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Solving problems is an indispensable exercise for mastering the theory underlying the

various branches of geophysics. Without this practice, students often nd it hard to

understand and relate theoretical concepts to their application in real-world situations.

This book is a collection of nearly 200 problems in geophysics, which are solved in

detail showing each step of their solution, the equations used and the assumptions made.

Simple gures are also included to help students understand how to reduce a problem to its

key elements. The book begins with an introduction to the equations most commonly used

in solving geophysical problems. The subsequent four chapters then present a series of

exercises for each of the main, classical areas of geophysics gravity, geomagnetism,

seismology and heat ow and geochronology. For each topic there are problems with

different degrees of difculty, from simple exercises that can be used in the most elementary courses, to more complex problems suitable for graduate-level students.

This handy book is the ideal adjunct to core course textbooks on geophysical theory. It is

a convenient source of additional homework and exam questions for instructors, and

provides students with step-by-step examples that can be used as a practice or revision aid.

Elisa Buforn is a Professor of geophysics at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM)

where she teaches courses on geophysics, seismology, physics, and numerical methods.

Professor Buforns research focuses on source fracture processes, seismicity, and seismotectonics, and she is Editor in Chief of Fsica de la Tierra and on the Editorial Board of the

Journal of Seismology.

Carmen Pro is an Associate Professor at the University of Extremadura, Spain, where she has

taught geophysics and astronomy for over 20 years. She has participated in several

geophysical research projects and is involved in college management.

Agustn Udas is an Emeritus Professor at UCM and is the author of a large number of papers

about seismicity, seismotectonics, and the physics of seismic sources, as well as the

textbook Principles of Seismology (Cambridge University Press, 1999). He has held

positions as Editor in Chief of Fsica de la Tierra and the Journal of Seismology and as

Vice President of the European Seismological Commission.

ELISA BUFORN

Universidad Complutense, Madrid

CARMEN PRO

Universidad de Extremadura, Spain

AGUSTN UDAS

Universidad Complutense, Madrid

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,

Singapore, So Paulo, Delhi, Mexico City

Cambridge University Press

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Published in the United States of America by

Cambridge University Press, New York

www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107602717

# Elisa Buforn, Carmen Pro and Agustn Udas 2012

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,

no reproduction of any part may take place without

the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2012

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Buforn, E.

Solved problems in geophysics / Elisa Buforn, Carmen Pro, Agustn Udas.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 978-1-107-60271-7 (Paperback)

1. GeophysicsProblems, exercises, etc. I. Pro, Carmen. II. Udas Vallina, Agustn. III. Title.

QC807.52.B84 2012

550.78dc23

2011046101

ISBN 978-1-107-60271-7 Paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or

accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to

in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such

websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Contents

Preface

1 Introduction

Gravity

Geomagnetism

Seismology

Heat ow

Geochronology

2 Gravity

Terrestrial geoid and ellipsoid

Earths gravity eld and potential

Gravity anomalies. Isostasy

Tides

Gravity observations

3 Geomagnetism

Main eld

Magnetic anomalies

External magnetic eld

Main (internal), external, and anomalous magnetic elds

Paleomagnetism

4 Seismology

Elasticity

Wave propagation. Potentials and displacements

Reection and refraction

Ray theory. Constant and variable velocity

Ray theory. Spherical media

Surface waves

Focal parameters

Heat ow

Geochronology

Bibliography

v

page vii

1

1

4

6

10

11

13

13

25

53

95

116

121

121

142

156

174

201

208

208

211

224

243

277

307

324

335

335

345

352

Preface

This book presents a collection of 197 solved problems in geophysics. Our teaching

experience has shown us that there was a need for a work of this kind. Solving problems

is an indispensable exercise for understanding the theory contained in the various branches

of geophysics. Without this exercise, the student often nds it hard to understand and relate

the theoretical concepts with their application to practical cases. Although most teachers

present exercises and problems for their students during the course, the hours allotted to the

subject signicantly limit how many exercises can be worked through in class. Although

the students may try to solve other problems outside of class time, if there are no solutions

available this signicantly reduces the effectiveness of this type of study. It helps, therefore, both for the student and for the teacher who is explaining the subject if they have

problems whose solutions are given and whose steps can be followed in detail. Some

geophysics textbooks, for example, F.D. Stacey, Physics of the Earth; G.D. Garland,

Introduction to Geophysics; C.M. Fowler, The Solid Earth: An Introduction to Global

Geophysics; and W. Lowrie, Fundamentals of Geophysics, contain example problems, and,

in the case of Staceys, Fowlers, and Lowries textbooks, their solutions are provided on

the website of Cambridge University Press. The main difference in the present text is the

type of problems and the detail with which the solutions are given, and in the much greater

number.

All the problems proposed in the book are solved in detail, showing each step of their

solution, the equations used, and the assumptions made, so that their solution can be

followed without consulting any other book. When necessary, and indeed quite often, we

also include gures that allow the problems to be more clearly understood. For a given

topic, there are problems with different degrees of difculty, from simple exercises that can

be used in the most elementary courses, to more complex problems with greater difculty

and more suitable for teaching at a more advanced level.

The problems cover all parts of geophysics. The book begins with an Introduction

(Chapter 1) that includes the equations most used in solving the problems. The idea of

this chapter is not to develop the theory, but rather to simply give a list of the equations

most commonly used in solving the problems, at the same time as introducing the reader to

the nomenclature. The next four chapters correspond to the division of the problems into

the four thematic blocks that are classic in geophysics: gravity, geomagnetism, seismology,

and heat ow and geochronology. We have not included problems in geodynamics, since

this would depart too much from the approach we have taken, which is to facilitate

comprehension of the theory through its application to specic cases, sometimes cases

which are far from the real situation on Earth. Indeed, some of the problems may seem a bit

articial, but their function is to help the student practise with what has been seen in the

vii

viii

Preface

theory. Neither did we want to include specic problems of geophysical prospecting as this

would have considerably increased the length of the text, and moreover some of the topics

that would be covered in prospecting, such as gravimetric and geomagnetic anomalies, are

already included in other sections of this work.

Chapter 2 contains 68 problems in gravity divided into ve sections. The rst section is

dedicated to the terrestrial geoid and ellipsoid, proposing calculations of the parameters

that dene them in order to help better understand these reference surfaces. The second

corresponds to calculating the gravitational eld and potential for various models of the

Earth, including the existence of internal structures. Gravity anomalies are dealt with in the

third section, with a variety of problems to allow students to familiarize themselves with

the corrections to the observed gravity, with the concept of isostasy, and with the Airy and

Pratt hypotheses. The fourth section studies the phenomenon of the Earths tides and their

inuence on the gravitational eld. The last section is devoted to the observations of

gravity from measurements made with different types of gravimeters and the corrections

necessary in each case. We also include the application of these observations to the

accurate determination of different types of height.

Chapter 3 contains 42 problems in geomagnetism divided into ve sections. The rst is

devoted to the main (internal) eld generated by a tilted dipole at the centre of the Earth. It

includes straightforward problems that correspond to the calculation of the geomagnetic

coordinates of a point and the theoretical components of the magnetic eld. This section

also introduces the student to the use of the principal units used in geomagnetism. The

second considers the magnetic anomalies generated by different magnetized bodies and

their inuence on the internal eld. The third section is devoted to the external eld and its

variation with time. In the fourth section, we propose problems of greater complexity

involving the internal eld, the external eld, and anomalous magnetized bodies at the

same time. The last section is devoted to problems in paleomagnetism.

Chapter 4 contains 69 problems in seismology divided into seven sections. The rst

presents some simple exercises on the theory of elasticity. The second addresses the problem

of the propagation of seismic energy in the form of elastic waves, resolving the problems on

the basis of potentials, and calculating the components of their displacements. We study the

reection and refraction of seismic waves in the third section. The fourth is devoted to the

problem of wave propagation using the theory of ray paths in a plane medium of constant and

variable velocity of propagation. The fth studies the problem of the propagation of rays in a

spherical medium of either constant or variable propagation velocity, with the calculation of

the travel-time curves for both plane and spherical media. The sixth section contains

problems in the propagation of surface waves in layered media. The seventh section is

devoted to problems of calculating the focal parameters and the mechanism of earthquakes.

Chapter 5 includes 11 problems in heat ow with the propagation of heat in plane and

spherical media, and seven problems in geochronology involving the use of radioactive

elements for dating rocks.

Finally, we provide a bibliography of general textbooks on geophysics and of specic

textbooks for the topics of gravity, geomagnetism, and seismology. We have tried to

include only those most recent and commonly used textbooks which are likely to be found

in university libraries.

ix

Preface

In sum, the book is a university text for students of physics, geology, geophysics,

planetary sciences, and engineering at the undergraduate or Masters degree levels. It is

intended to be an aid to teaching the subjects of general geophysics, as well as the specic

topics of gravity, geomagnetism, seismology, and heat ow and geochronology contained

in university curricula.

The teaching experience of the authors in the universities of Barcelona, Extremadura,

and the Complutense of Madrid highlighted the need for a work of this kind. This text is

the result of the teaching work of its authors for over 20 years. Thanks are due to

the generations of students over those years who, with their comments, questions, and

suggestions, have really allowed this work to see the light. We are also especially grateful

to Prof. Greg McIntosh who provided us with some problems on paleomagnetism, to

Prof. Ana Negredo for her comments on heat ow and geochronology problems, and to

Dr R.A. Chatwin who worked on translating our text into English.

The text is an extension of the Spanish edition published by Pearson (Madrid, 2010).

Introduction

Gravity

As a rst approximation the Earths gravity is given by that of a rotating sphere. The

gravitational potential of a sphere of mass M is:

V

GM

r

where r is the position vector (Fig. A) and G the universal gravitational constant.

If the sphere is rotating with angular velocity o the centrifugal potential at a point on the

surface is given by

1

F o2 r2 sin2 y

2

where y is the angle that r forms with the axis of rotation.

The gravity potential is their sum U V F.

The value of the acceleration due to gravity (the gravity force) is given by the gradient

of the potential:

g rU

The radial component of the gravity force is given by

gr

GM

ro2 sin2 y

r2

ellipsoid, and is given by

m r 2 2

GM a J2 a3

2

U

3sin 1

cos

a r 2 r

2 a

The coefcient m is the ratio between the centrifugal and gravitational forces on the

sphere of radius a at the equator:

m

a3 o2

GM

Introduction

North Pole

P

q

r

a

Equator

Fig. A

J2

C A

a2 M

where C and A are the moments of inertia about the axis of rotation and an equatorial axis.

The attening of the ellipsoid (the shape of the Earth to a rst-order approximation) of

equatorial and polar radius a and c is:

a

c

a

In terms of J2 and m,

3

m

a J2

2

2

The dynamic ellipticity is

H

A

C

b

gp

ge

ge

where gp and ge are the normal values of gravity at the pole and the equator, respectively.

Gravity

g ge 1 bsin2

y is

The geocentric latitude of a point is the angle between the equator and the radius vector of

the point. The geodetic latitude is dened as the angle between the equatorial plane and the

normal to the ellipsoid surface at a point. Astronomical latitude is the angle between the

equatorial plane and the observed vertical at a point.

The normal or theoretical gravity at a point of geocentric latitude referred to the

GRS1980 reference ellipsoid is

g 9:780327 1 0:0053024 sin2

0:0000059 sin2 2 m s

The effect of the Sun and Moon on the Earth is to produce the phenomenon of the tides.

If one considers more generally the tidal effect due to an astronomical body of mass M at a

distance R from the centre of the Earth, one must add the corresponding potential, which, in

the rst-order approximation, is given by

c

GMr2

3cos2 #

2R3

where r is the geocentric radius vector of the point, and # is the angle the position vector r

forms with the distance vector R.

Gravity anomalies, dened as Dg g g, are the effects of the existence of anomalous

masses inside the Earth. The gravity anomaly along the Z (vertical) axis at a point distance

x along the horizontal axis produced by a sphere of radius R, density contrast Dr, and

buried at a depth d, is given by

gx; z

@Va

GM z d

h

i3=2

@z

x2 z d2

where Va is the potential produced by the anomalous spherical mass DM 4/3pR3 Dr.

For problems in two dimensions, one uses the anomaly produced by an innite horizontal cylinder at depth d, perpendicular to the plane under consideration. The anomalous

potential is given by

0

1

and the anomaly by

1

B

C

Va 2pGra2 ln@qA

x2 z d2

gx; z

@Va 2pGra2 z d

@z

x2 z d2

To correct for the height above sea level at which measurements are made, one uses the

concepts of the free-air and Bouguer anomalies. The free-air anomaly is

gFA g

g 3:086h

Introduction

where g is the observed gravity, h the height in metres, and the anomaly is obtained in

gu (gravity units) mm s 2.

The Bouguer anomaly is

g B g

g 3:086

0:419rh

To account for isostatic compensation at height in mountainous areas, one adds an

isostatic correction which can be calculated assuming either the Airy or Pratt hypotheses.

With the Airy hypothesis, the root t of a mountain is given by

t

rc

rM

rc

where rc and rM are the densities of the crust and mantle, and h is the height of the

mountain. For an ocean zone, with water density ra, the anti-root is

t0

rc

rM

ra 0

h

ra

r r

r0

h

r

Dh 0

where D is the level of compensation, h the height of the mountain, and r0 the density at

sea level. For an oceanic zone of depth h0 :

r0 D ra h0

D h0

0

r r r0

r0

The isostatic correction can be calculated using a cylinder of radius a and height b, whose

base is located at a distance c beneath the point, and with density contrast Dr:

q p

I

a2 c 2

C 2pGr b a2 c b2

For mountainous zones, with the Airy hypothesis: b t, c h H t (H crustal

thickness, h height of the point); and with the Pratt hypothesis: b D, c D h.

Geomagnetism

To a rst approximation, the internal magnetic eld of the Earth can be approximated by a

centred dipole inclined at 11.5 to the axis of rotation. The potential created by a magnetic

dipole at a point distant r from its centre and forming an angle y with the axis of the dipole is

F

Cm cos y

r2

Geomagnetism

GNP

90 fB

l lB

180 l

90 f

GMNP

q = 90 f

Fig. B

of A m. The product Cm is given in T m3.

The components of the magnetic dipole eld B are:

Br

By

@F

2Cm cos y

@r

r3

1 @F

2Cm sin y

r @y

r3

In the centred dipole approximation for the Earths magnetic eld, the geomagnetic

coordinates (f*, l*) of a point (y 90

f*) in terms of its geographic coordinates

(f, l) and those of the Geomagnetic North Pole (GMNP) (fB, lB) can be calculated using

the expressions of spherical trigonometry (Fig. B):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl

sin l

sinl

lB

lB cos f

cos f

The vertical and horizontal components of the eld, the geomagnetic constant B0, and the

total eld are given by:

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Cm

B0 3

a

q

p

F H 2 Z 2 B0 1 3sin2 f

The units used for the components of the magnetic eld are the tesla T and the nanotesla

nT 10 9 T. The NS (X*) and EW (Y*) components are

X H cos D

Y H sin D

and the declination and inclination are given by

Introduction

cos fB sinl

cos f

tan I 2 tan f

sin D

lB

r r0 cos2 f r0 sin2 y

where r0 is the radius vector of the point of the line of force located at the geomagnetic

equator.

Magnetic anomalies are produced by magnetic materials within the Earth. The anomalous potential due to a vertical dipole buried at depth d is

FA

Cmcosy

Cmz d

h

i3=2

r2

x2 z d2

The vertical (z) and the horizontal (x) components of the magnetic anomaly at the surface

(z 0) produced by a vertical magnetic dipole at depth d are:

Z

X

Cm2d 2

x2

x2 d 2 5=2

3Cmxd

x2 d 2 5=2

The Earth is affected by an external magnetic eld produced mainly by the activity of the

Sun. This eld is variable in time, with distinct periods of variation. The most noticeable is

the diurnal variation (Sq) with a maximum at 12 noon local time. The most important nonperiodic variations are the so-called magnetic storms.

Seismology

Earthquakes produce elastic waves which propagate through the interior and along the

surface of the Earth. Using the plane-wave approximation, the displacements of the

internal P- and S-waves (uiP and uiS) can be obtained from a scalar potential and a vector

potential:

ui ui P ui S ri r cj

i

A exp ika gj xj at

cj Bj exp ikb gj xj bt

where A and Bj are the amplitudes, xj the coordinates of the observation point, ka and kb the

wavenumbers, gj are the direction cosines dened from the azimuth az and angle of

incidence i of the ray as:

Seismology

g1 sin i cos az

g2 sin i sin az

g3 cos i

and a and b are the P- and S-wave velocities of propagation, respectively, dened from

the Lam coefcients (l and shear modulus m) and the density r:

s

l 2m

vP a

r

r

m

vS b

r

Units used are: displacement amplitudes (u) in m; potential amplitudes (A, Bi) in 10

wavenumber (k) in km 1; and wave velocity (a, b) in km s 1.

Poissons ratio is dened in terms of the Lam coefcients as

s

m 2;

l

2 l m

e tan

uSH

uSV

where uSH is the amplitude of the SH component, and uSV that of the SV component. SH

and SV are the horizontal and vertical components of the S-wave on the wavefront plane.

The coefcients of reection V and transmission W are given by the respective

ratios between the amplitudes of the reected or transmitted potentials and the incident

potential:

A

A0

A0

W

A0

V

where A0 is the amplitude of the incident wave potential, A that of the reected potential,

and A0 of the transmitted potential.

Snells law for plane media is expressed as

p

sin i

v

p

r sin i

v

where p is the ray parameter, i the angle of incidence, v the propagation velocity of the

medium, and r the position vector along the ray.

Introduction

In the case of plane media with propagation velocity varying with depth v(z), the

epicentral distance and the travel time of a ray for a surface focus are given by

h

pdz

x 2 p

2 p2

0

h

2 dz

t 2 p

2 p2

0

where v 1 and h is the depth of maximum penetration of the ray. The variation of the

epicentral distance x with the ray parameter p is given by

dx

dp

where

2

p 2

B0 20 p2

B

dB

dz

pdz

2 p2

0 B2

1 dv

v dz

In spherical media with velocity varying with depth v(r), the epicentral distance,

trajectory along the ray, and travel time are given by

r0

p

dr

p

2

2

r

r2

rp

r0

dr

s 2 p

2 r2

rp

r0

dr

p

t2

r2

rp v 2

where rv 1, r0 is the radius at the surface of the Earth, and rp is the radius at the point

of maximum penetration of the ray.

The variation of the distance from the epicentre D with the ray parameter p in a spherical

medium is

dB

B

dr

d

2

drp

p 2

dp

1 B0 20 p2

B 2 2 p2

0 1

where

r dv

B

v dr

The radial and vertical components (u1 and u3) of surface waves can be obtained from

the potentials and c. The transverse component (u2) is kept apart

@ @c

;1 c;3

@x1 @x3

u2 C exp iksx3 ikx1 ct

@ @c

;3 c;1

u3

@x3 @x1

u1

Seismology

A exp ikrx3 ikx1

ct

r

c2

r

1

a2

s

c2

1

s

b2

ct

For surface waves, c < b < a, and hence r and s are imaginary.

For dispersive waves, the relationship between the phase velocity c and the group

velocity U is

dc

U ck

dk

where k is the wavenumber.

The position of the seismic focus is given by the coordinates of the epicentre (0, l0)

and the depth h. The time is that of the origin of the earthquake t0. The size is given by

the magnitude which is proportional to the logarithm of the amplitude of the recorded

waves. For surface waves this is:

Ms log

A

1:66 log 3:3

T

where A is the amplitude of ground motion in microns, T is the period in seconds, and the

epicentral distance in degrees.

The magnitude of the moment is given by

2

Mw log M0

3

6:1

where M0 is the seismic moment in N m (newton metres). The seismic moment is related to

the displacement of the fault u and its area S:

M0 muS

The mechanism of earthquakes is given by the orientation of the fracture plane (fault)

dened by the angles (azimuth), d (dip), and l (slip angle or rake), or by the vectors n

(the normal to the fault plane) and l (the direction of slip).

The elastic displacement of the waves produced by a point shear fault is

@Gki

uk xs ; t mut S li nj lj ni

@xj

where Gki is the mediums Greens function which, for an isotropic, homogeneous, innite

medium, and P-waves in the far-eld regime, is given by

1

r

GPki

gi gk d t

2

4pra r

a

10

Introduction

uPk xs ; t

u_ t S

m l i nj l j ni g i g j g k

3

4pra r

This equation can be expressed also in terms of the moment tensor Mij

uPk xs ; t

M_ ij t

ggg

4pra3 r i j k

Heat ow

The Fourier law of heat transfer by diffusion states that the heat ux q_ is proportional to the

gradient of the temperature T:

q_

KrT

The heat diffusion equation, assuming that K is constant, is given by

kr2 T

e

@T

rCv

@t

where Cv is the specic heat, r the density, e the heat generated per unit volume and unit

time (heat sources), and k the thermal diffusivity:

k

K

rCv

kr2 T

@T

@t

one has:

r

r

o

o

T z; t T0 exp

zi

z ot

2k

2k

where z is the vertical direction (positive towards the nadir) and o the angular frequency.

In the case of stationary one-dimensional solutions (T constant in time) one obtains from

the diffusion equation:

T

e 2 q_ 0

z z T0

2K

K

11

Geochronology

For a spherical Earth, assuming that the thermal conductivity is constant, and that

the amount of heat per unit volume depends only on time, the diffusion equation takes the

form:

2

@ T 2 @T

@T

K

et rCv

@r2 r @r

@t

where r is the radial direction.

For the stationary case, the above equation reduces to

1 d

e

2 dT

r

r2 dr

dr

K

Integrating twice, one has

T T0

e 2

R

6K

r2

Geochronology

Geochronology is based on determining the age of a rock by measuring the decay of its

radioactive elements. In a sample of radioactive material, the number of atoms that have

yet to disintegrate after time t is given by

nt n0 e

lt

where n0 is the initial number of atoms, and l the decay constant. The rate of decay dn/dt is

the activity R, so that

R R0 e

lt

The half-life (or period) of the sample is the time it takes for the activity R to fall to half

its initial value. It is given by:

T1=

2

0:693

l

The mean life-time t of one of the atoms that existed at the start is given by:

t

1

l

If a sample consists of NR radioactive nuclei and NE stable nuclei, the time to arrive at the

propotion NE/NR is given by

12

Introduction

1

NE

1

l

NR

made for the contamination of the stable 86Sr isotope relative to the radioisotope 87Sr:

87

87

87

Sr

Sr

Rb lt

e

1

86 Srtotal

86 Sr initial

86 Sr

This expression corresponds to a straight line (isochrone) of slope e lt 1 and intercept

87

Sr

corresponding to the initial content 86 initial .

Sr

Gravity

1. Calculate the geodetic and geocentric latitudes of a point P on the ellipsoid

whose radius vector is 6370.031 km, given that m 3.4425 103, GM 39.86005

1013 m3 s2, and 6356.742 km is the polar radius. Determine J2 and b.

The major semi-axis (equatorial radius) is a and the minor (polar radius) is c, the geocentric

latitude is , and the geodetic latitude is d (Fig. 1).

The coefcient m is given by the equation

m

o 2 a3

GM

where G 6.671011 m3 kg1 s2 is the gravitational constant, M the Earths mass, and

the angular velocity is o = 2p/T, where T is the rotation period (T 24 h). We obtain for

the semi-axis a the value

a

1=3

mGMT 2

6378:127 km

4p2

The Earths attening a can be obtained directly since we already know a and c so

a

a c 6378:127 6356:742

3:3529 103

c

6378:127

The radius vector to the point P is given by the equation r a(1 a sin2 )

From this equation we can calculate the geocentric latitude :

6370:031 6378:127 1 3:3539 103 sin2

37 580 2200

tan d

1

1 a 2

tan

d 38 090 3500

13

14

Gravity

jd

j

a

Fig. 1

3

m

a J2

2

2

Then

J2

2

m

1:0878 103

a

3

2

From this value we can determine the gravity attening b using the equation

5

b m a 5:2533 103

2

2. Taking the rst-order approximation, let two points of the ellipsoid at 45 N and 30 S

be situated at distances of 6367.444 km and 6372.790 km from the centre, respectively.

If the normal gravity values are 9.806193 m s2 for the rst and 9.793242 m s2 for

the second, calculate: the attening, gravity attening, coefcient m, equatorial radius,

polar radius, dynamic form factor, and the Earths mass.

Data

r1 6367.444 km

r2 6372.790 km

w2 = 30 S g 2 = 9.793242 m s2

The normal or theoretical gravity at a point can be expressed in terms of the normal gravity

at the equator ge, the gravity attening b, and the latitude of the point :

g1 ge 1 b sin2 1

g2 ge 1 b sin2 2

g1 1 b sin2 1

g2 1 b sin2 2

15

From this expression we can obtain the gravity attening, since we already know g1, g2, 1, 2:

b

g1 g2

5:297 103

g2 sin2 1 g1 sin2 2

The distance r from the centre of the ellipsoid to points on its surface can be given as a

function of the attening a, the equatorial radius a, and the latitude :

r1 a1 a sin2 1

r2 a1 a sin2 2

If we divide both expressions

r1 1 asin2 1

r2 1 asin2 2

Thus we obtain the value of the attening,

a 3:353 103

From this value we nd the equatorial radius,

a

r1

6378:137 km

1 asin2 1

The polar radius c can be found from this value and the attening:

a

ac

a

and

c a1 a 6356:751 km

5

ab m

2

2

m a b 3:460 103

5

From this value we can obtain the value of the Earths mass M from

m

o 2 a3

GM

2p

p where T 24 hours.

T

Therefore

with o

4p2 a3

5:946 1024 kg

T 2 Gm

3. Obtain the value of the terrestrial attening in the rst-order approximation, given

that the normal gravity values for two points of the ellipsoid are:

Point 1: w1 42 200 g1 980.389 063 Gal

Point 2: w2 47 300 g2 980.854 830 Gal

Take the equatorial radius to be 6378.388 km.

16

Gravity

g1 ge 1 bsin2 1

g2 ge 1 bsin2 2

If we divide these expressions:

g1 1 bsin2 1

g2 1 bsin2 2

and we can solve for the gravity attening, b:

b 5:288 2675 103

Using the gravity attening b we can determine the value of gravity at the equator, ge:

ge

g1

978:043 614 Gal

1 bsin2 1

5

ab m

2

3

m

a J2

2

2

o2 a3

m

GM

we derive the expression

ge

GM

1 b o2 a

a2

From this value, taking T 24 hours, we obtain

m

o 2 a3

4p2 a3

2

3:442 5698 103

GM

T GM

5

a m b 3:318 1575 103

2

4. P is a point of the terrestrial ellipsoid at latitude 60 S and distance to the centre of

6362.121 km. The Earths mass is 5.9761 1024 kg and the ratio between the polar

and equatorial semi-axes is 0.9966. Taking the rst-order approximation, calculate:

(a) The attening and the coefcient J2.

(b) The value of normal gravity in mGal at P.

As in the previous problems we use the equations given in Problems 1 and 2.

17

a1

c

3:4 103

a

a

r

6 378 386 m

1 asin2

m

o 2 a3

4p2 a3

2

3:4429 103

GM

T GM

5

b m a 5:2072 103

2

The dynamic form factor J2 is found from the relation

J2

2a m

1:1190 103

3

g ge 1 bsin2 981 856:3 mGal

5. At a point P on the ellipsoid at latitude 50 S, the value of normal gravity is 9.810

752 m s2 and the distance to the centre of the Earth is 6365.587 km. Given that

the mass of the Earth is 5.976 1024 kg and the ratio between the minor and major

semi-axes is c/a 0.996 6509, calculate:

(a) The attening, equatorial radius, gravity attening, dynamic form factor, and

coefcient m.

(b) The normal gravity at the equator.

(c) The centrifugal force at P.

Data

50 S r 6365.587 km

a1

c

3:349 103

a

a

r

6378:122 km

1 asin2

18

Gravity

4p2 a3

3:4425 103

T 2 GM

5

b m a 5:2571 103

2

J2

2

m

a

1:0852 103

3

2

ge

g

9:780 579 m s2

1 bsin2

(c) The centrifugal force at point P is given by its radial and transverse components

f fr er fy ey

where, since 90 y = ,

fr o2 r sin2 y o2 r cos2 0:013 909 m s2

fy o2 r sin y cos y o2 r cos sin 0:016 576 m s2

6. Taking the rst-order approximation, calculate the Earths attening a, gravity

attening b, dynamic form factor J2, and polar radius c, given that:

ge 978.032 Gal (normal gravity at the equator)

a 6378.136 km (equatorial radius)

GM 39:8603 1013 m3 s2

and that for a point on the ellipsoid at latitude 60 N the normal gravity value is

981 921 mGal.

Calculate also the radius vector of this point and the gravitational potential.

Assuming a rst-order approximation, the expression for the normal gravity is

g ge 1 b sin2

The value of b is given by

b

g ge

5:302 103

ge sin2

m

4p2 a3

3:442 103

T 2 GM

5

a m b 3:303 103

2

J2

2

m

a

1:055 103

3

2

19

a

ac

) c a1 a 6357:069 km

a

r a1 asin2 6362:335 km

The gravity potential at the same point, in the rst-order approximation, is found using

Mac Cullaghs formula,

r 3 m 2

GM

J2 a2

2

1

cos 6:263 57 107 m2 s2

U

3 sin 1

r

a 2

2 r

7. Assuming that the Moon is an ellipsoid of equatorial radius 1738 km and polar

radius 1737 km, with J2 = 3.8195 104 and a mass of 7.3483 1022 kg, calculate its

period of rotation.

First, we calculate the lunar attening a,

a

ac

5:7537 104

a

3

m

a J2 ) m 2a 3J2 7:5900 106

2

2

From the value of m we nd the period of rotation T:

2 3

1

4p2 a3

4p a 2

)T

m 2

27:32 days

T GM

mGM

8. Calculate, in the rst-order approximation, the latitude and radius vector of a point

P of the terrestrial ellipsoid for which the value of normal gravity is 979.992 Gal, given

that the Earths mass is 5.976 1024 kg and that normal gravity for another point Q at

50 S latitude is 981.067 Gal, for the equator is 978.032 Gal, and that J2 is 1.083 103.

The gravity attening b is found from the normal gravity at Q with latitude 1 = 50 :

g1

1

ge

5:288 103

b 2

sin Q

Using the same expression and the normal gravity at P we calculate its latitude

gA

g 1

sin P e

;

b

2

a

15

b

J2 3:353 103

8

4

20

Gravity

m 2a 3J2 3:457 103

From the value of m we obtain the equatorial radius a:

1

mGM 3

6 387 062:758 m

a

o2

where we have substituted o = 2p/T, taking T 24 hours.

Finally, we nd the radius vector of point P

r a1 asin2 6 378 946:678 m

9. At a point P on the terrestrial ellipsoid of latitude 70 S and radius vector 6359.253

km, the value of normal gravity is 982.609 Gal. If the mass of the Earth is 5.9769 1024

kg and the equatorial radius is 6378.136 km, calculate the value of normal gravity at

the Pole, the dynamic form factor, and the centrifugal force at the Pole and the equator.

The attening a is given by

a

1

r

3:3528 103

1

a

sin2

m

o 2 a3

3:4425 103

GM

5

b m a 5:2535 103

2

Normal gravity at the equator is found from the value of the gravity at point P:

ge

g

9:780 72 m s2

1 b sin2

gp ge 1 b 9:832 10 m s2

The dynamic form factor is found from the values of a and m:

2

m

a

1:0877 103

J2

3

2

The centrifugal force is given by the expression:

At the pole, y = 90 = 0 ! f = 0.

At the equator, y 90 ! f = o2 a er = 0.033 73 er m s2

21

10. Let two points of the ellipsoid be of latitudes w1 and w2, with radius vectors

6372.819 km and 6362.121 km, respectively. The ratio of the normal gravities is

0.997 37, the attening 3.3529 103, and the gravity attening 5.2884 103.

Calculate:

(a) The Earths mass.

(b) The latitude of each point and the dynamic form factor.

(a) The equatorial radius a can be obtained from the ratio of the two normal gravities

a r

1

2

1

b

g1 1 bsin 1

aa

l

g2 1 bsin2 2 1 b a r2

aa

a

blr2 r1

6382:94 km

a b l 1

We calculate the mass of the Earth from the attening and gravity attening as in Problem 2:

2

m a b 3:4565 103

5

4p2 a3

5:9653 1024 kg

T 2 Gm

(b) The latitudes at each point are calculated from the radius vectors

a r1

sin2 1

! 1 43 270 5800

aa

a r2

! 2 80 330 4600

sin2 2

aa

The dynamic form factor is obtained from the values of a, b, and m:

9

b 2a m J2

2

2

J2 2a m b 1:0831 103

9

11. Let a point A have a value of gravity of 9793 626.8 gu and a geopotential number

of 32.614 gpu. Calculate the gravity at a point B, knowing that the increments in

dynamic and Helmert height over point A are 271.116 m and 271.456 m, respectively.

Take g45 9.806 2940 m s2. Give the units for each parameter.

The dynamic heights at points A and B are given by:

CA

g45

C

B

HDB

g45

HDA

gravity for a point on the ellipsoid at 45 latitude.

N

P

j1

gj dhj

22

Gravity

HDB HDA

CB CA

g45

CB CA g45 HDB HDA 298:478 gpu

If heights are given in km and normal gravity in Gal, geopotentials are in gpu (geopotential units)

1 gpu 1 kGal m 1 Gal km

The Helmert orthometric height H is given by

H

C

g 0:0424H

11:1

Solving for H:

p

g g2 4 0:0424C

H

2 0:0424

Since the point A is above the geoid (CA > 0), we take the positive solution,

HA 33:301 m

Then, the Helmert height at point B is

HB HA HAB 304:757 m

The gravity at point B is calculated using Equation (11.1)

gB

CB

0:0424HB 979:382 75 Gal

HB

12. Calculate the value of gravity in gravimetric units and mGal of a point on the

Earths surface whose orthometric (Helmert) and dynamic heights are 678.612 m and

679.919 m, respectively, taking g 45 9.806 294 m s2.

The geopotential is calculated from the dynamic height,

HD

C

) C HD g45 666:748 gpu

g45

Knowing the geopotential, we calculate the gravity from the orthometric (Helmert)

height H, using its denition,

H

C

C

) g 0:0424H 982:489 34 Gal 9 824 893:4 gu

g 0:0424H

H

13. If at a point on the surface of the Earth of Helmert height 1000 m one observes

a value of gravity of 9.796 235 m s2, calculate the average value of gravity

23

between that point and the geoid along the direction of the plumb-line, and

the points geopotential number.

The mean value of gravity between a height H and the surface of the geoid is given by

1 H

g

gzdz

H 0

where g(z) is the value of gravity at a distance z from the geoid along the vertical path to a

point of height H. This value can be obtained using the Poincar and Prey reduction from

the value of g observed at the Earths surface at a point of height H,

gz g 0:0848H z

Then

1 H

1 H

gzdz

g 0:0848H zdz

g

H 0

H 0

H

1

gz 0:0848 Hz 0:0424z2 0

H

g g 0:0424 H 979:6659 Gal

where g is given in Gal and H in km.

The geopotential C can be obtained from the formula for the Helmert height,

H

C

) C g 0:0424 H H 979:666 gpu

g 0:0424H

14. For two points A and B belonging to a gravity measurement levelling line, one

obtained:

gA = 9.801 137 6 m s2

CA = 933.316 gpu

Gross increment elevation: DhBA 20:340

B

Increment in dynamic height: H A

D H D 20:340 m.

Given that the normal gravity at 45 latitude is 9806 294 gu, calculate the Helmert

heigth of point B.

As in Problem 11, the dynamic heights at A and B are given by

CA

g45

CB

HDB

g45

HDA

HDB HDA

CB CA

g45

CB CA g45 HDB HDA 913:371 gpu

24

Gravity

The geopotential at B can be obtained from the gross increment in elevation between A and B,

g g

A

B

CB CA

hBA

2

gB

2CB CA

gA 980:103 08 Gal

hBA

H

C

g 0:0424H

p

gB gB 2 4 0:0424CB

H

931:875 m

2 0:0424

15. A, B, and C are points connected by a geometric levelling line. Given that the

normal gravity at a latitude of 45 is 980.6294 Gal, complete the following table:

Station

Gravity

(Gal)

Height

Increment (m)

Geopotential

Number (gpu)

Dynamic

Height (m)

Helmert

Height (m)

A

B

C

979.88696

?

979.88665

0.541

?

664.982

?

?

?

677.577

?

?

?

657.134

Station A

Dynamic height:

HDA

CA

678:118 m

g45

Helmert height:

C

g 0:0424H

p

g g2 4 0:0424 C

H

678:611 m

2 0:0424

H

Station B

The geopotential number is found from the dynamic height:

CB g45 HDB 664:452 gpu

15:1

25

From this value and the difference in height with respect to station A we nd the gravity at B:

g g

A

B

CB CA

hA

B

2

from which we get gB = 979.877 84 Gal

The Helmert height of B is found as in station A:

HB 678:077 m

Station C

From the known values of gravity and Helmert height we nd the geopotential number

(Equation 15.1)

CC gHC 0:0424HC2 661:574 gpu

To calculate the difference in height of C with respect to B we begin with the expression

g g

B

C

hCB

CC CB

2

from which

hCB

2CC CB

2:937 m

gB gC

HDC

CC

674:642 m

g45

Station

Gravity

(Gal)

Height

increment (m)

Geopotential

number (gpu)

Dynamic

height (m)

Helmert

height (m)

A

B

C

979.88696

979.87784

979.88665

0.541

2.937

664.982

664.452

661.574

678.118

677.577

674.642

678.611

678.077

657.134

16. Suppose an Earth is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, and within it

there are two spheres of radius a/2 with centres located on the axis of rotation. The

density of that of the northern hemisphere is 5r and of that of the southern hemisphere is r /5. The value of the rotation is such that m 0.1. Determine:

(a) The potential U in the r3 approximation.

(b) The values of gr and gu for a point on the equator in the r2 approximation.

26

Gravity

(c) The error made in (b) with respect to the exact solution.

(d) The deviation of the vertical from the radial at the equator.

(a) The gravitational potential is the sum of the potentials of the three spheres

V V1 V2 V3

GM GM1 GM2

0

r

q

q

16:1

where r is the distance from a point P to the centre of the sphere of radius a and mass M,

where M is given by

4

M pra3

3

q and q0 are the distances to the centres of the two spheres in its interior in the northern and

southern hemispheres which have differential masses M1 and M2, respectively (Fig. 16).

The differential masses are those corresponding to the difference in density in each case

with respect to the large sphere:

4

a3 M

M1 p5r r

3

8

2

differential mass of the sphere in the northern hemisphere

a3

4 r

M

M2 p r

3 5

8

10

The distance q can be calculated using the cosine law

r

r

a2

a 2

a

a

2

q r

cos y

2 r cos y r 1

2

2

2

2r

2r

Considering this expression, 1/q corresponds to one of the generating functions of the

Legendre polynomials. Then 1/q, in the rst-order approximation, is given by

1 1

a

1 a 2

2

1 cos y

3cos y 1

q r

2r

2 2r

1 1

a

1 a 2

2

1

cos

y

3cos

y

1

q0 r

2r

2 2r

P

5

q

r

r2

a/2

a

r3

/5

Fig. 16

q'

'

27

If we substitute in Equation (16.1), the potentials for each sphere are given by

GM

GM 1

a

a2

V2

2 cos y 3 3cos2 y 1

V1

r

2

r 2r

8r

GM 1

a

a2

2

V3

cos y 3 3cos y 1

10 r 2r2

8r

Then, the total gravity potential is the sum of the three gravitational potentials plus the

potential of the centrifugal force due to the rotation:

1 1 1

1 1 a

U GM 1

cos y

2 10 r

4 20 r2

1

1 a2

1 2 2 2

2

3 cos y 1 r o sin y

16 80 r3

2

In terms of the coefcient m, given here by m

o2 a3

,

GM

1 r 2 2

GM 7 a 3 a2

1 a3

2

cos y

3cos y 1 m

sin y

U

a 5 r 10 r2

20 r3

2 a

(b) Using this rst-order approximation of the potential, the radial and tangential

components of gravity at the equator, r = a and y = 90 , putting m 0.1, are

@U

GM

1:3 2

@r

a

1 @U

GM

0:3 2

gy

r @y

a

gr

the exact contribution of each of the three spheres plus the centrifugal force (m 0.1):

gr gr1 gr2 gr3 m

GM

a2

GM

a2

GM

gr2 2 cos a

2r2

GM

cos a

gr3

10r32

gr1

where

r

a2

r 2 a2 r 3

4

and a is the angle which forms r2 and r3 with the equator (Fig. 16)

28

Gravity

sin a

Then

GM

gr 2

a

a=2

1

p

r2

5

4

4

GM

1 p p m 1:19 2

a

5 5 25 5

0

1

GM 1 C

B GM 1

p

pA

gy gy1 gy2 @

5 2 5

5

2 a

10 a2 5

4

4

GM

2

2

GM

2 p p 0:14 2

a

a

5 5 25 5

The error made in the rst-order approximation with respect to the exact solution is

GM

GM

0:11 2

a2

a

GM

GM

gy 0:3 0:14 2 0:16 2

a

a

gr 1:19 1:3

(d) The deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction is given by the angle i

which is determined from the gravity components gr and gy. At the equator this angle is:

Using the rst order approximation

tan i

gy 0:3

) i 13:0

gr 1:3

tan i

0:16

) i 7:6

1:19

17. A spherical planet is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, and inside it a

sphere of radius a/2 and density 5r centred at the midpoint of the radius of the

northern hemisphere. There is no rotation.

