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CHAPTER-9

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.

A wire of length L and cross sectional area A is made of a material of Young's modulus Y. If the wire is stretched
by an amount x, the work done is ....
(1987, 2M)

2.

A solid sphere of radius R made of a material of bulk modulus K is surrounded by a liquid in a cylindrical container.
A massless piston of area A floats on the surface of the liquid. When a mass M is placed on the piston to compress
the liquid the fractional change in the radius of the sphere, R/R, is ....
(1988, 2M)

3.

A piece of metal floats on mercury. The coefficients of volume expansion of the metal and mercury are 1 and 2
respectively. If the temperature of both mercury and the metal are increased by an amount T, the fraction of the
volume of the metal submerged in mercury changes by the factor ......
(1991, 2M)

4.

A horizontal pipeline carries water in a streamline flow. At a point along the pipe, where the cross-sectional area
is 10 cm2, the water velocity is 1ms 1 and the pressure is 2000 Pa. The pressure of water at another point where the
cross-sectional area is 5 cm2, is .... Pa. (Density of water = 103kg/m3)
(1994, 2M)

5.

A uniform rod of length L and density P is being pulled along a smooth floor with a horizontal acceleration a (see
fig.) The magnitude of the stress at the transverse cross-section passing through the mid point of the rod is ....
(1983, 1M)
L
a

Vaccum

TRUE/FALSE
1.

A barometer made of a very narrow tube (see fig) is placed at normal temperature
and pressure. The coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is 0.00018/C and
that of the tube is negligible. The temperature of mercury in the barometer is now
raised by 1C but the temperature of the atmosphere does not change. Then, the
mercury height in the tube remains unchanged.
(1983; 2M)

2.

Water in a closed tube (see fig.) is heated wih one arm vertically placed above a lamp. Water will begin to circulate
along the tube in counter-clockwise direction.
(1983; 2M)

3.

Hg

A block of ice with a lead shot embedded in it is floating on water contained in a vessel. The temperature of the
system is maintained at 0C as the ice melts. When the ice melts completely the level of water in the vessel rises.
(1986; 3M)

101

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

6.

A vessel contains oil (density = 0.8 g/cm3 ) over mercury


(density = 13.6 g/cm3 ). A homogeneous sphere floats
with half of its volume immersed in mercury and the
other half in oil. The density of the material of the
sphere in g/cm3 is :
(1988; 2M)
(a) 3.3
(b) 6.4
(c) 7.2
(d) 12.8

7.

A homogeneous solid cylinder of length L (L < H/2)


cross-sectional area A/5 is immersed such that it floats
with its axis vertical at the liquid-liquid interface with
length L/4 in the denser liquid as shown in the figure.
The lower density liquid is open to atmosphere having
pressure P0 . Then density D of solid is given by :
(1995; 2M)

Only One option is correct :


1.

2.

A metal ball immersed in alcohol weighs W1 at 0C and


W2 at 50C. The coefficient of cubical expansion of the
metal is less than that of the alcohol. Assuming that
the density of the metal is large compared to that of
alcohol, it can be shown that :
(1987; 2M)
(a) W1 > W2
(b) W1 = W2
(c) W1 < W2
(d) all of these
A vessel containing water is given a constant
acceleration a towards the right along a straight
horizontal path. Which of the following diagram
represents the surface of the liquid?
(1981; 2M)

(a)

(b)

2d

(c)

(d) None of these


(a)

3.

4.

The following four wires are made of the same material.


Which of these will have the largest extension when
the same tension is applied?
(1981; 3M)
(a) Length = 50 cm, diameter = 0.5 mm
(b) Length = 100 cm, diameter = 1 mm
(c) Length = 200 cm, diameter = 2 mm
(d) Length = 300 cm, diameter = 3 mm

5.

(c) 4d

zero
equal to the weight of liquid displaced
equal to the weight of the body in air
equal to the weight of the immersed portion of the
body

(b)

4
d
5

(d)

d
5

8.

Water from a tap emerges vertically downwards with


an initial speed of 1.0 m/sec. The cross-sectional area
of tap is 104 m2 . Assume that the pressure is constant
throughout the stream of water and that the flow is
steady, the cross-sectional area of stream 0.15 m below
the tap is :
(1998; 2M)
(a) 5.0 104 m2
(b) 1.0 104 m2
(c) 5.0 105 m2
(d) 2.0 105 m2

9.

A given quantity of an ideal gas is at pressure P and


absolute temperature T. the isothermal bulk modulus of
the gas is :
(1998; 2M)

A body floats in a liquid contained in a beaker. The


whole system as shown in figure falls freely under
gravity. the upthrust on the body is :
(1982;3M)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

5
d
4

(a)

2
P
3

(b) P

3
P
(d) 2P
2
10. A closed compartment containing gas is moving with
some acceleration in horizontal direction. Neglect effect
of gravity. Then, the pressure in the compartment is :
(1999; 2M)
(a) same everywhere
(b) lower in front side
(c) lower in rear side
(d) lower in upper side
(c)

A U-tube of uniform cross-section is partially filled


with a liquid I. Another liquid II which does not mix
with liquid I is poured into one side. It is found that
the liquid levels of the two sides of the tube are the
same, while the level of liquid 1 has risen by 2 cm. If
the specific gravity of liquid I is 1.1, the specific
gravity of liquid II must be :
(1983; 1M)
(a) 1.12
(b) 1.1
(c) 1.05
(d) 1.0

