER 4. FREE SURFACE FLOWS


If the bump is just right then the flow can pass smoothly from one root the other
(e.g. flow over a weir in 4.3.2).
If the bump is not too large then the flow stays on the same root. This has two
subcases.

On the left hand root: U < gh flow slower than shallow water
waves we have
bump up h RHS u .
i.e. slow deep flow converts PE to KE to maintain the mass flux.

On the right hand root: U > gh flow faster than shallow water
waves we have
bump up h RHS u .
i.e. fast shallow flow converts KE to PE to maintain the mass flux.
Normal rivers are in the slow deep state.

4.3.2

Flow out of a lake over a broad weir

This is the same as 4.3.1 but with a smooth change of branch. We need the bump just
right.

How fast is the outflow as a function of the minimum of h(x)?


The lake is large and deep, so we take the limit h , U 0 with U h =
Q fixed. Mass conservation gives
U ( + h) = Q
and Bernoulli on the surface streamline gives
1 2
U + g = 0.
2
Eliminating as before gives
1 2 gQ
U +
= gh(x),
2
U
which is a cubic for unknown U (x) given h(x).

(4.4)

27

4.3. RIVER FLOWS

The flow starts high on the LH branch in the lake, but comes out of the weir high
on the RH branch. The minimum of h(x) (the crest of the weir) must be at the join of
the branches, and so

 12
8 3
Q=
ghmin
,
27
giving the flow rate as a function of the height of the weir.
1
At the crest of the weir, U = 23 gh3min 2 and mass conservation gives
1
crest = hmin
3
2
= g(fluid depth)crest , so that the flow is
and the fluid depth is 23 hmin . Also, Ucrest
travelling at the speed of shallow water waves at the crest. There can therefore be no
communication from after the weir back to the lake.

4.3.3

Hydraulic jumps

Given U1 and h1 from river data and h2 from tidal theory can we predict the speed V
of the jump (and the flow U2 )?
The energy loss in the turbulent jump makes Bernoulli inapplicable (friction is important in the small-scale unsteady motions). However the flat-bottomed case provides
an application of the momentum integral equation.
Change to a frame moving with the jump. Away from the jump there is no vertical
acceleration and so the pressure is hydrostatic there.

Taking the horizontal component of

28

CHAPTER 4. FREE SURFACE FLOWS

d
dt

Z
u dV =

Z
(u(u n) + pn) dA +

FV dV,

and noting that the flow is steady on average we obtain (from the area integral)
1
(V + U1 )2 h1 + (pa h1 + gh21 ) + pa (h2 h1 )
2
1
= (V U2 )2 h2 + (pa h2 + gh22 ),
2
which boils down to
(V + U1 )2 h1 (V U2 )2 h2 =

1
g(h22 h21 ).
2

Mass conservation gives (V + U1 )h1 = (V U2 )h2 , and eliminating V U2


between these equations gives (eventually)
(V + U1 )2 =

g(h1 + h2 )h2
.
2h1

We can solve this for V and then solve


(V U2 )2 =

g(h1 + h2 )h1
2h2

for U2 .

Note that if h2 > h1 then V U2 < gh2 and V + U1 > gh1 the jump
travels faster than shallow water waves on the river side and overtakes all information
of its future arrival.

References
D.J. Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics, OUP, 1990.
This is an excellent book, easy to read and with everything in. It is also good for Fluids
IIB. Highly recommended.

G.K. Batchelor, An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, CUP, 1967.


The lecturer recommended this, and it is a reasonably good book for Fluids IIB. Personally I think youd be wrong in your head to buy it for this course, but YMMV.

M. van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion, The Parabolic Press, 1982.


Lots of pictures of flows. An excellent book. Go out and buy it. Now.

Related courses
In Part IIA there are courses on Transport Processes and Theoretical Geophysics. The
IIB fluids courses are Fluid Dynamics 2 and Waves in Fluid and Solid Media, both of
which use the material in this course to some extent.

29

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