(a) Determine J0, J1, and J2.

(b) What is the deviation of the vertical from the radial at the equator?

(a) The total gravitational potential is the sum of the potentials of the two spheres

(Fig. 17) where g, is the attraction due to the potential V1 and g2 that due to the

potential V2:

V V1 V2

GM GM 0

r

q

where r and q are the distances from a point P to the centres of the large and small spheres,

respectively.

29

5r

r

a /2

q

g2

i

g1

Fig. 17

As we did in Problem 16, for the small sphere of radius a/2 we take the differential

mass M 0

4 a3

16

M

M 0 p 5r r pra3

3 8

24

2

where M is the mass of the sphere of radius a and density r.

For 1/q we take the rst-order approximation of the Legendre polynomial, as we did in

Problem 16:

1 1

a

1 a 2

2

1 cos y

3cos y 1

q r

2r

2 2r

Then, the expression for the gravitational potential V is:

GM GM 1

a

1 a2

2

2 cos y

3cos

y

1

V

r

2

r 2r

4 4r3

3

a

a2

2

GM

cos y

3cos y 1

2r 4r2

32r3

spherical harmonics (Legendre polynomials) given in the rst-order approximation by

a3 1

GM

a

a 2

J0

J1 cos y

J2 3cos2 y 1

V

a

r

r

r

2

Comparing the two expressions we obtain,

30

Gravity

3

2

1

J1

4

1

J2

16

J0

@V GM

3 1

3

2 cos y

3cos2 y 1

@r

a

2 2

32

1 @V GM

1

3

gy

2 sin y cos y sin y

r @y

a

4

16

gr

45GM

32a2

GM

gy 2

4a

gr

At the equator the deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction is

gy

8

gr 45

i 10:08

tan i

18. Suppose an Earth is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, and within it

there are two spheres of radius a/2 and density 2r with centres located on the axis of

rotation in each hemisphere. If M is the mass of the sphere of radius a, calculate:

(a) The potential U(r,u) and the form of the equipotential surface passing through the Poles.

(b) The component gr of gravity in the rst-order approximation for points on the surface.

(c) Calculate gr directly at the Pole and the equator, and compare with the rst-order

approximation.

(a) This problem is similar to Problem 16, but now the density of the two spheres is the

same. The total gravity potential is the sum of the gravitational potentials of the

three spheres (V, V1 and V2) plus the potential due to the rotation F:

where

U V V1 V2 F

GM

r

GM 0

V1

q1

GM 0

V2

q2

1 2 2 2

F o r sin y

2

V

18:1

31

q1

2r

r

r

q2

a/2

a

a

2r

Fig. 18

and where M is the mass of the large sphere of radius a and M 0 the differential mass of each

of the small spheres of radius a/2, r is the distance from a point P to the centre of the large

sphere, and q1 and q2 the distances from P to the centres of the small spheres (Fig. 18). As

in Problem 16 the differential mass is given by the difference in density between the large

and the small spheres:

a 3 M

4

M 0 p2r r

3

2

8

The inverse of the distance 1/q can be approximated by

a 2 1

1

1

a

2

1 cos y

3cos y 1

q1 r

2r

2r 2

a 2 1

1

1

a

2

3cos y 1

1 cos y

q2 r

2r

2r 2

The potential of the rotation can be written in terms of the coefcient m = a3o2/GM,

GM 1 1 a3 o2 3

GM m r 3 2

r

sin2 y

sin y

F

3

r

2 a GM

r 2 a

Substituting in Equation (18.1)

r 3 m 2

GM 10 1 a 2

2

sin y

U

3cos y 1

r

8 8 2r

a 2

18:2

32

Gravity

At the Poles, r a and y = 0 , and the potential is

GM 10 2

21 GM

U poles

a

8 32

16 a

The form of the equipotential surface which passes through the Poles (r a) is obtained

from Equation (18.2)

r

r 3 m 2

GM 10 1 a 2

3cos2 y 1

sin y

Upoles 8 8 2r

a 2

r

32 10 m 2

1

a

sin y

3cos2 y 1

42 8

2

32

32 3 m

2

r a 1

sin y

42 32 2

symmetry with respect to the axis of rotation, the equipotential surface is an ellipsoid of

revolution.

At the poles: y 0 ) rp a.

32 m 3

At the equator: y 90 ) re a 1

42 2 32

Depending on the value of m, we have the following cases,

m

3

) re a ) sphere

2 32

m

3

<

) re < a ) prolate ellipsoid

2

32

m

3

>

) re > a ) oblate ellipsoid

2

32

3

< a ) prolate ellipsoid

m0)r a 1

42

(b) For the gravity at the Pole, in the rst-order approximation, we take the derivative

of the potential (18.2) and substitute y 0 ) rp a:

@U GM

10 6

GM

gr

2

1:4375 2

@r

a

8 32

a

(c) The exact solution for the gravity at the pole is the sum of the attractions of the

three spheres:

gr

GM GM GM

GM

2

1:5555 2

a2

2a

18a2

a

33

At the equator we take the derivative of the potential and substitute r = a and

y = 90 :

@U GM

10 3

gr

2 m

@r

a

8 32

GM 37

GM

m 2 1:1562 m

2

a 32

a

For the exact solution we write

gr

GM 2GM

cos a o2 a

a2

8q2

a2

5

a2 a2

4

4

r

4

cos a

5

q2

Therefore

"

#

r

GM

8 4

GM

gr 2 1

m 2 1:1789 m

a

40 5

a

The approximated values are smaller than the exact solutions.

19. For the case of Problem 18, if GM = 4 103 m3 s2, a = 6 103 km, and v = 7

105 s1, calculate the values of J2, a, m, H, and b.

From the denition of m we obtain

m

2:6 103

GM

4 1014

The value of J2 is obtained by comparing the two expressions for the potential U

(Problem 18):

a2 1

m r 3 2

GM

U

1

J2 3cos2 y 1

sin y

r

r

2

2 a

2

5 GM

1 a

m r 3 2

3cos2 y 1

sin y

1

U

4 r

40 r

2 a

Then, J2 = 0.05.

The attening is obtained from the relation

3

m

a J2

2

2

a

3

2:3 103

50 103

0:0765

2

2

34

Gravity

X3

2r

r

a/2

X1

a

2r

Fig. 19a

b

gp ge 1:555 1:175

0:323

ge

1:175

where we have used the values of gravity at the Pole and equator obtained in Problem 18,

and in the latter we have substituted the value obtained for the coefcient m.

The dynamic ellipticity H is dened as the ratio of the moments of inertia with respect to

the polar and equatorial radius (Fig. 19a):

H

CA

C

where A and C are the moments of inertia of a sphere respect to the polar and equatorial

radi: (axes x1 and x3). The moment of inertia of a sphere of radius R is

2

Isph MR2

5

We have to add to the moment of inertia of the sphere of radius a the moments of inertia of

the two internal spheres of radius a/2. For the C-axis (x3) we have

2

2 M a2

0:425Ma2

IC Isph a 2Isph a2 Ma2 2

5

58 4

For the A-axis (x1) the moment of inertia of each of the small spheres is given by

(Fig. 19b)

35

R

h

Fig. 19b

I ICM Mh2

since in this case the A axis does not coincide with the centre of mass, where R a/2

and h a/2:

Isph a=2

2 M a2 M a 2

0:044Ma2

58 4

8 4

2

IA Isph a 2Isph a=2 Ma2 2 0:044Ma2 0:488Ma2

5

Finally

H

C A IC IA 0:425 0:488

0:147

C

IC

0:425

20. Suppose an Earth is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, and within it

there is a sphere of radius a/2 and density 5r centred at the midpoint of the northernhemisphere polar radius. If m 1/8 and M is the mass of the sphere of radius a,

determine:

(a) The form of the equipotential surface passing through the North Pole.

(b) For latitude 45, the astronomical latitude and the deviation of the vertical from

the radial.

(a) The gravitational potential is the sum of the potentials for the sphere of radius a

and that of the sphere of radius a/2 (Fig. 20):

V V1 V2

GM GM1

r

q

As in the previous problems the potential of the small sphere is given in terms of

differential mass M1:

36

Gravity

gq

a/2

q

g

5r

gr

fa

Fig. 20

a3 M

4

M1 p5r r

3

2

2

and for the inverse of the distance 1/q we use the approximation

a 2 1

1 1

a

2

1 cos y

3cos y 1

q r

2r

2r 2

GM 3 a

1 a2

V

cos y

3cos2 y 1

r 2 4r

16 r

The total potential U is the sum of the gravitational potential V plus the potential of rotation

F, where

1

F r2 o2 sin2 y

2

and using the coefcient m = o2a3/GM = 1/8, we have

r 3 m 2

GM 3 a

1 a2

U

cos y

3cos2 y 1

sin y

r 2 4r

16 r

a 2

At the North Pole, y = 0 and r a, and the value of the potential is

GM 3 1 1

15GM

Up

a 2 4 8

8a

37

r 3 m 2

15GM GM 3 a

1 a2

cos y

3cos2 y 1

sin y

8a

r 2 4r

16 r

a 2

4

1

1

r a 1 cos y cos2 y

5

6

12

(b) The deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction is given by the angle i:

tan i

gy

gr

@U

3 1 2a 1

3a2 1

2r

2

2

GM 2

gr

cos

y

3

cos

y

1

sin

y

@r

2r

4 r3

16a3

16 r4

1 @U GM

a

a2

r2

2 sin y

6

cos

y

sin

y

sin

y

cos

y

gy

r @y

r

4r

16r3

8a3

For a point on the surface we put r a:

GM 19 1

11 2

gr 2

cos y cos y

a 16 2

16

GM 1

1

sin y sin y cos y

gy 2

a 4

4

and for latitude 45

GM

1:88

a2

GM

gy 2 0:30

a

0:30

) i 9:0.

Then the angle i is given by tan i

1:88

The astronomical latitude is

gr

fa 90 y i 36:0

21. If the internal sphere of Problem 20 is located on the equatorial radius at

longitude zero, nd expressions for the components of gravity: gr , gu , gl.

As in the previous problem the differential mass of the small sphere M1 is (Fig. 21a):

M1

M

2

The total potential U is the sum of the gravitational potentials V and V1, and the potential

due to rotation F. According to Fig. 21b, using the relations of spherical triangles, if and

l are the coordinates of the point where the potential is evaluated, then

38

Gravity

P

q

y

j

l = 0 A

a/2

Fig. 21a

B

90

90 j

P

Fig. 21b

cosc cos cosl

Using the expression for 1/q as in Problem 16,

a 2 1

1 1

a

1 cos c

3cos2 c 1

q r

2r

2r 2

GM

a

a2

2

2

1 cos cos l 2 3cos cos l 1

V1

2r

2r

8r

1 2 2 2

GM 3 a

a2

2

2

U

cos cos l

r

o

cos

3cos

cos

l

1

r 2 4r

2

16r2

39

r2 m 2

3

a2

a2

2

2

U GM

sin y cos l

3sin ycos l 1 3 sin y

2r 4r2

16r3

a 2

The three components of gravity are found by differentiating U with respect to r, y, and l:

r

@U

3

a2

3a2

2

2

2

gr

GM 2 3 sin y cos l

3sin

ycos

l

1

msin

y

@r

2r

2r

16r4

a3

2

1 @U

a

a2

r

cos

y

cos

l

6

cos

l

sin

y

cos

y

m

sin

y

cos

y

GM

gy

4r3

16r4

r @y

a3

1 @U

a2

3a2

gl

GM 3 sin l 4 sin y cos l sin l

r sin y @l

4r

8r

22. A planet is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, with a spherical core of

density 5r and radius a/2 centred on the axis of rotation in the northern hemisphere

and tangential to the equator. The planet rotates with m 1/4. For the point at

coordinates (45 N, 45 E), calculate:

(a) The astronomical latitude.

(b) The deviation of the vertical from the radial.

(c) The angular velocity of rotation that would be required for this deviation to be zero.

(a) The gravitational potential is the sum of the potentials of the two spheres (Fig. 22):

V V1 V2

GM GM 0

r

q

22:1

5r

g

gr

r

j

Fig. 22

gq

a/2

40

Gravity

As in Problem 16, the inverse of the distance from a point P to the centre of the small

sphere, 1/q, can be approximated by

1 1

a

1 a 2

1 cos y

3cos2 y 1

q r

2r

2 2r

4 a3

2

M 0 p 5r r pra3

3 8

3

4

and since M pra3 , then M 0 = M/2.

3

Substituting in Equation (22.1) we obtain

GM GM 1

a

1 a2

2

V

2 cos y

3cos

y

1

r

2 r 2r

2 4r3

3

a

a2

2

2 cos y

3cos

y

1

GM

2r 4r

16r3

The total potential U is the sum of V plus the potential due to rotation F:

GM 3 a

a2

1

2

cos y

3cos y 1 r2 o2 sin2 y

U V F

r 2 4r

2

16r2

@U

3

a

3a2

2

GM 2 3 cos y

3cos

y

1

ro2 sin2 y

gr

@r

2r

2r

16r4

1 @U

a

a2

gy

6 cos y sin y ro2 sin y cos y

GM 3 sin y

r @y

4r

16r4

22:2

22:3

For a point on the surface of the large sphere and coordinates 45 N, 45 E, we have that

y = 45 , r a, and

a3 o 2 1

GM

4

Putting these values in (22.2) and (22.3), we obtain

m

gr 1:82

GM

GM

and gy 0:24 2

a2

a

To nd the astronomical latitude we rst have to nd the deviation of the vertical with

respect to the radial:

tan i

gy

0:13 ; i 7:5

gr

(b) The deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction, as already found, is i = 7.5 .

(c) If we want the deviation of the vertical to be null, i 0, this implies gy = 0.

41

m

we have

GM

gy 0 2

a

a3 o2

GM

22:4

2 23 m

16

2

Substituting in Equation (22.4) we obtain

r

GM

0:85

o

a3

23. A planet consists of a very thin spherical shell of mass M and radius a, within

which is a solid sphere of radius a/2 and mass M 0 centred at the midpoint of the

equatorial radius of the zero meridian. The planet rotates with angular velocity v

about an axis normal to the equatorial plane. Calculate:

(a) The potential at points on the surface as a function of latitude and longitude.

(b) The components of the gravity vector.

(c) If M 0 10 M, what is the ratio between the tangential and radial components of

gravity at the North Pole?

(a) The potential U is the sum of the gravitational potentials due to the spherical shell V1, and

to the interior sphere V2, plus the potential due to the rotation of the planet F (Fig. 23):

U V1 V2 F

1

F o2 r2 cos2

2

GM

V1

r

GM 0

V2

q

23:1

where r is the distance from a point P on the surface of the planet to its centre, q is the

distance from point P to the centre of the interior sphere, and the latitude of point P.

Using the cosine law,

r

a2

q r2 ar cos c

4

where c is the angle between r and the equatorial radius, and its inverse can be approximated by (Problem 16)

1 1

a

a2

2

1 cos c 2 3cos c 1

23:2

q r

2r

8r

Using the relation for spherical triangles

cos a cos b cos c sin b sin c cos A

42

Gravity

j

90

P

r

y

a

y

q

j

a/2

Fig. 23

cos c = cos cos l

Substituting in (23.1), the potential due to the small sphere is

GM 0

a

a2

2

2

1 cos cos l 2 3cos cos l 1

V2

r

2r

8r

GM GM 0

a

a2

2

2

U

r

r

2r

8r

1

o2 r2 cos2

2

(b) The components of the gravity vector are obtained from Equation (23.3):

@U

@r

GM

1

a

3a2

0

2

2

2 GM 2 3 cos cos l 4 3cos cos l 1

r

r

r

8r

gr

o2 rcos2

1 @U

1 @U

gy

r @y

r @

0

GM a

a2

2

sin

cos

l

6

cos

cos

l

sin

r 2r2

8r3

o2 r cos sin

23:3

43

1 @U

GM 0

a

a2

2

gl

2 cos sin l 3 6cos cos l sin l

8r

r cos @l r cos

2r

(c) At the North Pole, = 90 and r a. Putting M 0 10M and substituting in the

previous equations we obtain

gr

GM GM 0 3GM 0 a2

GM

2

7:25 2

a2

a

8a4

a

gy

GM 0

5GM

2

2a2

a

The ratio between the radial and the tangential components of gravity at the North

Pole is

gr

1:45

gy

24. An Earth consists of a sphere of radius a and density r, within which there are two

spheres of radius a/2 centred on the axis of rotation and tangent to each other. The

density of that of the northern hemisphere is 4r and that of the southern hemisphere

is r/4.

(a) Express the gravitational potential in terms of M (the mass of the large sphere) up

to terms of 1/r3.

(b) What astronomical latitude corresponds to points on the equator (without

rotation)?

(c) What error is made by using the 1/r3 approximation in calculating the value of gr

at the equator?

(a) The total gravitational potential V is the sum of the potentials of the sphere of

radius a (V0) and of the two spheres of radius a/2 situated in the northern (V1) and

southern (V2) hemispheres (Fig. 24):

V V0 V1 V2

As in previous problems the large sphere is considered to have uniform density

r and the effect of the two interior spheres is calculated using their differential

masses

4

M pra3

3

4

a3 3M

M1 p4r r

3

8

8

a3

4 r

3M

M2 p 1

3 4

32

8

44

Gravity

4r

r1

a/2

a

a

r2

r/4

Fig. 24

GM

r

GM1 3GM 1

a

a2

2 cos y 3 3cos2 y 1

V1

r1

8

r 2r

8r

GM2

3GM 1

a

a2

V2

2 cos y 3 3cos2 y 1

r2

32 r 2r

8r

V0

where r1 and r2 have been calculated as in Problem 16. Then, the total gravitational

potential in the 1/r3 approximation is

V GM

41 15 a

9 a2

cos y

3cos2 y 1

2

3

32r 64 r

256 r

(b) The components of the gravity vector, taking into account that there is no rotation, are

@V

41

15a

27a2

2

gr

GM

cos

y

3cos

y

1

@r

32r2 32r3

256r4

24:1

1 @V

15a

27a2

gy

GM

sin

y

cos

y

sin

y

r @y

64r3

128r3

At the equator, r a and y = 90 and we obtain

45

GM

a2

GM

gy 0:243 2

a

gr 1:175

The astronomical latitude (a) is the angle between the vertical and the equatorial plane. In

our case at the equator this is given by the deviation of the vertical from the radial

direction:

tan a

gy

0:207

gr

Then

a 11:68 N

(c) If we want to calculate the exact value of gr at the equator, we calculate the exact

attractions of each sphere and add them:

gr0

GM

a2

gr1

3GM

cos a

8r12

gr2

3GM

cos a

32r22

24:2

where r1 and r2 are the distances from the centre of each of the two interior

spheres (Fig. 24):

r

p

a2 a 5

r 1 r 2 a2

4

2

and a is the angle which r1 and r2 form with the equatorial plane:

sin a

a=2

1

p

r1

5

GM

a2

gapprox gexact 0:160

GM

;

a2

25. An Earth consists of a sphere of radius a and density r within which there are

two spheres of radius a/2 centred on the axis of rotation and tangent to each other.

The density of that of the northern hemisphere is 2r and that of the southern

hemisphere is r/2.

(a) Express the potential V in terms of M (the mass of the large sphere), G, and r up to

terms in 1/r3.

46

Gravity

q1

a/2

q2

2r

x

gq

gr

r

q

ja

r/2

Fig. 25

(b) According to the value of this potential V, which astronomical latitudes correspond to the geocentric latitudes 45 N and 45 S?

(c) What must the rotation period be for the astronomical and geocentric latitudes to

coincide?

(d) What error is made by the 1/r3 approximation in calculating the value of gr at the

equator? And at the North Pole?

(a) As in previous problems the effect of the interior spheres is given in terms of their

differential masses (Fig. 25):

a3 M

4

M1 p2r r

3

2

8

4 r

a 3

M

M2 p r

3 2

2

16

The distances q1 and q2 from the centre of each sphere to an arbitrary point P are found

using the cosine law:

a2

ar

2 cos y

4

2

2

a

ar

q2 r2 2 cos y

4

2

q1 r 2

47

Using the approximation for 1/q (Problem 16), the total gravitational potential V is the sum

of the potentials of the three spheres:

GM GM1 GM2

r

q1

q2

GM 17 3 a

1 a2

2

cos y

3cos y 1

r 16 32 r

128 r

@V

1 17 6 a

3 a2

2

gr

cos y

3cos y 1

GM 2

@r

r 16 32 r3

128 r4

1 @V

GM 3 a

1 a2

sin

y

6

cos

y

sin

y

gy

r @y

r 32 r2

128 r3

25:1

GM 17 3

3

cos y

3cos2 y 1

gr 2

a 16 16

128

GM 3

6

gy 2

sin y

cos y sin y

a 32

128

At geocentric latitude 45 N, y 45,

GM

a2

GM

gy 0:09 2

a

gr 1:21

The deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction i is given by

tan i

gy

0:074 ) i45 4:2

gr

According to Fig. 25, the astronomical latitude a can be determined from the deviation of

the vertical i,

a i 180 180 ) a i 45 4:2 40:8 N

In the same way, for geocentric latitude 45 S (y = 135 )

GM

a2

GM

gy 0:04 2

a

gr 0:94

gy

Then tan i135 0:043 ) i135 2:5

gr

Then the astronomical latitude is

a 45 2:5 47:5 47:5 S

48

Gravity

(c) If we want the astronomical and geocentric latitudes to coincide, then the

deviation of the vertical must be null, i 0. This implies that gytotal must be

zero. To do this by means of the rotation, we have to make the tangential

component of the centrifugal force gyR be equal and of opposite sign to that of

the gravitational potential gyV :

gy total gy V gy R 0 ) gy V gy R

The tangential component due to rotation is

gyR

1 @F

r @y

1

where F o2 r2 sin2 y. Then

2

gyR o2 r cos y sin y

For a point on the surface at latitude 45 N, r = a and y = 45 , so

gy V gy R ) 0:09 GM =a2 o2 a=2

From here we can calculate the period of rotation

2p

2p

p

T

o

0:18

r

a3

GM

gyR

gyV

1

GM

2p

) o2 a 0:04 2 ) T p

2

a

0:08

r

a3

GM

(d) The value of the radial component of gravity at the equator, r a, y = 90 , by

substitution in (25.1), is

gr 1:04

GM

a2

If we calculate the exact value by adding the contributions of the three spheres

(Fig. 25)

grexact grM gr1 gr2

grM

GM

a2

gr2 g2 cos b

where

49

a

2

cos b r p

5

5

a

4

GM 4

g1

8 5a2

GM 4

g2

16 5a2

grexact

GM

0:96

a2

grerror

GM

GM

GM

0:96 2 1:04 2 0:08 2

a

a

a

gr 1:30 GM =a2

grexact grM gr1 gr2

GM

a2

GM

GM

gr1 2 2

a

2a

8

2

GM

GM

gr2

a2 36a2

16 a

2

grM

grexact

GM

1:47

a2

grerror

GM

GM

GM

1:47 2 1:30 2 0:17 2

a

a

a

26. A spherical Earth of radius a has a core of radius a/2 whose centre is displaced a/2 along

the axis of rotation towards the North Pole. The core density is twice that of the mantle.

(a) What should the period of rotation of the Earth be for the direction of the plumbline to coincide with the radius at a latitude of 45 S?

(b) What are the values of J0, J1, J2, and m?

(a) As in previous problems we calculate the gravitational potential by the sum of the

potentials of the two spheres, using for the core the differential mass (Fig. 26):

GM GM 0

V V1 V2

r

q

2

4

a

M

M 0 p2r r

3

8

8

50

Gravity

a/2

2r

q

r

a

45

i

gr

gq

Fig. 26

GM GM 1

a

1 a2

2

V

2 cos y

3cos

y

1

r

8 r 2r

2 4r3

26:1

The total potential U is the sum of the gravitational potential V and the potential due to

rotation

1

F r2 o2 sin2 y

2

U GM

91

a

a2

1

2

cos

y

3cos

y

1

r2 o2 sin2 y

8 r 16r2

64r3

2

In order that the direction of the plumb-line coincides with the radial direction, the

tangential component of gravity, gy, must be null:

1 @U GM

a 1

a2 1

gy

sin

y

6

cos

y

sin

y

r @y

r

16 r2

64 r3

ro2 sin y cos y

For a point on the surface at latitude 45 S, the tangential component of gravity is, with

r = a, y = 135 ,

gy 0:003

GM ao2

a2

2

51

Putting this component equal to zero, we nd the value of the period of rotation T:

r

GM ao2

GM

2p

a3

2

gy 0:003 2

0 ) o 0:006 3 ) T

a

2

a

0:077 GM

(b) The gravitational potential V of Equation (26.1) can be written as

GM 9

a

a2

2

V

1

cos y

3cos y 1

r 8

18r

72r2

a2

GM

a

V

J0 J1 P1 J2

P2

r

r

r

Since the total mass is (9/8)M, we obtain

J0 1

1

J1

18

1

J2

72

27. Within a spherical planet of radius a and density r there are two spherical cores of

radius a/2 and density r 0 with centres located on the axis of rotation at a/2 from the

planets centre, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern hemisphere.

(a) Neglecting rotation of the planet, calculate what the ratio r0 /r should be for the

gravity attening to be 1/8.

(b) If the planet rotates so that m 1/16, and the ratio of the densities is that found in

part (a), calculate the astronomical latitude which corresponds to the geocentric

latitude 45 N.

(a) Since there is no rotation the total potential U is the sum of the gravitational

potentials of the three spheres (Fig. 27). As in previous problems we use the mass

M of the planet with uniform density r and for the two cores the differential

masses M 0 . For 1/q we use the approximation as in Problem 16:

4 a3 0

4 a3 0

r M r0

0

1

27:1

M p r r p r r

3 8

3 8

r

8 r

The potential U is

a 2

GM GM 0

2

U

2

3cos y 1

r

r

2r

The radial components of gravity at the equator and the Pole are found by taking the

derivative of the potential U:

@U

GM

2 3a2

2 GM 0 2 4 3cos2 y 1

gr

@r

r

r

4r

52

Gravity

On the surface r a, and at the equator y = 90 and at the Pole y = 0 , so

GM GM 0 5

2

a2

a 4

GM GM 0 14

p

gr 2 2

a

a 4

gre

b

gp ge 1

ge

8

7 0

5 0

1 M 2 M M 4 M

67

) M M0

5 0

8

4

M M

4

Putting M 0 in terms of M from Equation (27.1) we nd the ratio of the densities:

4

M r0

r0

1 ) 1:48

M0 M

67

8 r

r

(b) For a rotating planet we add to the potential U the rotational potential, F:

a 2

GM GM 0

GM r 3 m 2

2

sin y

3cos y 1

2

U

r

r

2r

r a 2

@U

GM

2 3a2

0

2

gr

2 GM 2 4 3cos y 1

@r

r

r

4r

rm 2

GM 3 sin y

a

GM

1:11 2

r

1 @U GM 0

a 2

2

6 cos y sin y

gy

r @y

r

2r

GM r 3

2

m sin y cos y

r

a

GM

0:013 2

r

From Fig. 27 we see that the relation between the geocentric and astronomical latitudes is

a i

where i is the deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction, which is given by

tan i

gy

0:012 ) i 0:7

gr

53

gq

a/2

r

gr

i

r

j = 45

ja

a

Fig. 27

a 45 0:7 44:3

28. For two-dimensional problems, the gravitational potential of an innite horizontal

cylinder of radius a is

1

2

V 2pGra ln

r

where r is the distance measured perpendicular to the axis. Assume that a horizontal

cylinder is buried at depth d as measured from the surface to the cylinders axis.

(a) Calculate the anomaly along a line of zero elevation on the surface perpendicular

to the axis of the cylinder.

(b) At what point on this line is the anomaly greatest?

(c) What is the relationship between the distance at which the anomaly is half the

maximum and the depth at which the cylinder is buried?

(d) For a sphere of equivalent mass to produce the same anomaly, would it be at a

greater or lesser depth?

54

Gravity

gr

gz

gmax

d

r

(1/2)gmax

a

x

x1/2

Fig. 28

(a) The gravity anomaly produced by an innite horizontal cylinder buried at depth d, with

centre at x 0 (Fig. 28), is given by the derivative in the vertical direction (z-axis) of

the gravitational potential V:

0

1

1

B

C

V 2pGra2 ln@qA

x2 z d2

g gz

@V

2prGa2 d

@z x2 z d2

28:1

g

2prGa2 d

x2 d 2

(b) To nd the point at which the anomaly has its maximum value, we take the

derivative with respect to x and put it equal to zero:

@g

0 ) 2prGa2 d2x 0 ) x 0

@x

Substituting x 0 in (28.1):

gmax

2pGra2

d

(c) The distance at which the anomaly has a value equal to half its maximum value

gives us the depth d at which the cylinder is buried:

55

gmax

2pGra2 2pGra2 d

g )

) x1=2 d

2

2d

x2 d 2

(d) The gravitational potential produced by a sphere of differential mass DM buried at

depth d under x 0 is given by

V

GM

GM

1=2

r

x2 z d2

gz

@V

GM z d

3=2

@z

x2 z d2

gz

GMd

x2

d 2 3=2

gmax

GM

d2

The distance at which the anomaly has half its maximum value is

GMd

GM

3=2

2d 2

x21=2 d 2

x1=2

p

22=3 1 d 0:766d

29. At a point at latitude 42 29 0 19 00 and height 378.7 m the value of gravity is

observed to be 980 252.25 mGal. Calculate in gravimetric units (gu):

(a) The free-air anomaly.

(b) The Bouguer anomaly if the density of the crust is 2.65 g cm3.

(a) We rst calculate the normal or theoretical value of gravity given by the expression

g 9:7803268 1 0:00530244sin2 0:0000058sin2 2 m s2

The free-air anomaly, using the free-air correction, is

gFA g 3:086h g 238:7 gu

56

Gravity

(b) The Bouguer anomaly is calculated from the free-air anomaly using the Bouguer

correction with a crust density of 2.65 g cm3:

g B g 3:086h 2pGrh g gFA 2pGrh 659:3 gu

30. An anomalous mass is formed by two equal tangent spheres of radius R, with

centres at the same depth d ( d R ) and density contrast Dr.

(a) Calculate the Bouguer anomaly at the surface (z 0) produced by the mass

anomaly along a prole passing through the centres of the two spheres.

(b) Represent it graphically for x 0 (above the tangent point), 500, 1000, and 2000 m

taking R 1 km, d 3 km, and Dr 1 g cm3.

(a) For one sphere the anomaly for points on the surface (z 0) is (Problem 28)

g

GMd

x2

d 2 3=2

For two spheres the anomaly is the sum of the attractions of the two spheres (Fig. 30a):

g

GMd GMd

r13

r23

where

q

x R2 d 2

q

r2 x R2 d 2

r1

Then

GMd

GMd

g h

i3=2 h

i3=2

x R2 d 2

x R2 d 2

P(x,0)

r2

R

x

Fig. 30a

r1

57

(b) To represent graphically the curve of the anomaly (Fig. 30b), we rst nd the point

at which it is a maximum:

0

1

@g

@ B

@h

@x

@x

GMd

GMd

C

i3=2 h

i3=2 A 0

x R2 d 2

x R2 d 2

h

i5

h

i5

x R2 x R2 d 2 x R2 x R2 d 2 ) x 0 maximum

Using the data given in the problem, we nd the values of the anomaly for the ve points,

with Dr = 1 g cm3, R = 1 km, d = 3 km

4

4

M pR3 r p 109 103 4:19 1012 kg

3

3

x (m)

Dg (gu)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

53.0

52.0

48.9

43.9

37.5

55

Anomaly (g)

50

45

40

2000

Fig. 30b

1000

0

Distance (m)

1000

2000

58

Gravity

31. At a point at geocentric latitude 45 N and height 2000 m the observed value of

gravity is g 6690 000 gu. Taking the approximation that the Earth is an ellipsoid of

equatorial radius a 6000 km, density 4 g cm3, J2 103, and m 103,

calculate for that point:

(a) The free-air and the Bouguer anomalies.

(b) The distance from the free surface to that of the sphere of radius a (precision 1 gu).

(a) The volume of an ellipsoid is:

4

V pa3 1 2a

3

The attening is

a

3J2 m

2 103

2

2

4

Me V r pa3 1 2ar 3:624 1024 kg

3

Using G = 6.67 1011 m3 kg1 s2

GM 6:67 1011 3:624 1024

a2

36 1012

The value of gravity at the equator in the rst-order approximation is given by

GM

3

ge 2 1 J2 m 6:736 361 m s2

a

2

For a point at latitude 45 N the radial component of gravity is

gr ge 1 b sin2 6:738 045 m s2

5

b m a 0:5 103

2

The free-air correction is

C FA

2GM

h 2:24 106 h m s2 2:244h gu

a3

gFA g g C FA

6 690 000 6 738 045 2:244 2000 43 557 gu

In order to calculate the Bouguer anomaly, we rst calculate the Bouguer correction

C B 2pGrh 1:676 106 h m s2 1:676h gu

59

N

h

a

r

Fig. 31

gB g g C AL 2pGrh gFA C B

45 557 1:676 2000 46 909 gu

(b) If we call N the distance at the given point between the free surface and the surface

of the sphere of radius a (Fig. 31), this is given by:

N arh

where r is the radius of the ellipsoid at latitude 45 N which to a rst approximation is

1

3

r a 1 asin 6000 1 2 10

5994 km

2

Then,

N 6000 5994 2 4 km

32. Beneath a point A at height 400 m there exists an anomalous spherical mass of

radius 200 m, density 3.5 g cm3, whose centre is 200 m below the reference level.

A point B is located at a height of 200 m and a horizontal distance of 400 m from A,

and a third point C is at a height of 0 m and at a horizontal distance of 800 m from

A. The density of the medium above the reference level is 2.6 g cm3, and below the

reference level it is 2.5 g cm3. The theoretical value of gravity is 980 000 mGal.

Calculate:

(a) The values of gravity at A, B, and C.

(b) The Bouguer anomalies at these points.

60

Gravity

Precision 1 gu.

(a) The gravity at each point is given by

g g C FA C B C am

where

Normal gravity: g 9800 000 gu

Free-air correction: CFA 3.086 h

Bouguer correction: CB 0.419 r1 h

r1 2.6 g cm3 is the density of the material above the reference level

C am is the anomaly produced by the buried sphere at a point at height h and a horizontal

distance x from its centre:

am

4

G pR3 rsph r2 h d

GM h d

3

3=2

3=2

2

2

x h d

x2 h d2

32:1

where d is the depth to the centre from the reference level; and rsph and r2 are the densities

of the sphere and of the medium where it is located, respectively. In our case: d 200 m,

rsph 3.5 g cm3, and r2 2.5 g cm3.

For point A, x 0, we obtain

C FA 1234 gu

am

C B 436 gu

4

G pR3 rsph r2

6 gu

3

h d 2

h d 2

GM

At point B:

CFA 617 gu

CB 218 gu

The anomaly produced by the sphere is calculated by Equation (32.1), substituting

x xB 400 m and h hB 200 m

C am 5 gu

We obtain gB 9 799 606 gu.

At point C:

The free-air and Bouguer corrections are null, because the point is at the reference level.

The anomaly due to the sphere, by substitution in Equation (32.1), x xC 800 m, and

h hC 0, is

C am 1 gu

The value of gravity is: gC 9800 001 gu.

(b) The Bouguer anomaly is given by

DgB g CFA CB g

61

By substitution of the values for each point we obtain that the anomalies correspond to

those produced by the sphere:

gAB 6 gu

gBB 5 gu

gCB 1 gu

33. For a series of points in a line and at zero height which are affected by the

gravitational attraction exerted by a buried sphere of density contrast 1.5 g cm3, the

anomaly versus horizontal distance curve has a maximum of 4.526 mGal and a point

of inexion at 250 m from the maximum. Calculate:

(a) The depth, anomalous mass, and radius of the sphere.

(b) The horizontal distance to the centre of the sphere of the point at which the

anomaly is half the maximum.

(a) We know that the inection point of the curve of the anomaly produced by a

sphere buried at depth d corresponds to the horizontal distance d/2. Then

d

xinf ) d 2xinf 2 250 500 m

2

The maximum value of the anomaly at x 0 is

GM

4:526 mGal 45:26 gu

gmax

d2

and solving for DM

DM

1:6964 1011 kg

6:67 1011 m3 s2 kg1

1=3

4

3M 1=3

3 1:6964 1011 kg

M pR3 r ) R

300 m

3

4pr

4 3:14 1:5 103 kg m3

(b) In order that g 12 gmax with z 0 we write

GMd

1 GM

) x1=2 383 m

3=2

2 d2

x21=2 d 2

34. At a point at height 2000 m, the measured value of gravity is 9.794 815 m s2.

The reference value at sea level is 9.8 m s2. The crust is 10 km thick and of density

2 g cm3, and the mantle density is 3 g cm3. Calculate:

(a) The free-air, Bouguer, and isostatic anomalies. Use the Pratt hypothesis with a

cylinder of radius 10 km and a 40 km depth of compensation.

(b) If beneath this point there is a spherical anomalous mass of GDM 160 m3 s2 at

a 2000 m depth, what should the compensatory cylinders density be for the

compensation to be total?

62

Gravity

Fig. 34a

gFA g g C FA 9 794 815 9 800 000 3:086 2000 987 gu

The Bouguer anomaly is

gB g g C FA C B gFA 0:4191rh

987 0:4191 2 2000 689 gu

To calculate the isostatic anomaly (Fig. 34a) we begin with the calculation of the isostatic

correction assuming Pratts hypothesis and using only a vertical cylinder of radius 10 km

under the point and the compensation level at 40 km. In this way, the correction consists

of the gravitational attraction of a cylinder of radius a and height b at a point at distance c

from the base of the cylinder, which is given by

q p

I

C 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

34:1

where Dr is the contrast of densities, which according to Pratts hypothesis is given by

r

hr0

Dh

34:2

where r0 is the density for a block at sea level, which in our case is formed by a crust

of density 2 g cm3 and thickness 10 km over a mantle of density 3 g cm3 and thickness

30 km. For the whole 40 km we use a mean value of density

r0

2 10 3 30

2:75 g cm3

40

63

P

h

rc = 2 g cm3

10 km

D = 40 km

rM = 3 g cm3

Fig. 34b

r

2 2:75

0:13 g cm3

42

C I 2 3:1416 6:67 1011 0:13 103 b40

382 gu

p p

100 4 100 1764c 103

gI g g C FA C B C I g B C I 689 382 307 gu

(b) If under the point considered there is an anomalous spherical mass (Fig. 34b) at

depth d 2 km, the anomaly it produces is

g am

GM

160

40 gu

d2

20002

The total anomaly now is the Bouguer anomaly plus the anomaly due to the sphere:

g 689 40 729 gu

If the isostatic compensation is total (isostatic anomaly equal to zero), this anomaly must

be compensated by the cylinder. Thus, the necessary contrast of densities Dr to do this can

be calculated using expression (34.1):

729 106 2 3:1416 6:67 1011

p p

40 100 4 100 1764 103 r

64

Gravity

so

r 0:25 g cm3

As the mean value (crustmantle) of the density is 2.75 g cm3, the density of the cylinder

must now be

r0 r r 0:25 2:75 r ) r 2:50 g cm3

35. At a point on the Earth at height 1000 m, the observed value of gravity is 979 700

mGal. The value at sea level is 980 000 mGal.