11. A large open tank has two holes in the wall. One is a

102

square hole of side L at a depth y from the top and the


other is a circular hole of radius R at a depth 4y from
the top. When the tank is completely filled with water,
the quantities of water flowing out per second from
both holes are the same. Then, R is equal to :
(2000; 2M)
(a) L/ 2
(c) L

(b) 2L
(d) L/ 2

12. A hemispherical portion of radius R is removed from


the bottom of a cylinder of radius R. The volume of the
remaining cylinder is V and mass M. It is suspended
by a string in a liquid of density , where it stays
vertical. The upper surface of the cylinder is at a depth
h below the liquid surface. The force on the bottom of
the cylinder by the liquid is :
(2001; 2M)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

l decreases and h increases


l increases and h decreases
both l and h increase
both l and h decrease

15. The adjacent graph shows the extension (l) of a wire


of length 1 m suspended from the top of a roof at one
end and with a load W connected to the other end. If
the cross sectional area of the wire is 106 m2 , calculate
the Young's modulus of the material of the wire.
(2003; 2M)
l (10 m)
4

4
3
2
1
20

40

(a) 2 1011 N/m2


(c) 3 1012 N/m2
h

2R

(a) Mg
(c) Mg + R2 hg

(b) Mg - Vg
(d) g (V + R2 h)

13. When a block of iron floats in mercury at 0C, fraction


k 1 of its volume is submerged, while at the temperature
60C, a fraction k 2 is seen to be submerged. If the
coefficient of volume expansion of iron is Fe and that
of mercury is Hg , then the ratio of k 1 /k 2 can be
expressed as :
(2001; 2M)

1 + 60 Fe
(a) 1 + 60
Hg

160 Fe
(b) 1 + 60
Hg

1 + 60 Fe
(c) 160
Hg

1 + 60 Hg

(d)

60

W (N)

80

(b) 2 1011 N/m2


(d) 2 1013 N/m2

16. The pressure of a medium is changed from 1.01 105


Pa to 1.165 105 Pa and change in volume is 10%
keeping temperature constant. The bulk modulus of
the medium is :
(2005; 2M)
(a) 204.8 105 Pa
(b) 102.4 105 Pa
(c) 51.2 105 Pa
(d) 1.55 105 Pa
17. Water is filled in a cylindrical container to a height of
3 m. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice
and the beaker is 0.1. The square of the speed of the
liquid coming out from the orifice is (g = 10 m/s 2 ) :
(2005; 2M)

3m
52.5cm

(a) 50 m2 /s 2
(c) 51 m2 /s 2

(b) 50.5 m2 /s 2
(d) 52 m2 /s 2

1 + 60 Fe

18. Water is filled up to a


height h in a beaker of
14. A wooden block, with a coin placed on its top, floats
radius R as shown in
in water as shown in figure. The distance l and h are
the figure. The density
shown there. After some time, the coin falls into the
of water is , the
water. Then :
(2002; 2M)
Coin
surface tension of
water is T and the
l
atmospheric pressure
is P 0. Consider a
vertical section ABCD
h
of the water column
through a diameter of
the beaker. The force
103

2R

A
h
C

on water on one side of this section by water on the


other side of this section has magnitude. (2007; 2M)
(a) |2 P0 Rh + R2 gh 2RT|
(b) |2 P0 Rh + Rgh 2 2RT|
(c) |P0 R2 + Rgh 2 2RT|
(d) |P0 R2 + Rgh 2 + 2RT|

2.

19. A glass tube of uniform internal radius (r) has a valve


separating the two identical ends. Initially, the valve
is in a tightly closed position. End I has a hemispherial
soap bubble of radius r. End 2 has sub-hemispherical
soap bubble as shown in figure.

A wooden plank of length 1 m and uniform cross


section is hinged at one end to the bottom of a tank
as shown in figure. The tank is filled with water upto
a height 0.5 m. The specific gravity of the plank is 0.5.
Find the angle that the plank makes with the vertical
in the equilibrium position. (exclude the case = 0)
(1984; 8M)

<

Just after opening the value.


(2008; 3M)
(a) air from end 1 flows towards end 2. No change in
the volume of the soap bubbles
(b) air from end 1 flows towards end 2. Volume of the
soap bubble at end 1 decreases
(c) no change occurs
(d) air from end 2 flows towards end 1. Volume of the
soap bubble at end 1 increases

3.

A ball of density d is dropped on to a horizontal solid


surface. It bounces elastically from the surface and
returns to its original position in a time t1 . Next the ball
is released and it falls through the same height before
striking the surface of a liquid of density d L.
(1992; 8M)
(a) If d < d L, obtain an expression (in terms of d, t1 and
d L) for the time t2 the ball takes to come back to
the position from which it was released.
(b) Is the motion of the ball simple harmonic?
(c) If d = d L, how does the speed of the ball depend
on its depth inside the liquid? Neglect all frictional
and other dissipative forces. Assume the depth of
the liquid to be large.

4.

A container of large uniform cross-sectional area A


resting on a horizontal surface, holds two immiscible,
non-viscous and incompressible liquids of densities d
and 2d, each of height H/2 as shown in figure. The
lower density liquid is open to the atmosphere having
pressure P0 .
(1995; 5+5)
(a) A homogeneous solid cylinder of length
L (L < H/2), cross-sectional area A/5 is immersed
such that it floats with its axis vertical at the
liquid-liquid interface with length L/4 in the denser
liquid. Determine:

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct?
1. The spring balance A read 2
kg with a block m suspended
from it. Balance B reads 5 kg
when a beaker with liquid is
put on the pan of the balance.
The two balances are now so
arranged that the hanging
mass is inside the liquid in the
beaker as shown in the figure.
In
this
situation :
(1985; 2M)

m
B

(a) the balance A will read more than 2 kg


(b) the balance B will read more than 5 kg
(c) the balance A will read less than 2 kg and B will
read more than 5 kg
(d) the balances A and B will read 2 kg and 5 kg
respectively

H/2
d

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

Two identical cylindrical vessels with their bases at


the same level each contain a liquid of density . The
height of the liquid in one vessel is h 1 and in the other
is h 2 . The area of either base is A. What is the work
done by gravity in equalising the levels when the two
vessels are connected?
(1981; 4M)
104

H/2

2d

(i) the density D of the solid.

(ii) the total pressure at the bottom of the container.


(b) The cylinder is removed and the original
arrangment is restored. A tiny hole of area
s (s < < A) is punched on the vertical side of the
container at a height h (h < H/2). Determine :
(i) the initial speed of efflux of the liquid at the hole,
(ii) the horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid
initially, and
(iii) the height h m at which the hole should be punched
so that the liquid travels the maximum distance xm
initially. Also calculate xm.
(Neglect the air resistance in these calculations)
5.

6.

A large open top container of negligile mass and


uniform cross sectional area A has a small hole of
cross sectional area A/100 in its side wall near the
bottom. The container is kept on a smooth horizontal
floor and contains a liquid of density and mass m0 .
Assuming that the liquid starts flowing out horizontally
through the hole at t = 0. Calculate : (1997C; 5M)
(i) the acceleration of the container and
(ii) its velocity when 75% of the liquid has drained
out.
A non-viscous liquid of
constant density 1000
kg/m3 flows in streamline
motion along a tube of P
variable cross section.
The tube is kept inclined
in the vertical plane as 2m
shown in the figure.

5m

The area of cross section of the tube at two points P


and Q at heights of 2 m and 5 m are respectively 4
103 m2 and 8 103 m2 . The velocity of the liquid at
point P is 1 m/s. Find the work done per unit volume
by the pressure and the gravity forces as the fluid
flows from point P and Q.
(1997; 5M)
7.

8.

A wooden stick of length L, radius R and density has


a small metal piece of mass m (of negligible volume)
attached to its one end. Find the minimum value for the
mass m (in terms of given parameters) that would make
the stick float vertically in equilibrium in a liquid of
density (> ).
(1999; 10M)
A uniform solid cylinder of density 0.8 g/cm3 floats in
equilibrium in a combination of two non-mixing liquids
A and B with its axis vertical. The densities of the
liquids A and B are 0.7 g/cm3 and 1.2 g/cm3 , respectively.
The height of liquid A is h A = 1.2 cm. The length of the
part of the cylinder immersed in liquid B is h B = 0.8 cm.
(2002; 5M)

Air

hA

hB

(a) Find the total force exerted by liquid A on the


cylinder.
(b) Find h, the length of the part of the cylinder in air.
(c) The cylinder is depressed in such a way that its
top surface is just below the upper surface of
liquid A and is then released. Find the acceleration
of the cylinder immediately after it is released.
9.

A soap bubble is being blown at the end of very


narrow tube of radius b. Air (density ) moves with a
velocity v inside the tube and comes to rest inside the
bubble. The surface tension of the soap solution is T.
After sometimes the bubble, having grown to radius R
separates from the tube. Find the value of R. Assume
that R > > b so, that you can consider the air to
be falling normally on the bubble's surface.
(2003; 4M)
10. A liquid of density 900
0.9m
kg/m3 is filled in a
cylindrical tank of upper
radius 0.9 m and lower
radius 0.3 m. A capillary
tube of length l is attached
at the bottom of the tank H
as shown in the figure.
The capillary has outer
radius 0.002 m and inner
radius a. When pressure
P is applied at the top of
0.3m
the tank, volume flow rate
l

of the liquid is 8 106 m3 /s and if capillary tube is


detached, the liquid comes out from the tank with a
velocity 10 m/s. Determine the coefficient of viscosity
of the liquid.
(2003; 4M)
[Given ; a 2 = 106 m2 and a 2 /l =2 106 m]
11. A container of width 2a is
filled with a liquid. A thin
wire of mass per unit length
is gently placed over the
liquid surface in the middle of
the surface as shown in the
figure. As a result, the liquid
surface is depressed by a

105

2a

distance y (y < < a). Determine the surface tension of


the liquid.
(2004; 2M)
12. A small sphere falls from rest in a viscous liquid. Due
to friction, heat is produced. Find the relation between
the rate of production of heat and the radius of the
sphere at terminal velocity.
(2004; 2M)

COMPREHENSION

13. Consider a horizontally oriented syringe containing


water located at a height of 1.25 m above the ground.
The diameter of the plunger is 8 mm and the diameter
of the nozzle is 2 mm. The plunger is pushed with a
constant speed of 0.25 m/s. Find the horizontal range
of water stream on the ground.
(Take g = 10m/s 2 ).
(2004; 2M)

D = 8 mm

the fall in height (in mm) of water level due to opening


of the orifice.
[Take atmospheric pressure = 1.0 105 N/m2, density
of water = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 10 m/s 2. Neglect any
effect of surface tension.]
[2008]

Passage
A wooden cylinder of diameter 4r, height h and density
/3 is kept on a hole of diameter 2r of a tank, filled with
liquid of density as shown in the figure. The height of
the base of cylinder from the base of tank is H.
1. Now level of the liquid starts decreasing slowly when
the level of liquid is at a height h 1 above the cylinder
the block just starts moving up. At what value of h 1 ,
will the block rise :
(2006; 5M)

D = 2 mm
h1
/3

1.25m

2r

14. A U-shaped tube contains a liquid of density and it


is rotated about the line as shown in the figure. Find
the difference in the levels of liquid column.
(2005; 2M)

(a) 4h/9
(c)
2.