(a) Calculate the free-air and Bouguer anomalies.

(b) According to the Airy hypothesis, which is the state of compensation of that height?

(c) What should the depth of the root be for the compensation to be total?

To calculate the compensation, use cylinders of radius 40 km, crustal thickness

H 30 km, crust density 2.7 g cm3, and mantle density 3.3 g cm3.

(a) The free-air anomaly is

g FA g g C FA g g 3:086h 86 gu

The Bouguer anomaly is

gB g g C FA C B gFA 2p G r h 1046 gu

(b) To calculate the isostatic anomaly according to the Airy hypothesis we rst need to

obtain the value of the root given by the equation

t

rc

h 4500 m

rM rc

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

Substituting the values

Dr rM rC 600 kg m3

b t 4500 m

c h H t 35 500 m

a 40 km

we obtain:

CI 409 gu

the isostatic anomaly is:

gI g g C FA C B C I g B C I 637 gu

The negative value of the anomaly indicates that the zone is overcompensated.

65

(c) If we want the compensation to be total, the value of the isostatic correction

must be

DgI DgB CI 0 > CI DgB 1046 gu

Since the isostatic correction under the Airy hypothesis is

q q

C 2pGr t a2 h H 2 a2 h H t2

I

t 13 068 m

For a total isostatic compensation the value of the root (13 068 m) must be much larger

than that corresponding to the 1000 m height, which is only 4500 m.

36. Gravity measurements are made at two points A and B of altitude 1000 m and

1000 m above the reference level, respectively, 2 km apart along a W-E prole at

latitude 38.80 N. Below a point C located in the direction AB and 1 km from A

is buried a sphere of radius 1 km and centre 3 km below the reference level, of density

r 1.76 g cm3. Calculate:

(a) The value of gravity at A and B.

(b) Using the Airy assumption and neglecting the sphere, calculate the root at A and B.

Crustal density rC 2.76 g cm3, mantle density rM 3.72 g cm3, a 10 km, and

H 30 km.

(a) The gravity observed at points A and B is given by

gA g C FA C B C am

gB g C FA C B C am

where g is the theoretical gravity, CFA the free-air correction, CB the Bouguer correction,

and C am the attraction due to the anomalous mass.

The theoretical gravity at the observation point at latitude 38.80 N is

g 9:780 32 1 0:005 3025sin2 0:000 0058sin2 2 9:800714 m s2

C B 0:419rC h 0:419 2:76 1000 1156 gu

The attraction due to the spherical anomalous mass (Fig. 36) is given by

C am

GMz d

3=2

x2 z d2

66

Gravity

XA

XB

h

B

r c = 2.76 g / cm3

Fig. 36

4

M pR3 r

3

R 1000 m;

r 1000 kg m3

zA h 1000 m

zB h 1000 m

xA xB 1000 m

d 3000 m

we nd

CAam 16 gu

CBam 50 gu

Then the values of gravity at both points are

gA 9800 627:9 3806 1156:4 16 9:798 048 m s2

gB 9800 627:9 3806 1156:4 50 9:803 314 m s2

(b) To calculate the value of the root under A and B according to the Airy hypothesis we

use the equation

t

rC

h

rM rC

67

2:76

1000 2875 m

3:72 2:76

2:76

1000 2875 m

tB

3:72 2:76

tA

37. At a point at latitude 43 N, the observed value of gravity is 9800 317 gu, and the

free-air anomaly is 1000 gu.

(a) Calculate the Bouguer anomaly. Take rC 2.67 g cm3.

(b) If the isostatic compensation is due to a cylinder of radius 10 km which is beneath

the point of measurement, what percentage of the Bouguer anomaly is compensated by the classical models of Airy and Pratt?

(c) According to the Pratt hypothesis, what density should the cylinder have for the

compensation to be total?

(a) First we calculate the normal gravity at latitude 43 N:

g 978:0320 1 0:005 3025sin2 0:000 0058sin2 2 Gal

g 9804 385 gu

g FA g g 3:086h 9 800 317 9 804 385 3:086h 1000 gu

and solving for h,

h 1642 m

From this value we calculate the Bouguer anomaly

gB g g 1:967h 838 gu

(b) To apply the isostatic compensation using the Airy hypothesis we rst calculate the

root corresponding to the height h 1642 m:

t 4:45h 7307 m

The isostatic correction is determined using Equation (34.1) of Problem 34:

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

37:1

where

a 10 km; b t 7307 m; c t 30 000 h 38 949 m

r rM rC 3:27 2:67 0:6 g cm3

which results in C I 70 gu. This represents 8% of the observed Bouguer anomaly.

68

Gravity

given by

hr0

0:043 g cm3

r

Dh

where we have used r0 rC 2.67 g cm3 as the density of the crust. We now substitute

in Equation (37.1), b = D = 100 km, c = D h = 101.642 km and the obtained value of

Dr 0.043 g cm3, and obtain

C I 148 gu

We have to determine again the Bouguer anomaly using the density according to the Pratt

hypothesis

Dr0

2:63 g cm3

Dh

gB g AL 2pGrh 810 gu

r

(c) If the compensation is total the isostatic correction must be equal to the Bouguer

anomaly with changed sign:

C I g B

Using the Pratt hypothesis in order to calculate the density r of the cylinder under the

point, we have to take into account that this density must also be the density used in the

determination of the Bouguer anomaly. Then we write

C I gB gFA 2p G r h

q p

and putting

N

and solving for r, we obtain

q p

b a2 c b 2 a2 c 2

gFA 2pGr0 N

2:46 g cm3

2pGh N

where we have used the values r0 2.67 g cm3 and DgFA 1000 gu.

38. At a point on the Earths surface, a measurement of gravity gave a value of

9795 462 gu. The point is 2000 m above sea level. At sea level the crust is 20 km thick

and of density rC 2 g cm3. The density of the mantle is rM 4 g cm3.

(a) Calculate the free-air and Bouguer anomalies.

69

(b) Calculate the isostatic anomaly according to the Airy and Pratt assumptions.

Use cylinders of 10 km radius and compensation depth of 60 km.

(c) Beneath the point, there is an anomalous spherical mass of GDM 1200 m3 s2.

How deep is it?

Take g 9.8 m s2.

(a) The free-air anomaly is given by

g FA g g 3:086h 9 795 462 9 800 000 3:086h 1634 gu

For the Bouguer anomaly we rst calculate the Bouguer correction

C B 0:419rh 0:419 2 2000 1676 gu

Then we obtain

g B g g C FA C B gFA C B 42 gu

(b) To calculate the isostatic anomaly according to the Airy hypothesis we determine

rst the value of the root corresponding to the height 2000 m:

t

rc

2

2000 2000 m

h

rM rc

42

The isostatic correction, using a single cylinder under the point, is given by

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

where (Fig. 38a)

Fig. 38a

38:1

70

Gravity

a 10 km;

b t 2 km;

c H t h 20 2 2 24 km

p p

A 2 100 484 100 576 0:166 km

The isostatic correction is, then, given by

Finally, the isostatic anomaly using the Airy hypothesis is

g I g g C FA C B C I 97 gu

According to the Pratt hypothesis, the regional density is given by

r

D

60

r0

3:33 3:22 g cm3

Dh

60 2

where D is the compensation depth (in this problem 60 km) and for r0 (Fig. 38b) we have

used the mean value of the density of the crust (2 g cm3) and of the mantle (4 g cm3)

along the compensation depth

1

2

r0 2 4 3:33 g cm3

3

3

The contrast of densities is

r 3:33 3:22 0:11 g cm3

For the isostatic correction, using the Pratt hypothesis, the term A is now

q p

A 60 102 62 602 102 622 7:4 km

P

x

h

20 km

rC = 2 g cm3

40 km

rM = 4 g cm3

Fig. 38b

71

C I 2 3:1416 6:67 1011 m3 =kg1 s2 0:11 103 kg=m3 7:4 103 m

341 gu

Since according to the Pratt hypothesis, the density of the compensating cylinder extends

to the surface of the height 2000 m, we have to calculate again the Bouguer anomaly using

this density (3.33 g cm3). We nd for the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies the values

CB 2 p G r h 2699 gu

DgB DgFA CB 1065 gu

DgI DgB CI 724 gu

(c) If we assume that the isostatic anomaly is produced by a spherical anomalous mass

buried under the point at a depth d under sea level its gravitational effect is given by

gmax

GM

h d2

gI 724 gu

h d 3517 m ) d 1517 m

39. At a point P at height 2000 m above sea level, a measurement is made of gravity.

The crust at sea level, where gravity is 9.8 m s2, is 20 km thick and of density

3 g cm3, and the density of the mantle is 4 g cm3. Below the point P, at 2000 m depth

under sea level, is an anomalous spherical mass of GDM 1200 m3 s2.

(a) Neglecting the isostatic compensation, what would be the value of gravity at the

point P?

(b) With isostatic compensation, what now is the value of gravity at that point?

Use the Airy and Pratt assumptions for the isostatic compensation (Pratt

depth of compensation, 100 km) with single cylinders of 20 km radius under the

point.

(a) Without isostatic compensation, the gravity observed at point P is equal to the sum of

the normal gravity plus the free-air and Bouguer corrections and the effect of the

anomalous mass. Remember that the free-air correction has negative sign:

gP g C FA C B C am

39:1

where,

g 9800 000 gu

C FA 3:086 h 3:086 2000 6172 gu

C B 0:419rh 0:419 3 2000 2514 gu

The anomaly due to the anomalous mass is given by

C am gmax

GM

h d 2

39:2

72

Gravity

C am

GM

h d2

75 gu

gP 9 800 000 6172 2514 75 9 796 417 gu

(b) If there is isostatic compensation, according to the Airy hypothesis, we determine rst

the depth of the root, using the density of the crust rC and of the mantle rM:

t

rC

3

h

2000 6000 m

rM rC

43

q p

C 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

I

39:3

q p

553 gu

gP 9796 417 553 9795 864 gu

According to the Pratt hypothesis we rst determine the contrast of densities

r

hr0

Dh

where D is the level of compensation (100 km) and r0 is the mean density for the crust and

mantle down to depth 100 km:

r0

20 3 80 4

3:8 g cm3

100

Substituting we nd

r

2 3:8

0:074 g cm3

100 2

C I 2 3:14 6:67 1011 0:074 103

q p

501 gu

73

a 20 km;

b 100 km;

c 100 2 102 km

gP 9796 417 501 9795 916 gu

which is larger by 52 gu than using the Airy hypothesis

40. A point P is at altitude 1000 m above sea level. Beneath this point is a sphere

of 1 km radius and GDM 650 m3 s2, with its centre 4 km vertically below the

point P. Given that the density of the sphere is twice that of the crust and 3/2 that of

the mantle, calculate:

(a) The density of the sphere, crust, and mantle.

(b) The value of gravity that would be observed at P for the isostatic compensation to

be total including the sphere.

(c) The radius of the sphere for the root to be null. Comment on the result.

Use the Airy hypothesis for the isostatic compensation with H 30 km, 20 km radius

of the cylinder, and theoretical gravity g 980 Gal.

(a) If we know GDM we can calculate the contrast of densities between the anomalous

mass and the crust

4

3GM

3 650

GM prR3 G ) r

3

4pR3 G 4 3:1416 109 6:67 1011

2:326 g cm3

Since the density of the sphere rsph is double that of the crust rc, the densities of the crust

and mantle are

rsph 2rC ) r rsph rC 2rC rC rC 2:326 g cm3

rsph 4:652 g cm3

2

rM rsph 3:101 g cm3

3

(b) If isostatic compensation is total we have

g I 0 g gP C FA C B C I C am

40:1

where g is the normal gravity, gP the observed gravity at point P, CFA the free-air correction,

CB the Bouguer correction, CI the isostatic correction and C am the gravitational effect of

the anomalous mass.

The free-air and Bouguer corrections are given by

C FA 3:806h 3:806 1000 3086 gu

C B 0:419r h 0:419 2:326 1000 975 gu

74

Gravity

P

x

h

d

a

rC

rsph

rM

Fig. 40

C am

GM

h d

650

2

4 106

41 gu

We calculate the isostatic correction using the Airy hypothesis and taking into account the

presence of the spherical anomalous mass. Thus, according to Fig. 40, the equilibrium

between the gravity at P and at sea level far from P is given by

4

pa2 rC H pa2 rM t pa2 rC h H t pR3 rsph rC

3

4

a2 hrC R3 rsph rC

3

t

3011 m

a2 rM rC

As in previous problems we calculate the isostatic correction using a cylinder under point P

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

75

0.775 g cm3, resulting in

C I 145 gu

If compensation is total, the isostatic anomaly must be null. This implies that the Bouguer

anomaly is equal, with opposite sign, to the isostatic correction

gI 0 gB C I ) gB 145gu

But the Bouguer correction can be obtained from Equation (40.1):

g I 0 g gP C FA C B C I C am

Solving for CB we obtain

C B 975 gu

From the denition of the Bouguer anomaly we can nd the value gP of gravity at P:

gB g P g C FA C B C am

145 g P 9800 000 3086 975 41 ) g P 9797 703 gu

(c) Since the density of the sphere is greater than the density of the crust, there is an excess

of gravity at P with respect to other points at sea level far from P, which must be

compensated by a root of crustal material inside the mantle with negative gravitational

inuence. In this situation the root can never be null.

41. At 10 km beneath sea level vertically under a point P of height 2000 m there exists

an anomalous spherical mass GDM 104 m3 s2. At sea level, gravity is 9800 000 gu

and the crustal thickness 20 km. The density of the crust is 2 g cm3, and of the

mantle 4 g cm3. Using the Airy assumption for the isostatic compensation with a

cylinder of 10 km radius, calculate for that point:

(a) The observed gravity.

(b) The free-air, Bouguer, and isostatic anomalies.

(a) For point P the Bouguer correction is

C B 0:419rh 0:419 2 h 0:838h 1676 gu

The gravity at point P, if there is no isostatic compensation and other effects, can be

obtained from the normal gravity and the free-air and Bouguer corrections

gP g C FA C B 9800 000 3:086 2000 0:838 2000

9795504 gu

41:1

Since there is an anomalous mass under point P we have to add its gravitational contribution to the gravity at P. For a spherical mass at depth h d under P the gravitational

attraction is

76

Gravity

C am

GM

2

h d

104 m3 s2

104 m s2 100 gu

108 m2

We calculate the root corresponding to the isostatic compensation, assuming the Airy

hypothesis, and taking into account the presence of the anomalous mass in the same way as

in Problem 40:

4

pa2 rC H pa2 rM t pa2 rC h H t pR3 rsph rC

3

pa2 rC h H t Ma

t

pa2 rC h Ma

2239 m

pa2 rM rC

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

41:2

resulting in

C I 154 gu

The gravity at point P is the value obtained in (41.1) plus the contribution of the anomalous

mass and minus the isostatic correction:

g P 9795 504 100 154 9795 450 gu

(b) The free-air anomaly is equal to this observed value minus the normal gravity plus

the free-air correction:

gFA gP g C AL

Substituting the values we obtain

gFA 9795 450 9800 000 3:086 2000 1622 gu

g B gP g C AL C B 54 gu

Finally the isostatic anomaly is the Bouguer anomaly plus the isostatic correction:

gI 54 154 100 gu

This value corresponds to the gravitational contribution of the anomalous mass.

42. At a point P of height 2000 m above sea level the measured value of gravity is

979.5717 Gal. Beneath P is a sphere centred at a depth of 12 km below sea level, 1 g cm3

density, and radius 5 km. Assuming the Airy hypothesis (H 30 km, rC 2.5 g cm3),

rM 3.0 g cm3), calculate the isostatic anomaly at the point in gu and mGal.

77

For the compensation, assume cylinders of the same radius as the sphere. Normal

gravity g 9.8 m s2.

We rst calculate the root t, assuming the Airy hypothesis, corresponding to the height

2000 m of point P. If the situation is of total isostatic equilibrium, we have to introduce the

effect produced by the sphere in the determination of the root (Fig. 40):

4

p rsph rC a3 pa2 rC h pa2 rC H pa2 rC t pa2 HrC pa2 rM t

3

so

4

rC h a rsph rC

3

t

10 000 m

r M rC

42:1

The negative value of t (anti-root) is due to the decit of mass produced by the presence of

the sphere (rsph < rC) under point P.

The isostatic correction, as in previous problems, is calculated taking a cylinder under the point:

q p

C I 2pGrM rC b a2 c b2 a2 c2

We obtain CI 36 gu.

The isostatic anomaly at P is equal to the observed gravity minus the normal gravity and

the free-air, Bouguer, and isostatic corrections, and the attraction of the spherical mass:

gI g P g C FA C B C I C am

42:2

4

G pa3 rsph rC

267 gu

C am 3

h d 2

By substitution in (42.2)

g I 9 795 717 9 800 000 3:086 2000 0:419 2:5 2000 267 36

25 gu

43. A point A on the Earths surface is at an altitude of 2100 m above sea level.

Calculate:

(a) The value of gravity at A if the isostatic anomaly is 2.5 mGal. Assume the Airy

hypothesis (rC 2.6 g cm3, rM 3.3 g cm3, H 30 km).

(b) If the previous value had been measured with a Worden gravimeter of constant

0.301 82 mGal/division giving a reading of 630.6, calculate the value of gravity at

another point B at which the device reads 510.1 (both readings corrected for drift).

(c) At what depth is the centre of a sphere of density 4 g cm3 and radius 5 km which

is buried in the crust, given that the anomaly created at a point A, 12 km from the

78

Gravity

centre of the sphere, not in the same vertical, is 321 gu. Also calculate the

horizontal distance from the centre to point A.

Take, for compensation, cylinders of 10 km radius. g 9.8 m s2

(a) The isostatic anomaly is given by

g I gA g 3:086h 0:419rC h C I

43:1

To calculate the isostatic correction CI, assuming the Airy hypothesis, we must rst

calculate the root t that corresponds to the height h

t

rC h

7800 m

rM rC

q p

C I 2pGrM rC b a2 c b2 a2 c2

and substituting the values

b t 7800 m;

a 10 km;

c h H t 39900 m;

r rM rC 700 kg m3

we obtain

C I 84 gu

Solving for gA in Equation (43.1) we obtain

gA gI g 3:086h 0:419rC h C I 9795 748 gu

(b) For a Worden gravimeter the increment in gravity between two points (Dg) is proportional to the increment in the values given by the instrument (DL) corrected by the

instrumental variations

g KL

gB gA KLB LA ) gB gA KLB LA

gA 364 gu 9795 384 gu

where K is the constant of the gravimeter.

(c) The anomaly produced by a sphere buried at depth d under sea level at a point at height

h and at a horizontal distance x from the centre of the sphere is given by

C am

4

G pa3 rsph rC h d

3

3=2

x2 h d2

43:2

79

r

d

rC

a

x

x

rsph

Fig. 43

For point A (Fig. 43) if r is the distance from the centre of the sphere to the point A,

x2 (h d)2 r2 and solving for d in Equation (43.2) gives

d

C am r3

h

4

G pa3 rsph rC

3

C am 321 106 m s2, we obtain:

d 9245 m

The horizontal distance is:

x

q

r2 h d2 3910 m

44. In a gravity survey, two points A and B on the Earths surface gave the values 159

and 80 mGal for the free-air anomaly, and 51 and 25 mGal for the Bouguer

anomaly, respectively. Given that B is at an altitude 1000 m lower than A, and that the

density of the mantle is 25% greater than that of the crust, calculate:

(a) The value of gravity at A and B, and the densities of the crust and mantle.

(b) The isostatic anomaly according to the hypotheses of Airy (H 30 km) and Pratt

(D 100 km, r0 the value determined in the previous part) at point A. Take, for

compensation, cylinders of 10 km radius. g 980 Gal.

(a) The free-air anomaly at point A is given by

gAFA gA g CAFA gA g 3:086hA

44:1

80

Gravity

gAB gA g CAFA CAB gAFA 0:419rC hA

Changing values from mGal to gu, we write for the Bouguer anomalies at points A and B

gAB 510 1590 0:419rC hA ) 0:419rC hA 2100 gu

gBB 250 800 0:419rC hB ) 0:419rC hB 1050 gu

44:2

hA

2

hB

Knowing that the difference in height between A and B is 1000 m, we obtain for the

heights of both points,

hB hA 1000 ) hA hB 1000 2hB ) hB 1000 m ) hA 2000 m

The density of the crust can be obtained from Equation (44.2):

0:419rC hB 105 105 m s2 0:419rC 1000 ) rC 2:505 g cm3

The density of the mantle is 25% more than that of the crust, so

rM rC 1 0:25 1:2 2:505 3:131g cm3

The gravity at A and B is obtained using Equation (44.1):

gA gAFA 3:086hA g 1590 3:086 2000 9800 000 9 795 418 gu

gB 800 3:086 1000 9800 000 9797 714 gu

(b) For the isostatic anomaly at point A, according to the Airy hypothesis, we rst

calculate the value of the root t corresponding to its height:

t

rC h A

hA

8000 m

1:25rC rC 0:25

q p

I

C 2pGrM rC b a2 c b2 a2 c2

Substituting the values

b t 8000 m;

a 10 km;

c h H t 40 000 m;

r rM rC 626 kg m3

we obtain

C I 77 gu

81

gAI gAB C I 510 77 433 gu

If we use the Pratt hypothesis, we rst calculate the density corresponding to the material

under point A:

r

Dr0

100 2:505

2:456 g cm3

Dh

100 2

r r0 r 2:505 2:456 0:049 g cm3

The isostatic correction is determined using a cylinder,

q p

C I 2pGrM rC b a2 c b2 a2 c2

where Dr 0.049 g cm3, b D 100 km, a 10 km, c D h 102 km.

Then, we obtain

C I 158 gu

The isostatic anomaly will be the Bouguer anomaly plus the isostatic correction

gAI gAB C I 510 158 352 gu

In both cases the anomaly is negative, but using the Airy model the value is greater than

using the Pratt model.

45. At a point P on the Earths surface, the observed value of gravity is 9.795

636 m s2, and the Bouguer anomaly is 26 mGal. Assuming the Airy hypothesis

(rC 2.7 g cm3, rM 3.3 g cm3, H 30 km), calculate:

(a) The height of the point.

(b) The isostatic anomaly.

(c) The value of gravity that would be observed at the point if beneath it were a

sphere at a depth of 10 km below sea level, with a density of 2.5 g cm3 and a

radius of 5 km, such that the compensation was total.

Compensation with cylinders of 5 km radius; g 9.8 m s2.

(a) We calculate the height of point P from the Bouguer anomaly:

gB g P g 3:086h 0:419rC h ) h

gB gP g

3:086 0:419rC

so

h

2099:8 m 2100 m

3:086 0:419 2:7

82

Gravity

(b) To calculate the isostatic anomaly, using the Airy hypothesis, we rst calculate the

value of the root t corresponding to the height of the point:

t

rC

2:7

h

2100 9450 m

rM rC

3:3 2:7

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

45:1

a 5 km;

b t 9450 m;

c h H t 2100 30 000 9450 41 550 m;

r 3:3 2:7 0:6 g cm3

and obtain

C I 22 gu

The isostatic anomaly is then

gI gB C I 260 22 238 gu

(c) If the compensation is total then the isostatic anomaly must be zero. But now we have

to include the gravitational effect Cam produced by the presence of the anomalous mass

of the sphere.

g I 0 gP g 3:086h 0:419rC h C am C I

Solving for gP:

gP g 3:086h 0:419rC h C am C I

45:2

4

G pa3 rsph rC

C am 3

48 gu

h d 2

We calculate the isostatic correction according to the Airy hypothesis. First we calculate

the value of root t, but now we add the effect of the sphere on point P (Fig. 45):

4

rC pa2 h rC pa2 H pa3 rsph rC rC pa2 t rC pa2 H rM pa2 t

3

Solving for t, we obtain

4

rC h a rsph rC

3

7228 m

t

rM rC

83

P

h

d

x a

rsph

rC

rM

Fig. 45

We substitute this value of t in Equation (45.1) together with the other values

a 5 km;

b 7 7228 m;

c h H t 39 328 m;

and obtain

C I 18 gu

By substitution in (45.2) we nd the value of the gravity at P under the given conditions:

gP 9800000 3:086 2100 0:419 2:7 2100 48 18 9795830 gu

46. Consider a point on the surface of the Earth in an overcompensated region

at which the values of the free-air and the Bouguer anomalies are 1300 gu and

1200 gu, respectively.

(a) Is this a mountainous or an oceanic zone? Give reasons.

(b) Calculate the altitude and the value of gravity at the point given that the density

of the crust is 2.72 g cm3.

(c) If the isostatic anomaly is -1062 gu calculate, according to the Airy hypothesis

(rC 2.72 g cm3, rM 3.30 g cm3, H 30 km), the value of the root

responsible for this anomaly. Compare it with the value that it would have if

the region were in isostatic equilibrium.

84

Gravity

Compensation with cylinders of 10 km radius; g 9.8 m s2.

(a) Since the free-air anomaly is positive and the Bouguer anomaly is negative, this

indicates that this is a mountainous region.

(b) From the free-air and Bouguer anomalies we can easily calculate the height of the point:

g FA g P g 3:086h

g B gP g 3:086h 0:419rC h

46:1

h

gFA g B

2193 m

0:419rC

The observed gravity at P can be obtained from either of the two equations (46.1):

gP g 3:086h gFA 9794 532 gu

(c) The isostatic correction is found from the known Bouguer and isostatic anomalies:

g I gB C I ) C I 1062 1200 138 gu

The isostatic correction, using the Airy hypothesis, is given, as in previous problems, as a

function of the root t, by

q p

C I 138 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

where we substitute

r 3:3 2:72 0:58 g cm3 ;

a 10 km;

b t;

c h H t 2:193 30 t km

and obtain for t,

t 19 984 m

If the region is in equilibrium the root due to the height h would be

t

rC h

2:72 2193

10 284 m

rM rC

3:3 2:72

Since we have already obtained a larger value (t 19 984 m), this indicates that the region

is overcompensated.

47. In an oceanic region, gravity is measured at a point on the surface of the sea,

obtaining a value of 979.7950 Gal. Calculate, using the Airy hypothesis (H 30 km,

rC 2.9 g cm3, rM 3.2 g cm3, rW 1.04 g cm3):

(a) The isostatic anomaly if the thickness of the crust is 8.4 km.

85

(b) The thickness that the water layer would have to have if 15 km vertically below

the point there was centred a sphere of 10 km radius such that the anti-root is null

and the compensation total. Also calculate the density of the sphere.

For the compensation, take cylinders of 10 km radius. g 9.8 m s2.

(a) We are in an oceanic region, therefore in the calculation of the root for the isostatic

compensation according to the Airy hypothesis we have to consider the layer of water

of density rW. The value of the root is now given by

t0

rC rW 0 2:9 1:04 0

h

h 6:2h0

3:2 2:9

rM r C

47:1

where e is the thickness of the crust at the oceanic region, H the thickness of

the normal (sea level) continental crust, h0 the thickness of the water layer, and t 0 the

negative root.

Substituting the values of t 0 from Equation (47.1) we obtain for h0

h0 30 6:2h0 8:4 ) h0 3 km 3000 m

t 0 6:2 3000 18 600 m

From the value of the root we calculate the isostatic correction using a cylinder of 10 km

radius,

q p

I

C 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

C I 269 gu

To calculate the isostatic anomaly we rst have to apply the Bouguer correction which in

this case consists of two terms: the rst to eliminate the attraction of the water layer

P

h

rW

rC

Fig. 47a

rM

86

Gravity

(2pGrWh0 ) and the second to replace this layer by one of density equal to the crustal

density (2pGrCh0 ). Since the point is at sea level the free-air correction is null:

DgI g g C B C I

C B 0:419rC rW h0 2338 gu

Dg I 19 gu

(b) If the anti-root is null and there is total compensation, then we have

t0 0

g I 0 g g 2pGrW h0 2pGrC h0 C am

47:2

Since the isostatic anomaly must be null, then the anomalous spherical mass and the water

layer must compensate each other. The attraction of the anomalous mass is Cam GDM/d2

where d is the depth of its centre below sea level. Then we can write

g g 2pGrC rW h0

GM

0

d2

4

M pa3 rsph

3

If the point P is totally isostatically compensated and the anti-root is null, then (Fig. 47b)

4

pa2 h0 rW pa2 H h0 rC pa3 rsph rC pa2 HrC

3

Solving for h0 gives

h0

4a rC rsph

47:3

3rW rC

P

h

rW

d

H

Fig. 47b

x a

rsph

rC

87

rsph

gg

rC 3372 kg m3

4

a3

pG 2a 2

3

d

48. At a point on the Earths surface, 500 m below sea level, a gravity value is

measured of 980.0991 Gal. If the region is in isostatic equilibrium calculate, using

the Airy hypothesis (H 30 km, rC 2.7 g cm3, rM 3.2 g cm3):

(a) The thickness of the crust.

(b) The isostatic anomaly in gu, with reasons for the sign of each correction. Take

compensating cylinders of 5 km radius; g 9.8 m s2.

(a) We calculate rst the root, according to the Airy hypothesis which corresponds to

the depth of the point, applying the condition of isostatic equilibrium (Fig. 48)

rC H rC H h0 t 0 rM t 0

so

t0

rC

h0 2700 m

rM rC

e H h0 t 0 30 000 2700 500 26 800 m

(b) The isostatic anomaly is given by

g I gP g 3:086h0 0:419rC h0 C I

The free-air correction (3.086h0 ) is negative because the point is below sea level. For the

same reason the Bouguer correction (0.419 rC h0 ) is positive. The isostatic correction,

using the Airy hypothesis, is calculated as in previous problems using a cylinder under the

point of 5 km radius and density contrast D r 3.2 2.7 0.5 g cm3. The value of the

anti-root t 0 has already been calculated, so

q p

I

C 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

h

rC

t

rM

Fig. 48

88

Gravity

Substituting c H h0 and b t0 , we obtain

C I 9 gu

Then the isostatic anomaly is DgI 5 gu.

49. In an oceanic region where the density of the crust is 2.90 g cm3 and that of the

mantle 3.27 g cm3, the value of gravity measured at a point P on the sea oor at

depth 4000 m is 9.806 341 m s2.

Calculate, according to the Airy hypothesis:

(a) The thickness of the crust.

(b) The isostatic anomaly in gravimetric units.

Data: rw 1.04 g cm3, H 30 km, g 9.8 m s2. Take, for compensation, cylinders

of 10 km radius.

(a) First we calculate the value of the root according to the Airy hypothesis

t0

rC rW 0

h 20 108 m

rM rC

The thickness of the crust under the point is found by (Fig. 49)

e H h0 t 0 30000 40000 2018 5892 m

(b) Because the point is located at the bottom of the sea, to reduce the observed value of

gravity to the surface of the geoid (sea level) we eliminate rst the attraction of the

water layer. Then we apply the free-air and the Bouguer corrections, to take into

account the attraction of a layer of crustal material which replaces the water. Finally we

apply the isostatic correction:

g I gP g 0:419rW h0 3:086h0 0:419rC h0 C I

The isostatic correction is calculated using a cylinder of 10 km radius,

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

h

rW

rC

Fig. 49

rM

89

where b t0 20 108 m, c H h0 26 000 m, Dr 3.27 2.9 0.37 g cm3

370 kg m3

By substitution we obtain

C I 598 gu

The isostatic anomaly is:

gI 9 806 341 9 800 000 3:086 4000 0:419 1:04 2:9 4000 598

4 gu

50. At a point with coordinates 42.78 N, 0.5 E and height 1572 m, the observed value

of gravity is 980.0317 Gal.

(a) Calculate the free-air and Bouguer anomalies.

(b) If cylinders of 10 km radius beneath that point are used for the isostatic compensation, calculate the gravimetric attraction of the mass defect corresponding to

the altitude of the point according to the Airy and Pratt hypotheses. Take, for

the crust, H 30 km, rC 2.67 g cm3, for the mantle, rM 3.27 g cm3, and

D 100 km for the Pratt level of compensation.

(c) How deep should the root of the Airy model be for the compensation to be

total?

(a) We calculate rst the normal gravity at the point where gravity has been observed

using the expression

g 9:780 32 1 0:005 3025 sin2 9:804 243 m s2

The free-air anomaly is given by

and the Bouguer anomaly by

gB gP g C FA C B 9800 317 9804 243 1:967 1572 834 gu

(b) If we approximate the isostatic compensation by means of a cylinder of radius a

under the point, we use the expression

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

50:1

where Dr is the density contrast, b the height of the cylinder, and c the distance from the

base of the cylinder to the observation point.

Airy: We calculate rst the root given by the equation

t 4:45 h 4:45 1572 6995 km

For the isostatic correction we substitute in (50.1) the values

90

Gravity

a 10 km;

b t 6995 km;

c t H h 38 567 km;

and obtain

C I 2 3:1416 6:67 1011 m3 s2 kg1 0:5 103 kg m3 A

where:

A

6:995

q p

so

C I 68 gu

Pratt: The contrast of densities is now given by

r

h

1575

r

2:67 0:04 g cm3

D h 0 100 000 1572

a 10 km,

b 100 km,

c D + h 101 572 m, we have

C I 135 gu

(c) If the isostatic compensation is total (isostatic anomaly null) the isostatic correction, according to the Airy hypothesis, coincides with the value of the Bouguer

anomaly (834 gu):

q q

g B 2pGr t a2 H h2 a2 t H h2

so

t

q q

gB

a2 H h2 a2 t H h2

2pGr

q

q

gB

a2 t H h2 t a2 H h2

tN

2pGr

a2 t H h2 t 2 N 2 2tN

a2 t 2 H h2 2tH h t 2 N 2 2tN

so

t

N 2 a2 H h2

2H h N

91

t 58 875 m

Because this root has a negative value greater than the thickness of the crust, total

compensation is not possible.

51. Calculate the free-air anomaly observed on a mountain of height 2000 m which

is fully compensated by a root of depth t 10 km. The compensation is by a

cylinder of radius 20 km, the density of the crust is 2.67g cm3, and that of the

mantle is 3.27g cm3.

The free-air anomaly is given by

gFA g g 3:086h

Since the point is isostatically compensated, we calculate the isostatic correction using a

cylinder as in previous problems:

q p

C I 2pGr b a2 c b2 a2 c2

where we substitute

b t 10 km,

c h H t 42 km,

and obtain

a 20 km,

Dr 600 kg m3

CI 306 gu

Since the point is totally compensated the isostatic anomaly must be zero:

gI g g C FA C B C I 0

The free-air anomaly can now be written as

gFA g g C FA C B C I

51:1

C B 1:119h 1:119 2000 2238 gu

and substituting in (51.1) we obtain, for the free-air anomaly,

gFA 2238 301:5 1932 gu

52. Calculate for a point P at height 2100 m, latitude 40 N, and observed gravity

979.7166 Gal the rened Bouguer anomaly in gravimetric units. Consider a surplus

mass compartment of 3000 m, mean height, 3520 m inner radius, 5240 m outer

radius, with n 16. The density of the crust is 2.5 g cm3.

The rened Bouguer anomaly is obtained using, besides the free-air and Bouguer corrections, the correction for the topography or topographic or terrain correction (T):

gB g g C FA C B T

92

Gravity

a2

P

Px

a1

a1

a2

hm

h

rC

Fig. 52

g 9:780 32 1 0:0053025 sin2 9:801 747 m s2

C FA 3:086h 6481 gu

and the Bouguer correction by

C B 0:419rC h 2200 gu

The topographic correction is introduced in order to correct for the topographic masses not

included in the Bouguer correction, that is, in this case those above the height h (Fig. 52).

Remember that the Bouguer correction corrects for an innite layer or plate of thickness h

and doesnt consider the additional masses above h or the lack of masses below h. The

topographic correction is always positive because the masses above height h produce on

point P an attraction of negative sign which must be added and the lack of mass under h

must also be taken into account with a positive sign, since it has been subtracted in the

Bouguer correction.

To calculate the attraction of the mass above height h we use the attraction of

concentric cylinders (in our case two) with axis passing through point P and with

height equal to the difference between the height h of the point P and the height of

the mass of the topography hm above h. The cylinder is divided into n sectors with

radius a1 and a2 to approximate the topography (Fig. 52). Then the topographic

correction is given by

q q q q

2pGrC

T

a22 c b2 a22 c2 a21 c b2 a21 c2

n

In our case we substitute the values

a2 5240 m;

a1 3520 m;

b hm h 900 m;

c 0;

n 16

93

and obtain

T 2 gu

The rened Bouguer anomaly is

gB g g C FA C B T 298 gu

53. Calculate the topographic correction for a terrestrial compartment of inner radius

a1 5240 m, outer radius a2 8440 m, n 20, mean height 120 m, with 2000 m being

the height of the point P. Take r 2.65 g cm3.

In this problem we consider the topographic correction for the case of the lack of mass in

the topography at heights below that of the point P. Since in the Bouguer correction we

have subtracted an innite layer of thickness h, we have to correct for the places where the

mass was not present (Fig. 53).

The topographic or terrain correction T in this case is calculated in the same way as in

the previous problem. Thus we take n sectors of cylinders with axis at point P and height

equal to the difference between h and hm (Fig. 52b). The correction is then given by

q q q q

2pGrC

a22 c b2 a22 c2 a21 c b2 a21 c2

T

n

where we substitute a2 8440 m, a1 5240 m, b c h hm, n 20 to obtain

T 0:67 mGal

54. Calculate the topographic correction for an oceanic sector or compartment

of inner radius a1 5240 m, outer radius a2 8440 m, n 20, mean depth

525 m, with 600 m being the height of the point P. Take rC 2.67 g cm3, rW

1.03 g cm3.

In this problem we have to correct for the lack of mass in the oceanic area near the point P,

between the sea level and height h (column 1 in Fig. 54). Also we have to take into account

the attraction produced by the water layer between sea level and the bottom of the sea

(column 2 in Fig. 54).

a2

a1

hm

Fig. 53

rC

94

Gravity

a2

a1

rw

Fig. 54

using cylindrical sectors:

q q q q

2pGr

T

a22 c b2 a22 c2 a21 c b2 a21 c2

n

where

a2 8440 m;

a1 5240 m;

n 20

For the correction corresponding to the attraction of column 1, between height h and sea

level, we substitute the values:

b h c;

r rC

and obtain

T1 0:07 mGal

For the correction of the attraction of column 2 between sea level and the bottom of the sea

we use the difference between the densities of the crust and of water:

b p 525 m

c p hs 1125 m

c b hs

r rC rW

T2 0:11 mGal

The total topographic correction is

T T1 T2 0:18 mGal

95

Tides

Tides

55. Two spherical planets A and B of radii 2a and a and masses 3m and m are

separated by a distance (centre to centre) of 6a. The only forces acting are gravitational, and the system formed by the two planets rotates in the equatorial plane.

(a) Calculate the value of the components of the acceleration of the tides at the Pole of

each planet directly and using the tidal potential. On which planet are they greater?

(b) If each planet spins on its axis with the same angular velocity as the system, what,

for each planet, is the ratio between the centrifugal force and the maximum of the

tidal force at the equator? On which planet is this ratio greater?

(a) From Fig. 55a we can deduce that at the Pole of planet A, the radial component of

the acceleration of the tides produced by planet B is

grT

Gm

cos a

q2

where q is the distance from the Pole of planet A to the centre of planet B and a the angle

formed by q and the radius at the Pole of planet A.