5h
3

(b) 5h/9
(d) remains same

The block in the above question is maintained at the


position by external means and the level of liquid is
lowered. The height h 2 when this external force reduces
to zero is :
(2006; 5M)
/3

15. Two soap bubbles A and B are kept in a closed


chamber where the air is maintained at pressure
8 N/m2. The radii of bubbles A and B are 2 cm and 4
cm, respectively. Surface tension of the soap-water
used to make bubbles is 0.04 N/m. Find the ratio nB/
n A, where nA and n B are the number of moles of air in
bubbles A and B, respectively. [Neglect the effect of
gravity.]
[2008]
16. A cylindrical vessel of height 500 mm has an orifice
(small hole) at its bottom. The orifice is initially closed
and water is filled in it up to height H. Now the top is
completely sealed with a cap and the orifice at the
bottom is opened. Some water comes out from the
orifice and the water level in the vessel becomes
steady with height of water column being 200 mm. Find

(a)

4h
9

(c) remains same


3.

(b)

5h
9

(d)

2h
3

h2

If height h 2 of water level is further decreased, then:


(2006; 5M)
(a) cylinder will not up and remains at its original
position
(b) for h 2 = h/3, cylinder again starts moving up
(c) for h 2 = h/4, cylinder again starts moving up
(d) for h 2 = h/5 cylinder again starts moving up

Passage

106

A small spherical monoatomic ideal gas bubble =


3

is trapped inside a liquid of density l (see figure).


Assume that the bubble does not exchange any heat with
the liquid. The bubble contains n moles of gas. The
temperature of the gas when the bubble is at the bottom
isT0 , the height of the liquid is H and the atmospheric
pressure is p 0 (Neglect surface tension)
p0

6.

The buoyancy force acting on the gas bubble is


(Assume R is the universal gas constant)
(2008; 4M)
(a) l nRgT0

Liquid

(b)

l nRgT0
2/5
( p0 + l gH ) [ p0 + l g( H

H
y

4.

5.

(c) l nRgT0

As the bubble moves upwards, besides the buoyancy


force the following forces are acting on it
(2008; 4M)
(a) Only the force of gravity
(b) The force due to gravity and the force due to the
pressure of the liquid
(c) The force due to gravity, the force due to the
pressure of hte luiquid and the force due to
viscosity of the liquid
(d) The force due to gravity and the force due to
viscosity of the liquid

(d)

2 /5

p0 +l g(H y)

(b) T0

p0 +l gH

p0 + l gH
(c) T0
p0 + l gy

3/ 5

p0 +l g(H y)

(d) T0

p0 +l gH

y)] 3/ 5

( p0 + l gH ) 3/ 5
( p0 + l gy )8 / 5
l nRgT0

( p0 + l gH ) 3/ 5[ p0 + l g ( H y )] 2/ 5

ASSERATION AND REASON

1.

When the gas bubble is at a height y from the bottom,


its temperature is
(2008; 4M)

p0 + l gH

(a) T0

p0 + l gy

( p0 + l gH ) 2 / 5
( p0 + l gy) 7/ 5

2/5

3/ 5

107

This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and


statement-II (reasons).
Statement-I : The stream of water flowing at high
speed from a garden hose pipe tends to spread like a
fountain when held vertically up, but tends to narrow
down when held vertically down.
(2008; 3M)
Because :
Statement-II : In any steady flow of an incompressible
fluid, the volume flow rate of the fluid remains constant.
(a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statementII is a correct explanation for statement-I
(b) statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statementII is NOT a correct explanation for statement-I
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false.
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true.

MATCH THE COLUMN


*1. Column II shows five systems in whcih two objects are labelled as X and Y. Also in each case a point P is shwon.
Column I gives some statements about X and/or Y. Match these statements to the appropriate system(s) from
Column II.
Column - I
Column - II
Y
(A) The force exerted
(p)
Block Y of mass M left on a fixed inclined plane X, slides,
X
by X on Y has
on it with a constant velocity.
P
magnitude Mg.
(B) The gravitational
potential energy
innermost
continuously
increasing.

(q)

Two ring magnets Y and Z, each of mass M, are kept in


frictionless vertical plastic stand so that they repel each
other. Y rests on the base X and Z hangs in air in
equilibrium. P is the topmost point of the stand on the
common axis of the two rings. The whole system is in a
lift that is going up with a constant velocity.

P
Z
Y
X

(C) Mechanical
energy of the
system X + Y
is continuously
decreasing.

(r)

(D) The torque of


the weight of Y
about point P

(s)

A pulley Y of mass m0 is fixed to a tablethrough a clamp


X. A block of mass M hangs from a string that goes over
the pulley and is fixed at point P of the table. The whole
system is kept in a lift that is going down with a constant
velocity.

Y
X

A sphere Y of mass M is put in a nonviscous liquid X


kept in a container at rest. The sphere is released and it
moves down in the liquid.

Y
X
P

(t)

A sphere Y of mass M is falling with its terminal velocity


in a viscous liquid X kept in a container.

Y
X
P

ANSWERS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1.

1 YA 2
x
2 L

2.

Mg
3 AK

3.

( ?1 ? 2 )T
4. 500
1 + ?1T

5.

L
2

TRUE/FALSE
1. F

2. F

3.

OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)


1. (c)
8. (c)
15. (a)

2. (c)
9. (b)
16. (d)

3. (a)
10. (b)
17. (a)

4. (a)
11. (a)
18. (b)

5. (b)
12. (d)
19. (b)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)


1. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

Ag
( h1 h2 )2
r

2.45

3.

t1 dL
(a) d d (b) no (c) remains same
L
108

6. (c)
13. (a)

7. (a)
14. (d)

5d
dg (6 H + L )
(ii) P = P = P0 +
(b) (i)
4
4

4. (i)

5. (i)

gm0
2 A

g
(ii)
50

7. R2 L

6.

(3H 4h )

g
(ii)
2

h(3H 4h) (iii) At h =

29025 J/m3 , 29400 J/m3

4T
8. (a) zero (b) 0.25 cm (c) g/6

a
11. 2 y

12.

dQ 5
r
dt

3H 3
; H
8 4

9.

14. H =

13. 2m

10.

1
Ns/m2
720

2 L2
2g

COMPREHENSION
1. (c)

2.(a)

3.(a)

ASSERTION AND REASON


1. (a)

MATCH THE COLUMN


1. (A) - (p), (t); (B) - (q), (s), (t); (C) - (p), (r), (t); (D) - (q).

SOLUTIONS
V 1g = Vi 2g ( 1 = density of metal, 2 = density of
mercury)

FILL IN THE BLANKS


1.

W=

1 2
Kx
2

Here, K =

YA
L

1 YA 2
x
2 L

W=
P =

2.

V
V

fraction of volume of metal submerged in mercury


= x (say)
Now, when the temperature is increased by T.

1
2
1 = 1 + T and 2 = 1 + T
1
2

Mg
A
=

P Mg
=
K
AK

R
R
3.

1 1 + 2 T 1 1 + 2 T
x'=

2
1 + 1T
2 1 + 1 T
x 1+ 2T
x
1 + 2 T
=
1 =1
x 1+ 1T
x
1 + 1T

4 3
Now as, V = R or V R3
3

V
R 1 V
R
= 3
or R = 3 V
V
R

From Eq. (1)

1
Vi
=
V
2

=
...(1)
4.

Mg
3 AK

From continuity equation


A1v1 = A2v2

The condition of floating is,


Weight = Upthrust

( ?1 ? 2 ) T
(1 + ?1T )

10
A
v2 = 1 v1 = (1) = 2 m/s
5
A2

Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1 and 2


109

Now, when ice melts, lead will sink and it would


displace the water equal to volume of lead itself. So,
volume of water displaced in this case would be,

V2 =

v2

v1

m
l

Now, as l > w, V2 < V1 or level will fall.


OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1
1
P1 + ?v12 = P2 + ? v22
2
2

5.

1
2
2
P2 = P1 + v1 v2
2

1.

' '
F' = VS L g

3
= 2000 + 10 (14)
2

P2 = 500 Pa

L/2

2.
T

Mass (m) = volume density =


T = ma =

(1+ S )
F ' VS' 'L
=
.
= (1+ )
F VS L
L

Let A be the area of cross-section of the rod. From the


FBD of rod at mid-point

Wapp = Wactual Upthrust


Upthrust
F = VS Lg
Here, VS = volume of solid, L = density of liquid
At higher temperature

L
A
2

Since,

S < L
F < F

or

W2 > W1

(given)

Net force on the free surface of the liquid in equilibrium


(from accelerated frame) should be perpendicular to it.
Forces on a water particle P on the free surface have
been shown in the figure. In the figure, ma is the
pseudo force.

1
LA a
2
ma

T 1
Stress = = aL
A 2

Fnet

90 F

mg

TRUE/FALSE
1.

P1 = P2 = 1atm = hg . On changing the temperature,


g will not change. So, h = constant. On increasing

l =

3.

the temperature of mercury, its density will decrease.


Hence, level of mercury in barometer tube will increase.
2.

3.

When tube is heated the density of water at A will


decrease, hence the water will rise up or it will circulate
in clockwise direction.
When ice melts, level of water does not change. In
case of lead, it was initially floating i.e., it would had
displaced the water equal to the weight of lead. So,
volume of water displaced would be,
V1 =

or
Now,
4.

m
(m = mass of lead)
w
110

Fl
Fl
=
AY d 2

Y
4

(l)

l
d2

l
d2

is maximum in (a).

In a freely falling system g eff = 0 and since, Upthrust


= Vi L g eff
(Vi = immersed volume, L = density of liquid)

Upthrust = 0

5.

P1 = P2

A1
v1
v2 =
A2

...(2)

Substituting value of v2 from Eq. (2) in Eq. (1)

A12

h
1

.v 2
2 1
A2

or

P0 + 1 gh = P0 + II gh
1 = II

6.

A2 =

7.

9.

0.8 13.6
+
= 7.2 g/cm3
2
2

d
D

v12 + 2gh

(104 m2 )(10m/ s)

A2

1.0m / s 2) + 2(10)(0.15)

2
v2

or

dV
P
dV = V

dP
dP
Bulk modulus, B =
=

V
dV / V
dV

P
B = V = P
V

B = P
Note : Adiabatic bulk modulus is given by B = P

2d

(i) Considering vertical equilbrium of cylinder


Weight of cylinder = Upthrust due to upper liquid +
upthrust due to lower liquid
(A/5) (L) Dg =(A/5) (3L/4) (d) g + (A/5) (L/4) (2d) (g)

10. If a fluid (gas of liquid) is accelerated in positive xdirection, then pressure decrease in positive x-direction.
Change in pressure has following differential equation.
y

3
1
D = d + (2d )
4
4
D=

8.