By substitution of the required values we obtain

q p

q 6a2 2a2 40a

2a

cos a p ) a 71:6

40a

Gm

Gm

grT

cos71:6 0:008 2

2

40a

a

Gm Gm

Gm Gm

2 sin a

sin71:6

36a2

q

36a2 40a2

Gm

Gm

2 0:028 0:024 0:004 2

a

a

gyT

2a

q

b

6a

3m

Fig. 55a

96

Gravity

GMr2

3cos2 # 1

3

2R

where R is the distance between the centres of planets A and B (Fig. 55a), and # is the

angle the position vector r forms with the distance vector R (in this case it is equal to the

colatitude, # y)

GMr2

3cos2 y 1

c

3

2R

The radial and tangential components of the acceleration are given by

@c

@ Gmr2

Gmr

3cos2 y 1

3cos2 y 1

3

3

@r @r 26a

216a

2

1 @c

1 @ Gmr

Gmr

3cos2 y 1

3cos y sin y

gyT

r @y

r @y 26a3

216a3

grT

grT

Gm

Gm

0:009 2

2

108a

a

gyT 0

For planet B, we proceed in a similar manner:

q02 36a2 a2 37a2

a

cos a p ) a 80:5

37a

Therefore,

G3m

Gm

cos80:5 0:013 2

37a2

a

G3m G3m

Gm

T

sin80:5 0:003 2

gy

36a2 37a2

a

grT

c

G3mr2

3

3cos2 y 1

26a

@c Gmr

3cos2 y 1

grT

3

@r 72a

1 @c

9 Gmr

gyT

cos y sin y

r @y 216 a3

Substituting at the Pole of planet B, r a and y 90, we have

Gm

grT 0:014 2

a

T

gy 0

97

Tides

2a

(3/2)a

(9/2)a

6a

3m

Fig. 55b

(b) First we calculate the centre of gravity of the system formed by the two planets

measured from the centre of planet A (Fig. 55b):

x

3m 0 m 6a 3

a

3m m

2

3

9

6a a a

2

2

In the rotating system the centrifugal force equals the force of gravitational attraction,

which at the equator (y 0) is

fg

Gm3m

6a2

9

fC o2 r mo2 a

2

From this expression we obtain the value of the angular velocity o of the rotation system:

3Gm2

9

Gm

mo2 a ) o2

2

36a

2

54a3

Since the angular velocity of the spin of each planet is equal to that of the system, the spin

centrifugal force at the equator of planet A is

fC o 2 r

Gm

Gm

2a

3

54a

27a2

fT grT

2Gmr 2Gm2a

3 3

R3

6 a

98

Gravity

Gm

fC 27a2

2

Gm

fT

54a2

If we repeat these calculations for planet B, we obtain

Gm

Gm

a

3

54a

54a2

2G3ma

Gm

fT 3 3

6a

36a2

fC o 2 r

Gm

fC 54a2

0:666

Gm

fT

36a2

The ratio is larger for planet A, as expected owing to its larger radius.

56. Two planets of mass M and radius a are separated by a centre-to-centre distance

of 8a. The planets spin on their own axes with an angular velocity such that the value

of the centrifugal force at the equator is equal to the maximum of the tidal force (the

equatorial plane is the plane in which the system formed by the two planets rotates

around an axis normal to that plane).

(a) Calculate the value of the components of the vector g as multiples of GM/a2 for a

point of l' 60 and w 45 (with l 0, being the meridian in front of the other

planet) including all the forces that act.

(b) What is the relationship between the angular velocity of each planet and that of

the system?

(a) The tidal potential is given by

c

GMr2

3cos2 # 1

3

2R

where R is the centre-to-centre distance between the planets, and # the angle formed by the

vector r to a point and R (Fig. 56a). From this potential we calculate the radial component

of the tidal force:

@c

@ GMr2

GMr

2

3cos

#

1

frT

3 3cos2 # 1

3

@r @r 2R

R

At the equator of one planet # 0, r a, and R 8a, so

frT

GMa

8a

GM

256a2

99

Tides

w

gr

g

g

a

x

R

M

Fig. 56a

fC o 2 a

Equating these two expressions we nd the value of the spin angular velocity,

r

GM

1 GM

T

2

)o

fC fr ) o a

256a2

16

a3

At a point on the surface of one of the planets the total potential is the sum of the

gravitational potential V, the spin potential F, and the tidal potential c:

U V Fc

GM 1 2 2 2

GMr2

o r cos

3cos2 # 1

3

r

2

2R

and the potential U is

U

GM 1 2 2 2

GMr2

o r cos

3cos2 cos2 l 1

3

r

2

2R

@U

GM

GMr

2 o2 r cos2 3 3 cos2 cos2 l 1

@r

r

R

1 @U

GMr

2

o r cos sin 3 3 cos2 l cos sin

g

r @

R

1 @U

1 GMr2

gl

6 cos2 cos l sin l

r cos @l

r cos 2R3

GMr

3 3 cos cos l sin l

R

gr

100

Gravity

j

j

a

Fig. 56b

r a;

45 ;

so

GM

GM

1 GMa

11

GM

3

gr 2

a

1 0:9993 2

3

3

a

256a

2 8a

24

a

GM

1 1

GMa 1 1 1

GM

g

a p p

3 p p 0:0027 2

256a3

a

2 2 8a3 4 2 2

p p

GMa

GM

21 3

3

gl

0:0018 2

a

8a3 2 2 2

(b) To obtain the angular velocity of the rotation of the system (O) we take into account

that the centrifugal force due to the rotation of the system at the equatorial plane is

equal to the gravitational attraction between the two planets:

M

2 p G

MM

8a2

where p is the distance from the centre of one planet to the centre of gravity of the system.

Then we nd

M

2 4a G

and nally O o.

MM

8a2

)

2

GM

GM

4 64a3 256a3

101

Tides

57. Consider two planets of equal mass m and radius a separated by a centre-to-centre

distance of 8a. Only gravitational forces act.

(a) Calculate the tidal force at the equator on one of the planets directly, using the

formula of the tidal potential (do so at l 0, i.e. the point in front of the other

planet). Express the result in mGal given that Gm/a2 980 000 mGal.

(b) Compare and comment on the reason for the difference between the results of the

direct calculation and using the tidal potential.

(c) What relationship must there be between the angular velocities of the planets

spin and of the systems rotation for the centrifugal force due to the planets spin

to be equal to the tidal force at the equator and l 0?

(a) The exact calculation of the tidal force at a point located at the equatorial plane in

front of the other planet is (Fig. 57)

Gm

Gm

Gm 1

1

fT

2

46 875 gu

a

49 64

7a2 8a2

Using the tidal potential

c

Gmr2

2 R

3cos2 # 1

where R is the centre-to-centre distance between the planets (8a), r the radius to the point

where the tide is evaluated (a), and # the angle between r and R (at the equator in front of

the other planet # 0), the radial component of the tidal force can be derived from the

potential. At the equator this is the total tidal force

!

@c

@ Gmr2

2Gma

2

T

3cos # 1

2 38 281 gu

fr

@r @r 28a3

2512a3

(b) The difference between the value obtained by the exact calculation and by using

the tidal potential is 8594 gu, that is, 18%. This is explained because the tidal

a

x

x

8a

m

Fig. 57

102

Gravity

(r/R)2. For a relatively large value of r/R (1/8) this approximation is not very good.

(c) Now we make the spin centrifugal force equal to the tidal force for a point at the

equator of one of the planets which is given by exact calculation

Gm 1

1

fT 2

a

49 64

If the spin angular velocity is op, the spin centrifugal force at the equator is given by

fC o2p a

Equating these two expressions we obtain

Gm 1

1

Gm 1

1

) o2p 3

fC fT ) o2p a 2

a

49 64

a

49 64

57:1

The centrifugal force due the rotation of the system with angular velocity os is equal to the

gravitational attraction between the two planets:

mo2s 4a

Gm

Gm2

) o2s

2

64a

256a3

57:2

From (57.1) and (57.2) we obtain the relation between the two angular velocities:

Gm 1

1

o2p

op

a3 49 64

1:22 )

1:10

Gm

o2s

os

256a3

58. Two planets of equal mass m and radius a are separated by a distance R. The spin

angular velocity of each planet is such that the centrifugal force at the equator is

equal to the maximum of the tidal force. If the sum of the two forces at the equator

cancels the gravitational force, what is the distance R?

The tidal potential is given by

c

Gmr2 1

3cos2 # 1

3

R 2

where R is the centre-to-centre distance between the planets, r the radius to the point where

the tide is evaluated, and # the angle between r and R. The maximum value is at a point at

the equator in front of the other planet, # 0 and r a. Then

fT

2Gma

@c Gmr

3 3cos2 # 1

@r

R

R3

58:1

fC o 2 a

58:2

103

Tides

2Gma

2Gm

o2 a ) o2 3

3

R

R

If, at the point considered, the sum of the spin centrifugal force and the tidal force cancel

the gravitational force of the planet, then

F fC fT 0

where F Gm/a2.

The value of R must be

p

4Gma Gm

3

2 ) R 4a

3

R

a

59. Two spherical planets A and B of radii 2a and a and masses 5M and M spin on

their axes with equal angular velocities. They are separated by a centre-to-centre

distance of 8a, and form a system that rotates in the equatorial plane of both planets

with an angular velocity that is equal to that of the spin angular velocity of each one.

(a) Determine the total potential for points on planet A.

(b) Determine the expression for the three components of the total gravity, including

the tide, for a point on the surface of planet A at longitude 0.

(c) If the Love number h on planet A is 0.5, determine the height of the terrestrial tide

as a multiple of a at the equator, at local noon with respect to planet B, in the case

that the systems rotational angular velocity is the same as that of the spin of the

two planets about their axes.

(a) We calculate the centre of gravity of the system, measured from the centre of planet

A (Fig. 59a):

X

5M 0 M 8a 4

a

5M M

3

A

B

2a

(4/3)a

x

8a

5M

Fig. 59a

104

Gravity

j

2a

Fig. 59b

The total potential U at a point on the surface of planet A at latitude is given by the sum

of the gravitational potential V, plus the spin potential , plus the tidal potential c

produced by planet B:

U V Fc

U

5GM 1 2 2 2

GMr2

o r cos

3cos2 # 1

3

r

2

8a 2

59:1

where t is the local time of planet B with respect to planet A (hour-angle), at a point of l 0,

the geographical longitude at planet A. For t 0, the planet B is in front of the point, so

U

5GM 1 2 2 2

GMr2

o r cos

3cos2 cos2 t 1

3

r

2

28a

gr

@U

5GM

GMr

2 o2 rcos2

3cos2 cos2 t 1

3

@r

r

8a

gy

gl

1 @U

GMr

o2 r cos sin

3 cos sin cos2 t

r @

8a3

1 @U

GMr

r cos @t

8a3

105

Tides

5GM

GM 2a

o2 2acos2

3cos2 cos2 t 1

3

2

4a

8a

GM

2

gy o2 2a cos sin 3 2 3 cos sin cos2 t

8 a

GM 2

gl 3 2 3 cos cos t sin t

8 a

gr

height of the equilibrium terrestrial tide is given by

Bh

c

g

c

2GM 2a2

28a3

GM

128a

If we approximate g by gr

5GM

GM 2a

5GM

GM

o2 2a

2

o2 2a

3

2

2

4a2

4a

128a

8a

159GM

2o2 a

128a2

gr

GM

1

128a

B

2 159MG

2

2ao

128a2

59:2

We know that the angular velocity of the rotation of the system is equal to the spin angular

velocity of both planets, so the spin angular velocity is given by

4

G5M 2

3GM

) o2

5M o2 a

2

3

256a2

8a

By substitution in (59.2)

GM

1

a

128a

B

3GM

2 159MG

312

2a

128a2

256a2

60. The Earth is formed by a sphere of radius a and density r, and a core of radius a/2

and density 2r, in the northern hemisphere, centred on the axis of rotation and

106

Gravity

tangent to the equatorial plane. The Moon has mass M/4 (where M (4/3)pra3), is at

a distance (centre-to-centre) of 4a, and orbits in the equatorial plane. Determine:

(a) The total potential and the components of gravity including the tidal forces.

(b) The total deviation of the vertical from the radial at lunar noon, and the deviation

due to the tide at the same hour for latitude 45 N, with m 1/8.

(a) The total potential U is equal to the gravitational potential of the planet V1 with

uniform density plus that of the core V2 using the differential mass, the spin

potential F, and the tidal potential c. The gravitational potentials are given by

(Fig. 60):

GM

r

GM 0

V2

q

V1

4

a3 M

GM

M 0 p2r r ) V2

3

8

8q

8

and q is the distance to the centre of the core. Its inverse can be approximated by

a 2 1

1 1

a

2

1 cos y

3cos y 1

q r

2r

2r 2

1

F o2 r2 sin2 y

2

and the total potential is

"

!

#

r 3 m

GM

1

a

a2 1

2

2

1

1 cos y

3cos y 1

sin y c

U

r

8

2r

a 2

2r2 2

w

2r

a/2

q r

j

4a

t 180

r

Fig. 60

107

Tides

where m o2 a3/GM.

The tidal potential c due to the Moon is given by

c

According to Fig. 60

GML r2

3cos2 # 1

2R3

60:1

By substitution in (60.1), since R (the centre-to-centre distance between the Earth and the

Moon) is 4a, ML M/4, and 90 y, we obtain

c

The potential U is

U GM

GMr2

3cos2 cos2 t 180 1

3

512a

5

a

a2

sin

3 sin2 1

8r 16r2

64r3

r2 m 2

r2

2

2

3 cos

3 cos cos t 1

a 2

512a3

The components of gravity are found by taking the derivatives of U with respect to r and :

5

2a

3a2

sin

3 sin2 1

gr GM 2

3

4

8r

16r

64r

r

2r

2

2

3

cos

cos

3 m cos2

t

1

a

512a3

1 @U

r @

GM

a

a2

cos

6 cos sin

2

r

16r

64r3

r2 m

r2

2

6

sin

cos

cos

t

3 2 sin cos

a 2

512a3

gy

gr 1:128

GM

a2

gy 0:023

GM

a2

(b) The deviation of the vertical with respect to the radial direction at 12 h lunar time is

given by

tan i

gy

0:020 ) i 1:2

gr

108

Gravity

tan i0

gyM

1 1 @c 1 GMr2

gr r @ gr r512a3

gr

i0 0:3

The greater part of the deviation is due to the core.

61. Two spherical planets, planet A of radius 2a and mass 3m and planet B of radius a

and mass m, are separated by a centre-to-centre distance of 6a. The system rotates in

the equatorial plane and each planet spins on its axis with the same angular velocity.

What, for each planet, is the ratio between the force of gravity and the maximum of

the tidal force at the equator in front of the other planet?

The centre of gravity of the system measured from the centre of planet A is (Fig. 61)

0 3m 6am 3

a

4m

2

The angular velocity of the system is given by

3mGm

3

Gm

3mo2 a ) o2

3

2

54a

6a

2

The tidal force (radial component) can be calculated from the tidal potential

c

GMr2

@c GMr

3 3cos2 # 1

3cos2 # 1 ) frT

3

@r

R

2R

where R is the centre-to-centre distance between the planets. For a point on the equator in

front of the other planet, # 0, and

frT

2GMr

6a3

2Gm2a

Gm

Planet A : frT

0:018 2

216a3

a

2G3ma

Gm

T

0:028 2

Planet B : fr

216a3

a

Gravity without tides is the sum of the gravitational and centrifugal forces:

g

Gm

o2 r

r2

G3m

3Gm Gm

Gm

o2 2a

2a 0:71 2

4a2

4a2

54a3

a

Gm

Gm Gm

Gm

2

a 0:98 2

Planet B : g 2 o a 2

a

a

54a3

a

Planet A : g

109

Tides

2a

(3/2)a

(9/2)a

x

6a

3m

Fig. 61

Planet A :

g

0:71

39:44

T

fr

0:018

Planet B :

g

0:98

35:00

T

fr

0:028

62. The Earth is of radius a and density r, with a core of radius a/2 and density 3r

on the axis of rotation in the southern hemisphere tangent to the equatorial

plane. The Moon has mass M/2 and its centre is at 4a from the centre of the Earth

(M 4/3pra3).

(a) Write down the total potential.

(b) What is the value of the angular velocity of the Earth if at the point 30 N, 30 E at

06:00 lunar time the radial component of gravity is equal to GM/a2?

(c) In this case, what is the ratio between the angular velocity of the Earths rotation

and that of the system?

(a) As in previous problems the total potential U is given by

U V1 V2 F c

The differential mass of the core is:

M1

4p

a3 M

3r r

3

8

4

110

Gravity

90 q

4a

t

a/2 x

3r

Fig. 62

Using the approximation for 1/q, where q is the distance from a point on the surface of the

Earth to the centre of the core, the gravitational potential due to the core is

GM GM 1

a

a2

V2

2 cos y 3 3cos2 y 1

4q

4 r 2r

8r

The potential due to the spin of the Earth is given by

1

GM m

F o2 r2 sin2 y 3 r2 sin2 y

2

a

2

where

m

o2 a3

GM

c

GMr2

GM r2 1

2

3cos

#

1

3sin2 ycos2 t 1

3

3

2 64a 2

256a

Then, the total potential U is

5

a

a2

2 cos y

3 cos2 y 1

U GM

3

4r 8r

32r

3

r m

r2

2

2

3 sin2 y

3

sin

y

cos

t

1

a 2

256a3

(b) The radial component of gravity is given by

gr

@U

@r

5

2a

3a2

GM 2 3 cos y

3 cos2 y 1

4r

8r

32r4

rm sin2 y

2r

2

2

3 sin y cos t 1

a3

256a3

111

Tides

gr

GM

a2

141

3

1

GM

m

2

128

4 128

a

r

2:81GM

rad s1

o

a3

(c) The centre of gravity r0 of the EarthMoon system, measured from the centre of the

Earth, is given by

M

4a

M

r

M

r

8a

T 1

L 2

r0

2

5

1

MT ML

7

M

4 2

where the mass of the Earth MT includes that of the core,

MT M

M

M

and ML

4

2

To calculate the angular velocity of the system, O, we put the centripetal force at the

Moon equal to the gravitational force between the Earth and the Moon:

ML r2 r0

2 G

MT ML

r2

5 2

M

M 2

8

8

G

O 4 a;

16a2

2

7

r

GM 7

so O

a3 256

Then, the ratio between the angular velocities of the spin of the Earth and of the system is:

r

2:81GM

o

a3

r 10:14

7GM

256a3

63. Consider two planets of equal mass m and radius a separated by a centre-tocentre distance of 8a. The planets revolve around their centre of mass and

spin around their own axes. Their spin angular velocity is such that the value

of the centrifugal force is equal to the maximum tidal force of the two at the

equator.

112

Gravity

(a) Calculate, for a point on the equator of one of the planets and longitude l 90, the

value of the vector g including all the forces acting at that point (l 0 corresponds

to the point on the line joining the two centres of the planets) at t 0.

(b) What is the deviation of the vertical from the radial at the point w 45, l 0?

(a) If o is the spin angular velocity of the two planets, the centrifugal force at the

equator y 90 , r a, only has radial component:

frC o2 a

63:1

The radial component of the tidal force can be obtained from the tidal potential c which, in

the rst-order approximation, is given by (Fig. 63)

c

Gmr2

3cos2 # 1

3

2R

On the equator f 0, so

c

Gmr2

3cos2 t l 1

2R3

@c

@ Gmr2

Gmr

2

frT

3cos

t

l

1

3 3cos2 t l 1

3

@r @r 2R

R

8a

x

m

Fig. 63

90

x

m

113

Tides

frT

Gma

8a

Gm

256a2

63:2

Then, as the centrifugal force is equal to the tidal force, we put (63.1) equal to (63.2) and

solve for o:

o2 a

Gm

Gm

) o2

256a2

256a3

63:3

Gm

256a3

The total potential U is the sum of the gravitational, spin, and tidal potentials, which for

t 0, is given by

U V Fc

Gm 1 2 2 2

Gmr2

o r sin y

3sin2 ycos2 l 1

3

r

2

28a

gr

gy

gl

@U

Gm

Gmr

2 o2 rsin2 y

3sin2 ycos2 l 1

3

@r

r

8a

1 @U

Gmr

o2 r sin y cos y

3 sin y cos ycos2 l

r @y

8a3

1 @U

Gmr

3 sin y cos l sin l

r sin y @l

8a3

gr

Gm

Gm

o2 a

a2

512a2

gy 0

gl 0

(b) By substitution of r a, l 0, and y 45 in (63.4) we obtain

Gm

1

Gm 3

gr 2 o2 a

1

a

2 512a2 2

Gm

Gm 1

Gm 1

1021 Gm

2

2

2

a

256a 2 512a 2

1024 a2

1

Gm

3

Gm

1

Gm

3

5 Gm

gy o 2 a

2

2

2

2 512a 2 256a 2 512a 2 1024 a2

gl 0

63:4

114

Gravity

tan i

gy

0:28

gr

64. Two spherical planets of radii 2a and a and masses 8M and M separated by a

centre-to-centre distance of 4a spin on their own axes and rotate in the equatorial

plane with the same angular velocity.

(a) Determine all the forces acting at a point on the smaller planet at geocentric

coordinates w 60 N, l 0 (00:00 h local time corresponds to passage of the

other planet through the zero meridian).

(b) For this same point, calculate the astronomical latitude and the tidal deviation of

the vertical.

(a) First we determine the centre of gravity of the system, putting the origin at the

centre of the small planet (Fig. 64):

x

0 M 4a 8M 32a

9M

9

Because the spin angular velocity of each planet is equal to the angular velocity of the

system (o O), we can write, for the small planet, putting the gravitational attraction of

the two planets equal to the centripetal force:

G8MM

4a

M o2

32a

9

o2

9GM

64a3

q r

a

x

x

4a

Fig. 64

8M

2a

115

Tides

gr

GM

r2

gy 0

and the force due to its spin is

fr o2 rsin2 y

fy o2 r cos y sin y

For the point under consideration, r a, y 30, we obtain

Gm 9 GM 1

247GM

2

2

2

a

64

p a 4

p256a

3 GM 9 3

9 GM

2

a

4

64 a3

a 256

grGC

gyGC

To add the tidal force we use the tidal potential in the rst-order approximation,

c

G8Mr2

3cos2 # 1

3

2R

The tidal force for the point considered, r a, y 30, t l 0, and R 4a, is

given by

@c

GM 1

2

@r

a 32

p

1

@c

GM

3 3

T

2

fy

r @y

a 32

frT

The total force acting at the point is the sum of the three forces, gravitational, centrifugal,

and tidal:

255GM

2

256a

p

GM 12 3

2

a 256

grtotal

gytotal

vertical without considering the tide:

p

g total 9 3

0:06 ) i 3:6 ) a 60 3:6 63:6

tan i ytotal

247

gr

The maximum deviation of the vertical due to the tide at the point considered is

i0 given by

116

Gravity

fyT

grtotal

tan i0

p

3 3

32 0:163 ) i0 9:3

255

256

Gravity observations

65. Determine the values of gravity at the following series of points belonging to a

gravimetric survey with a Worden gravimeter, specifying the drift correction for each

of them.

Station

Time

Reading

A (base)

B

C

D

A

08:30

09:21

11:34

13:20

14:20

562.5

400.7

437.9

360.1

568.8

constant is 0.301 81 mGal/ru (ru: reading unit).

The instrument drift is given by

d

LAe LAb

tAe tAb

where LAb and LAe are the readings at the base A at the beginning and end of the

measurements taken at times tAb and tAe, respectively. By substitution we obtain

d

568:8 562:5

1:08 ru=hour

14:33 8:50

Ljc Lj d (tj tAb)

where Lj is the reading taken at time tj.

For a Worden gravimeter the increment in gravity between two points (D g)

is proportional to the increment in the readings corrected by the instrument drift

(D Lc ):

D g K D Lc

where K is the instrument constant.

Thus, from the readings we obtain the following results.

117

Gravity observations

Station

Corrected reading

D g (mGal)

g (mGal)

A (base)

B

C

D

A

562.5

399.8

434.6

354.9

562.5

49.10

10.50

24.05

62.66

980

980

980

980

980

139.82

090.72

101.22

077.17

139.83

of 15.213 m in height relative to A, and has a value of gravity of 9.712 611 m/s2.

Calculate:

(a) The value of gravity at point A, if the difference in readings of a Worden gravimeter

between B and A is 17.8 ru, and the gravimeter constant is 0.308 21 mGal/ru.

(b) The geopotential number, dynamic height, and Helmert height of the point B given

that the normal gravity at a point of latitude 45 on the ellipsoid is 980 629.40 mGal.

(a) Using a Worden gravimeter the increment of gravity between points A and B is given by

DgAB KDLBA 5:5 mGal

where K is the instrument constant and DL is the difference between the readings at points A and B.

The gravity at point A is

gA gB DgAB 971 266:6 mGal

(b) The geopotential number at B can be calculated from the value at A in the form

CB CA

g g

A

B

hBA 82:661 59 gpu

2

where gravity is given in Gal and increments in height in km, because the geopotential

units are, 1 gpu 1 kGal m 1 Gal km.

The dynamic height is given by

HDB

CB

84:294 m

g45

H

C

g 0:0424H

p

g g2 4 0:0424C

H

2 0:0424

Taking the positive solution because point B is above the geoid (CB > 0) we obtain

HB 85:107 m

118

Gravity

the following values were obtained:

Station

Time

A (base)

B

C

A

1520.23

1759.15

1583.11

1521.30

8h

9h

9h

9h

50

15

35

50

m

m

m

m

Gravity (gu)

9 793 626.8

9 794 363.9

9 793 820.7

30.410

301.863

Calculate the gravimeter readings corrected for drift, and the gravimeter constant

The instrument drift is given by

d

LAe LAb

tAe tAb

where LAb and LAe are the readings at the base A at the beginning and end of the

measurements taken at times tAb and tAe, respectively. By substitution we obtain,

d 1:07 ru=hour

A reading corrected at station j is given by

Lcj Lj dtj tAb

where Lj is the reading at time tj.

For a Worden gravimeter the increment in gravity between two points (D g) is proportional to the increment in the readings corrected by the instrument drift (D Lc):

D g K DLc

where K is the instrument constant. Thus, K can be calculated in the form

K

g

Lc

From each pair of observations we obtain a value of K. Finally we take the arithmetic mean

(Km) from all the values obtained. The results are given in the following table.

Station

Gravity (mGal)

K (mGal/ru)

A (base)

B

C

A

1520.23

1758.70

1582.31

1520.23

979 362.68

979 436.39

979 382.07

0.3091

0.3079

Km 0.3085

gravimeter:

119

Gravity observations

Station

Gravimeter reading

Time

A

B

C

A

3614.351

3650.242

3610.633

3614.414

10:10

10:25

10:37

11:02

The gravimeter scale factor is 1.000 65, and the equivalence between reading units

and the relative value of gravity in mGal is given by

Reading

Value in mGal

Interval factor

3600

3700

3846.02

3953.15

1.071 25

1.071 40

Given that the value of gravity at point A is 9.794 6312 m s2, calculate the values at

B and C.

First we correct the readings by the instrument drift:

d

LAe LAb

tAe tAb

where LAe and LAb are the readings at the base A at the end and the beginning of the survey

at times tAe and tAb. Then

d 0:0727 ru=hour

The corrected reading at each station j is given by

Lcj Lj dtj tAb

where Lj is the reading at time tj. The corrected readings are:

LcA 3614:351

LcB 3650:224

LcC 3610:600

These readings are converted into relative gravity values Rj using the conversion table.

The reading at station A is

LcA 3600 14:351

and the relative gravity value is

RA (3846.02 (14.351 1.07125)) 1.00065 3863.90 mGal

For stations B and C,

120

Gravity

RC (3846.02 (10.600 1.07125)) 1.00065 3859.88 mGal

To convert the relative values into absolute values we need to know both values at one

station, in our case in station A:

gA 9.794 6312 m s2 979 463.12 mGal

gB gA RA RB 979 501.58 mGal

gC gA RA RC 979 459.10 mGal

Geomagnetism

Main eld

69. Assume that the geomagnetic eld of the Earth is a geocentric dipole with a North

Pole at 80 N, 45 E and a magnetic moment 8 1022 A m. Calculate for a point with

geographical coordinates 45 N, 30 W the components NS, EW, and Z of the Earths

magnetic eld, the declination and inclination, and the geomagnetic longitude.

Earths radius: 6370 km and the constant C 107 H m1 (this value is used in all

problems).

We calculate rst the geomagnetic latitude and longitude (f , l ) from the geographical

coordinates (f, l) of the point and the geographical coordinates of the geomagnetic North

Pole (fB, lB) by the equation

sin sin B sin cos B cos cosl lB

sin l

sinl lB cos

cos

fB 80 N

lB 45 E

f 45 N

l 30 W 330

we obtain

f 46:70

l 84:82

In the geocentric magnetic dipole model, the vertical (Z ) and horizontal (H ) components

of the magnetic eld can be obtained from

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Cm

B0 3

a

121

69:1

122

Geomagnetism

In these equations B0 is the geomagnetic constant, m the magnetic moment of the dipole,

a the Earths radius, and the constant C 107 H m1.

In this case we are given that

m 8 1022 A m2

a 6370 km 6.37 106 m

By substitution in Equations (69.1) we obtain:

B0 30 951 nT

Z 45 051 nT

H 21 227 nT

The geomagnetic declination is given by

cos fB sinl lB

cos f

D 14:16

sin D

X H cos D 20 582 nT

Y H sin D 5193 nT

Finally, the geomagnetic inclination or dip (I ) at that point is given by

tan I 2 tan f ) I 64:77

70. Assume that the geomagnetic eld is produced by a geocentric dipole of magnetic

moment 8 1022 Am, with North Pole at 80 N, 70 W, and that the Earths radius is

6370 km. Calculate for a point with geographical coordinates 60 N, 110 E:

(a) Its geomagnetic coordinates, the components of the Earths magnetic eld (X ,

Y , Z , H ), the total eld, the declination, and the inclination.

(b) The equation of the line of force passing through it.

(a) For this point the difference in longitude from the Geomagnetic North Pole

(GMNP) is 180 (Fig. 70), so both are on the same great circle. Then, the

geomagnetic coordinates are obtained from

f f 90 fB 50

l 180

The expressions for the geomagnetic vertical and horizontal components and for the total

geomagnetic eld are

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

p

F H 2 Z 2

B0

Cm

a3

Main eld

123

GMNP

GNP

P

x

f

fB

l=0

l

l

Fig. 70

m 8 1022 A m2

a 6370 km 6.37 106 m

C 107 H m1

Substituting in the above equations we obtain

B0 30 951 nT

Z 47 420 nT

H 19 895 nT

F 51 424 nT

For this point the geomagnetic declination D 0. So the NS (X ) and EW (Y )

components are

D 0

X H cos D H 19 895 nT

Y H sin D 0

The geomagnetic inclination (I ) is given by

tan I 2 tan f ) I 67:23

(b) The equation of the line of force passing through a point with geomagnetic

co-latitude y is

r r0 sin2 y

In this equation r0 is the distance from the Earths centre to a point on the line of force with

y 90. The distance r0 is different for each line of force.

124

Geomagnetism

For the point with geomagnetic latitude f 50 located in the Earths surface (r a),

y 90 f 40, so

a

r0 2 15 417km

sin y

71. Assume that the geomagnetic eld is produced by a geocentric dipole of magnetic

moment 7.5 1022A m, with North Pole at 75 N, 65 W, and that the Earths radius

is 6372 km. Calculate:

(a) The NS and EW components for a point on the Earths surface at which the

inclination is 67 and the geomagnetic longitude is 120 .

(b) The geographical coordinates of that point.

(c) The geomagnetic coordinates, eld components, declination, and inclination of the

point on the geographical equator of zero geomagnetic longitude.

(a) The geomagnetic latitude f is obtained from

tan I 2 tan f ) f 49:7

The horizontal component, H , can be calculated from the geomagnetic constant, B0, and

the geomagnetic latitude:

Cm

B0 3 28 989 nT

a

H B0 cos f 18 761 nT

To obtain the NS (X ) and EW (Y ) components it is necessary to calculate the declination (D )

from the spherical triangle with vertices at the Geographical North Pole (GNP), Geomagnetic

North Pole (GMNP), and the point P (Fig. 71a). But we need to calculate the geographic latitude

rstly by solving the spherical triangle. Applying the cosine law to the angle (90 f):

cos90 f cos90 fB cos90 f

sin90 fB sin90 f cos180 l

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cos l

71:1

f 55:1

To obtain the geomagnetic declination we apply the sine law in the spherical triangle of

Fig. 71a:

sin D

sin180 l

cos fB sin l

)

sin

D

sin90 fB

cos f

sin90 f

71:2

D 23:1

It is important to note that we have added a minus sign in the last equation in order for the

declination be positive toward the east.

Main eld

125

GNP

90 fB

l lB

180 l

90 f

GMNP

q = 90 f

Fig. 71a

X H cos D 17 262 nT

Y H sin D 7 349 nT

(b) The calculated geographical latitude is

f 55:1

The geographical longitude is obtained by applying the cosine law to the spherical triangle

of Fig. 71a:

cos90 f cos90 fB cos90 f

sin90 fB sin90 f cosl lB

71:3

so

cosl lB

cos fB cos f

71:4

l lB 101:6

To take the inverse cosine in the correct quadrant we bear in mind that l < 0 implies

that the point is to the west of the Geomagnetic North Pole, that is l lB < 0. So we

obtain

l 166:6 W

(c) If this point is on the geographical equator (f 90 ) and has zero geomagnetic

longitude (l 0), it is on the same geographical meridian as the Geomagnetic

North Pole. Then from Fig. 71b

126

Geomagnetism

GMNP

GNP

fB

P

f

x

Fig. 71b

f 90 fB 15:0

l 0

Z 2B0 sin f 15 006 nT

H B0 cos f 28 001 nT

D 0

X H

Y 0 nT

tan I 2 tan f ) I 28:2

72. Assume that the geomagnetic eld is that of a dipole with North Pole at 75 N, 0 E.

What is the conjugate point of that of geographical coordinates 30 N, 30 E?

First, we calculate the geomagnetic coordinates (f , l ) (Problem 71; Fig. 71a):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin l

72:1

sinl lB cos f

cos f

fB 75

f 30

lB 0

l 30

Main eld

127

GMNP

GNP

fB

Px

f

f

P1

x

Fig. 72

f 42:6

l 36:0

A magnetic conjugate point is a point on the Earths surface that is located on the same line

of force and in the opposite hemisphere (Fig. 72, P and P1). Then, its geomagnetic

coordinates (f1 , l1 ) are

f1 f 42:6

l1 l 36:0

To calculate the geographical coordinates for this point (f1, l1) we use the spherical

triangle of Fig. 71a. We calculate the geographical latitude applying the cosine law:

cos90 f1 cos90 fB cos90 f1

sin90 fB sin90 f1 cos180 l1

sin f1 sin fB sin f1 cos fB cos f1 cos l1

f1 53:9

To calculate the geographical longitude we apply the cosine law again:

cos90 f1 cos90 fB cos90 f1

sin90 fB sin90 f1 cosl1 lB

128

Geomagnetism

cosl1 lB

cos fB cos f

l1 lB 47:3

and taking the solution in the correct quadrant

l1 > 0 ) l1 lB > 0

l1 47:3

73. Assume the centred dipole approximation, with the coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole being 65 N, 0 E, and the magnetic moment of the dipole 8 1022

A m. Calculate, for a point on the Earths surface at geographical coordinates 30 N,

30 E:

(a) The geographical coordinates of the conjugate point.

(b) The declination, inclination, and vertical and horizontal components of the eld

at both points. Compare and contrast the results.

Earths radius: 6370 km.

(a) First, we calculate the geomagnetic coordinates (f , l ) for point P with geographical coordinates f 30 N, l 30 E using the equations (Problem 71; Fig. 71a)

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin l

73:1

sinl lB cos f

cos f

fB 65 ;

lB 0

f 50:4

l 42:7

The geomagnetic coordinates (f1 , l1 ) of the magnetic conjugate point P1 satisfy

(Problem 72):

f1 f 50:4

l1 l 42:7

To calculate the geographical coordinates for this point (f1, l1) we use the spherical

triangle of Fig. 71a. We calculate the geographical latitude applying the cosine law

cos90 f1 cos90 fB cos90 f1

sin90 fB sin90 f1 cos180 l1

sin f1 sin fB sin f1 cos fB cos f1 cos l1

f1 63:7

Main eld

129

To calculate the geographical longitude we apply the cosine law again and, solving for l1,

sin f1 sin fB sin f1

cos fB cos f1

l1 lB 77:1

l1 > 0 ) l1 lB > 0

cosl lB

l1 77:1

(b) First we calculate the geomagnetic constant B0

B0

Cm

8 1022

30 951 nT

a3

63793 109

components of the eld at both points. The results are shown in the table, where we notice

that except for the declinations, which are very different, all other values are equal for both

points except in sign.

P

P1

cos fB sinl lB

sin D

cos f

D 19.33

tan I 2 tan f ) I 67.5

Z 2B0 sinf 47 662 nT

H B0 cosf 19 750 nT

cos fB sinl1 lB

sin D1

cos f1

D1 40:2

tan I1 2 tan f1 ) I1 I1 67:5

Z1 2B0 sin f1 Z 47 662 nT

H1 B0 cos f1 H 19 750 nT

74. Assume the centred dipole approximation, with the coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole 78.5 N, 70.0 W, and the magnetic dipole moment being 8.25 1022

A m. Calculate, for a point on the surface with coordinates 60.0 S, 170.0 W:

(a) Its geomagnetic coordinates, declination, inclination, and vertical and horizontal

components of the eld.

(b) The potential at that point.

(c) The declination and inclination at the point diametrically opposite to it.

Earths radius: 6370 km.

(a) We calculate the geomagnetic coordinates (f , l ) using the equations (Problem 71,

Fig. 71a)

sin f cos y sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin l

74:1

sinl lB cos f

cos f

fB 78:5

f 60:0

lB 70:0

l 170:0

130

Geomagnetism

f 60:0

l 80:0

The geomagnetic declination is given by (Problem 71, Fig. 71a)

cos fB sinl lB

cos f

D 23:1

sin D

tan I 2 tan f ) I 73:9

The vertical (Z ) and horizontal (H ) components of the magnetic eld can be obtained

from

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Cm

B0 3

a

Substituting the values given we obtain:

B0 31 918 nT

Z 2B0 sin f 55 279 nT

H B0 cos f 15 963 nT

(b) The potential at a point on the Earths surface (r a) at geomagnetic latitude f is

given by

F

176 T m

a2

a2

(c) We can observe in Fig. 74 that at the point diametrically opposite the geographical

and geomagnetic coordinates are

f1 f 60:0 N

l1 l 180 10:0 E

f1 f 60:0

l1 l 180 100:0

The geomagnetic declination at that point satises (Fig. 71a)

cos fB sinl1 lB cos fB sinl 180 lB

cos f1

cos f

cos fB sinl lB

sin D

cos f

sin D1

Main eld

131

GNP

GMNP

fB

P1

f1

f

l

P

Fig. 74

The geomagnetic inclination is given by

tan I1 2 tan f1 2 tan f ) I1 I

So, we can notice that the two points P and P1 (Fig. 74) that are diametrically opposite

are not magnetic conjugate points because the geomagnetic longitudes are different

by 180.

75. Consider a point P on the Earths surface at coordinates 30 S, 10 W at which

the NS component of the geomagnetic eld is 27 050 nT and the EW component is

5036 nT, with the geomagnetic inclination being negative. Assuming the centred

dipole hypothesis with magnetic moment 7.8 1022 A m, calculate:

(a) The geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole.

(b) The geomagnetic coordinates of Ps conjugate point.

(a) We calculate rst the geomagnetic constant B0:

B0

Cm

30 177 nT

a3

of the geomagnetic eld:

tan D

Y 5036

) D 10:5

X 27 050

132

Geomagnetism

The geomagnetic latitude f is calculated from the horizontal component H :

p q

H X 2 Y 2 270502 50362 27 515 nT

H B0 cos f ) f

H

24:3

B0

We then have two solutions for the geomagnetic latitude. To choose the correct one we bear

in mind that a negative value of the geomagnetic inclination implies a negative value of the

geomagnetic latitude:

tan I 2 tan f

I < 0 ) f < 0

f 24:3

With these results we calculate the geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North

Pole (fB, lB) using the spherical triangle in Fig. 71a. Applying the cosine rule for the angle

90 fB:

cos90 fB cos90 f cos90 f sin90 f sin90 f cos D

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

fB 79:0

To calculate the longitude lB of the Geomagnetic North Pole, we apply the cosine law for

the angle 90 f :

cos90 f cos90 fB cos90 f sin90 fB sin90 f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

cosl lB

) l lB 61:0

cos fB cos f

To choose the correct sign for the longitude we notice that the declination is negative and

then the point must be to the east of the Geomagnetic North Pole:

D < 0 ) l lB > 0

lB 61 10 71:0 W

(b) The geomagnetic coordinates (f1 , l1 ) of Ps conjugate point verify that

f1 f 24:3

l1 l

We calculate the geomagnetic longitude l by

sinl lB cos f

cos f

l 56:2 l1

sin l

Main eld

133

76. At a point P on the Earths surface with coordinates 45 N, 30 W, the value of the

total geomagnetic eld is 49 801 nT, the horizontal component is 21 227 nT, and the

EW component is 5171 nT, with the magnetic inclination being positive. Calculate:

(a) The geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole.

(b) The value of the geomagnetic potential at P.

(c) The distance from the Earths centre to the point at which the line of force passing

through P intersects the geomagnetic equator.