A1v1

In isothermal process
PV = constant

PdV + VdP = 0

3L/4
L/4

A 2 = 5.0 105m2

V
V
or V g = oil g + Hg g
2
2

or = oil +
2
2

A2 ==

A1

A12 v12
v12 + 2gh

Substituting the given values

Let density of material of sphere (in g/cm3) be .


Applying the condition of floatation,
Weight = Upthrust

Hg

A22 =

v1

= v12 + 2gh

5
d
4
dP
= a
dx

From conservation of energy


...(1)
v22 = v12 + 2gh
[can also be found by applying Bernoulli's theorem
between 1 and 2]
From continuity equation
A1v1 = A2v2

where is the density of the fluid. Therefore, pressure


is lower in front side.
11. Velocity of efflux at a depth h is given by v = 2 gh

111

Volume of water flowing out per second from both the


holes are equal.

a 1v1 = a 2v2

or

2g ( y) = R

(L2)

or

R=

12.

2 g (4 y )
h

L
2

F2 F1 = upthrust
F2 = F1 + upthrust
F2 = gh (R2) + Vg
F2 = g (V + R2h)

or

13. FB = mg

1 2
1
v1 = P0 + 0 + v22
2
2
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we have
P0 + gh +

Vi d L g = Vd S g
d
V
V d
k1 = i
= s , k 2 = i = s
V 0C d L 0C
V d L 60C

ds
dL

v22 =

1+ L T

1 + T
s

A2
1 2
A12

2 10 2.475 = 50m2/s 2
v22 =
1(0.1) 2

14. l will decrease because the block moves up, h will


decrease because the coin will displace the volume of
water (V1) equal to its own volume when it is in the
water whereas when it is on the block it will displace
the volume of water (V2) whose weight is equal to
weight of coin and since density of coin is greater than
the density of water, V1 < V2.

18. Force from right hand side liquid on left hand side
liquid.
(i) Due to surface tension force
= 2RT (towards right)
(ii) Due to liquid pressure force
x= h

Wl
Al

W l
=
l A

( P0 + gh)(2R.x )d x

x =0

=(2P0Rh + Rgh 2) (towards left)


Net force is |2P0Rh+ Rgh 2 2RT|

4T
4T
19. p1 = r and p2 = r
1
2

1 l
=
= 2 1011 N/m2
slope A

r1 <r2,

B=

dP
( dV / V )

Substituting the values, we have

Air will flow from 1 to 2 and volume of bubble


at end-1 will decrease.
Therefore correct option is (b).
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1.

(1.1651.01) 105
Pa = 1.55 105Pa
(10/100)

17. Applying continuity equation at 1 and 2, we have


A1v1 = A2v2
...(1)
Further applying Bernoulli's equation at these two
points, we have

p1 > p2

16. From the definition of bulk modulus,

B =

2 gh

Substituting the values, we have

k2 1 + 60 Hg
=
k1 1 + 60 Fe

15. Y =

...(2)

Liquid will apply an upthrust on m An equal force will


be exerted (from Newton's third law) on the liquid.
Hence A will read less than 2 kg and B more than 5 kg.
Therefore, the correct options are (b) and (c).

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.

112

Let h be the same level on both the tubes in equilibrium.


Equating the volumes, we have

or time of fall =

Hence, velocity of the ball just before it collides with


liquid is

h
h

h1

Ah1 + Ah2

t1
v= g
2
Retardation inside the liquid

=2Ah

a=

h1 + h2
h=

2
Work done by gravity = Ui Uf

Ah1gh1 Ah2 gh2


h +h
+
[ Ah1 + Ah2 ] g 1 2
2
2
4
Simplifying this, we get

t=

Submerged length = 0.5sec, F = Upthrust,


W = Weight.
(i) Weight which will act at centre of plank.

dt1
= t1 + d d
L

d
= t1 1 +

dL d

0.5m

t1 dL
t2 = d d
L
(b) The motion of the ball is periodic but not simple
harmonic because the acceleration of he ball is g in air

or

(ii) Upthrust which will act at centre of submerged


portion.
Taking moments of all forces about point O. Moment
of hinge force will be zero.

Moment of W (clockwise) = Moment of F (anticlockwise)

dL d
and
g inside the liquid which is not
d
proportional to the displacement, which is necessary
and sufficient condition for SHM.
(c) When d L = d, retardation or acceleration inside the
liquid becomes zero (upthrust = weight). Therefore, the
all will continue to move wih constant velocity v = gt 1 /
2 inside the liquid.

0.5sec
sin
2

l
2

( Alg) sin = A(0.5 sec )(w)(g )

or
3.

cos 2 =
cos =

(0.5) 2 (1)
(l 2 )()

v gt1
gt1
dt1
=
=
=
a 2a
d d
2( dL d )
2 L
g
d

Same will be the time to come back on the liquid


surface. Therefore,
(a) t2 = time the ball takes to came back to the position
from where it was released
= t1 + 2t

Ag
( h1 h2 )2
W=
4

upthrustweight
mass

Vd L g Vdg d L d
=
g (V=Volume of ball) ...(2)
Vd
d
Time taken to come to rest under this retardation will
be

...(2)

h
h
h

W = m1 g 1 + m2 g 2 ( m1 + m2 ) g
2
2
2

2.

t1
2

(0.5) 2 1
= (As l = 1m)
(0.5) 2

4.