Earths radius: 6370 km.

(a) We calculate rst the geomagnetic inclination, latitude, and declination by

cos I

H

) I 64:8

F

sin D

Y

) D 14:1

H

With these results we calculate the geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North

Pole solving the spherical triangle (Fig. 71a) in the same way as in Problem 71:

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

fB 80:0

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f

cos fB cos f

l lB 75:2

D > 0 ) l lB < 0

cosl lB

lB 45:2 E

(b) The geomagnetic potential at point P on the Earths surface (r a 6370 km) is given by

F

Cm cos y

B0 a sin f

a2

76:1

H B0 cos f ) B0

21 227

30 951 nT

cos46:7

F 143 T m

(c) The equation of the line of force passing through a point with geomagnetic colatitude y is

r r0 sin2 y

134

Geomagnetism

In this equation r0 is the distance from the Earths centre to the point at which the line of

force passing through P intersects the geomagnetic equator. Substituting r a 6370 km

gives

r0

a

a

13 543 km

2

sin y cos2 f

77. Assume the centred dipole approximation, with the coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole being 75 N, 65 W, and the magnetic moment of the dipole

7.5 1022 A m2. For a point on the Earths surface at which the inclination is 67 and

the geomagnetic longitude is 120 , calculate:

(a) The NS and EW components.

(b) Its geographical coordinates.

The Earths radius: 6372 km.

(a) We calculate rst the geomagnetic constant B0, latitude f , and horizontal H

component:

B0

Cm

28 989 nT

a3

H B0 cos f 18 761 nT

To calculate the NS (X ) and EW (Y ) components it is necessary to obtain rst the

geographic latitude (f ) and the geomagnetic declination (D ). Applying the cosine rule

for the angle 90 f (Fig. 71a),

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cos l

f 55:1

The geomagnetic declination is given by

sin D

cos fB sin l

cos f

D 23:1

From this value we obtain the NS and EW components:

X H cos D 17 262 nT

Y H sin D 7349 nT

(b) The geographic latitude was already obtained,

f 55:1

Main eld

135

To calculate the geographical longitude we apply the cosine law for the angle 90 f

(Fig. 71a):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

cosl lB

cos fB cos f

l lB 101:7

To choose the correct solution we notice that the declination is positive and then the point

must be to the west of the Geomagnetic North Pole

D > 0 ) l lB < 0

l 101:7 65 166:7 W

78. Assume a spherical Earth of radius 6370 km, with magnetic eld produced by a

centred dipole whose northern magnetic pole is at 70 N, 60 W. Given that for a point

on the surface with coordinates 50 S, 80 W the horizontal component is 24 890 nT,

calculate:

(a) The magnetic dipole moment.

(b) The geographical coordinates of the conjugate point.

(a) We calculate rst the geomagnetic latitude by (Fig. 71a)

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 30:9

To obtain the magnetic dipole moment m we need the geomagnetic constant B0, which is

related with the horizontal component H by

B0

H

29 007 nT

cos f

B0

Cm

B0 a3

7:5 1022 A m2

)m

3

a

C

(b) Let us obtain rst the geomagnetic longitude by (Problem 71, Fig. 71a)

sin l

sinl lB cos f

cos f

l 14:8

The geomagnetic coordinates of the conjugate point (f1 , l1 ) are (Fig. 78)

f1 f 30:9

l1 l 14:8

136

Geomagnetism

GNP

GMNP

fB

P1

f1

Fig. 78

Solving again the spherical triangle (Fig. 71a) we calculate the geographical coordinates

(f1, l1):

sin f1 sin fB sin f1 cos fB cos f1 cos l1

f1 11:4

cosl lB

cos fB cos f1

l1 lB 13:0

l < 0 ) l1 lB < 0

l1 73:0

79. If the Earths geomagnetic eld is produced by a centred dipole, tilted 15 away

from the axis of rotation, of magnetic moment 7.6 1022 A m2, and the Geomagnetic

North Pole is at longitude 65 W, calculate:

(a) The geomagnetic constant in nT.

(b) The geographical coordinates of a point on the Earths surface at which the

declination is D 14 15.50 and the inclination is I 65 23.50 . Discuss the

possible solutions.

(c) The geographical and geomagnetic longitude of the agonic line.

Assume a spherical Earth of radius 6370 km.

Main eld

137

(a) We calculate the geomagnetic constant from the magnetic moment m, the Earths

radius a, and the constant C107 H m1, by

B0

Cm

29 403 nT

a3

(b) Let us obtain rst the geomagnetic latitude from the inclination I by

tan I 2 tan f ) f 47:5

If the dipole is tilted 15 away from the axis of rotation the latitude of the Geomagnetic

North Pole will be

fB 90 15 75:0

With these results we calculate the geographical latitude f solving the spherical triangle

(Fig. 71a). Applying the cosine rule,

cos90 fB cos90 f cos90 f sin90 f sin90 f cos D

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

79:1

To obtain the geographical latitude from this equation we can carry out a change of

variables, introducing two new variables (m, N ) such that

sin f m cos N

cos f cos D m sin N

79:2

cos f cos D cos D

) N 41:6

sin f

tan f

cos N

P

1:02

sin f

tan N

sin fB P cos N sin f P cos N cos f P sinf N

sin fB sin fB cos N

sinf N

m

sin f

f N 78:4 ) f 36:8

But another solution is also possible:

f N 180 78:4 258:4 ) f 60:0

The two solutions are correct and we dont have any additional information to choose one

or the other.

(c) The agonic line is the line where the declination is zero and this implies that the

point is on the great circle that contains the Geographic North Pole and the

Geomagnetic North Pole. So the geomagnetic longitude l is zero or 180:

l 0 ) l lB 65 W

l 180 ) l lB 180 115 E

138

Geomagnetism

80. The Earths magnetic eld is produced by two dipoles of equal moment

(M Cm 9.43 109 nT m3) and polarity, forming angles of 30 and 45 with the

axis of rotation, and contained in the plane corresponding to the 0 meridian. Find

the potential of the total eld and the coordinates of the resulting magnetic North

pole, taking the Earths radius to be 6000 km.

The total potential at a point is the sum of the potentials of the two dipoles. If M is the

magnetic moment (M Cm), r is the distance from the dipoles centre, and y1 and y2

are the geomagnetic co-latitude relative to each dipole (Fig. 80), the total potential F is

given by

F F1 F2

r2

r2

r2

80:1

cos y1 sin fB1 sin f cos fB1 cos f cosl lB1

cos y2 sin fB2 sin f cos fB2 cos f cosl lB2

The geographical coordinates of the two Geomagnetic North Poles are given by

fB1 90 30 60 ; lB1 0

fB2 90 45 45 ; lB2 180

45

GNP

30

GMNP1

GMNP2

q2

q1

Fig. 80

80:2

Main eld

139

cos y1 sin fB1 sin f cos fB1 cos f cos l

cos y2 sin fB2 sin f cos fB2 cos f cos l

Adding the two equations gives

cos y1 cos y2 sin fB1 sin fB2 sin f cos fB1 cos fB2 cos f cos l

and substituting in the equation of the potential (80.1)

M sin fB1 sin fB2 sin f cos fB1 cos fB2 cos f cos l

r2

p

p p

M

3 2 sin f 1 2 cos f cos l

F

2r2

F

p

p p

M

3 2 cos # 1 2 sin # cos l

F

2r2

The resulting magnetic North Pole, the point where the inclination I 90, due to the

combined effect of the two dipoles is given by

tan I

Z

H

We derive the component H by taking the gradient of the potential F

p

p p

M 3 2 sin # 1 2 cos # cos l

1 @F

X B#

r @#

2r3

p

1 @F M 1 2 sin l

Y Bl

r sin # @l

2r3

p

2

2

H X Y

Since the magnetic North Pole is contained in the plane corresponding to the 0 geographical meridian, then its longitude is either 0 or 180.

If the longitude is 0

i

p

M h p p

l 0 ) H 3 3 2 sin # 1 2 cos # 0

2r

# 8 172

But this result doesnt correspond to the north hemisphere. Then we must take the

geographical longitude 180:

i

p

M h p p

l 180 ) H 3 3 2 sin # 1 2 cos # 0

2r

# 8 ) fB 82

140

Geomagnetism

This is the correct result and the coordinates of the magnetic North Pole are

fB 82 ; lB 180

81. The Earths magnetic eld is produced by one dipole in the direction of the axis

of rotation (negative pole in the northern hemisphere) and another with the same

moment in the equatorial plane which rotates with differential angular velocity v

with respect to the points on the surface of the Earth (consider that the Earth doesnt

rotate). Its negative pole passes through the 45 E meridian at time t 0 and

completes a rotation with respect to that point in 24 hours. Consider a point of

geographical coordinates 45 N, 45 E.

(a) Calculate the magnetic eld components (Br, Bu, Bl) at that point.

(b) Illustrate graphically how each of them varies with local time.

(a) The total potential at a point on the surface of the Earth is the sum of the potentials

of the two dipoles (Problem 80, Equation 80.1):

F F1 F2

r2

r2

r2

Dipole 1 is in the direction of the axis of rotation and so the geomagnetic co-latitude of the

point with respect to this dipole (Fig. 81a) is equal to the geographical co-latitude,

y1 90 f

cos y1 sin f

GMNP1

GNP

q1

P

q2

f

GMNP2

Fig. 81a

Main eld

141

Dipole 2 is on the equatorial plane (fB2 0) and rotates with respect to the points of

the surface. Owing to this rotation its geographical longitude lB2 changes with time t in

the form

lB2 ot 45

where o is the angular velocity, o 360 /T, T being the rotation period of 24 h.

The co-latitude y2 is

cos y2 sin fB2 sin f cos fB2 cos f cosl lB2

Substituting the geographical coordinates of the negative geomagnetic equatorial Pole

(fB2, lB2):

cos y2 cos cosl ot 45

Substituting in the equation for the potential

F F1 F2

r2

F

r2

We obtain the magnetic eld components (Br , By, Bl) at the point (#, l) by taking the

gradient in spherical coordinates of the potential F:

Br

@r

r3

B#

r@#

r3

Bl

1 @F

M sinl ot 45

r sin # @l

r3

2B0

Br p 1 cos ot

2

B0

B# p 1 cos ot

2

Bl B0 sin ot

(b) The variation of each component with local time is shown in Fig. 81b

142

Geomagnetism

Bl

Br,q,l

B0

Br

1

B

10

15

20

t (h)

Fig. 81b

Magnetic anomalies

82. Calculate the magnetic anomaly created by a magnetic dipole buried at depth d,

arbitrarily oriented, at an angle to the vertical of a. The negative pole is upwards.

Consider a point P with coordinates (x, z), where x is measured along the horizontal from

the projection of the centre of the dipole and z is the vertical from the reference level (the

Earths surface). The position vector r forms an angle b to the vertical (Fig. 82). The

anomalous magnetic potential created by the dipole for this point is

F

r2

r2

zd

cos b q

x2 z d2

x

sin b q

x2 z d2

82:1

143

Magnetic anomalies

x

z

d

b

+

Z

Fig. 82

F

h

i3=2

x2 z d2

B rF

The vertical component of the magnetic eld anomaly, taking the z-coordinate positive

downward, is

h

i

2

2

Cm

x

d

cos

a

3z

d

cos

a

x

sin

a

@F

Z

h

i5=2

@z

x2 z d2

For points on the Earths surface (z 0)

Z

x2 d 2 5=2

82:2

The component of the magnetic anomaly in an arbitrary horizontal direction x for the

Earths surface points (z 0) is given by

X

@x

x2 d 2 5=2

82:3

144

Geomagnetism

coordinates 38 N, 30 W by a horizontal dipole buried at a depth of 10 m with

Cm 5 105 T m3 which is in the vertical plane of geographical east, and with the

negative pole to the west. Also calculate the total values of the eld in the NS, EW, and

vertical directions, and total eld F, as well as the variations in the magnetic declination and inclination due to the existence of the dipole. Consider the Earths magnetic

eld to be produced by a centred dipole with North Pole at 72 N, 30 W, and with

B0 32 000 nT.

We calculate the horizontal and vertical components of the magnetic anomaly from

Equations (82.2) and (82.3), taking a 90 because the dipole is horizontal and x 0

because the dipoles centre is beneath the point (Fig. 83a). We call DX and DY the

horizontal components in the NS and EW directions, respectively. Because the dipole is

on the vertical eastwest plane, the northsouth component DX 0,

Z 0

Y

x2

d 2 5=2

Cm

d3

Substituting

Cm 5 105 T m3

d 10 m

we obtain

Y 50 nT

jBj Y 50 nT

X 0

P

a

+

Fig. 83a

145

Magnetic anomalies

GMNP

GNP

fB

P

f

f

Fig. 83b

To calculate the components of the magnetic anomaly in the direction of the Earths

magnetic eld, F, and their horizontal component, H, we need to determine the magnetic

declination and inclination at the point:

H X cos D Y sin D

F H cos I Z sin I

83:1

Because the point has the same longitude as the Geomagnetic North Pole (Fig. 83b),

f 90 fB f 56:0

D 0

The inclination is given by

tan I 2 tan f ) I 71:4

Substituting these values in Equations (83.1) we obtain

H 0

F 0

The total value of the eld in the NS, EW, and vertical directions, and total eld F are

XT X X

YT Y Y

ZT Z Z

FT F F

146

Geomagnetism

The vertical Z and horizontal H components of the geomagnetic eld are given by

Z 2B0 sin f 53 058 nT

H B0 cos f 17 894 nT

The NS (X ) and horizontal EW (Y ) components of the geomagnetic eld and its

magnitude F are given by

X H cos D H 17 894 nT

Y H sin D 0

p

F H 2 Z 2 55 994 nT

XT 17 894 nT

YT 50 nT

ZT 53 058 nT

FT 55 994 nT

The variations in magnetic declination and inclination due to the presence of the buried

dipole are

YT

) D0 0:02

tan D0

XT

D D0 0:02

tan I 0

ZT

) I 0

71:4 I

HT

84. Buried at a point with magnetic latitude 30 N and a depth of 50 m is a horizontal

magnetic dipole with Cm 107 nT m3 with the positive pole to the geographical

north.

(a) Calculate DF if B0 30 000 nT and the declination at that point is 15 . Find the

ratio DF /F.

(b) How far from the dipoles centre along the northsouth line will the dipole eld

strength be in the same direction as that of the Earth (take D 0 ).

(a) The component of the magnetic anomaly DF in the direction of the Earths

magnetic eld (the total eld anomaly) is given by

F H cos I Z sin I

84:1

We rst calculate the components in the geographical directions of the magnetic anomaly

produced by the buried dipole using Equations (82.2) and (82.3) of Problem 82, substituting a 90 because the dipole is horizontal, and x 0 because the dipoles centre is

beneath the point. In this problem DY 0 because the dipole is on the geographical north

south vertical plane (Fig. 84). Then

147

Magnetic anomalies

a

+

Fig. 84

X

Cm

d3

Y 0

Z 0

Substituting the values

Cm 107 nT m3

d 50 m

we obtain

X 80 nT

Substituting D 15, the component of the magnetic anomaly in the direction of the

horizontal component H of the Earths magnetic eld is

H X cos D 77 nT

At a point of magnetic latitude f 30 the magnetic inclination is

tan I 2 tan f ) I 49:1

Substituting in Equation (84.1), the total eld anomaly is

F 50 nT

To calculate the geomagnetic eld F we rst obtain the components H and Z :

Z 2B0 sin f 30 000 nT

H B0 cos f 25 981 nT

p

F H 2 Z 2 39 686 nT

148

Geomagnetism

The ratio of the total eld anomaly and the Earths total magnetic eld is

F

1:26 103

F

(b) If the dipole eld strength is in the same direction as that of the Earth then the

inclination I 0 due to the dipole is equal to that of the Earths eld I , where

Z

H

Z

tan I

H

tan I 0

Assuming D 0, then

H E

If we substitute in Equations (82.2) and (82.3) of Problem 82, the angle a 90 because

the dipole is horizontal, we obtain

3Cmdx

Z

5=2

2

x d2

Cm2x2 d 2

X

5=2

x2 d 2

We have changed the sign of the vertical component because the negative pole is toward

the south.

Applying the condition, tan I 0 tan I , we obtain

Z

Z

Z

H X H

3Cmdx

5=2

2

x d2

3dx

Z

2

Cm 2x d 2 2x2 d 2 H

5=2

x2 d 2

2Z x2 3dH x Z d 2 0

Substituting the values

d 50 m

Z 30 000 nT

H 25 981 nT

and solving the equation, we obtain

x1 80 m

x2 15 m

We have two solutions: a point 80 m to the north from the surface projection of the dipoles

centre and another 15 m to the south.

149

Magnetic anomalies

85. Located at a point with geocentric geographical coordinates 45 N, 30 W, at a

depth of 100 m, is a dipole of magnetic moment Cm 1 T m3, tilted 45 from the

horizontal to true north, with the negative pole to the north and downwards. At this

point on the surface, the following magnetic eld values were observed (in nT):

F 55 101; H 12 413; DF 1268; DH 547.

Determine:

(a) At the indicated point, the main eld components X , Y , Z .

(b) At the indicated point, the deviation of the compass with respect to geomagnetic

north.

(c) The geocentric geographical coordinates of the North Pole of the Earths dipole.

Precision 1 nT.

(a) We calculate rst the magnetic anomaly produced by the dipole, applying Equations (82.2) and (82.3) of Problem 82, substituting a 225 and x 0. The

horizontal component is in the NS direction (DX) (Fig. 85a)

2Cm cos a

1414 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X

707 nT

d3

Y 0

Z

85:1

H X cos D ) cos D

H

X

D 39:3

d

+

a

45

Fig. 85a

150

Geomagnetism

To obtain the Earths main eld we eliminate the buried dipole contribution from the

observed values:

F F F 56 369 nT

H H H 11 866 nT

q

Z F 2 H 2 55 106 nT

X H cos D 9182 nT

Y H sin D 7516 nT

(b) The observed declination is given by

tan D0

Y

Y Y

) D0 37:2

X X X

The deviation of the compass due to the buried dipole with respect to geomagnetic north is

D0 D 2:1

(c) We calculate rst the geomagnetic latitude of the point from the vertical and

horizontal components:

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Z

2H

f 66:7

tan f

With this value, the declination D and the geographical coordinates of the point (f, l), we

can solve the spherical triangle (Fig. 85b) and obtain the geographical coordinates of the

Geomagnetic North Pole:

GNP

90 fB

l lB

90 f

180 l

GMNP

q = 90 f

Fig. 85b

151

Magnetic anomalies

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

fB 60:0

cos90 f cos90 fB cos90 f sin90 fB sin90 f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f

cos fB cos f

l lB 30:0

cosl lB

The correct solution is the negative one because a positive value of the declination implies

that the point is to the west of the Geomagnetic North Pole:

D > 0 ) l lB < 0

lB 0

86. Located at a point with geographical coordinates 45 N, 30 W, at a depth of 100 m,

is a dipole of magnetic moment Cm 1 T m3, inclined 45 to the vertical towards the

south, with the positive pole upwards, and in the geographical northsouth vertical

plane. The Earths dipole has its north pole at 60 N, 0 E and B0 30 000 nT.

Calculate:

(a) The values of Z, H, F at the given point.

(b) Where does the compass point to at that same point?

(a) We calculate rst the geomagnetic latitude corresponding to the point by

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 66:7

From this value we obtain the geomagnetic components Z , H and the total main eld F :

Z 2B0 sin f 55 107 nT

H B0 cos f 11 866 nT

q

F H 2 Z 2 56 370 nT

cos fB sinl lB

cos f

D 39:2

sin D

tan I 2 tan f ) I 77:8

152

Geomagnetism

The magnetic anomaly created by the dipole buried at depth d is given by Equations (85.1)

of Problem 85. Substituting Cm 1 T m3, d 100 m, and a 45, we obtain

2Cm cos a

1414 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X

707 nT

d3

Z

Y 0

The eld anomalies DH and DF are given by

H X cos D 548 nT

F H cos I Z sin I 1266 nT

Finally, the observed values are

Z Z Z 53 693 nT

F F F 55 104 nT

H H H 12 414 nT

(b) To calculate in what direction the compass points we need the value of the observed

declination D including the effects of the geomagnetic eld and the buried dipole:

tan D0

Y

Y Y

X X X

Y H sin D 7500 nT

X H cos D 9195 nT

D0 37:1

87. Located at a point on the Earth with geographical coordinates 45 N, 30 E, at a

depth of 100 m, is a dipole of magnetic moment Cm 107 nT m3, tilted 45 to the

vertical towards the south, with the positive pole downwards, and contained in the

plane of true north. The Earths eld is produced by a centred dipole tilted 30 from

the axis of rotation in the plane of the 0 meridian, with B0 30 000 nT. Calculate

the total values of F, Z, and H observed at the point of the surface above the centre of the

buried dipole.

We rst calculate the geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole and the

geomagnetic latitude

fB 90 30 60

lB 0

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 66:7

153

Magnetic anomalies

The geomagnetic eld components Z , H and the total main eld F are given by

Z 2B0 sin f 55 107 nT

H B0 cos f 11 866 nT

q

F H 2 Z 2 56 370 nT

cos fB sinl lB

cos f

D 39:2

sin D

tan I 2 tan f ) I 77:8

We obtain the magnetic anomaly produced by the buried dipole applying Equations (82.2)

and (82.3) of Problem 82, substituting a 45 and x 0. The horizontal component is in

the NS direction (DX):

2Cm cos a

14 nT

d3

Cm sin a

7 nT

X

d3

Y 0

Z

H X cos D 5 nT

F H cos I Z sin I 13 nT

Finally the observed values are

Z Z Z 55 121 nT

F F F 56 383 nT

H H H 11 861 nT

88. Buried at a point with geographical latitude 20 N and the same longitude as the

geomagnetic pole, at a depth of 200 m, is a sphere of 50 m radius of material with

magnetic susceptibility 0.01. The Earths eld is produced by a centred dipole tilted

10 from the axis of rotation and magnetic moment M 1030 g cm3 (Earths radius:

6000 km). Calculate:

(a) The anomaly produced by induced magnetization in the sphere at a point on the

Earths surface above the centre of the sphere. Give the vertical and horizontal

components in units of nT.

(b) The total anomaly for a point on the Earths surface 100 m south of the above

point.

154

Geomagnetism

GNP

GMNP

q = 90 f

10

P

20

Fig. 88a

(a) We rst calculate the geomagnetic co-latitude (y) and latitude (f ) of the point,

knowing that it is in the same meridian as the Geomagnetic North Pole (Fig. 88a):

y 90 f 90 10 20 60

f 30

The geomagnetic eld is given by

M

4630 nT

a3

Z 2B0 sin f 4630 nT

B0

H B0 cos f 4009 nT

q

F H 2 Z 2 6124 nT

tan I 2 tan f ) I 49

The magnetic anomaly created by a sphere is the same as the anomaly created by a

magnetic dipole oriented in the same direction as the geomagnetic eld, that is, tilted

90 I to the vertical and with the negative pole upwards (Fig. 88b). So we use Equations

(82.2) and (82.3) taking a 41 and x 0, but we change the sign of Equation (82.3)

because the negative pole is toward the north. The horizontal component is DX DH

because the dipole is in the magnetic north-vertical plane and DY 0:

2Cm cos a

d3

Cm sin a

H

d3

Z

155

Magnetic anomalies

49

GN

MN

41

Fig. 88b

To calculate Cm we use the magnetic susceptibility w and the volume V of the sphere:

Cm wF V 3:2 107 nT m3

Substituting this value in the equation of the components of the magnetic anomaly we

obtain

Z

6 nT

8 106

d3

X

3 nT

d3

8 106

(b) The anomaly created by the sphere at a point at a distance x 100 m to the south of

the above point is given by

Cm x2 2d 2 cos a 3dx sin a

0:8 nT

5=2

x2 d 2

Cm 2x2 d 2 sin a 3dx cos a

3:3 nT

H

5=2

x2 d 2

Z

156

Geomagnetism

89. Buried at a point on the Earth at magnetic latitude 45 N, at a depth d, is a vertical

dipole of magnetic moment M (Cm) with negative pole upwards. If M/d3 10B0 (B0 is

the geomagnetic constant of the main eld) calculate how far along the magnetic

meridian the direction of the buried dipoles eld will coincide with that of the Earth

(the terrestrial dipole eld).

First we calculate the geomagnetic eld components and the inclination by

p

Z 2B0 sin f 2B0 nT

p

2

B0 nT

H B0 cos f

2

Z

tan I 2 ) I 63:4

H

The components of the magnetic eld created by the dipole are given by Equations (82.2)

and (82.3) of Problem 82, putting a 0:

Cm x2 2d 2

Z

5=2

x2 d 2

Cm3dx

H

5=2

2

x d2

If the buried dipoles eld coincides with that of the Earth the magnetic inclinations due to

both have to be equal and so

Z

tan I 2

H

p

x2 6xd 2d 2 0 ) x d 3 28

Of the two solutions, x 2.3d and x 8.3d, only the positive corresponds to the equal

direction of the two elds.

90. The Earths magnetic eld is produced by two dipoles of equal moment and

polarity that are at an angle of 60 to each other, with the bisector being the axis of

rotation. The dipoles are contained in the plane of the 0 geographical meridian.

(a) Calculate the potential on points of the Earths surface as a function of geographical coordinates f and l.

(b) At what points on the surface are the magnetic poles located?

(c) What form would the external eld have in order to annul the internal eld at the

magnetic equator?

157

30

GMNP2

GNP

GMNP1

q2

q1

Fig. 90

(a) The total potential at a point is the sum of the potentials of the two dipoles (see

Equation 80.1 of Problem 80):

F F1 F2

r2

r2

r2

cos y1 sin fB1 sin f cos fB1 cos f cosl lB1

cos y2 sin fB2 sin f cos fB2 cos f cosl lB2

90:1

The geographical coordinates of the North Pole of each dipole are given by (Fig. 90)

fB1 fB2 90 30 60

lB1 0

lB2 180

Substituting these values in Equation (90.1):

p

3

1

sin f cos f cos l

cos y1

2

2

p

3

1

sin f cos f cos l

cos y2

2

2

Adding the two equations:

cos y1 cos y2

p

3 sin f

158

Geomagnetism

p

3M sin f

F

r2

We note that this p

is the same potential as that produced by only a centred dipole with

magnetic moment 3M oriented in the direction of the rotation axis, because the geomagnetic co-latitude is 90 f.

(b) Bearing in mind the last results, we calculate the inclination by

tan I 2 cot90 f 2 tan f

90:2

The magnetic poles are the points on the surface of the Earth where the value of the

inclination is equal to 90:

f 90

I 90 )

f 90

Therefore the magnetic poles coincide with the geographical poles.

(c) We derive the main eld by taking the gradient of the potential F. The components are

p

@F 2 3M sin f

@r

r3

p

1 @F 3M cos f

Bf

r @f

r3

1 @F

Bl

0

r cos f @l

Br

At the magnetic equator the inclination is null (I 0) and according to Equation (90.2) the

latitude is null too (f 0). Substituting in the last equations:

Br 0

p

3M

Bf

r3

Bl 0

The external magnetic eld to annul out the internal eld is therefore

p

3M

Be 0; 3 ; 0

r

91. The Earths magnetic eld is formed by a centred dipole with northern geomagnetic pole at 60 N, 0 E and B0 32 000 nT and a uniform external eld from the Sun

of 10 000 nT parallel to the equatorial plane.

(a) For a point at coordinates 60 N, 60 W, calculate the components X, Y, Z of the

total eld, and the values of D and I.

(b) How do D and Z of the total eld vary throughout the day with local time t?

159

geomagnetic latitude given by (71.3):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 61

Z 2B0 sin f 55 976 nT

H B0 cos f 15 514 nT

To calculate the NS (X ) and EW (Y ) components we need the geomagnetic declination

D (71.2):

cos fB sinl lB

cos f

D 63

X H cos D 7043 nT

sin D

The external eld is parallel to the equatorial plane and has a diurnal period (o 2p/24)

because it comes from the Sun. We assume that at local time t 0 the Sun is at the points

meridian. If we denote by N the modulus of the external eld (N 10 000 nT) and bearing

in mind Fig. 91a (representation of the plane parallel to the equator that contains the point)

we have at time t 6 0

Y Bel N sin ot

The radial and tangential components (Fig. 91b) are

(a)

P

N coswt

wt

Fig. 91a

B e

160

Geomagnetism

GNP

X = Bf

Ncost

P

z = Br

Fig. 91b

X Bf N cos ot sin f

The total magnetic eld is the sum of the two contributions:

ZT 55 976 5000 cos ot nT

XT 7043 8660 cos ot nT

YT 13 823 10 000 sin ot nT

The declination D and inclination I are given by

tan D

tan I

XT

7043 8660 cos ot

ZT

ZT

p

HT

XT2 YT2

(b) To see how D and Z vary during the day with local time t we substitute several

values for t, obtaining the values in the table:

t (h)

Z (nT)

D ()

0

6

12

18

60976

55976

50976

55976

41

28

83

73

161

92. The Earths magnetic eld is formed by a centred dipole of moment m and

north pole 60 N, 0 E, and a uniform external eld of magnitude N B0/4 (B0 is

the geomagnetic constant of the internal eld) parallel to the axis of rotation.

Determine:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The coordinates of the boreal magnetic pole.

The magnetic declination at the point 45 N, 45 E.

The angle along the meridian between that point and the magnetic equator.

(a) The total potential (F) is the sum of two contributions: the main (internal) eld

(Fi) and the external eld (Fe):

F Fi Fe

The main eld is formed by a centred dipole of moment m so the potential is given by

Fi

Cm cos y

r2

coordinates (f, l) by (71.3):

p

1

3

cos y sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin f cos f cos l

2

2

GNP

ze

Xe

f

Fig. 92a

Fe

162

Geomagnetism

The external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation; therefore its components are in the

vertical and NS directions (Fig. 92a). If we call # 90 f the geographical co-latitude,

the components are given by

Ber N cos # N sin f

Be# N sin # N cos f

Z e Ber N sin f

X e Be# N cos f

Bearing in mind that Be Fe the potential for the external eld is

Fe Nr cos # Nr sin f

Therefore the total potential is given by

p

Cm 23 sin f 12 cos f cos l

Nr sin f

F

r2

(b) At the magnetic boreal pole the inclination is I 90 and the horizontal eld

components H, X, Y are given by

Z

)H 0

H

p

X 0

2

2

H X Y )

Y 0

tan I

Be rFe

We bear in mind the relations

@F

@F

@y

@f

X By

and obtain that the components are given by

p

3

1

Cm

cos

f

sin

f

cos

l

2

2

1 @F

X

N cos f 0

r @f

r3

1 @F

Cm

3 sin l 0 ) l 0

Y

r cos f @l

2r

Substituting in the equation of component X (92.1) the values

l0

ra

Cm

a3

N B0 =4

B0

92:1

163

GNP

GMNP

fB

P

f

l

feq

Fig. 92b

p

2 31

tan fBM

) fBM 51

2

Therefore the geographical coordinates of the magnetic boreal pole are 51 N, 0 . Notice

that this is different from the geomagnetic pole.

(c) The declination is given by

Y

tan D

X

B0

sin l

2

3

1

B0

cos f sin f cos l cos f

2

2

4

sin l

p

1

cos f sin f cos l

3

2

B0

D 62

(d) We call feq the angle between the geographical and magnetic equators at longitude

l 45 (Fig. 92b). Then the angle to calculate will be feq 45 .

To calculate feq we take into account that at the magnetic equator the vertical component is Z 0:

p

@F 2CM

1

3

3

Z Br

sin feq cos feq cos l N sin feq 0

@r

r

2

2

4 cos l

tan feq p

4 31

164

Geomagnetism

feq 20

Then the angle we are asked for is 45 20 25.

93. The internal magnetic eld is formed by two orthogonal dipoles of equal moment

M, one of them in the direction of the axis of rotation and the other contained in the 0

meridian on the equator. There is also an external eld of constant intensity N B0/4

(B0 is the geomagnetic constant of the internal eld) and lines of force parallel to the

axis of rotation.

(a) Calculate the potential of the total eld for points on the surface.

(b) At which latitude is Z maximum on the 0 meridian?

(a) The potential of the total eld is the sum of the two potentials of the internal

dipoles and the potential of the external eld:

M cos y1 M cos y2

Fe

r2

r2

Mcos y1 cos y2

Fe

r2

F F1 F2 Fe

In this equation r is the distance from the dipoles centre (the Earths centre), y1 and y2 are

the co-latitudes relative to each dipole, and M Cm.

Dipole 1 is on the direction of the axis of rotation and so the geomagnetic co-latitude of

the point with respect to this dipole is

y1 90 f

cos y1 sin f

Dipole 2 is in the equatorial plane (fB2 0) and contained in the 0 meridian so the

geomagnetic co-latitude y2 is given by (71.3)

cos y2 sin fB2 sin f cos fB2 cos f cosl lB2

fB2 0

lB2 0

cos y2 cos f cos l

The equation for the potential of the external eld is the same as that of Problem 92:

Fe Nr sin f

Therefore the potential of the total eld is given by

F

Nr sin f

r2

165

(b) We obtain the component Z by taking the vertical component of the gradient of the

potential (B F)

Z Br

N sin f

@r

r3

condition that the rst derivate with respect to the latitude is null:

@Z 2M

3 cos f sin f N cos f 0

@f

r

At the Earths surface r a and we know that

B0

M

a3

Substituting this constant and solving the equation we determine the latitude at which the

Z component is maximum:

2B0 cos f sin f

B0

cos f 0 ) f 48

4

94. The internal eld has its northern geomagnetic pole at the coordinates 60 N, 0 E,

and B0 30 000 nT. At a point with coordinates 30 N, 45 W, one observes an

increase of 7.7 in the value of the declination from 00:00 h to 09:00 h. There is

known to be an external eld parallel to the Earths axis of rotation in the direction

from N to S which is null at 00:00 h and maximum at 12:00 h local times. Calculate:

(a) The components of the internal and external elds.

(b) The difference in the inclination at 00:00 h and 09:00 h.

(c) The maximum value of the declination during the day.

(a) To calculate the geomagnetic main eld intensity components we obtain rst the

geomagnetic latitude (Equation 71.3):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 47:7

The declination and inclination are given by (71.2):

cos fB sinl lB

) D 31:7

cos f

tan I 2 tan f ) I 65:5

sin D

Z 2B0 sin f 44 378 nT

H B0 cos f 20 190 nT

X H cos D 17 178 nT

Y H sin D 10 609 nT

166

Geomagnetism

The external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation so its components are in the vertical and

NS directions. This eld is null at 00:00 h and maximum at 12:00 h local time (period T

24 h). Its components are given by

N

1 cos ot sin f

2

N

X e 1 cos ot cos f

2

Ye 0

Ze

He X e

o

2p 2p

T

24

(b) To calculate the difference in the inclination we obtain rst the value of N, bearing

in mind the time variation of the declination. The observed declination as a

function of time is given by

tan D

Y

Y Ye

X X Xe

Y

X

For t 0 h:

tan D1

N

1 cos ot cos f

2

Y

tan D ) D1 D 31:7

X

9 h, D2:

D2 D1 7:7 ) D2 39:4

We know that at t 9 h

Y

tan D2

X

N

1 cos ot cos f

2

0:82

2

Y

X

5766 nT

N

1 cos ot cos f

tan D2

The magnetic inclination is given by

N

Z 1 cos ot sin f

Z

Z Ze

2

tan I

N

H H He

H 1 cos ot cos f

2

At t 0 h:

I1 I 65:5

At t 9 h:

I2 71:2

167

I2 I1 5:7

(c) The declination is given by

Y

tan D

X

N

1 cos ot cos f

2

94:1

The maximum value is at 12 h because at that time the external eld has the maximum

value. Substituting ot p and the values obtained for X , Y , N, and f:

Dmax 41:0

95. At a point on the Earth with coordinates 45 N, 45 E, measurements are made of

the magnetic eld components at 00:00 h and 12:00 h in nT with a 2 nT precision:

0h

X 20 732 Y 2500 Z 57 768

12 h X 24 267 Y 2500 Z 54 232

It is known that the modulus of the magnetic eld intensity has a harmonic diurnal

variation, and that the geomagnetic pole is on the zero meridian. Calculate:

(a) The moment and coordinates of the main eld dipole.

(b) Expressions for the potential and components of the external eld.

(Earths radius a 6400 km, m0 4p107 kg m s2 A2).

(a) To calculate the moment and coordinates of the main eld dipole we need to obtain the

geomagnetic main eld intensity components. The observed values are equal to the

sum of the geomagnetic main eld (X , Y , Z ) and the external eld (X e, Y e, Z e):

X X Xe

Y Y Ye

Z Z Ze

The geomagnetic main eld is constant but the external eld changes with time. So if we

denote by (X0, Y0, Z0) and (X12, Y12, Z12) the observed values at 0 h and at 12 h respectively

then the differences are due to the variations of the external eld:

e

X0e

X12 X0 3535 nT X12

e

Y12 Y0 0 nT Y12

Y0e

e

Z12 Z0 3536 nT Z12

Z0e

We notice that the Y component doesnt vary, which implies that the component Y e is zero,

and so the external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation. We also notice that the NS

component increases in the time interval between 0 h and 12 h, while the vertical

component diminishes, which implies that the polarity of the external eld is inverted

with respect to that of the main eld.

The modulus of the magnetic eld intensity has a harmonic diurnal variation and

increases with time. Therefore the components of the external eld are (Fig. 95a)

168

Geomagnetism

Fe

GNP

Xe

Ze

P

Fig. 95a

X e N 1 cos ot cos f

Z e N 1 cos ot sin f

2p

2p

o

T

24h

We notice that at time t 0 the external eld is null and so

e

X12

3535 nT

e

Y12 0 nT

e

Z12

3536 nT

e

X X12 X12

20 732 nT

e

Y Y12 Y12

2500 nT

e

57 768 nT

Z Z12 Z12

q

H X 2 Y 2 20 882 nT

If we consider the centred magnetic dipole model, the vertical and horizontal eld

components are given by the equations

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

169

GNP

90 fB

l lB

90 f

180 l

GMNP

q = 90 f

Fig. 95b

From these equations we obtain the geomagnetic latitude (f ) and the geomagnetic

constant B0:

tan f

B0

Z

) f 54:1

2H

Z

35 657 nT

2 sin f

B0

m0 m

) m B0 107 a3 9:3 1022 A m2

4p a3

The longitude of the Geomagnetic North Pole is lB 0 and we calculate the latitude fB

from the spherical triangle (Fig. 95b), but obtaining rst the declination from the X and

Y components:

tan D

Y

) D 6:9

X

cos90 fB cos90 f cos90 f sin90 f sin90 f cos D

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

fB 79:9

(b) We obtain the radial and transverse components of the external eld from the

vertical and NS components:

@Fe

@r

1 @Fe

e

e

Bf X N 1 cos ot cos f

r @f

Ber Z e N 1 cos ot sin f

170

Geomagnetism

Fe Nr1 cos ot sin f

where

N

e

Z12

2500 nT

2 sin f

96. The Earths main magnetic eld is that of a centred dipole of moment M (M

Cm) in the direction of the axis of rotation, and the external eld is produced by

electric currents of intensity J circulating in a clockwise sense in a ring in the plane of

the ecliptic at a distance of 10 Earth radii around the Earth.

(a) Express the potential of the total eld and the components Br and B on the

Earths surface for l 0 .

(b) If the inclination of the ecliptic is 30 , and the external eld strength is N M /

4R3, what is the latitude of the northern magnetic pole?

(a) The potential of the total eld is the sum of the potentials of the dipole and of the

external eld:

FT F Fe

M cos y

Fe

r2

where r is the distance from the dipoles centre (Earths centre) and y is the geomagnetic

co-latitude. The dipole is in the direction of the axis of rotation and so the geomagnetic colatitude is equal to the geographic co-latitude:

y 90 f

cos y sin f

To calculate the potential of the external eld we know that it is produced by electric

currents of intensity J circulating in a clockwise sense at a distance of 10 Earth radii around

the Earth. These electric currents produce, at remote points, a magnetic dipolar eld whose

modulus is m0J/2R, J being the current intensity and R the radius of the circular currents;

the dipole is oriented in the direction of the ecliptics axes with the negative pole in the

southern hemisphere, because the currents are clockwise. So the potential of the external

eld is given by

Fe

Cme cos y2

r2

In this equation me Jp100a2, a is the Earths radius, and y2 is the angle between the axes

of the circular currents and the direction of the point from the negative pole (Fig. 96)

Therefore

y2 180 y e

cos y2 cosy e

where e is the angle between the axes of the circular currents and the axes of rotation of the

Earth.

171

GNP

q

e

q2

Fig. 96

Fe

Cme cosy e

r2

FT

r2

r2

We calculate the components of the main eld intensity by taking the gradient of the

potential:

@F 2M cos y

@r

r3

1 @F

M sin y

By

r @y

r3

Br

Be

m0 J

N

4 10a

Ber N cosy e

Bey N siny e

172

Geomagnetism

2M cos y

N cosy e

r3

M sin y

By

N siny e

r3

Br

(b) We know that the Earths dipole is in the direction of the axis of rotation and y is

the geographical co-latitude (Fig. 96). At the magnetic North Pole the total eld is

vertical and the tangential component is By 0:

By

M sin y

N siny e 0

r3

M

M

) 3 4N

3

4r

r

e 30

From these values we calculate y, the geographical co-latitude of the magnetic North Pole,

By 4N sin y N siny 30 0

p

1

3

sin y cos y 0 ) y 9

4 sin y

2

2

97. Two spherical planets of radius a and separated by a centre-to-centre distance of 4a

orbit around each other and spin in the equatorial plane. Each has a magnetic eld

produced by a centred dipole in the direction of the axis of rotation, with the positive

pole in the northern hemisphere and B0 10 000 nT. Determine the components X, Y, Z,

D, and I of the total magnetic eld at the North Pole of one of the planets (precision 1 nT).

The total magnetic eld in each planet is the sum of its main eld and the external eld

created by the other planet. To determine the main eld of either of the planets we need the

geomagnetic latitude, which is positive toward the negative pole, in this case, the South

Pole. Therefore the geomagnetic latitude and the components of the main eld at the North

Pole are

f 90

Z 2B0 sin f 20 000 nT

H B0 cos f 0

X Y 0

The external eld at one of the planets is created by the main eld of the other planet and

corresponds to that of a magnetic dipole. Its components are (Fig. 97)

2Cm cos y

r3

Cm sin y

Bey

r3

Ber

173

B er

q 90

+

r

B e

q 90

a

a

4a

Fig. 97

(Fig. 97)

p

17a 4:12a and we calculate the geomagnetic co-latitude y by

a

1

4a 4

y 14 90 104

tany 90

Substituting these values in the equations for the radial and tangential components with

respect to the planet producing the external eld:

2Cm cos y Cm cos y B0 cos y

69 nT

r3

35a3

35

Cm sin y Cm sin y B0 sin y

Bey

139 nT

r3

70a3

70

Ber

From this value we calculate the vertical and horizontal components (Fig. 97):

Z e Ber cos180 y Bey cosy 90 Ber cos y Bey sin y 118 nT

H e Ber sin180 y Bey siny 90 Ber sin y Bey cos y 33 nT

X e H e 33 nT

Ye 0

The components of the total eld are nally

Z Z Z e 19882 nT

H H H e 33 nT

X X X e 33 nT

Y Y Ye 0

Y

tan D ) D 0

X

Z

tan I ) I 89:9

H

174

Geomagnetism

98. At a point with geographical coordinates 40 N, 45 E, measurements are made of

the magnetic eld components, obtaining the values (in nT):

At 06:00 h: X 19 204; Y 0; Z 38 195

At 12:00 h: X 11 544; Y 0; Z 44 623

Buried at a depth of 20 m below this point is a dipole of magnetic moment Cm 0.01

T m3, oriented in the NS plane at an angle of 45 with the vertical towards the south,

and the positive pole upwards. Given that the external eld at 12:00 h is twice that at

06:00 h, determine:

(a) The geomagnetic constant Bo and the coordinates of the northern geomagnetic pole.

(b) The magnitude and direction of the external eld. How does the magnitude of the

external eld vary with time?

(a) The observed magnetic eld is composed of three parts: the geomagnetic main

(internal) eld, the anomalous eld (magnetic anomaly) created by the buried

dipole, and the external eld.

We determine rst the magnetic anomaly produced by the buried dipole, applying Equations (82.2) and (82.3) in Problem 82, substituting a 225 and x 0. The horizontal

component is in the NS direction (DX), because the buried dipole is in the NS-vertical

plane (Fig. 98a):

2Cm cos a

1768 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X

884 nT

d3

Y 0

Z

+

45

Fig. 98a

175

X1 X X X e 19 204 nT

Y1 Y Y Y e 0

Z1 Z Z Z e 38 195 nT

At 12:00 h given that the external eld is twice that at 06:00 h:

X2 X X 2X e 11 544 nT

Y2 Y Y 2Y e 0

Z2 Z Z 2Z e 44 623 nT

If we subtract both sets of equations and obtain

X2 X1 X e 7660 nT

Y2 Y1 Y e 0

Z2 Z1 Z e 6428 nT

Now we can calculate the elements of the main eld

X X1 X X e 25 980 nT

Y Y1 Y Y e 0

Z Z1 Z Z e 33 535 nT

q

H X 2 Y 2 X 25 980 nT

tan D

Y

) D 0

H

We calculate the geomagnetic latitude of the point f and the geomagnetic constant B0

from the vertical and horizontal geomagnetic main eld components by

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Z

) f 32:8

tan f

2H

Z

B0

30 953 nT

2 sin f

We obtain the coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole by (Fig. 98b)

D 0 ) lB 180 l 225 E 135 W

90 fB f f ) fB 82:8

(b) The magnitude of the external eld at 06:00 h is

q

B6e Xe2 Ye2 Ze2 10 000 nT

176

Geomagnetism

GMNP

GNP

f

f

90 fB

Fig. 98b

6

B12

e 2Be 20 000 nT

The direction of the external eld is in the NS-vertical plane because the EW component is

null, forming with the horizontal an angle Ie (Fig. 98c). This direction is the same at 06:00

h and at 12:00 h. We calculate the angle Ie by

Ze

Xe

Ie 40

tan Ie

Xe

Ie

Ze

Be

Fig. 98c

177

Because at

06 : 00 h t p=2 ! N 10 000

12 : 00 ht p ! N 20 000

the variation of the magnitude of the external eld with time is given by

N 10 0001 cos t

99. Buried at a depth of 100 m at a point with geographical coordinates 45 N, 45 W is

a dipole anomaly of Cm 0.1 T m3, inclined 45 from the horizontal northwards in the

vertical plane with the negative pole downwards. Measurements gave the following

results (in nT):

09:00 h X 27 759; Y 0; Z 30 141

12:00 h X 28 052; Y 0; Z 30 141

Find:

(a) The coordinates of the magnetic dipoles North Pole.

(b) The value of B0.

(c) An expression for the variation Sq knowing that it is zero at 00:00 h and

maximum at 12:00 h.

(a) As in Problem 98, the observed eld is the result of three parts: the main (internal)

eld, the buried dipole eld, and the external eld. To calculate the coordinates of

the magnetic dipoles North Pole we need to obtain the components of the

geomagnetic main eld from the components of the total eld. With this aim we

begin by calculating the magnetic anomaly created by the buried dipole, applying

Equations (82.2) and (82.3), and substituting a 225 and x 0. The horizontal

component is in the NS direction (DX) given that the dipole is on the NS-vertical

plane (Fig. 99a).

2Cm cos a

141 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X

71 nT

d3

Y 0

Z

X1 X X X1e

Y1 Y Y Y1e 0 ) Y Y1e

Z1 Z Z Z1e

The total eld at 12:00 h is

X2 X X X2e

Y2 Y Y Y2e

Z2 Z Z Z2e

178

Geomagnetism

X P

N

Z

d

45

Fig. 99a

X2 X1 X2e X1e 293 nT

Y2 Y1 Y2e Y1e 0 ) Y2e Y1e Y

Z2 Z1

Z2e

Z1e

0)

Z2e

99:1

Z1e

We assume that the time variation of the observations is due to the diurnal Sq variation

which is zero at 00:00 h and maximum at 12:00 h. Therefore the only possible values

for the components Ye and Ze are zero because these components have the same values at

09:00 h and at 12:00 h:

Y2e Y1e Y 0

Z2e Z1e 0

Then, the intensity of the external eld is given by

X e N 1 cos ot

o

2p

24

The NS components of this eld at 09:00 h (X1) and at 12:00 h (X2) are

p

3p

2

e

N 1

X1 N 1 cos

2

4

X2e N 1 cos p 2N

p

p

e

2

2 X2

e

e

X2 X1 1

293 nT ) X2e 2001 nT

N 1

2

2

2

X1e 1708 nT

179

GMNP

GNP

f

f

90 fB

Fig. 99b

X X1 X X1e 26 122 nT

Y Y1 Y Y1e 0

Z Z1 Z Z e 30 000 nT

q

H X 2 Y 2 X 26 122 nT

tan D

Y

) D 0

H

The geomagnetic latitude of the point f is determined from the vertical and horizontal

geomagnetic main eld components:

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

tan f

Z

) f 29:9

2H

D 0 ) lB 180 l 135 E

90 fB f f ) fB 74:9

180

Geomagnetism

H B0 cos f

H

B0

30 133 nT

cos f

(c) We have obtained above that

F e X e N 1 cos ot

To calculate N we take into account that the Sq variation is maximum at 12:00 h:

X2e 2N ) N 1000 nT

100. At a point with geographical coordinates 60 N, 45 E, a magnetic

observation results in the following values: FT 48 277 nT, DT 2.9 , IT 63.7 .

It is known that at 20 m below this point there is a horizontal magnetic dipole of

moment Cm 0.01 T m3, with the positive pole oriented in the direction N 60 E. There

is also an external eld parallel to the axis of rotation directed southwards of magnitude 1000 nT.

Determine the main (internal) eld components, the constant B0, and the geocentric

geographical coordinates of the northern and southern geomagnetic poles (precision

1 nT).

We rst calculate the components of the total eld intensity from FT, DT, and IT

(Fig. 100a) by

HT FT cos IT 21 390 nT

ZT FT sin IT 43 280 nT

XT HT cos DT 21 363 nT

YT HT sin DT 1082 nT

XT

DT

YT

HT

Y

ZT

IT

FT

Fig. 100a

181

P

X60

d

a

+

Fig. 100b

The observed eld is the result of three parts: the main eld (X , Y , Z ), the buried dipole

eld (DX, DY, DZ), and the external eld (Xe, Ye, Ze):

XT X X X e

YT Y Y Y e

ZT Z Z Z e

We determine the magnetic anomaly created by the buried dipole from Equations (82.2)

and (82.3) substituting a 90 and x 0. If we call X60 the direction N 60 E the horizontal

component of this anomaly is DX60 (Fig. 100b):

2Cm cos a

0 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X60

1250 nT

d3

The NS and EW components will be given by (Fig. 100c)

Z

Y X60 sin 60 1083 nT

The external eld is parallel to the Earths axis of rotation in the southwards direction so its

components are in the vertical and NS direction and are given by (Fig. 100d)

Z e 1000 sin f 866 nT

X e 1000 cos f 500 nT

We calculate the main eld components from these values:

X XT X X e 21 238 nT

Y YT Y Y e 1082 nT

Z ZT Z Z e 42 414 nT

q

H X 2 Y 2 21 266 nT

Y

tan D ) D 2:9

X

182

Geomagnetism

60

Y

E

X

X60

Fig. 100c

GNP

P

Ze

Xe

Fe

Fig. 100d

The geomagnetic latitude of the point f and the geomagnetic constant B0 are found from

the vertical and horizontal geomagnetic main eld components by

Z 2B0 sin f

H B0 cos f

Z

tan f

) f 44:9

2H

Z

30 953 nT 30 044 nT

B0

2 sin f

183

GNP

90 fB

l lB

90 f

180 l

GMNP

q = 90 f

Fig. 100e

To calculate the geographical coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole we use the

corresponding spherical triangle (Fig. 100e). We obtain the latitude fB by applying the

cosine law for the angle 90 fB:

cos90 fB cos90 f cos90 f sin90 f sin90 f cos D

sin fB sin f sin f cos f cos f cos D

fB 75:0

We obtain the longitude lB by applying the cosine rule for the angle 90 f :

cos90 f cos90 fB cos90 f sin90 fB sin90 f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

sin f sin fB sin f

cos fB cos f

l lB 180:0

cosl lB

lB 135:0 W

Therefore the coordinates of the Geomagnetic North Pole are

fB 75 N

lB 135 W

The coordinates of the Geomagnetic South Pole (the antipodal point) are:

fA fB 75 S

lA 180 lB 45 E

101. At a point with geographical coordinates 30 N, 30 E, the observed geomagnetic

eld components are (in nT): X 15 364, Y 7660, Z 48 980. The northern

geomagnetic pole is at 60 N, 0 E, and B0 30 000 nT. There is also a constant external

magnetic eld normal to the equatorial plane, with a southwards direction, of 1000 nT

intensity. Buried 10 m below the observation point is a magnetic dipole. Calculate:

(a) The magnetic anomalies DX, DY, DZ, DH, DF.

184

Geomagnetism

(b) The orientation and magnetic moment (Cm, in nT m3) of the buried dipole.

(a) The observed values are the sum of the geomagnetic main eld, the magnetic eld

due to the buried dipole, and the external eld:

X X X X e

Y Y Y Y e

Z Z Z Z e

To obtain the magnetic anomalies from these equations we rst calculate the geomagnetic

latitude and the vertical and horizontal components of the geomagnetic main eld by (71.3):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 54

Z 2B0 sin f 48 479 nT

H B0 cos f 17 676 nT

The declination and inclination are given by

cos fB sinl lB

) D 25

cos f

tan I 2 tan f ) I 70

sin D

X H cos D 16 007 nT

Y H sin D 7498 nT

The external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation directed southwards so its components

are in the vertical and NS direction and are given by (Fig. 101a)

Z e 1000 sin f 500 nT

X e 1000 cos f 866 nT

Ye 0

From these values we calculate the magnetic anomalies DX, DY, DZ, DH, DF:

X X X X e 223 nT

Y Y Y Y e 162 nT

Z Z Z Z e 1 nT

H X cos D Y sin D 271 nT

F H cos I Z sin I 94 nT

(b) We call b the angle between the geographical north and the buried dipole directions. Then using Equations (82.2) and (82.3) we obtain

Z

2Cm cos a

d3

101:1

185

GNP

P

Ze

Xe

Fe

Fig. 101a

X

Cm sin a

cos b

d3

101:2

Y

Cm sin a

sin b

d3

101:3

To solve this system of three equations in three unknowns (Cm, a, b) we divide Equation

(101.3) by (101.2):

tan b

Y

) b 36 180 144

X

This value of the angle b implies that the dipole is oriented in the N 144 E direction.

To calculate the angle a between the buried dipole and the vertical we divide Equation

(101.2) by (101.1):

X

1

tan a cos b

Z

2

2 X

) a

90

tan a

cos b Z

Therefore the dipole is practically horizontal (Fig. 101b) and this explains the small value

of the vertical component DZ.

Finally we calculate the magnetic moment of the buried dipole from Equation (101.2):

Cm

d3

X 2:8 105 nT m3

sin a cos b

186

Geomagnetism

P

N 144 E

d

a

+

Fig. 101b

give the following values: F 52 355 nT, I 70.5 , and D -26.0 . The terrestrial

dipole has a north pole at 60 N, 0 E and B0 30 000 nT. There is also a constant

external eld of 1000 nT with lines of force contained in the plane of the 30 E meridian

at an angle of 60 with the equatorial plane and directed southwards.

(a) Calculate the anomalies DX, DY, DZ.

(b) If the anomalies are produced by a dipole buried at 10 m below the point, what is

its orientation and its magnetic moment, Cm? Neglect values less than 10 nT.

(a) We rst calculate the components of the total eld from F, D, and I by

H F cos I 17 476 nT

Z F sin I 49 352 nT

X H cos D 15 707 nT

Y H sin D 7661 nT

The magnetic anomalies are found by subtracting from the observed values the main and

external eld contributions:

X X X X e

Y Y Y Y e

Z Z Z Z e

First we determine the geomagnetic latitude and declination using (71.3) and (71.2):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 53:9

sin D

cos fB sinl lB

) D 25:1

cos f

Z 2B0 sin f 48 479 nT

H B0 cos f 17 676 nT

X H cos D 16 007 nT

Y H sin D 7498 nT

187

GNP

60

Xe

Ze

f

Fe

Fig. 102a

60

E

f

Xe

Ze

Fe

Fig. 102b

The external eld is on the plane containing the vertical and NS directions (Figs 102a

and 102b):

Z e 1000 cos60 f 866 nT

X e 1000 sin60 f 500 nT

Ye 0

188

Geomagnetism

X X X X e 200 nT

Y Y Y Y e 163 nT

Z Z Z Z e 7 nT

(b) We call b the angle between the positive pole of the buried dipole and the geographical

north. Then applying Equations (82.2) and (82.3) we obtain

2Cm cos a

d3

102:1

X

Cm sin a

cos b

d3

102:2

Y

Cm sin a

sin b

d3

102:3

Z

tan b

Y

) b 39:2 180 140:8

X

To calculate the inclination of the dipole from the vertical we divide Equation (102.2) by

Equation (102.1):

X

1

tan a cos b

Z

2

2 X

tan a

) a 89:2

cos b Z

This value implies that the dipole is nearly horizontal.

Finally we calculate Cm from the total anomalous eld DB

p

X 2 Y 2 Z 2 258 nT

Cm

B 3 ) Cm 258 000 nT m3

d

B

103. The Earths magnetic eld is formed by a centred dipole with a geomagnetic pole

at 60 N, 0 E, and B0 30 000 nT, and an external eld of 10 000 nT parallel to the

equatorial plane and to the zero meridian.

(a) Calculate the components X, Y, Z of the total eld at a point P with geographical

coordinates 60 N, 30 W.

(b) If at 30 m in the direction of the compass needle from P there is a vertical dipole of

moment Cm 4000 nT m3 buried 40 m deep, what would be the anomaly DZ

produced at P?

189

(a) The components of the total eld are the sum of the geomagnetic main eld and

the external eld:

X X Xe

Y Y Ye

Z Z Ze

Let us rst calculate the geomagnetic latitude, declination, and inclination using (71.3)

and (71.2):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 75:1

cos fB sinl lB

) D 76:5

cos f

tan I 2 tan f ) I 82:4

sin D

Z 2B0 sin f 57 983 nT

H B0 cos f 7714 nT

X H cos D 1801 nT

Y H sin D 7501 nT

The external eld is parallel to the equatorial plane and to the zero meridian. If its

magnitude is N 10 000 nT, its components, from Fig. 103a (plane through the point

parallel to the equator) and Fig. 103b (plane through the geographical meridian of the

point), are given by

Z e Ber N cos l cos 4330 nT

X e Bef N cos l sin 7500 nT

Y e Bel N sin l 5000 nT

Therefore the components of the total eld are

Z 62 313 nT

X 9301 nT

Y 12 501 nT

(b) The buried vertical dipole is in the direction of the compass, that is, in the direction

of the magnetic north (Fig. 103c). We calculate the anomaly DZ produced at

P using Equations (82.2) and (82.3) substituting a 0 and x 30:

Z

x2 d 2 5=2

Cmx2 2d 2

Z

0:029 nT

x2 d 2 5=2

190

Geomagnetism

B e = Nsinl

Be

Ncos

l

Plane parallel

to the equator

Fig. 103a

GNP

B ef

Ncos

Ber

f

Fig. 103b

191

x

NM

Fig. 103c

104. The Geomagnetic North Pole is at 60 N, 150 W, with B0 30 000 nT, and there

is an external magnetic eld of intensity 3000 nT parallel to the axis of rotation

pointing away from the North Pole. Buried 10 m below a point with coordinates

30 N, 30 E there is a horizontal dipole with Cm 40 000 nT m3 and the negative

pole pointing in the direction N 45 E.

(a) What are the components X, Y, Z of the total eld?

(b) Calculate the total eld anomaly DF.

(c) What is the angle between the direction of the compass and geographic north?

(a) The components of the total eld are the sum of the geomagnetic main eld, the

magnetic eld due to the buried dipole, and the external eld:

X X X X e

Y Y Y Y e

Z Z Z Z e

We determine rst the geomagnetic latitude, declination, and inclination using (71.3)

and (71.2):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 0

sin D

cos fB sinl lB

) D 0

cos f

tan I 2 tan f ) I 0

192

Geomagnetism

X45

Fig. 104

Z 2B0 sin f 0 nT

H B0 cos f 30 000 nT

X H cos D 30 000 nT

Y H sin D 0 nT

We calculate the magnetic anomaly created by the buried dipole from Equations (82.2) and

(82.3), substituting a 270 and x 0. The vertical component DZ and the horizontal

component DX45 of the anomaly in the direction N 45 E are (Fig. 104)

2Cm cos a

0 nT

d3

Cm sin a

40 nT

d3

Z

X45

X 40 sin 45 28:3 nT

Y 40 cos 45 28:3 nT

The external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation directed southwards, so its components

are in the vertical and NS direction and are given by

Nr Z e N cos 60 1500 nT

N# X e N sin 60 2598 nT

The components of the observed total magnetic eld are

X 27 430 nT

Y 28 nT

Z 1500 nT

193

F X 28 nT

(c) The direction of the compass is affected by the three elds. The angle D between

the direction of the compass and the geographic north is obtained from the

horizontal components of the total observed eld

tan D

Y

28

) D 0:06

X 27430

105. The geomagnetic eld is that of a dipole in the direction of the axis of rotation

and B0 30 000 nT. There is also a constant external eld of 2500 nT normal to the

equatorial plane in the direction of the South Pole.

(a) Calculate the value of the inclination observed at a point P with coordinates 45 N,

45 E given that, at 10 m below it, there is a vertical dipole with the negative pole

upwards and moment Cm 40 000 nT m3.

(b) For a point 20 m north of P, calculate the observed inclination and declination,

and the total eld anomaly DF.

(a) The components of the total observed eld are the sum of the geomagnetic main

eld, the magnetic eld due to the buried dipole, and the external eld:

X X X X e

Y Y Y Y e

Z Z Z Z e

The magnetic dipole is oriented in the direction of the axis of rotation and therefore

f f 45

D 0

Then the components of the geomagnetic main eld are

Z 2B0 sin f 42 426 nT

H B0 cos f 21 213 nT

X H cos D 21 213 nT

Y H sin D 0

The magnetic anomaly created by the dipole is obtained from Equations (82.2) and (82.3)

substituting a 0 and x 0 (Fig. 105a):

2Cm cos a

80 nT

d3

Cm sin a

X

0

d3

Y 0

Z

194

Geomagnetism

P

X

Fig. 105a

GNP

P

Ze

Xe

f

Fe

Fig. 105b

The external eld is parallel to the axis of rotation directed southwards so its components

are in the vertical and NS direction (Fig. 105b) and are given by

Z e 2500 sin f 1768 nT

X e 2500 cos f 1768 nT

Ye 0

195

X X X X e 19 445 nT

Y Y Y Y e 0

H X

Z Z Z Z e 44 274 nT

From these values we calculate the observed inclination

tan I

Z

) I 66:3

H

(b) For a point Q located 20 m to the north of P we can assume that the main and

external elds have the same value as at point P and only the magnetic anomaly

created by the buried dipole is different. We calculate this anomaly from Equations

(82.2) and (82.3) substituting a 0 and x 20:

Z

X

x2 d 2 5=2

Cm2x2 d 2 sin a 3dx cos a

x2

d 2 5=2

Cmx2 2d 2

x2 d 2 5=2

Cm3dx

x2 d 2 5=2

1 nT

4 nT

Y 0

Therefore, the components of the observed eld at that point are

X X X X e 19 441 nT

Y Y Y Y e 0

H X

Z Z Z Z e 44 193 nT

From these values we calculate the observed inclination and declination by the expressions

Z

) I 66:2

H

Y

tan D ) D 0

X

tan I

F X cos I Z sin I 4 cos 66 1 sin 66 3 nT

106. Consider a point with coordinates 30 N, 30 E under which is buried at a depth

of 100 m a horizontal dipole of moment m0 m/4p 1 T m3, with the positive pole in

the direction N 60 E. The terrestrial eld is formed by a centred dipole in the

direction of the axis of rotation and a constant external eld of 10 000 nT from the

Sun, B0 30 000 nT.

(a) Calculate F, D, and I at that point on December 21 at 12 noon.

196

Geomagnetism

(a) The components of the total eld intensity are the sum of the geomagnetic main

eld, the magnetic eld due to the buried dipole, and the external eld:

X X X X e

Y Y Y Y e

Z Z Z Z e

We rst calculate the geomagnetic latitude and the declination and inclination. The

magnetic dipole is oriented in the direction of the axis of rotation and therefore

f f 30

D 0

Then the components of the geomagnetic main eld are

Z 2B0 sin f 30 000 nT

H B0 cos f 25 981 nT

X H cos D 25 981 nT

Y H sin D 0

We calculate the magnetic anomaly produced by the buried dipole from Equations (82.2)

and (82.3) substituting a 90 and x 0. We call X60 the direction N 60 E and DX60 the

horizontal component of the anomaly (Fig. 106a):

2Cm cos a

0 nT

d3

Cm sin a

1000 nT

d3

Z

X60

P

X 60

d

a

+

z

Fig. 106a

197

60

E

X

X60

Fig. 106b

GNP

N = Be

P

f +e

f

e

Sun

Fig. 106c

X X60 cos 60 500 nT

Y X60 sin 60 866 nT

The external eld has a diurnal period (o 2p / 24 h) and we know that the Sun is at the

meridian point at 12:00 h (solar time). This eld changes through the year because the Sun

moves on the ecliptic plane (apparent motion) which is tilted with respect to the equatorial

plane by an angle e 23. Therefore the solar declination (d), the angle from the Sun to the

celestial equator, changes through the year. On December 21 (winter solstice) this angle is

d e 23 (Fig. 106c). If we call N the magnitude of the external eld (N 10 000nT)

its components on December 21 at 12:00 are (Fig. 106d)

Z e Br N cosf e 6018 nT

X e Bf N sinf e 7986 nT

Ye 0

198

Geomagnetism

GNP

X = Bf

P

f+e

Z = Br

Fig. 106d

X X X X e 33 467 nT

Y Y Y Y e 866 nT

Z Z Z Z e 36 018 nT

Therefore the total eld F and the declination D are

p

F X 2 Y 2 Z 2 49 166 nT

Y

tan D ) D 1:5

X

Z

sin I ) I 47:1

F

(b) Any other day at 12:00 h

X X X X e 25 481 nT N sinf d

Y Y Y Y e 866 nT

Z Z Z Z e 30 000 nT N cosf d

107. The internal eld of the Earth corresponds to a centred dipole with the negative

pole in the northern hemisphere at coordinates 80 N, 130 W and B0 30 000 nT.

There is a uniform external eld from the Sun of 1000 nT. Buried at 500 m depth

under a point P with geocentric coordinates 40 N, 50 E there is a positive magnetic

pole of strength CP 0.5 T m. Calculate:

(a) The total eld components X, Y, and Z, and the magnetic and geomagnetic

declination at P on March 21 at 12:00 h.

199

(b) The same parameters for a point 200 m north of P, assuming that neither the

internal nor the external elds change (precision 1 nT).

(a) The components of the intensity of the total eld are the sum of the geomagnetic

main eld, the external eld, and the magnetic eld due to the buried pole.

To calculate the main eld we determine rst the geomagnetic latitude and the declination

by (71.3) and (71.2):

sin f sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

f 30

sin D

cos fB sinl lB

) D 0

cos f

From these values we obtain the vertical and horizontal components of the geomagnetic

main eld:

Z 2B0 sin f 30 000 nT

H B0 cos f 25 981 nT

X H cos D 25 981 nT

Y H sin D 0

To calculate the external eld we notice that it comes from the Sun which on March 21

(spring equinox) is on the equatorial plane so that the external eld is parallel to this plane.

In addition this eld changes during the day as a function of local time t with a diurnal

period (o 2p/24 h). At t 12 h, the external eld is maximum given that at this time

the Sun is at the meridian point (Fig. 107a). Calling N its magnitude (N 1000 nT), the

components of the external eld are given by

GNP

Xe

P

N

Ze

f

Fig. 107a

200

Geomagnetism

X e Bf N sin f 643 nT

Y e Bel 0

The magnetic eld anomaly created by the buried pole is derived from its potential DF,

given by

CP

F

r

Applying the gradient, we obtain

B F

but the only component is the vertical:

Z Br

@F

CP

2

@r

r

Z 2000 nT

Therefore the components of the total eld and the observed declination are given by

X X X e X 26 624 nT

Y Y Y e Y 0

Z Z Z e Z 28 766 nT

tan D

Y

) D 0

X

(b) The radial component of the magnetic eld anomaly created by the buried pole for

a point 200 m north of P (x 200 m) is given by

Br

@F CP

2

@r

r

CP d

CPd

r2 r x2 d 2 3=2

CP x

CPx

X Br sin a 2

2

r r x d 2 3=2

Z Br cos a

Y 0

Substituting the values given (d 500 m, x 200 m, CP 0.5 Tm2), we obtain

Z 1601 nT

X 640 nT

Y 0

201

Paleomagnetism

Fig. 107b

The components of the observed total eld and the declination are the sum of the three

contributions:

X X X e X 27 264 nT

Y Y Y e Y 0

Z Z Z e Z 29 165 nT

tan D

Y

) D 0

X

Paleomagnetism

108. At a point with geographical coordinates 60 N, 60 W a 1 cm3 sample was taken

of a rock with remanent magnetism, age 10 000 years, specic susceptibility

0.01 cm3. The magnetization components of the rock were:

X 40, Y 30, Z 50 nT (N, E, nadir).

The current eld is B0 30 000 nT and the geomagnetic pole coincides with the

geographical pole. Calculate:

(a) The coordinates of the virtual geomagnetic pole which corresponds to the

sample.

(b) The magnetic moment of the terrestrial dipole 10 000 years ago.

(c) The secular variation of F, D, and I in nT and minutes per year assuming that the

variation since that time has been constant.

202

Geomagnetism

GNP

90 fB

l lB

90 f

180 l

VP

90 f

Fig. 108

(a) First we determine the declination D and the geomagnetic co-latitude y, corresponding to the virtual pole, from the magnetization components of the rock X, Y,

and Z:

Y

tan D ) D 36:9

X

p

H X 2 Y 2 50 nT

Z

tan I ) I 45

H

tan I 2 cot y ) y 63:4 ; fvirtual 26:6

Since at present the geomagnetic pole coincides with the geographical pole, the geographical latitude of the point coincides with the present geomagnetic latitude:

f fpresent 60 N

To determine the coordinates of the virtual Geomagnetic North Pole (VP), corresponding

to the magnetization of the rock, we solve the spherical triangle of Fig. 108 for B and lB

using the obtained values of y and D. The latitude fB applying the cosine rule is given by

cos90 fB cos y cos90 f sin y sin90 f cos D

sin fB cos y sin f sin y cos f cos D

fB 48:2

To obtain the longitude lB we again apply the cosine rule:

cos y sin90 f cos90 fB cos90 f

sin90 fB sin90 f cosl lB

cos y sin fB sin f cos fB cos f cosl lB

203

Paleomagnetism

cos fB cos f

l lB 126:4

cosl lB

To choose between the positive and negative solution we bear in mind that the declination

is negative and so the point is to the east of the virtual magnetic North Pole:

D < 0 ) l lB > 0

lB 173:6 E

(b) To obtain the magnetic moment we rst calculate the constant B0. The susceptibility

w relates the magnetization and the magnetic eld. If we call F the magnitude of the

paleomagnetic eld and F0 the remanent magnetization, the relation between them is

F 0 wF

108:1

w 0:01

We calculate F0 from its components

p

F 0 X 2 Y 2 Z 2 71 nT

The eld F of the virtual pole is given by

p

F B0 1 3 cos2 y

p

F 0 wB0 1 3 cos2 y

F0

B0 p 5610 nT

w 1 3 cos2 y

From this value we calculate the magnetic moment of the virtual pole taking a 6370 km

for the Earths radius

B0

Cm

) m 1:45 1022 A m2

a3

(c) The magnetic eld, the declination, and inclination 10 000 years ago were

F0

7100 nT

w

D 36:9

F

I 45

At present the values of these parameters are

F p Ba0

D p 0

q

1 3 sin2 fpresent 54 083 nT

204

Geomagnetism

Fp F

4:7 nT=yr

10 000

p

D D

0:220 =yr

10 000

Ip I

0:170 =yr

10 000

109. The following table gives the demagnetization data for a sample that was

subjected to stepwise thermal demagnetization of its natural remanent magnetization

(NRM).

Demagnetization

temperature (C)

Declination (D, E)

Inclination (I, )

20

100

200

300

400

500

600

650

700

32

36

38

39

41

41

41

41

300

33

22

12

4

5

5

5

5

55

0.056

0.056

0.057

0.058

0.058

0.050

0.016

0.009

0.000

curve.

First, construct a vector component diagram of the demagnetization data. Decompose

each observation into its north (X), east (Y), and vertical (Z) components:

H J cos I

X H cos D

Y H sin D

Z J sin I

In Fig. 109 plotting X versus Y gives the projection of the demagnetization vector

onto the horizontal plane, while plotting X versus Z gives the projection onto the vertical

plane.

A stable component of NRM is represented by collinear points on the vector component

diagrams, so that two stable components can be identied in the range 20300 C and in

the range 400700 C.

The declination of a stable component is determined by measuring or by calculating the

angle between the north axis and the trajectory of the stable component in the horizontal

plane.

205

Paleomagnetism

0.06

0.06

0.05

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.03

a

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.02

d

0.01

0.00

0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.01

Z

0.02

0.03

Fig. 109

X300 X20

0:0051

23:9

a tan1

tan1

0:0115

Y300 Y20

D 180 23:9 203:9

D b tan

1

Y400

X400

0:0379

tan

41:0

0:0436

1

Note: this value can be obtained directly from the declination of the observations between

400 and 650 C.

The apparent inclination, Iap, of a stable component is determined by measuring or by

calculating the angle between the north axis and the trajectory of the stable component in

the vertical plane. Iap is related to the true inclination, I, by:

tan I tan Iap j cos Dj

For the 20300 C component:

Iap g tan

1

Z20 Z300

X300 X20

tan

1

0:0265

0:0051

79:1

Iap d tan1

Z400

X400

tan1

0:0051

6:7

0:0436

Note: this value can be obtained directly from the inclination of the observations between

400 and 650 C.

Therefore the stable component isolated in the range 20300 C has D 203.9 and

I 78.1 and the stable component isolated in the range 400700 C has D 41.0 and

I 5.0 .

206

Geomagnetism

Granada (37 N, 4 W) in southern Spain yielded a well-dened primary remanent

magnetization whose directions are given in the table below. Calculate the mean

direction of the primary remanence of the seven samples. Compare this direction

with that dened by the reference late Jurassic palaeomagnetic pole for the stable

Iberian tectonic plate (252 E, 58 N). How much vertical axis rotation has the studied

outcrop suffered with respect to stable Iberia?

Declination (D, E)

Inclination (I, )

30

28

34

25

32

35

26

43

39

44

45

38

44

40

Use unit vector addition to calculate the mean direction of the primary remanence.

Calculate the direction cosines of each direction, the resultant total eld vector, F, and

then the mean direction using:

X cos I cos D

Y cos I sin D

Z sin I

v

!2

!2

u N !2

N

N

u X

X

X

Ft

Z 6:98542

Y

X

Xmean

N

P

i1

i1

i1

Xi

i1

F

N

P

Yi

0:6446;

Ymean i1 0:37186;

F

N

P

Zi

Zmean i1 0:66799

F

Ymean

Dmean tan1

30:0

Xmean

Imean sin1 Zmean 41:9

The mean direction of the primary remanence has a declination of 30.0 and an inclination

of 41.9 .

207

Paleomagnetism

Next, calculate the expected eld direction at the site using the reference palaeomagnetic

pole. The rst step is to determine y 90 f , (Equation 71.3), from the pole (fp, lp) to

the site (fs, ls) using spherical triangles:

sin f sin p sin s cos p cos s cosls lp ) f 24:1

The expected inclination can then be calculated using:

tan Iexp 2 tan f ) Iexp 41:8

The expected declination can be calculated by (71.2):

sin Dexp

cos p sinls lp

) Dexp 34:5 W 325:5

cos f

rotation about the vertical axis should give rise to a difference between the observed and

expected declinations, dened as positive for an observed declination clockwise from the

expected declination.

Therefore the outcrop has suffered 64.5 of clockwise rotation with respect to stable

Iberia.

Seismology

Elasticity

111. Determine the principal stresses and principal axes of the stress tensor:

0

1

2 1 1

@ 1 0 1 A

1

1 2

Find the invariants I1, I2, I3, the deviator tensor, its eigenvalues, and the invariants

J2 and J3.

To calculate the principal stresses (s1, s2, s3) and principal axes (n1i, n2i, n3i), we

calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix. They are found through the

equation

tij sdij ni 0

111:1

The eigenvalues are the roots of the cubic equation for s resulting from putting the

determinant of the matrix in (111.1) equal to zero:

2 s 1

1

1 0

1 s

1

1 2 s

) 2 ss2 s 1 1 s 2 s 2 s 0

s3 4s2 s 6 0

s1 1

s2 2

s3 3

From these values we obtain s0 13 s1 s2 s3 43.

The invariants of the matrix are the coefcients of the characteristic equation

s3 I1 s2 I2 s I3 0

208

209

Elasticity

I1 4 s1 s2 s3

I2 1 s1 s2 s1 s3 s2 s3

I3 6 s1 s2 s3

The principal axes of stress are the eigenvectors ni associated with the three eigenvalues.

For s1 1

0

10 1

3 1 1

n1

@ 1 1 1 A@ n2 A 0 ) n1 ; n1 ; n1 1; 2; 1

1 2 3

1

1 3

n3

For s2 2

For s3 3

0 1

@ 1 2

1

1

10 1

1

n1

1 A@ n2 A 0 ) n21 ; n22 ; n23 1; 1; 1

0

n3

10 1

1

n1

1 A@ n2 A 0 ) n31 ; n32 ; n33 1; 0; 1

1

n3

1 1

@ 1 3

1

1

where in our problem, s0 4/3.

The three components of the principal diagonal of the deviatoric tensor are

t011

2

3

t022

t033

4

3

2

3

0

1

2

1

1 C

B3 s

C

B

13

38

4

C

B

0

B 1 s

1 C 0 ) s3 s

B

C

3

27

3

A

@

2

s

1

1

3

s3 J1 s2 J2 s J3 0

210

Seismology

13

3

38

J3

27

J2

112. Given the stress tensor

0

1

4

B

B

B

B

B

B 25

B

4

B

B

3

@ 1 2

2

5

2

4

1

4

3

1 2

2

2

3 1

1 2

C

C

2

C

3 C

2

1 C

C

2

2 C

C

C

A

3

2

calculate:

(a) The principal stresses.

(b) The angles formed by the greatest of these stresses with the axes 1, 2, 3.

(a) As in the previous problem to nd the principal stresses we calculate the eigenvalues of the stress matrix

1

0

3=2

1

5

1

B

C

C

B 4s

4

2

B

C

3=2 C

B

C

B

5

1

1

B

C 0 ) s3 2s2 s 2 0

s

C

B

4

4

2

B

C

3=2

C

B

3=2

A

@ 1

1

3

s

2

2

2

s1 2

s2 1

s3 1

The largest is s1. The associated eigenvector corresponds to the axis of greatest stress

whose direction cosines are (n1, n2, n3). They are found by solving the equation

0

3=2 1

7

5

1

B

C

B

C0 1

4

4

C n1

B

2

B

C

5

7

1

C@ n2 A 0

B

3=2

B

C

4

4

2

C n3

B

C

B

3=2

3=2

A

@

1

1

1

2

2

2

211

Solving this equation with the condition that n21 n22 n23 1, we obtain,

n1 n2

1

n3 p

2

1

2

(b) From these values we obtain #, the angle with the vertical axis (x3) and , the angle

which forms its projection on the horizontal plane with x1:

9

1 >

>

n1 sin # cos

>

2 >

>

1=

n2 sin # sin

) 315 ; # 45

2>

>

>

1

>

>

n3 cos # p

;

2

113. The stress tensor t ij in a continuous medium is

0

1

3x1 x2 5x22 0

@ 5x2

0 2x3 A

2

0

2x3 0

Determine the stress vector Tin acting at the point (2, 1, 3) through the plane

tangential to the cylindrical surface x22 1 x23 at that point.