1
2

= 45

(a) (i) Considering vertical equilibrium of cylinder :


Weight of cylinder = upthrust due to upper liquid +
upthrust due to lower liquid
Note that h 1 and h 2

In elastic collision with the surface, direction of velocity


is reversed but its magnitude remains the same.
Therefore time of fall = time of rise.
113

H
2

A
A 3L
A L
( L )D .g =
( d ) g + 5 4 (2d )( g)
5
5 4

3
1
D = d + (2d )
4
4

Therefore, x will be maximum at h =

5
d
4
(ii) Considering vertical equilibrium of two liquids and the
cylinder.
Total pressure at the bottom of the cylinder =
Atmospheric pressure + Pressure due to liquid of
density d + Pressure due to liquid of density 2d +
Pressure due to cylinder

The maximum value of x will be

D=

3H
3H
xm =
3H 4

3
H
4
(i) Mass of water = (Volume)(density)
xm =

5.

A
5d
L
g
H
H
5
4
= P0 + dg + 2dg +
2
2
A

dg (6 H + L )
4
(b) (i) Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1 and 2
or

P = P0 +

H
A/100
V

H
H

1
P0 + dg + 2dg h = P0 + (2d )v2
2
2

2
Here, v is velocity of efflux at 2.
Solving this, we get

H/2

m0 = (AH)

H=

P
1

Hh
2

g
2
(ii) Time taken o reach the liquid to the bottom will be
v = (3H 4h )

F=

g 2h

3H 4h )
2 g

(iii) For x to be maximum

or

1
2 h(3H 4h )

2m0 g
A

m0 g
50

Acceleration of the containder, a = F/m0 = g/50


a = g/50
(ii) Velocity of efflux when 75% liquid has been drained
out i.e., height of liquid.

h=

dx
= 0
dh
or

h2

2m0 g
F = (A/100)V2 = (A/100)

t = 2h / g
Horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid is

x = h(3H 4h)

...(1)

Thrust force on the container due to draining out of


liquid from the bottom is given by.
F = aV2

x = vt =

m0
A

m
Velocity of efflux, V = 2 gH = 2 g 0
A

3H
8

H
m
= 0
4 4 A

V = 2gh

(3H 8h ) = 0

m
= 2g 0
4 A

3H
h=
8
114

h=

H
4
V

V =

6.

m0 g
2 A

F
L

Given : A1 = 4 103 m2 , A2 = 8 103 m2


h 1 = 2m, h 2 = 5m
v1 = 1 m/s and = 103 kg/m3
From continuity equaion, we have

L/2

l/2
YCM
(M + m)g
(2)

l = Immersed length of the rod


G = CM of rod
B = Centre of buoyant force (F)
C = CM of (rod + mass (m))
YCM = Distance of C from bottom of the rod

4 10 3
v2 =
(1m/s)
8 103

v2 =

(1)

A
A1 v1 = A2 v2 or v2 = 1 v1
A2
or

G
B
C

1
m/s
2

A2
v2
A1

BB

GC

v1

2
h2

h1 1

(M + m)g
(3)

Applying Bernoulli's equation at section 1 and 2

P1 +

1 2
1
v1 + gh1 = P2 + v22 + gh2
2
2

1
2
2
or P1 P2 = g (h2 h1 ) + v2 v1
...(2)
2
(i) Work done per unit volume by the pressure as the
fluid flows from P to Q.
W1 = P1 P2
1
= g (h2 h1 ) + ( v22 v12 ) [From eq. (1)]
2
1
= g (h2 h1 ) + ( v22 v12 ) J/m3
2
= [29400 375) J/m3
= 29025 J/m3
(ii) Work done per unit volume by the gravity as fluid
flows from P to Q.
W2 = g (h 2 h 1 ) = {(103 ) (9.8) (5 2)}Jm3
or
W2 = 29400 J/m3
7.

Let M = Mass of stick =

R2

Mass m should be attached to the lower end because


otherwise B will be below G and C will be above G and
the torque of the couple of two equal and opposite
forces F and (M + m)g will be counter clockwise and
displacing the rod leftwards. Therefore, the rod cannot
be in rotational equilibrium. See the figure (3).
Now, refer figures (1) and (2).
For vertical equilibrium
Mg + mg = F (upthrust)
or (R2 L)g + mg = (R2 l) g

R 2 L + m

l =
2

R
Position of CM (of rod + m) from bottom

...(1)

)
)

L
L
r 2 L
2
2
=
YCM =
...(2)
2
M +m
R L + m
M.

Centre of buoyancy (B) is at a height of

l
from the
2

bottom
We can see from figure (2) that for rotational equilibrium
of the rod, B should either lie above C or at the same
level of B.

115

or,

2R 2

The bubble will separate from the tube when thrust


force due to striking air at B is equal to the force due
to excess pressure.

L
2

2
( R L) + m
( R 2 L)

Tdl

B
r

m R2 L ( )

or

8.

R2 L + m

m + R2 L R2 L

or

9.

1
YCM
2

Therefore,

Minimum value of m is R2 L ( ) .

b
R
(A = Area of bubble at B where air strikes)

As the pressure exerted by liquid A on the cylinder is


radial and symmetric.
So the force due to this pressure cancels out and net
value is zero.