First we calculate the value of the stress tensor at the given point:

0

1

6

5

0

p

p

0 2 3 A

tij 2; 1; 3 @ 5

p

0 2 3

0

A unit vector normal to the surface f x22 x23 4 0 at the given point is

0

1

@f

@f

@f

p

B @x1 @x2 @x3 C

grad f

C 0; 1 ; 3

B

ni

;

;

2 2

jgrad f j @ @f @f @f A

@x @x @x

1

Then, the stress vector acting at the point through that surface is given by

0

1

0

1 0

1 C

6

5

0 B

p

B

C

p

AB 2 C 5 ; 3; 3

0

2

3

Tin tij nj @ 5

B p C

p

2

@ 3A

0 2 3

0

2

114. The amplitudes of P- and S-waves of frequency 4/2p Hz are

4

4

4

p ; p ; p

uP

3 2 3 2 3

p p p

S

u 3; 3; 2

212

Seismology

and their speeds of propagation are 6 km s1 and 4 km s1, respectively. Find the

scalar and vector potentials. Displacements are always given in m.

The displacements of P-waves can be deduced from a scalar potential function such that

uPi ri . The general form of the potential function for P-waves for harmonic motion is

A exp ika ni xi at

114:1

where A is the amplitude, ni the direction cosines of the ray or propagation direction, a the

velocity of propagation, and ka the wavenumber. If uj is given in m and ka in km1, then A

is given in 103 m2. Taking the derivatives in (114.1) we obtain for the components of the

displacement

uPj

@

Aika nj exp ika nk xk at

@xj

Their amplitude is

uPj Aka nj

114:2

4

o 2p 2p 2

km1

ka

6

a

3

By substitution in (114.2), we obtain for the two horizontal components

4

uP1 Aka n1 p mm

3 2

4

uP2 Aka n2 p mm

3 2

Dividing these two expressions and writing the direction cosines of the ray in terms of the

incident angle i and azimuth az,

n1 sin i cos az

v2 sin i sin az

n3 cos i

114:3

we have

uP1

n1 sin i cos az

1

) a 45

P

n2 sin i sin az

u2

Using the uP3 and uP1 components,

p

uP3 Aka n3

cos i

3 ) i 30

uP1 Aka n1 sin i cos az

From the values of the direction cosines and the amplitude of the displacement we calculate

the amplitude of the potential A:

A

uP1

) A 4 103 m2

ka n1

213

p

p

p

2

2

2

3

4 exp i

x1

x2

x3 6t

3

4

4

2

Displacements of the S-wave are obtained from a vector potential ci of null divergence,

whose general form is

ci Bi exp ikb nj xj bt

where b is the velocity of propagation and kb the wavenumber. The displacements are

given by

uS r c

114:4

The wavenumber is kb o/b 1 km1. According to (114.4) the relation between the

components of the displacement and of the amplitude of the potential is

p

p

p

2

3

S

B2

3 mm

u1 B3

4

2

p

p

p

3

2

uS2 B1

B3

3 mm

2

4

p

p

2

2 p

uS3 B2

B1

2 mm

4

4

The potential must have null divergence,

p

p

p

3

2

2

rc

B3 0

B1

B2

2

4

4

From these equations we obtain, in units of 103 m2,

B1 2

B2 2

B3 0

The S-wave vector potential is

p

p

p

2

2

3

cj 2; 2; 0 exp i

x1

x2

x3 4t

4

4

2

Note: These units will be used for all problems but not explicitly given.

115. The components of the S-wave with respect to the axes (x1, x2, x3) are (6, 3.25, 3)

where x2 is the vertical axis, the azimuth is 60 , and the angle of incidence is 30 .

Determine the amplitude and direction cosines of the SV and SH components.

From the azimuth and incident angles we calculate the direction cosines (x2 is the

vertical axis)

214

Seismology

X2

SV

r

30

SVH

X1

60

SH

90

X3

Fig. 115a

1

n1 sin i cos az

4

p

3

n2 cos i

2

p

3

n3 sin i sin az

4

Since the SV and SH components are on a plane normal to the direction of the ray r

(Fig. 115a) unit vectors in the direction of SV (a1, a2, a3) and of SH (b1, 0, b3) must satisfy

the equations

p

p

a1 a2 3 a3 3

4

2

4

p

b1 b3 3

0

SH r 0 )

4

4

SV r 0 )

115:1

SH SV 0 ) a1 b1 a3 b3 0

The projections on the horizontal plane R of the ray r and SH are perpendicular

(Fig. 115b). Then SH forms an angle of 180 30 with the x1 axis. The direction

cosines of SH are

p

3

b1

2

1

b3

2

215

SVH

30

X1

30

60

SH

X3

Fig. 115b

SV forms an angle of 60 with the vertical axis x2 (Fig. 115a). Then a2 sin i 12

From a2 using Equations (115.1) and a21 a22 a23 1, we calculate a1 and a2:

p

3

a1

4

3

a3

4

p

p p

7 5 7

7

116. Given the potential ci p ; p ; 6 exp 4i p1 x1 p1 x2 p x3 4t ,

5

3

5

5

15

calculate the polarization angle.

First we calculate the amplitudes of the components of the displacement of the S-wave

from the vector potential

8

13

>

>

uS1 c3;2 c2;3 4 p 30:02

>

>

>

3

>

>

>

<

7

6

S

S

p

c

c

4

13:97

ui r c i )

1;3

3;1

2

>

5

5 3

>

>

p

>

>

>

p

7

>

S

>

: u3 c2;1 c1;2 4

7 p 7:85

15

The modulus is

uS

q

u21 u22 u23 34:03

From the vertical component uS3 we calculate the SV component (Fig. 116) knowing that

r p

p

8

7

7

n3 cos i p ) sin i 1

p

15

15

15

) uSV 10:75.

216

Seismology

X3

r

i

SV

90 i

R

Fig. 116

q

uS uSV 2 uSH 2 ) uSH 32:29

tan e

uSH

) e 71:6

uSV

uP1 4

uS1 8

p

uS2 2 2

p

uS3 4 2

uP2 4

uP3 8

determine the angle of incidence i, azimuth az, polarization angle of the S-wave,

and apparent polarization angle g.

Given that the displacements of the P-wave are on the incident plane, in the direction of the

ray r, the angle of incidence i can be obtained from the modulus and the vertical component:

p

p

uP 42 42 82 4 6

cos i

uP3

8

p ) i 35:3

P

u

4 6

The azimuth, the angle between the horizontal projection of the ray and the north (x1), is

obtained from the horizontal components, uP1 and uP2 :

tan az

uP2

) az 45

uP1

217

90 az

uS

1

az

uS

H

u S2

az

X1

SH

R

X2

Fig. 117

We calculate the SV component from the vertical component uS3 , as in the previous

problem:

uSV

uS3

uS

3 9:37

cos90 i0 sin i0

uSH uS2 cos az uS1 sin az 3:66

From SV and SH we nd the polarization angle e (Fig. 117):

tan e

uSH 3:66

uSV 9:37

) e 21:3

To calculate the apparent polarization angle g, the angle between the horizontal component

of S, (uSH), and the radial direction R (Fig. 117), we use the relation

tan e cos i0 tan g

) g 25:5

118. Given the values az 60 , 30 , g 45 , and ub 5, calculate the

amplitudes of the components 1, 2, and 3 of the S-wave.

From the modulus of the displacement of S-waves and the polarization angle, we calculate

the SV and SH components (Fig. 118a):

uSV

uSH

p

5 3

u cos e

2

5

S

u sin e

2

S

218

Seismology

SV

SH

Fig. 118a

X3

r

SV

uS

3

i

i

R

SV

uH

Fig. 118b

tan e tan g cos i

1

) cos i p

3

r p

2

1

) sin i 1 p

3

3

The vertical component u3 of the S-wave is obtained from the value of SV (Fig. 118b):

p p

5 3 2

S

SV

p 3:53

u3 u cos90 i

2

3

To calculate the horizontal components we have to take into account the horizontal

component of SV (Fig. 118b):

SV

uSV

cos i

H u

5

2

219

u SV

H

az

X1

uS

H

az

u SH

az

SH

R

X2

Fig. 118c

of S (Fig. 118c):

p

5

uS1 uSH sin az uSV

1 3 3:42

H cos az

4

p

5

1 3 0:92

uS2 uSH cos az uSV

H sin az

4

119. For a scalar potential w and a vector potential c i, it is known that A 3, Bi

(2, 2, 0), ka 2/3, T p/2, and Poissons ratio is s 1/4. Calculate the amplitudes

u1, u2, and u3 of the P- and SV-waves.

on the free surface (x3 0) of the components

p

3

1

1

The direction cosines are p ; p ;

.

2 2 2 2 2

The general expressions for the scalar and vector potentials are

A exp ika n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at

ci Bi exp ikb n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 bt

Since ka o/a then a o/ka 6 km s1.

If Poissons ratio is 0.25 then

1

l

s

4 2 l m

)lm

Substituting this condition in the equation for the P-wave velocity a, we nd for the

velocity b of S-waves is given by

s s

p

p

l 2m

3m

a

b 3 ) b p 2 3 km s1

a

r

r

3

Then the wavenumber of S-waves is

kb

o

2

p

b

3

220

Seismology

p

2

1

1

3

p

3 exp i

x1

x2

x3 6t

3 2 2

2

2 2

p

p

3

2

1

1

x 3 2 3t

ci 2; 2; 0 exp i p p x1 p x2

2

3 2 2

2 2

119:1

uP r

uS r c

obtaining

1

uP1 p

2

1

uP2 p

2

p

uP3 3

uS1 2

uS2 2

p

2 2

uS3 p

3

From the components of the displacement of the S-wave we can obtain the SV component.

The values of the angles of incidence and azimuth are found from the direction cosines,

1

n1 sin i cos az p

2 2

1

n2 sin i sin az p

2 2

p

3

n3 cos i

2

) i 30 ;

az 45

p

4 2

S

SV

SV

u3 u cos90 i ) u p 3:27

3

From the horizontal components of the S-waves and the azimuth we calculate the SH

component:

uSH uS2 cos az uS1 sin az 0

120. In an elastic medium of density r 3 g cm3 and Poisson ratio 1/3 there

7

1 1

; p ; p . Given

3 2 3 2

that the pressure of the P-wave is 5000 dyn cm2, the magnitude of its displacement,

10 mm, is twice that of the S-wave, and the angle g 45 , nd all the parameters

involved in the expression of the potentials and ci. (It is not necessary to solve the

equations to obtain the coefcients Bi)

221

Given that Poissons ratio is 1/3 the relation between the elastic coefcients l and m is,

s

l

1

) l 2m

2l m 3

s s

l 2m

4m

) a 2b

a

r

r

The bulk modulus K is

2

8

K l m m

3

3

Expressing m in terms of b and a, we get for K:

r

m

8

8 a2 2

b

) m rb2 ) K rb2 r ra2

r

3

3 4

3

Taking into account that the bulk modulus K is dened as the applied pressure divided by

the change in volume per unit volume y,

2

P Ky ra2 y

3

2

y r Aka2

y

120:1

3P

3P

Aka2 ) a2

2ra2

2rAka2

A exp ika n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at

where the wavenumber for P-waves is

ka

o 2pf

a

a

P

P

P

u jrj ka A ) A ju j ju ja

ka

2pf

a2

where

P 5000 dyn cm2

r 3 g cm3

f 1 Hz

uP 10 mm

3P

3Pa

3P

)a

2rAka2 2rjuP j2pf

2rjuP j2pf

120:2

222

Seismology

We obtain a 3.98 km s1 and b 1.99 km s1.

Since we know A, a, and ka we can write the complete expression for the scalar

potential

p

7

1

1

10 exp i1:58 x1 p x2 p x3 3:98t

3

3 2

2

ci Bi exp ikb n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 bt

120:3

We calculate kb:

kb

o

3:16 km1

b

uS r c

and

uS1

@c3 @c2

kb B3 n2 B2 n3

@x2 @x3

uS2

@c1 @c3

kb B1 n3 B3 n1

@x3 @x1

uS3

@c2 @c1

kb B2 n1 B1 n2

@x1 @x2

120:4

The incidence angle i is found from n3 and, using tane cosi tang, we nd the polarization

angle e:

p

7

n3 cos i p ) i 31:95 ) e 31:95

3 2

The azimuth is

az tan1

n2

64:76

n1

Since the amplitude of the S-wave displacement is 5 mm, knowing the value of e we can

nd the values of the SV and SH components:

uSV uS cos e 4:24 mm

uSH uS sin e 2:65 mm

From uSV we calculate its vertical and horizontal components:

uS3 uSV cos90 i 2:25 mm

SV

uSV

cos i 3:61 mm

H u

223

Using uHSV and uSH we nd the two horizontal components:

uS1 uSH sin az uSV

H cos az 3:94 mm

uS2 uSH cos az uSV

H sin az 2:14 mm

Using the values found for the displacements and Equations (120.4) and c 0 (n1 B1

n2 B2 n3 B3 0) we nd the values of B1, B2, B3. Substituting all the values in (120.3) we

obtain for the vector potential

p

7

1

1

p

x2

x3 1:99t

3

2

3 2

121. At the origin in an innite medium in which s, Poissons ratio, is 0.25, and the

density is 3 g cm3, there is an emitter of elastic plane waves of frequency 0.5 cps.

Calculate:

(a) The equation of the P- and S-waves in exponential form and with arbitrary

amplitudes for the wave arriving at the point A(500, 300, 141) km.

(b) The arrival time.

(a) First we calculate the distance to point A and the direction cosines of the direction

of the ray (r) (Fig. 121):

p

5002 3002 1412 599:90

600 km

500 5

n1

600 6

300 1

n2

600 2p

2

141

n3

6

600

r

X3

r

141

X1

300

500

X2

Fig. 121

224

Seismology

b

Given that Poissons ratio is 0.25,

r p

m

10 km s1

r

p p

s 0:25 ) l m ) a b 3 30 km s1

2pf

2p 0:5

p

p km1

a

5:5

30

2pf

2p 0:5

p

p p km1

kb

b

10

10

ka

The general expressions for the scalar and vector potentials are

A exp ika n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at

ci Bi exp ikb n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 bt

Leaving the amplitudes A and Bi in arbitrary form and substituting the obtained values we

have for the potentials,

p

p

p

5

1

2

x1 x2

x3 30t

A exp i p

2

6

30 6

p

p

p

5

1

2

x1 x2

x3 10t

ci Bi exp i p

2

6

10 6

(b) The travel times for P- and S-waves from the origin to the given point are

r

600

p 109:5 s

a

30

r

600

t b p 189:7 s

b

10

ta

122. A P-wave represented by the potential

x1

x2

x3

p

4t

w 4 exp 0:25i

6

3

2

4 g cm3. If the speed of propagation in the second medium is 2 km s1, write the

expressions for the potentials of the reected and transmitted waves.

225

refl A exp ik tan e x3 x1 ct

trans A0 exp ik tan e0 x3 x1 ct

122:1

where e 90 i is the emergence angle and i the incidence angle, and k ka cos e is the

wavenumber corresponding to the apparent horizontal velocity, c a /cos e. These

expressions are written for rays contained on the incidence plane (x1, x3). Then, we have

to rotate the given potential to refer it to the incidence plane. First, from the direction

cosines we calculate the incidence angle i and the azimuth az:

1

n1 sin i cos az p

6

1

n2 sin i sin az p

3

1

n3 cos i p ) i 45 e

2

p

1

2

cos az p ) sin az p

3

3

Using the rotation matrix we obtain the direction cosines on the plane of incidence (x1, x3):

1

0

1

10 1

0 01 0

p

n1

n1

cos az

sin az 0

B 2C

C

@ n02 A @ sin az cos az 0 A@ n2 A ) B

B 0 C

@

1 A

n03

1

n3

0

0

p

2

The values of c and k are

p

a

a0

8

p

4

2 km s1

cos e cos e0

2 p

2

km1

k ka cos e ka0 cos e0

8

Then the potential of the incident wave is now given by

p

1

inc 4 exp i p x3 x1 4 2 t

4 2

0

The angle i of the transmitted or refracted ray is found from Snells law:

p

sin i sin i0

2

0

0 ) sin i

cos e0

a

4

a

p

p

14

0

0

) tan e0 7

) cos i sin e

4

Using the expressions for the reection and refraction coefcients, V and W, we can

calculate the amplitude of the reected and refracted potentials:

p

p

A

r0 tan e r tan e0 4 3 7

16 12 7

p

p

1:07

V

0

)

A

A0 r tan e r tan e0 4 3 7

43 7

A0

2rtge0

6

24

p ) A0

p 2:01

0

W

A0 r tan e r tan e0 4 3 7

43 7

226

Seismology

p

8

2

refl 1:07 exp

i x3 x1 p t

8

2

p

2

8

i

7x3 x1 p t

trans 2:01 exp

8

2

p p p

123. A P-wave of amplitude 5 2; 5 6; 10 2 and frequency v 12 rad s1 in a

semi-innite medium of speed of propagation a 6 km s1 and Poissons ratio 0.25 is

incident on the free surface. Calculate:

(a) The potential of the incident P-wave.

(b) The potential of the reected S-wave.

(c) The components u1, u2, u3 of the reected S-wave.

(a) The displacements of the P-wave can be deduced from its scalar potential:

A exp ika n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at

123:1

uP r

where A is the amplitude, ka is the wavenumber (P), ni are the direction cosines, and a is the

P-wave velocity. The wavenumber is found from the given angular frequency and velocity:

ka

o 12

2 km1

a

6

Since we know the amplitudes of the components of the displacements we can nd the

incidence angle i and the azimuth az:

p

@

Aka n1 A2 sin i cos az 5 2

@x1

p

@

Aka n2 A2 sin i sin az 5 6

uP2

@x2

p

@

uP3

Aka n3 A2 cos i 10 2

@x3

p

Dividing the two rst equations we obtain 3 tan az ) az 60 , and dividing the

last two,

p

5 2

1

p tan i cos az tan i ) i 45

2

10 2

uP1

P q

2 2 2

j uP j

u

102 m2

uP1 uP2 uP3 Aka ) A

ka

p

p

p

2

6

2

x1

x3 6t m2

x2

4

4

2

227

If we express the potential referred to the plane (x1, x3) as the incidence plane, as we did in

Problem 122, then

A exp ik x1 tan e x3 ct

where

p

1

k ka cos e 2 p 2

2

p

a

6

c

6 2 km s1

1

cos e

p

2

e 90 i 45 ;

p

p

inc 102 exp i 2 x1 x3 6 2t m2

123:2

p

a

b p 2 3 km s1

3

r

p

cos e cos f

b

1

5

2

a

b

a

6

6

2 3

From the values of e and f we calculate the P-to-S reection coefcient VPS, using equation

VPS

4a1 3a2

4ab 1 3a2 2

where we substitute

a tan e 1

and

b tan f

so

p

5

41 3

VPS p

0:64

4 5 1 3 2

From this coefcient we calculate the proportion of the incident P-wave which is reected

as an S-wave (only with SV component; the negative sign indicates the opposite sense of

the reected ray):

B AVPS 10 0:64 6:4 103 m2

When the ray is contained in the (x1, x3) plane we use a scalar potential for the S-wave

which in this case is given by

c B exp ik x1 tan f x3 ct

p

p

p

6:4 103 exp i 2 x1 5x3 6 2t m2

228

Seismology

(c) To calculate the amplitudes of the total displacements in terms of the two scalar

potentials, we remember that for this orientation of the axes the displacements are

given by

@ @c

u1

uP1 uSV

1

@x1 @x3

@ @c

u3

uP3 uSV

3

@x3 @x1

The displacements of the SV reected wave in this case are

p

@c

6:4 5

uSV

1

@x3

p

@c

6:4 2

uSV

3

@x1

If we want to determine the components 1 and 2, referred to the original system of axes, we

SV

project uSV

1 uR using the azimuth 60 :

p

SV

uSV

1 uR cos az 3:2 5

p

SV

uSV

2 u2 sin az 3:2 15

p

p

p

x1

3

3

x2

x3 4t

ci 10 3; 2; 4 exp 5i

4

4

2

is incident on the free surface x3 0. Find the SV and SH components of the reected

S-wave referred to the same coordinate system as the incident wave, and the coefcient of reection. Poissons ratio is 3/8.

According to the value of Poissons ratio the relation between l and m is

s

l

3

) l 3m

2 l m 8

and the relation between the velocities of the P-waves and S-waves is

ss

l 2m

5m p

5b

a

r

r

The incidence angle i and the azimuth az are obtained from the direction cosines:

p

3

n3 cos i

) i 30

2

1

n1 sin i cos az sin 30 cos az ) az 60

4

Using Snells law we nd the value of the critical angle

sin ic 1

b

1

) sin ic p ) ic 26:5

b

a

a

5

229

X3

r

i

u SV

60

Fig. 124a

Since i > ic, there is no reected P-wave. The components of the incident S-wave are

obtained from the potential

8

< uS1 0

S

ui r c ) uS2 80

: S

u3 40

q

p

The modulus of the displacement is uS 802 402 40 5:

The SV component is given by (Fig. 124a)

uSV

u3

80

cos90 i0

uSH

q

uS 2 uSV 2 40

The amplitude of the reected SH wave is equal to that of the incident SH wave. We nd

the 1 and 2 components using the azimuth 60 (Fig. 124b):

p

p

p

3 1

3

3

1

uSH

40

;

;

0

exp

5i

x

x

x

4t

2

3

1

i

2 2

4

2

4

For total reection the amplitude of the reected SV is equal to that of the incident one, but

with a phase shift d. The components are given by (Figs 124a and 124b)

SV

cos i cos az

uSV

1 u

SV

uSV

cos i sin az

2 u

SV

uSV

sin i

3 u

230

Seismology

X1

u SH

30

X2

60

SV

uH

Fig. 124b

p

p

p

3

3

3

3 1

1

SV

; ;

x2

x3 4t id

exp 5i x1

ui 80

4

4

2

4 2

4

To determine the phase shift d we have to determine the reection coefcients for a free

surface. Textbooks usually give those for Poissons ratio s = 1/4, but since in this problem

s 3/8 we have to calculate them. On a free surface the boundary conditions are that

stresses are null, which in terms of the scalar potentials and c, are given by

t31 0 m u3;1 u1;3 2;31 c;11 c;33

124:1

t33 0 l u1;1 u3;3 2mu3;3 3;11 5;33 2c;13

where, using (x1, x3) as the plane of incidence, the scalar potential of the reected

P-waves is

A exp ik ax3 x1 ct

and the scalar potential of the incident and reected S-wave is

c B0 exp ik bx3 x1 ct B exp ik bx3 x1 ct

Substituting in (124.1) we obtain for the coefcient of the reected S-waves,

VSS

B

i4^ab 1 b2 3 5^a2

B0 i4ab 1 b2 3 5a2

d tan

1

4^ab

1 b2 3 5^a2

231

s

c2

1

b tan f

1 p

2

b

3

r r

c2

22

^

a 1 2

a

30

and nally we obtain d 77.33 .

125. An S-wave represented by the potential

p

p

3

1

x3 4 2 t

c 10 exp i3 x1

2

2

is incident from an elastic medium with l 0 onto a liquid with velocity a0 4 km s1

(the two media have the same density). Derive the equations relating the amplitudes of

the potentials of the incident, reected, and transmitted waves.

Given that the wave is incident from an elastic medium onto a liquid medium, there are reected

S- and P-waves in the elastic medium and transmitted P-waves in the liquid (Fig. 125).

If l 0, the P-wave velocity in the elastic medium is

s s

p

pp

l 2m

2m

b 2 4 2 2 8 km s1

a

r

r

Assuming (x1, x3) is the incidence plane, we use the scalar S-wave potential which, for the

incident and reected waves in the solid medium, is given by

c B0 exp ikb x1 cos f x3 sin f bt

B exp ikb x1 cos f x3 sin f bt

X3

P

e

a= 4

b= 0

M

f

X1

a=8

b = 42

Fig. 125

232

Seismology

cos f

1

) f 60 ;

2

B0 10;

kb 3

c B0 exp ik x1 tan f x3 ct B exp ik x1 tan f x3 ct

where

3

km1

2

p

b

8 2 km s1

c

cos f

k kb cos f

p

p

p

p

3

3

c 10 exp i x1 x3 3 8 2t B exp i x1 x3 3 8 2t

2

2

Applying Snells law we determine the angle e of the reected P-wave in the solid medium

and the angle e0 of the transmitted P-wave onto the liquid (Fig. 125):

cos f

cos e

cos 60 cos e

) p

) e 45

b

a

8

4 2

cos e0 cos f

1

) cos e0 p ) e0 69

0

a

b

2 2

r

p

p

7

1

sin e0 1 p ) tan e0 7

8 2 2

p

3

A exp ik x1 x3 tan e ct A exp i x1 x3 8 2t

2

0 A0 exp ik x1 x3 tan e0 ct A0 exp i

p

p

3

x 1 x 3 7 8 2t

2

The relation between the amplitude of the potential of the incident S-wave (B0 = 10) and

those of the reected and refracted P-waves A, A0 and the reected S-wave B can be

obtained from the conditions at the boundary between the two media (x3 0), that is,

continuity of the normal component of the displacements (u3) and of the stress (t33) and

null tangential stress (t31):

u3 u03 ) ;3 c;1 0;3

t31 0 ) 2;13 c;33 c;11 0

t33 t033 ) l0 0;33 0;11 2m ;33 c;13

233

By substitution of the potentials we obtain the equations (in units of 103 m2)

p

A 10 B A0 7

A B 10 0

p p

2A0 A 10 3 3B

p

40 3

0

p p 6:2

A

4 7 21

p

20 21

p 8:2

p

A

4 7 21

p p

10 4 7 21

p p

B

1:8

4 7 21

126. An S-wave incident on the free surface of a semi-innite medium with s 0.25 is

given by (in units of 103 m2)

p

p

1

p

3

3

ci 10 3; 2; 4 exp 5i x1

x2

x3 4t

4

4

2

Calculate:

(b) The components of the reected S-wave.

(a) From the direction cosines we calculate the incidence i and emergence f angles and

azimuth az of the incident S-wave:

1

sin i cos az

4

p

3

sin i sin az

n2

4

p

3

cos i ) i 30 ) f 60

n3

2

1 1

cos az ) az 60

4 2

p

p

Since Poissons ratio is 0.25 then l m ) a 3b 4 3, and

n1

sin ic 1

1

) sin ic p ) ic 35

b

a

3

Since i < ic we have a reected P-wave. The reection coefcient at a free surface for a

reected P-wave from an incident S-wave is given by

VSP

4b1 3a2

4ab 1 3a2 2

126:1

234

Seismology

X1

f

P

S

X3

Fig. 126

where a tan e and b tan f, and f is the emergence angles of the incident S-wave and e is

that of the reected P-wave (Fig. 126). The relation between f and e according to Snells law is

p 1

cos f

cos e

a

b

a

b

2

VSP

p

4 3 1 1

4 1 1

p

3

We can write the potential of the incident S-wave referred to the incidence plane (x1, x3) by

means of the rotation matrix

0

1

cos az

sin az 0

@ sin az cos az 0 A

1

0

0

and substituting

0

1

B 2

B p

B

@ 3

2

0

p

1

3

8

p

0 C0 10p3 1 0 B1 1

<B1 4 3

2

C@

C

2 A @ B2 A ) B2 16 B0

1

:

0A

B3

B3 4

4

2

0 1

the potential is

c0i B1 ; B2 ; B3 exp ikb cos fx1 sin fx3 4t

p

p

3

1

x3 4t

4 3;16; 4 exp 5i x1

2

2

p

3

1

x3 4t

16 exp 5i x1

2

2

126:2

235

p

A B0 VSP 16 3

From

kb

o

o

5

b

4

o 20 s1

we have

and

ka

o

20

p km1

a 4 3

The scalar potential of the reected P-wave referred to the original system of axes is

given by

A exp ika nj xj at

where the direction cosines are now

p

p

31

3

2

2

4

p p

3 3 3

2 2

4

1

n3 cos i sin e

2

Substituting these values we obtain

p

5

16 3 exp i p

3

p

3

3

1

x 1 x 2 x 3 4 3t

4

4

2

8

p

P

>

>

< u1 20 3

uP r ) uP2 60

>

>

: P

u3 40

(b) For the reected S-wave we have to separate the SV and SH components. The SV

component can be deduced from the scalar potential

p

1

3

r

cSV B exp ikb cos f x1 sin f x3 4t B exp 5i x1

x3 4t

2

2

VSS

4ab 1 3a2

4ab 1

3a2 2

B

)B0

B0

236

Seismology

For the reected SH component we use the displacement of the u2 instead of the

potential. The displacements of the SH component of the incident wave are obtained from

(126.2):

uiSH c01;3 c03;1 40

Referred to the reference of the plane of incidence, the displacement is given by

p

3

1

i

x3 4t

uSH 40 exp 5i x1

2

2

The amplitude of the reected SH wave is equal to that of the incident SH wave. Referred

to the incidence plane system of reference,

p

3

1

r

uSH 40 exp 5i x1

x3 4t

2

2

The displacement of the reected S-wave referred to the original system of axes is

p

p

1

3

3

uri Br1 ; Br2 ; Br3 exp i5 x1

x2

x3 4t

4

4

2

Since the SV component is zero, Br3 0; Br1 and Br2 are found using the equations

jur j urSH ) Br1 2 Br2 2 1600

p

1 r

3 r

r

B 0

ui n i 0 ) B 1

4

4 2

resulting in

p

Br1 20 3

Br2 20

x1

x2

x3

w 4 exp 0:25i p p p 4t

6

3

2

propagation in the second medium is 2 km s1, the pressure exerted by the incident

wave on the surface of separation is 5 109 Pa, and the transmitted energy is four

times greater than the reected energy, calculate:

(a) The energy transmitted to the second medium.

(b) The potentials of the transmitted and reected waves referred to the same

coordinate system as the incident potential.

(a) The intensity or energy per unit surface area of the wavefront of an incident

P-wave is given in units of J m2 by

Iinc A20 o2 ka2 ar

127:1

237

A0 4 103 m2

ka 0:25 km1

a 4 km s1

o

ka ) o 1 s1

a

We need to know the value of the density r. Since the medium is liquid l K (bulk

modulus) and then l P/y, where P is the pressure and y the cubic dilatation (change of

volume per unit volume). For liquids the shear modulus m is zero and from the velocity of

P-waves we obtain,

s s

l 2m

l

) l a2 r

a

r

r

The cubic dilatation is obtained from the potential :

y r2 ka2 A

1

1

4

16

4

Then, we obtain

l a2 r

P

5 109

Pa

5

) r g cm3

2

2

1

y

m s

4

16 106

4

Iinc 16 1

1

5

4 5 J m2

16

4

Itras A02 o2 ka02 a0 r0 W 2 A20 ka02 a0 r0

127:2

127:3

A0

2r tan e

A0 r0 tan e r tan e0

A

r0 tan e r tan e0

0

V

A0 r tan e r tan e0

1

n3 p cos i sin e ) i e 45

2

127:4

238

Seismology

and from Snells law the emergence angle of the transmitted wave e0 is

r

p

cos e cos e0

a0

2 1

1

1

7

0

0

0 ) cos e cos e p p ) sin e 1 p

a

a

a

4 2 2 2

8 2 2

Given that the transmitted energy is four times the reected energy,

Itras

Iref

W 2 A20 r0 o4

V 2 2r0 a

0

4 2 a2 4 ) 2

W

5ra0

V A0 ro

a

If we substitute in (127.4)

5 p

7

4

V

5 p

7

r0

4

5

2

4

W

p

5

7

r0

4

r0

We have three equations for r, V, and W. The solution for positive values of the variables

is

W 0:23

r0 7:7 )

V 0:40

(b) The potential of the reected P-wave is

ref VA0 exp ik a n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at

1 1

1

1

p x1 p x2 p x3 4t

1:6 exp i

4

6

3

2

To determine the potential of the transmitted wave we have to calculate the direction

cosines of the transmitted ray. The azimuth is the same as that of the incident wave which

can be deduced from the direction cosines and the value of i:

1

1

n1 sin i cos az p ) cos az p

6

3

p

1

2

n2 sin i sin az p ) sin az p

3

3

1 1

1

n01 sin i0 cos az p p p

2 2 3 2 6

1

n02 sin i0 sin az p

2 3

p

7

n03 cos i0 p

2 2

239

p

1

1

1

7

p x1 p x2 p x3 2t

tras 0:92 exp i

2 2 6

2 3

2 2

128. Two liquid media are separated at x3 0, the rst of volumetric coefcient

1

K 109 Pa and density 1 g cm3. The amplitudes of the components of an

p

2

incident wave of frequency 3 Hz

pare

ui 18p 1;1; 6 mm and those of the wave

63 2p pp p

transmitted to medium 2 are

2; 2; 3 mm. Given that the amplitude of

7

the transmitted potential is twice that of the reected potential, nd expressions for

the incident, reected, and transmitted potentials.

In liquids only P-waves are propagated and their displacements can be deduced from the

scalar potential

A0 exp ika n1 x1 n2 x2 n3 x3 at ) uP r

Then in our case the components of the displacement in mm are

uP1

@

A0 ka n1 A0 ka sin i cos az 18p

@x1

uP2

@

A0 ka n2 A0 ka sin i sin az 18p

@x2

uP3

p

@

A0 ka n3 A0 ka cos i 18p 6

@x3

The emergence angle of the refracted wave, e0 , can be found from its displacements,

p p p p

p

2 2 3

3

63p 2

2

0

0

P

p ; p ; p ) n3 sin e p ) cos e0 p

utras p

7 7 7

7

7

7

The P-wave velocity in the medium of the incident wave is

s s

l 2m

K

1

a

p km s1

r

r

2

Using Snells law we nd the velocity of the medium of the refracted wave,

p

cos e

a

2 2

0

) a p

cos e0 a0

7

From the values of the velocities in the two media we calculate their densities:

9

1 0

>

>

r

2

0

>

a

7

Kr

>

2

>

=

02

0

0

3

3

a

16 K r

K

) r0 r g cm3

p

>

2

2

q 2 2

>

8 0>

>

0

K0

0

>

a r0 p ) K r ;

7

7

240

Seismology

The reection V and transmission W coefcients are found using their expressions and from

them we get the relation between the amplitude A0 of the incident wave potential and those

of the reected A and refracted A0 waves, and substituting the value for A0 6, we obtain

A0 6 ) A 3 103 m2

From these values we can write the potentials of the incident, reected, and transmitted

waves:

p

p 1

3

1

1

x3 p t

inc 6 exp i6p 2 p x1 p x2

2

2 2

2 2

2

p

p 1

3

1

1

x3 p t

ref 3 exp i6p 2 p x1 p x2

2

2

2 2

2 2

p

p

p

p p

2

2

2

3

7

tras 6 exp i3p p p x1 p x2 p x3 2 p t

7

7

7

7

2

129. Two liquids in contact have speeds of propagation of 4 and 6 km s1. The density

of the rst is 2 g cm3 and is less than that of the second. For waves of normal

incidence, the reected and transmitted energies are equal. A wave of v 1 s1 and

with a potential of amplitude A0 2103 cm2 is incident from the rst onto the

second at an angle of 30 . Calculate:

(b) An expression for the transmitted potential.

(a) For normal incidence, the reection and transmission coefcients in terms of the

refractive index m a/a0 and the density contrast m r0 /r are given by

mn

mn

2

Wn

mn

Vn

Vn2 mnWn2 )

m n2

m n2

4mn

m n2

4

m 3:9

4

2

m 4m 0 )

m 0:1

9

Trying both values we obtain for r0

r0

0:1 ) r0 0:2 g cm3

r

m 4 ) r0 8 g cm3

m

129:1

241

i = 30

r = 2 g cm3

M

e

a = 4 km s1

a = 6 km s1

M

Fig. 129

For a wave with incidence angle 30 (e 60 ) the emergence angle of the transmitted

wave e0 is, according to Snells law (Fig. 129), given by

r p

cos e cos e0

3

9

7

0

0

0 ) cos e ) sin e 1

a

4

16

a

4

The partition of energy between the reected and refracted waves is given by

sin e0 2

W V2 1

sin e

The reection V and transmission W coefcients are

p

p

3 2 7

m sin e n sin e0 4 2 3 4

p 0:8

p

V

m sin e n sin e0

3 2 7

4

2 p3 4

3

2 sin e

p 0:46

W

p

0

m sin e n sin e

3 2 7

4

2

3 4

mn

The incident, reected, and transmitted energies per unit time and surface area are (Problem 127)

ro4 2

A sin e 17:3 erg cm2 s

a 0

ro4 2

ro4 2 2

Eref

A sin e

A V sin e 11:1 erg cm2 s

a

a 0

r0 o4

r0 o4

Etrans 0 A02 sin e0 0 A20 W 2 sin e0 7:5 erg cm2 s

a

a

Einc

242

Seismology

tras A0 exp ik x3 tan e0 x1 ct

where

A0 A0 W 2 103 0:46 920 cm2

o

1

k ka0 0 cos e0 0 cos e0 km1

a

8

a0

c

8 km s1

cos e0

p

7

1

x3 x1 8t

tras 920 exp i

8 3

130. An SV wave is incident on the free surface of an elastic medium of Poisson ratio

0.25. If the potential of the wave is (in units of 103m2)

p

3

5

5

1

1

c i p ; p ; 0 exp i p x1 p x2

x3 4t

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

nd the components of the amplitude of the reected P-wave referred to this set of axes.

From the direction cosines we nd the incidence angle i, the emergence angle f, and the

azimuth az of the incident SV wave (Fig. 130):

p

3

n3 cos i sin f

) i 30 and f 60

2

1

1

n1 sin i cos az cos az p ) az 45

2

2 2

Bearing in mind that Poissons ratio is 0.25, from Snells law we nd the emergence angle

e of the reected P-wave:

p

p

s 0:25 ) l m ) a 3b 4 3 km s1

p

cos f

cos e

3

) cos e

) e 30

b

a

2

X3

f

f

SV

Fig. 130

243

The reection coefcient for the reected P-wave gives us the relation between the

amplitude of the potential, B0, of the incident SV wave and A, that of the reected P wave:

VSP

p

A

4 tan f 1 3 tan2 e

3

2

B0 4 tan e tan f 1 3 tan2 e

To nd B0 we write the potential of the incident SV wave referred to the (x1, x3) plane of

incidence using the rotation matrix

0 5 1

0

1

0

1

p

0

cos az

sin az 0 B 2 C

B

C

C

C

B

C B

@ sin az cos az 0 AB

B p5 C @ 5 A

@

2A

0

0

0

1

0

p

B0 5 103 m2 ) A 5 3 103 m2

Referred to this system of axes the potential of the reected P-wave is given by

A exp ik x3 tan e x1 a t

kb

1

1 2 km1

cos f

2

p

p

1

5 3 exp i2 x3 p x1 4 3t

3

k

The amplitudes of the displacements of the reected P-wave referred to this set of axes are

p

@

10 3 mm

@x1

@

u3

10 mm

@x3

u1

p

10 3

0

p

mm

u1 u1 cos az

2

p

10 3

u20 u1 sin az p mm

2

131. Assume that the Earths crust consists of a single layer of thickness H and a

constant speed of propagation of seismic waves of v1 on top of a mantle of velocity of

propagation 20% greater than the crust. Given that a focus on the surface produces a

reected wave that takes 17.2 s to reach a distance of 99 km, and that this is the

244

Seismology

xc

F

H

ic

ic

v1

v2

Fig. 131a

critical distance, calculate the values of H, v1, and v2. Plot the travel-time curve (t, x)

for this specic case with numerical values.

The critical distance xc is the distance at which a ray that is reected with the critical angle

at the top of the mantle arrives at the surface and is given by the equation (Fig. 131a)

xc 2H tan ic 99 km

131:1

where H is the thickness of the crust. Since we know the relation between the velocities in

the crust and the mantle, we can calculate the critical angle

v2 1:2v1 )

sin ic

1

1

) ic 56:44

) sin ic

v1

v2

1:2

99 2H tan 56:44 ) H 32:8 km

The travel time of the critically reected ray is

H

H

2

17:2

v1 cos ic

v1 cos 56:44

32:84

) v1 2

6:9 km s1 ) v2 8:3 km s1

17:2 cos 56:44

t2

To draw the travel-time curve for different distances of the direct, reected, and critically

refracted waves we use the equations

x

t1

v1

r

2 x2

H2

t2

v1 4

p

x 2H v22 v21

t3

v2

v1 v2

245

x(km)

t1 (s)

t2 (s)

t3 (s)

0

30

60

90

99

120

150

0

4.3

8.7

13.0

14.3

17.4

21.7

9.5

10.4

12.9

16.1

17.2

19.8

23.7

17.2

19.7

23.4

40

3

t (S)

30

20

1

10

ti

0

0

Fig. 131b

50

xc

150

x (km)

200

250

300

246

Seismology

x

P

Fig. 132

132. In a seismogram recorded at a regional distance, the S-P time lag is 5.5 s, and the

focus is at a depth x/2, where x is the epicentral distance. The

p model1Earth has a single

layer of Poisson ratio 0.25 and constant S-wave velocity 3 km s . Calculate:

(b) The epicentral distance.