Air

Av 2 = 2T cos 2 b,

4T
Av 2 =
A
R

4T
R = 2
v

cos =

10. When the tube is not there.

hA

P + P0 +

hB

1 2
1
v1 + gH = v22 + P0
2
2
P + gH =

1
(v22 v12 )
2

Av
A1v1 = A2v2 or v1 = 2 2
A1
(b) In equilibrium :
Weight of cylinder = Net upthrust on the cylinder
Let s be the area of cross-section of the cylinder, then
weight = (s) (h + h A + h B ) cylinderg
upthrust on the cylinder = upthrust due to liquid
A + upthrust due to liquid B
= sh A A g + sh B B g
Equating these two

1

2 A2

P + gH = 2 v2 A v2

s (h + h A + h B ) cylinderg = sh A? A g + sh B ? B g
or (h + h A + h B ) cylinder = hA A + hB B
Substituting,
h A = 1.02cm, h B = 0.8 cm and A = 0.7 g/cm3
B = 1.02 g/cm3 and cylinder = 0.8 g/cm3
In the above equation, we get
h = 0.25 cm
(c) Net acceleration a =

FB Mg
M

hA? A + ? B ( h + hB ) ( h + hA + hB ) ? cylinder
=
g
? cylinder( h + hA + hB )

Substituting the values of h, hA , hB ,B and cylinder we get


a=

g
(upwards)
6


1
(0.3) 2
2
v2 1
(0.9) 2
2

1
1
(10)2 1
2
81

4 103
81

4 103 900
81

4
105 N/m2
9
This is also the excess pressure P.
By Poiseuille's equation, the rate of flow of liquid in
the capillary tube
=

Q=
116

( P) a 4
8l

13. Equation of continuity (Av = constant)

( a 2 )( P ) a 2
6

8 10 =
l
8

(8) (0.25) = (2) 2 (v )


...(1)
4
4
Here, v is the velocity of water with which water comes
out of the syringe (Horizontally).
Solving Eq. (1), we get
v = 4m/s
The path of water after leaving the syringe will be
parabola. Substituting proper values in equation of
trajectory.

8 8 10 6

( a2 )( p ) al

Substituting the value, we have

(10 6 ) 103 2 10 6
9

=
8 8 106
=

h=

1
Ns/m2
720

2 1.25
= 2m
10
(x = horizontal range)
x = vt = 4

14. For circular motion of small elements dx, we have


dF = (dm) x 2

(dP)A = (Adx). x 2
or
dP = 2 x.dx

= mg/l
T= surface tension

P2

P1 dP =

2 xdx

P2 P1=

2 L2
2

Considering the equilibrium of wire in vertical direction.


2Tlcos = mg
...(1)
For

y << a, cos =

2h
g

we have,

11. Free body diagram of the wire is as shown in figure.

1 2
gt t =
2

y
a

Substituting the values in Eq. (1), we ge

T=

ag
2y

dx

12. Terminal velocity vT =

2r 2 g
(s L )
9

and viscous force F = 6rvT

gH =

H=

dQ
= FvT = ( 6rv ) (v ) = 6 rv 2
T
T
T
dt

2 r 2 g

= 6p?r
(? s ? L )
9 ?

or

8g 2
( s L )2 r 5
27

2L2
2

2 L2
2g

4S
4 0. 04 100
15. For bubble A, PA = P0 + R = 8 +
2
A
= 16 N/m2

4S
4 0. 04 100
For bubble B, PB = P0 + R = 8 +
4
B

dQ
r5
dt

= 12 N/m2
117

4 3
pR B
nB
12 64
3
=
=
=6
nA P 4 pR 3
16 8
A
A
3

( P0 ) 4r 2 +

PB

Solving this we get,

h2 =

16. P + ? gh = P0

P + 1000 10

4r 2 hg = P0r 2 + ( P0 + gh2 )3 r 2
3

200
= 10 5
1000

3.

For h 2 <

4h
9

4h
buoyant force will further decrease.
9

hence, the cylinder remains at its original position.

2
P = 10 5 2000 = 9.8 10 4 N/m

PV f = P0V i
500 mm

4.

(d)

5.

For adiabatic process T. P

= constant

T0 . (P0 + l gH )2 / 5 = T . [ P0 + l g (H y )]2 / 5

H
200 mm

9.8 10 4 A

P0 + l gH
T = T0

P0 + l g (H y )

(b)

300
( 500 H )
= 10 10 4 A
1000
1000

H = 206 mm
Height fallen = 206 - 200 = 6 mm

V=

6.

COMPREHENSION

( P0+ gh)4
r
1

V=

P0r
(P+
r
0 g(h+h))3
1

2
4r hg
3

1.

4 r 2 hg = P0 r 2 + ( P0 + g ( h1 + h))3r 2
3

5
h
3
Again equating the forces, we get
h1 =

P0 4 r

P0r
(P+
r
0 gh)3
2

nRT 0
P0 + l g (H y )
[P0 + l g (H y )] P0 + l gH
lnRgT0
2 /5
P0 + l g

(P0 + l gH ) [

(H y )]3 / 5

(b)

From continuity equation, Av = constant


or

2
4r hg
3

118

1
v
correct option is (a)
A

2/5

nRT
P

ASSERTION AND REASON

Equating the net downward forces and net upward


forces we get
( P0 + gh1 ) 4r 2 +

P + l g (H y )
= T0 0

P0 + l gH

Buoyant force
= l gV =

1.

2 / 5

2/5