(a) For a direct wave from point F to point P (Fig. 132) the difference of the arrival

times of the P- and S-waves (the S-P interval) is

t S-P 5:5

FP FP

b

a

r

p

x 2

p

5

FP x2 h2 x2

x

2

2

The S-P interval is given by

p

5ab

5:5 x

2 ab

Since Poissons ratio is 0.25 and knowing the S-wave velocity we obtain

p p

p

5 31

pp

s 0:25 ) a b 3 ) 5:5 x

2

3 3

x 21 km

x

h 10:5 km

2

133. The Earth consists of a layer of thickness 20 km and seismic wave velocity

6 km s1 on top of a medium of speed of propagation 8 km s1. A seismic focus is

247

x

h

H

F

ic

ic

ic

i

v1

v2

Fig. 133

located at a depth of 10 km. Calculate the difference in travel times between the

reected and the critical refracted waves observed on the surface at a distance of

150 km from the epicentre.

This problem is similar to Problem 131, but now the focus is at depth h 10 km.

The critical distance in this case is given by (Fig. 133)

xc 2H h tan ic

v1

1 6

sin ic ) ic sin

48:6

v2

8

) xc 2 20 10 tan48:6 34:0 km

Since the distance 150 km is greater than the critical distance there arrive critically

refracted rays. The travel times of the reected (t2), and critically refracted (t3) rays at that

distance are

q q

x2 2H h2

1502 2 20 102

25:5 s

t2

v1

6

p

p

x 2H h v22 v21 150 2 20 10 82 62

t3

22:1 s

v2

8

v1 v2

86

The time difference between the travel times of the two rays is

t3 t2 22:06 24:49 3:4 s

134. Consider a crust of thickness H and constant speed of propagation v1 on a mantle

of constant speed of propagation v2. A seismic focus is located at depth H/2, the

critical distance is 51.09 km, the delay time is 4.96 s, and the critical angle is 48.59 .

Calculate the values of H, v1 and v2, and the depth of the focus.

For a focus at depth h H/2, the travel times of the critically refracted (t3) rays and the

critical distance are given by the expressions (Fig. 133).

248

Seismology

p

x 2H h v22 v21

t3

v2

v1 v2

xc 2H h tan ic ) 51:09

H

2H

tan48:59

2

) H 30 km; h 15km

Knowing the depth and thickness of the crust, using Snells law, the value of the critical

angle, and the delay time ti, we nd the velocities v1 and v2:

sin ic

1

) v1 0:75v2

v1

v2

q

p

2

2

2

30

15

v22 0:75v2 2

2H h v2 v1

ti

) 4:96

v1 v2

0:75v22

) v2 8 km s1

v1 6 km s1

135. In a seismogram, the S-P time difference is equal to 5.31 s, and corresponds to a

regional earthquake that occurred at a depth h 2H, where H is the thickness

of the crust. Given that the crust is formed by a layer of constant P-wave velocity

of 3 km s1, that below it there is a semi-innite mantle of double that speed of

propagation, and that Poissons ratio is 0.25, determine:

(a) An expression for the travel-time of the P- and S-waves.

(b) The epicentral distance for an emerging P-wave with a take-off angle of 30 at the

focus.

(a) The travel time corresponding to the ray given in Fig. 135 is given by

t

FA AS

2v

v

i0

i0

2H

A

ih

Fig. 135

2v

249

where v a for P-waves and v b for S-waves. Using Snells law we nd the relation

between the incidence angle at the focus ih and at the station i0:

sin ih sin i0

1

) sin i0 sin ih

2v

v

2

From Fig. 135 we obtain

H

H

) FA

cos ih

FA

H

H

cos i0

) AS

cos i0

AS

cos ih

From these equations we deduce the expression for the travel time:

t

H

H

2v cos ih v cos i0

135:1

x F0 A AS0 H tan ih H tan i0

135:2

Using Equations (135.1) and (135.2) and putting v a we obtain the travel time and

epicentral distance for P-waves and putting v b for S-waves.

(b) For a P-wave with take-off angle at the focus (ih) of 30 , we rst nd the value of

the angle at the station i0,

sin ih sin i0

) i0 14:47

2a

a

Substituting in (135.1) we obtain

tP

H

H

H

p

1:61

a0:97

a

3

2a

2

The travel time of the S-wave with take-off angle jh 30 can also be calculated using

(135.1). Since Poissons ratio is 0.25, the velocity of the S-wave is

p

p

a

s 0:25 ) a 3b ) b p 3 km s1

3

The incidence angle at the station, j0, using Snells law, is given by

sin jh sin j0

) j0 14:47

2b

b

and the travel time is

tS

H

H

H

2:79

2b cos jh b cos j0

a

Since we know the S-P time interval we can obtain the value of h:

t S-P 5:31 2:79

H

H

1:61 ) h 13:61 km

3

3

250

Seismology

x 13:61 tan 30 13:61 tan 14:47 11:41 km

136. Consider a crust composed of two layers of thickness 12 and 18 km, and constant

P-wave speeds of propagation of 7 and 6 km s1, respectively, on top of a semi-innite

mantle of constant speed of propagation 8 km s1. There is a seismic focus at a depth

of 6 km below the surface. For a station located at 100 km epicentral distance,

calculate the travel time of the direct, reected, and critical refracted waves (neglecting waves with more than a single reection or critical refraction).

The travel times of the direct ray t1 and the ray reected on the bottom of the rst layer

t2 are given by (Fig.136)

p p

h2 x 2

62 1002

14:3 s

t1

v1

7

q q

2H1 h2 x2

2 12 62 1002

t2

14:5 s

v1

7

As the velocity of the second layer is less than that of the rst layer there is no critical

refraction at that boundary. There is critical refraction at the boundary between the second

layer and the mantle where the velocity is greater. Using Snells law, we can calculate the

h

F

2 (H1 h)

H1

n1

i1

i1

F

H2

n2

ic

ic

n3

Fig. 136

251

critical angle ic and from this value the incidence angle at the focus i1 for the critically

refracted ray:

sin i1 sin ic

1

6

) sin ic ) ic 48:6

v1

v2

v3

8

7

sin i1 ) i1 61:0

8

The travel time t3 of the critically refracted ray at the bottom of the second layer is given by

FA AB BC CD DS

v1

v2

v3

v2

v1

If the epicentral distance x is 100 km, the different segments of (136.1) are

t3

136:1

H1 h H1

FA

DS

H2

cos ic

) AB CD 27:2 km

AB

BC x 2H2 tan ic H1 h tan i1 H1 tan i1 26:8 km

cos i1

t3 17:7 s

137. Consider a two-layered structure of thickness H and speed of propagation v and

3v on top of a half-space medium of speed of propagation 2v. At a depth 3H below the

surface there is a seismic focus. Write the expressions (as functions of H, v, and ih) for

the travel times of waves that reach the surface without being reected. Give the

range of values of ih.

In this problem the focus is located at the half-space medium at depth h3H under its

boundary. Applying Snells law we can nd the relation between the velocities, the

incidence angles at the focus and at the bottom of each layer, and the critical angle at the

boundary between the second layer and the half-space (Fig. 137):

sin ih sin i2 sin i1

2v

3v

v

sin ic

1

) ic 41:8

2v

3v

137:1

The rays which leave the focus and arrive at the surface at a distance x are only those with

angles less than the critical angle (Fig. 137). The travel time for these rays is

t

FA AB BS

H

H

H

2v

3v

v

2v cos ih 3v cos i2 v cos i1

137:2

According to Equation (137.1) we have the relation between the incidence angles:

q

q

3

1

4 9 sin2 ih

sin i2 sin ih ) cos i2 1 sin2 ih

2

2

q

q

1

1

sin i1 sin ih ) cos i1 1 sin2 ih

4 sin2 ih

2

2

252

Seismology

i1

H

i0

H

i2

3v

A

ic

ih

2v

Fig. 137

Substituting in (137.2) we write the travel time as function of the take-off angle ih:

!

H

1

2

2

t

p p

v 2 cos ih 3 4 9 sin2 ih

4 sin2 ih

We nd a similar expression for the epicentral distance x:

x H tan ih H tan i2 H tan i1

!

sin ih

3 sin ih

x H tan ih p p

4 sin2 ih

4 9 sin2 ih

The range of values of the take-off angle for rays which arrive at the surface is

0 < ih <42 .

138. A semi-innite medium consists of two media of velocities v and 3v separated by a

vertical surface. In the rst medium there is a focus of seismic waves at a depth a

below the free surface and at the same distance a from the surface separating the two

media. Write the expressions for the direct, reected, and transmitted waves arriving

at the free surface, and plot the travel time curve (t, x) in units of a/v and a (neglecting

waves with more than a single reection).

In this situation we have the following rays arriving at the surface: direct in the rst

medium, reected at the boundary, and critically refracted and refracted to the

second medium. We consider two cases for rays arriving at distances 0 < x < a and

distances x > a.

253

S

x

a

3v

Fig. 138a

S

E

x

ic

a

A

ic

ic

a

v

3v

Fig. 138b

(a) For 0 < x <a, the travel time t1 of the direct wave is (Fig. 138a)

p

FS

x 2 a2

t1

v

v

The travel time t2 of the reected ray is

q

2a x2 a2

FP PS AP PS AS

t2

v

v

v

v

The reected rays exist also for negative distances, but we will not consider them.

The travel time t3 of the critically refracted ray (Fig. 138b) is

t3

FA AB AS

v

3v

v

138:1

254

Seismology

E

xc

ic

a

ic

ic

F

ic

a

3v

Fig. 138c

sin ic

1

) ic 19:47

3v

v

and

cos ic

a

ax

FA

AS

AB a a tan ic a x tan ic a tan ic x 2a

By substitution in (138.1) we obtain

a 0:94

x

t3 2:22

v

v

The critical distance (distance of the ray reected with the critical angle) is given by

(Fig. 138c)

xc a SB

138:2

tan ic

BP a a tan ic

) SB 1:83a

SB

SB

xc 0:83a

Critically refracted rays exists for distances 0.83a < x < a. Here we consider only those

for 0 < x < a.

255

S

X

a

A

i

a

3v

Fig. 138d

2.0

2

t (a/v)

1.5

1

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

x (a)

Fig. 138e

(b) For distances x > a, we have the rays refracted at the boundary between the two

media when the incidence angle is less than the critical angle (Fig. 138d), that is,

i <19.47 :

256

Seismology

FA AS

v

3v

a

FA

cos i

xa

AS

cos e

t4

Using Snell`law

sin i sin e

) sin e 3 sin i

v

3v

The travel-time is given by

t4

a

xa

p

v cos i 3v 1 9 sin2 i

The travel-time curves for direct (1), reected (2), critically refracted (3) and transmitted

(4) waves are given in Fig. 138e.

139. Given the structure in the diagram, calculate the arrival times of the direct and

(non-reected) transmitted waves for x 0, where x 0 is a point on the free surface

in the vertical above the focus.

At x 0 )ih 0 , the travel-time of the vertical ray is (Fig. 139a)

t

a a 3a

2v v 2v

For rays arriving at x > 0 and leaving the focus with take-off angles 0 < ih < 45 , the

travel-times are given by

FA AS

a

a

2v

v

2v cos ih v cos r

a

cos ih

FA

a

cos r

AS

t

a

2a

2v

Focus

Fig. 139

139:1

257

X

E

r

2a

2v

a

ih

F

a

Fig. 139a

sin ih sin r

1

) sin r sin ih

v

2

2v

139:2

Substituting in (139.1):

a

1

2

t

p

v 2 cos ih

4 sin2 ih

139:3

The relation between the epicentral distance x and the incidence angle ih is

x F0 A A0 S

F0 A a tan ih

A0 S a tan r

sin ih

x atan i tan r a tan i p

4 sin2 ih

tan ih

F0 A

a

tan r

x F0 A x

tan ih

a

a

x

sin ih

2

sin r

x

1

2

a

2

tan ih )

cos r cos r a

cos r sin ih cos ih

258

Seismology

x

E

n

2a

r

2n

a

ih

ih

F

F

a

Fig. 139b

By substitution in (139.3),

t

2x

3a

v sin ih 2v cos ih

1

x a 1 p

7

This is the limit of the epicentral distance at which these rays arrive. The corresponding

time limit is

t

a 1

4

p p

v

2

14

For angles ih > 45 (Fig. 139b), the travel time and epicentral distance, as a function of the

take-off angle ih, are

t

FA AS

a

xa

a

xa

sin ih

2v

v

2v sin ih v sin r 2v sin ih

v

2

x a A0 S

A0 S

2a F0 A

a

F0 A

tan ih

a

sin ih

p

x a 2a

tan ih

4 sin2 ih

tan r

259

Using

cos ih cos r

1

) cos r cos ih

2v

v

2

1 p

4 cos2 ih

sin r

2p

4 cos2 ih

tan r

cos ih

we obtain for x and t,

p

a

4 cos2 ih

tan ih

cos ih

a

2x a

p

t

2v sin ih v 4 cos2 ih

x a 2a

For i 90 , as expected the ray doesnt arrive at the free surface.

140. For the structure in Fig. 140a, write the equations of the travel times of the

direct, reected, and transmitted waves (neglecting waves with more than a single

reection) as a function of the epicentral distance. Determine the times of intersection,

and the minimum and maximum distances in each case in terms of a/v and v. Plot the

travel-time curves.

The travel-time of the direct wave for distance 0 < x < 1 is (Fig. 140a)

p

4x2 a2

t

2v

For the ray reected on the horizontal surface at depth a the travel time is

s

2

3a

p

x2

2

4x2 9a2

t

2v

v

x

S

a /2

F

Fig. 140a

260

Seismology

x

S

a/2

a

a

2v

Fig. 140b

xmin 0

a xmax

xmax ) a

) xmax 3a

3a

2

2

For the reected ray on the surface at depth 2a the travel time is (Fig. 140b)

s

2

7a

2

p

x

2

4x2 49a2

t

2v

v

The range of distances is

3a

3

a

2

xmin

7

2

) xmin 7a ) tmin

p

7 5a

2 v

xmax 1

The critically refracted ray on the surface at depth a, using the general expression, is given by

p

p

x 2H h v22 v21

x a3 3

t

v2

v 1 v2

2v v 4

The minimum distance for this ray corresponds to the critical distance:

sin ic

1

) ic 30

v

2v

p

3

a

a

xc tan ic a tan ic

2

2

and the maximum distance is

xmax

p

a 3 3

a

a p

3

3

261

10

t (a/v)

2

2

4

6

X (a)

10

12

Fig. 140c

On the surface at depth 2a there is no critically refracted ray, since the minimum take-off

angle ih at that surface is

a

tan ih a 2 ) ih 63:4

2

greater than the critical angle 30 .

The travel-time curves are drawn after rewriting the equations in units of a/v and a, and

are represented in Fig. 140c

tv2 x 2

x

1. Direct ray:

14 ; 0
< 1 (a hyperbola)

a

a

a 2

tv

x 2 9

x

2. Reected ray on the surface at depth a:

; 0
3 (a hyperbola)

a

a

4

a

tv2 x2 49

x

; 7
1 (a hyperbola)

3. Reected ray on the surface at depth 2a:

a

a

4 p

a

tv 1 x 3 3

x

4. Critically refracted ray on surface at depth a:

a 2a

4

a

to the short range of distances this is not noticeable in the gure)

262

Seismology

141. For the structure in the diagram, assume a seismic focus at the surface, and

calculate the travel time of the direct, reected, and critical refracted waves for

epicentral distances between 0 and a. Calculate the critical distance, and the expression for the transmitted wave.

Since the focus is at the free surface, the travel time of the direct ray is simply given by

(Fig. 141a)

t

x

v

0<x<a

a

F

45

Fig. 141

a

x

S

45

P

a

a 2

45

Fig. 141a

263

a

x

S

45

45

ic

ic

B

A

2

a

45

Fig. 141b

t

FP PS F0 P PS 1 p

x2 2a2 2ax

v

v

v

v

v

p

sin ic

1

1

2 2

) ic 19:47

) sin ic ) cos ic

v

3v

3

3

The travel-time of the critically refracted ray is (Fig. 141b)

FA AB BS

v

3v

v

a

p

3

2

a

FA

cos ic 4

t

The distance BS can be found using the sine law in triangle SBD:

sin90 ic sin 45

ax

BS

BS a x

3

4

p

p

p

p

2

2

2

tan ic d a

a

tan ic d

AB a 2 a cos 45 a

2

2

2

264

Seismology

a

xc

s

D

45

ic

45

ic

A

2

2

45

Fig. 141c

sin45 ic sin90 ic

sin45 ic

) d a x

d

ax

sin90 ic

p

sin45 ic

2

AB a

0:96x 0:50a

1 tan ic a x

sin90 ic

2

The travel time is given by

x

a

t 0:43 1:33

v

v

Finally we determine the critical distance xc from the triangle AS0 D (Fig. 141c):

b 90 ic 45 180 ) b 64:47

sin90 ic

sin b

) xc 0:52a

a

a

a xc

p p tan ic

2

2

v1 on a semi-innite mantle of constant speed of propagation v2. For a focus at the

surface, at a distance x the direct wave arrives at a time t1 x/a, the critical distance is

p

2a

xc p, and the direct and critical refracted waves intersect at the distance x 2a 3.

3

(a) Calculate the crusts thickness, its speed of propagation, the mantles speed of

propagation, and the critical angle.

265

(b) Assume now that this is a layer which dips downwards at 45 with the parameters

of the model being those determined in the previous part. Calculate the travel

times of the reected and critical refracted waves at x a, 3a, and 5a.

(a) We determine the velocity of the crust from the travel time of the direct ray:

t1

x

x

) v1 a

v1 a

v1

a

a

2 p

xc 2H tan ic 2H p

2H p

2

2

2

2

3

v2 v1

v2 a

142:1

p times of the direct and critically refracted ray for the value of the

distancex 2a 3 we obtain

p

x

x 2H v22 v21

142:2

t1 t3 )

v1 v2

v1 v2

From Equations (142.1) and (142.2) we obtain the values of H and v2:

H a

v2 2a

The critical angle may be estimated from

2a

x0c 2H tan ic ) p 2a tan ic ) ic 30

3

(b) We now consider the case of a dipping layer with dip angle y 45 . The critical

distance is now given by the equation (Fig. 142)

xc

F

*

ic

xc sin

Fig. 142

266

Seismology

142:3

so

xc

2H tan ic

cos y sin y tan ic

The critical distance along the horizontal free surface xc is found by substituting H, y, and ic

in (142.3)

xc 3:86a

The travel times of the reected and critically refracted rays for a dipping layer are given by

the equations

p

4H 2 x2 4Hx sin y

t2

v1

q

x cos y x sin y 2H

t3

v22 v21

v2

v1 v2

By substitution of the values of H, v1, v2, and y, we obtain

p

p

4a2 x2 2 2ax

t2

pa

2

p

p

p p

x 2 x 2 2a p x 2

3

1 3 3

t3

2a

4a

4a

For the required values of x, we obtain the following values of the travel time in units

of a/v:

x

t2 (a/v)

t3 (a/v)

a

3a

5a

2.80

4.64

6.57

6.56

143. In a at medium, the velocity increases linearly with depth according to the

expression v v0 kz, where v0 is the velocity at the surface, k is a constant, and z is

the depth. For a focus at depth h, calculate an expression for the take-off angle at the

focus ih in terms of the epicentral distance x, and v0, h, and k.

At the maximum depth of penetration of the ray r the incidence angle of the ray with the

vertical is equal to 90 (Fig. 143). Using Snells law we can relate the angles at the focus ih,

at the bottom of the ray 90 , and i0, the incidence angle at the station on the surface:

sin i0

1

sin ih

v0 kh

) sin ih

v0 kr v0 kh

v0 kr

v0

143:1

267

x

a

0 / k

R

S

E

V0

r

F

i0

ih

Fig. 143

The problem is solved if we can express r as a function of x, v0, h, and k. The epicentral

distance x is the sum of a and b (Fig. 143):

r

v 2

0

b R2

k

But we know that for a distribution of velocities which increases linearly with depth the

rays are circular and their radius R is

r

2 v 2

v0

v0

0

r

R r )b

k

k

k

and

r

v

2 v

2

0

0

a

r

h

k

k

Therefore,

r

r

2 v 2

2 v

2

v0

v0

0

0

bxa)

r

x

r

h

k

k

k

k

v

u0

12

u x 2 h2 2 v 0 h

u

k A v0 h 2 v0

r t@

2x

k

k

for ih.

268

Seismology

144. Consider a semi-innite medium in which the velocity increases linearly with depth

according to the expression v 4 0.1 z. There is a seismic focus at a depth of 10 km.

Calculate the epicentral distance reached by a wave leaving the focus at an angle of 30 .

The velocity at the focus is found directly by putting in the equation for the distribution of

velocity, z h:

vh 4 0:1 10 5 km s1

According to Snells law we nd the velocity at the point of greatest depth penetration

(i 90 ) of the ray (Fig. 144):

sin ih

1

5

10 km s1

) vm

vm

sin 30

vh

From this value we nd the depth to that point:

vm 10 4 0:1 r ) r 60 km

Knowing that the rays are circular of radius R,

v0

R r 60 40 100 km

k

As in the previous problem, the epicentral distance (from point E to S) is (Fig. 144):

xab

where

r

v

2

0

h 86:60 km

a R2

k

r

v 2

0

b R2

91:65 km

k

so

x 178:25 km

x

a

0/k

R

S

V0

h

r

F

i0

ih

Fig. 144

269

145. A at medium consists of a layer of thickness H and constant speed of propagation v on top of a medium of variable speed of propagation v v0 k(z H) where z

is the depth and k is a constant. If there is a focus at the surface:

(a) Write expressions for the epicentral distance x and the travel time t as functions of

the angle of incidence i0 at the surface.

(b) If H 10 km, k 0.1 s1, and v0 6 km s1, calculate the angle of incidence of a

wave that reaches an epicentral distance of 140 km.

(a) As we saw in Problem 143, for a distribution with a linear increase of velocity with

depth, now in the medium under the layer, v v0 k(z H), the rays are circular with

v0

radius R r where r is the maximum depth of penetration of the ray (Fig. 145).

k

The travel-time of the ray that crosses the layer and penetrates the medium is given by

t2

FP 2

kx0

sinh1

v0 k

2v0

145:1

In the layer of constant velocity the path is a straight line and in the medium it is circular.

The epicentral distance x (from F to S) is (Fig. 145)

x x0 2H tan i0

The length of the straight ray in the layer is

FP

H

cos i0

Substituting in (145.1):

0

2H

2

1 kx

sinh

t

v0 cos i0 k

2v0

145:2

Since the layer has constant velocity the angle i0 is the same at the focus as at the bottom of

the layer at the boundary with the medium. According to Snells law

x

F

i0

i0

x

i0

0/k

P

Fig. 145

Q

r

270

Seismology

sin i0

1

v0

) vm v0 kr

v0

v0 kr

sin i0

where r is the maximum depth reached by the ray in the medium and vm the velocity at that

depth. According to Fig. 145,

0

2

2 v2

x

v0 2

v0

v2

v0

r m2 2 0 2 ) x0 2 cot i0

145:3

2

k

k

k

k

k sin i0

The epicentral distance x is given by

x x0 2H tan i0

2v0

cot i0 2H tan i0

k

145:4

t

2H

2

sinh1 cot i0

v0 cos i0 k

i0 45

26

140

cot i0 2 10 tan i0 )

0:01

i0 80:5

146. Beneath a layer of thickness H of velocity distribution v v0 kz there is a semiinnite medium of speed of propagation v1 2(v0 kH).

(a) Determine expressions (as functions of the above parameters) for the critical

distance, the time of intersection of the reected wave, and the maximum distance

of the direct wave.

(b) For H 10 km, v0 1 km s1, and k 0.1 s1, calculate these parameters and

plot the travel-time curves.

(a) In a layer of thickness H with variable velocity the epicentral distance x for a

reected ray is given by

H

x 2 tan i dz

0

pv

sin i vp ) tan i p

1 p2 v 2

The epicentral distance for a ray reaching the bottom the layer is given by

H

vp

2 H

kpv0 kz

qdz

x 2 p dz

2

2

k

1p v

0

0

1 p2 v kz2

0

For a ray incident at the bottom of the layer at the critical angle, we have

p

sin ic

1

v0 kH 2v0 kH

146:1

271

xmax

xc

n0/k

S

H

ic

n1

Fig. 146a

Substituting this expression in (146.1) and evaluating the integral, making the change of

variable u v0 kz, we obtain the critical distance

"p s#

3

4v0 kH

v20

1

146:2

xc

2

k

4v0 kH 2

The intercept time for x 0, corresponding to the time of the reected vertical ray (p 0),

is given by

H

dz

2 v0 kH

ln

146:3

ti 2

k

v0

0 v0 kz

The maximum distance xmax corresponds to the last ray propagated inside the layer

v0

without penetrating into the medium and has a circular path of radius R H

k

(Fig. 146a):

r

x 2 v 2

v0 2

2v0

max

0

H

) xmax 2H 1

146:4

2

k

k

kH

(b) For the particular case with the values, H 10 km, v0 1 km s1, and k 0.1 s1,

the velocity at the bottom of the layer H is

vH v0 kH 1 10 0:1 2 km s1

The velocity of the medium is

v1 2v0 kH 21 10 0:1 4 km s1

The critical distance, using Equation (146.2), is

42

xc

0:1

"p s #

p

p

3

1

20

3

2

5 8:2 km

1

2

422

272

Seismology

30

25

t (s)

20

15

10

10

20

30

40

x (km)

Fig. 146b

2 v0 kH

2 1 0:1 10

ti ln

ln

13:9 s

k

v0

0:1

1

and the maximum distance for the ray in the layer (146.4) is

xmax

r

p

21

2 10 1

20 3 34:6 km

0:1 10

The travel-time curve for rays inside the layer is calculated using the expression

2

1 kx

t sinh

20 sinh1 0:05x

k

2v0

and is represented in Fig. 146b.

273

Fig. 147

147. A medium has a distribution of velocity with depth of the form v v0 eaz, with

0 < a <1. Write as functions of the epicentral distance x the expressions for the ray

parameter, travel-time, and maximum depth reached.

If r is the maximum depth reached for a ray with ray parameter p (Fig. 147), the epicentral

distance x is given by

r

r

pvdz

pv0 eaz dz

x p p

1 p2 v20 e2az

1 p2 v 2

0

0

r

2

2

sin1 pv0 eaz sin1 pv0 ear sin1 pv0

a

a

0

1

, we have

and, as p

v0 ear

i

2 hp

sin1 pv0

x

a 2

From this expression we obtain

1

ax

p cos

v0

2

The travel-time is given by

x

1 x

ax

2

ax

cos dx

sin

t pdx

v0 0

2

v0 a

2

0

To nd the maximum depth of penetration r of a ray arriving at distance x, we write

1

1

ax

1 ax

p

)

r

ln cos

cos

v0 ear v0

2

a

2

z

148. In a semi-innite medium of speed of propagation v 6 exp

, the P-wave

2

emerges with an angle of incidence of 30 . Calculate the difference in arrival times at

a given station of the P-wave and the PP-wave (the wave reected once at the free

surface). At what angle of incidence does the PP-wave emerge?

For a velocity distribution increasing with depth of the type v v0ea z (in our case with

v0 6, a 1/2) rays follow a curved path. For a focus on the free surface the ray parameter

p and the travel times t are given by (Problem 147)

ax

1

p cos

v0

2

148:1

ax

2

sin

t

av0

2

274

Seismology

Fig. 148

For a ray with incidence angle at the surface i0 30 , the ray parameter of the direct

P-wave is given by

p

sin i0

1

1

v0

2 6 12

1

1 x

4p

)x

cos

km

12 6

22

3

The corresponding travel time is

tP

2

1 4p 1

sin

0:58 s

1

2 3 2

6

2

The travel time of the reected PP-wave (Fig. 148) is double that of the direct P-wave

arriving at the distance x/2:

2

1 4p 1

t PP 2 sin

0:67 s:

1

2 6 2

6

2

The difference between the two times is

t PP t P 0:67 0:58 0:09 s:

To calculate the incidence angle of the PP-wave, we determine rst the ray parameter

p corresponding to the distance x/2:

x

4p

4p

2 32

6

so

p

1

1 4p 1

3

p cos

12

6

2 6 2

275

p

3

sin i0

p

6 ) i0 60

) sin i0

12

v0

149. A layer of thickness H has a velocity distribution v v0 exp(az) where a <1.

Beneath it there is a semi-innite medium of speed of propagation v1 2v0 exp(aH).

Determine in terms of v0, v1, a, and H:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The time of intersection of the reected wave.

The maximum distance of the direct wave.

Calculate the values of these parameters if v 1 km s1, H 10 km, and

a 0.1 km1.

(a) The distance for a ray reaching a depth H is given by (Fig. 149)

H

x 2 tan idz

149:1

sin i

) sin i vp

p

pv

cos i 1 v2 p2

vp

tan i p

1 v 2 p2

Substituting in (149.1) we obtain

H

H

vp

pv0 eaz

x 2 p dz 2 p

dz

1 p2 v20 e2az

1 v 2 p2

0

0

149:2

xmax

xc

S

ic

n1

Fig. 149

276

Seismology

u v0 eaz

du v0 eaz adz

we nd

x

2 1

sin pv0 eaH sin1 pv0

a

p

sin i0 sin ic

1

vH

v0 eaH

) ic sin1

sin1

v0

vH

v1

v1

v1

2

v0 eaH

v0

2

vH

v0

2

xc sin1

sin1

sin1

sin1

ic i0

a

v1

v1

a

v1

v1

a

(b) The intercept time of the reected ray corresponding to the vertical ray (x 0 and p 0) is

H

H

dz

1 az

2

ti 2

2

e dz

1 eaH

av0

0 v

0 v0

(c) The maximum distance of a ray contained in the layer is given by (149.2)

H

vp

2

149:3

xmax 2 p dz sin1 pv0 eaH sin1 pv0

a

1 p2 v 2

0

At the point of greatest depth penetration the incidence angle is 90 and, according to

Snells law,

p

1

p

vH

v0

vH

By substitution in (149.3),

xmax

i 2

2 hp

sin1 eaH cos1 eaH

a 2

a

1 e0:110

30

5:62

2

ti

1 e0:110 12:6 s

0:1 1

2

cos1 e0:110 23:9 km

xmax

0:1

2

1 1

1 1

sin

sin

6:8 km

xc

0:1

2

5:62

ic sin1

277

150. Assume that the Earth consists of two concentric regions of constant velocity: the

core of radius R/2 and the mantle. The speed of propagation in the core is twice that of

the mantle. Calculate:

(a) The maximum angular distance of the direct ray in the mantle.

(b) The critical angular distance of the refracted ray in the core.

(c) Plot the paths of the waves that propagate through the Earths interior, and the

travel-time curves of these waves in units of R/v, where v is the speed of propagation in the mantle.

(a) The travel time of the direct ray in the mantle in terms of the angular distance is

given by

R

t1 2 sin

v

2

where 0 D Dmax and Dmax is the maximum distance for a ray contained in the mantle.

According to Fig. 150a the last ray which propagates in the mantle without entering the

core corresponds to angular distance Dmax which in our case is

R

max 2

cos

) max 120

R

2

(b) The critical angle for a ray incident at the core is

sin ic

1

) ic 30

v

2v

To calculate the critical distance Dc we consider the relation (Fig. 150b)

R

n

2n

R/2

Fig. 150a

/2

max

R

278

Seismology

ic

P

n

2n

q

R/2

Fig. 150b

/2

R/2

Fig. 150c

y b a 180

sin a sin b

R

R

2

ic b 180 ) b 150 ) a 14:5 ) y 15:5

c 2y 31

(c) The travel time of a ray reected at the mantlecore boundary is (Fig. 150c)

t2

FP PS

FP

2

v

v

v

150:1

279

S

i1

Q

P

i1

i2

i2

2n

R/2

n

R

Fig. 150d

2

FP

Substituting in (150.1):

2

R

R

R2 2 R cos

2

2

2

r

R

t2

5 4 cos

v

2

The travel times for the minimum and maximum angular distances are

R

min 0 ) t

v

p R

max 120 ) t 3

v

The travel time for a ray which enters the core, that is, with i1 < ic, can be determined

according to Fig. 150d using Snells law:

sin i1 sin i2

v

2v

sin i2 2 sin i1

150:2

Adding the times of the paths through the mantle and the core:

FP PQ QS 2FP PQ

v

2v

v

v

2v

2

R

R

a

2

FP R2 2R cos

2

2

4

R a

PQ 2 sin

2

2

t3

s

2R 5

R

sin

i2 cos i2

t3

v

4

2

2v

150:3

for values of the incidence angle 0 < i < ic, corresponding to distances Dc < D < 180 .

The relation between the incidence angle i1 and angular distance D is given by

280

Seismology

i 1 ( )

i 2 ( )

D ( )

t3 (R/v)

0

10

20

30

0

20.3

43.2

90

180.0

169.9

153.4

89.0

1.50

1.53

1.60

1.46

sin i1 sin 90 i1 i2 2

R

R=2

sin i1

sin i1 2 cos i1 i2

) 2 i1 i2 cos1

2

2

150:4

Using Equations (150.2), (150.3), and (150.4) we can calculate the travel times of the direct

ray in the mantle, the reected ray, and the transmitted ray through the core. Some values

for the transmitted rays in the core are given in the table.

The travel-time curves for direct rays (1), reected rays (2), and rays refracted in the core

(3) are shown in Fig. 150e.

2.0

3

1.5

t (R/v)

1.0

1

0.5

0.0

0

50

100

Fig. 150e

150

281

151. Assume that the Earth consists of two concentric regions of constant velocity: the

core of radius R/2 and the mantle. The speed of propagation in the core is half that

of the mantle. Plot the travel-time curves of the waves that propagate in the interior of

the Earth in units of R/v where v is the speed of propagation in the mantle.

This problem is similar to Problem 150, but now the velocity of the core is less than that of

the mantle. In the mantle we have direct and reected rays. As in Problem 150 the

maximum angular distance for the direct wave is 120 . The travel times for the direct

(t1) and reected (t2) rays are

R

t1 2 sin

v

2

r

R

5 4 cos

t2

v

2

151:1

151:2

Since the velocity of the core is less than that of the mantle there is no critical angle. All

rays incident at the core are refracted into it. According to Snells law the refracted angle i2

is less than the incident angle i1 (Fig. 151a):

sin i1 sin i2

v

v

2

1

sin i2 sin i1

2

i1

i2

i2

R/2

n

n/2

Q

i1

Fig. 151a

282

Seismology

The travel-time for a ray crossing the mantle and the core is (Fig. 151a)

t3

FP PQ QS 2FP 2PQ

v

v

v

v

v

2

where

R2

R

R2

2R cos a R2 R2 cos 90 i2

4

2

4

2

2

5R

2

R2 sin i2

FP

4

2

R

PQ 2 cos i2 R cos i2

2

2

FP R2

so

2R

t3

v

5

2R

sin i2

cos i2

4

2

v

151:3

3.5

3

3.0

2.5

t (R / n )

2.0

1.5

2

1.0

0.5

1

0

0

25

50

75

100

()

Fig. 151b

125

150

175

283

The relation between the incidence angle at the mantlecore boundary, i1, and the angular

distance, D, of a ray which crosses the core is

90

sin

i

i

1

2

sin180 i1

2

R=2

R

sin i1

1

sin i1 2 cos i1 i2

i1 sin1 sin i1

) 2 cos1

2

2

2

151:4

From Equations (151.1), (151.2), and (151.3) we can calculate the values for the traveltimes of the direct, reected, and refracted rays. Some values for t3 are given in the table.

i 1 ( )

i2 ( )

D ( )

t3 (R/v)

0

10

20

30

0

20.3

43.2

90

180.0

149.4

114.0

31.0

1.50

1.48

1.40

1.07

The travel-time curves for rays that are direct (1), reected (2), and refracted in the core (3)

are shown in Fig. 151b.

152. Consider a spherical Earth of radius R formed by two hemispherical media of

constant velocities of propagation v and 2v. For a focus on the surface of the

hemisphere of velocity v at the point of intersection of the diameter perpendicular

to the plane that separates the two media, calculate the travel times and travel-time

curves of the direct, reected, and critical refracted waves at the surface of separation

of the two media, in units of R/v. Calculate the expression for the travel time of waves

that propagate through the medium of speed of propagation 2v.

The travel time for angular distances D
90 are given by (Fig. 152a)

t1

FS

R

2 sin

v

v

2

152:1

The travel time of the ray reected at the plane boundary between the two hemispheres is

(Fig. 152a)

t2

FP PS F0 S

v

v

v

According to Fig. 152a (triangle OSF0 ) the relation between the angles a and D is

180 2a 180 ) a

0

2

SS0

sin a

FS

R sin

SS0 R sin ) F0 S

2R cos

sin a

2

sin a

SS

0

) F0 S

284

Seismology

2

R

Fig. 152a

t2

2R

cos

v

2

152:2

sin ic

1

) ic 30

v

2v

The travel-time of the critically refracted ray is (Fig. 152b)

t3

FA AB BS

v

2v

v

152:3

FA

R

cos ic

BS

SS0

R cos

cos ic

cos ic

0

AB OS OA BS

0

OS R sin

OA R tan ic

0

BS BS sin ic

285

ic

ic

ic

ic

P

O

2n

Fig. 152b

Substituting ic 30 :

2R

FA p ;

3

BS

2R cos

p ;

3

R

R cos

AB R sin p p

3

3

i

p

Rh

sin 31 cos

t3

2v

152:4

The critical distance can be calculated from ic 30 using Fig. 152a (triangle OSP) and a D/2

90 c a ic 90 180 ) c ic a ) c 60

The travel time of the rays that cross the boundary and penetrate in to the medium of

velocity 2v is given by (Fig. 152c)

t4

FP PS

v

2v

sin i sin i0

) sin i0 2 sin i

v

2v

and we have that

R

cos i

SP0

PS

sin i0

0

SP R sin180 R tan i

FP

152:5

286

Seismology

2n

i

R

Fig. 152c

2.0

2

t (R / n )

1.5

1.0

1

0.5

0

0

Fig. 152d

20

40

()

60

80

287

Substituting in Equation (152.5) we obtain, for D > 90 ,

t4

3R

R sin

4v cos i 4v sin i

152:6

Travel-time curves for t1, t2, and t3 are shown in Fig. 152d.

153. Assume an Earth formed by a mantle of thickness R and a core of radius R/2,

with velocities v and 2v. There is a seismic focus at depth R/4 below the surface.

Calculate the travel-time curves of the direct and reected waves.

The travel time of the direct ray is (Fig. 153a)

t1

FP

v

The distance FP can be expressed in terms of R and D using the cosine law in triangle FOP:

3R 2

3R

FP

R2 2R cos

4

4

Then, we obtain

R

t1

v

r

25 3

cos

16 2

153:1

max 1 2

R

cos 1 2 ) 1 48:2

3R

4

R

cos 2 2 ) 2 60:0

R

max 48:2 60:0 108:2

S

F

R/4

Fig. 153a

R/2

MAX

O

2n

R

288

Seismology

i

r

b

P

r

F

R /4

2

a

i

2n

1

R/2

Fig. 153b

t2

FP PS

v

v

The distances FP and PS are expressed in terms of R, D1, and D2 using the cosine law in

triangles FOP and SOP (Fig. 153b):

s

2

2

3

R

R 3R

R

cos 1

2

FP

4

2

2 4

s

2

R

R

PS R2

2 cos 2

2

2

Then, we obtain

r

r

13 3

5

cos 1 R

cos 2

R

16 4

4

t2

v

v

153:2

Now we need to express D1 and D2 in terms of the take-off angle i at the focus (F). Using

Snells law for a spherical medium, we relate i and i0 , the incidence angle at the station (S):

3R

R

sin i

sin r R sin i0

3

4

2

) sin i0 sin i

v

v

v

4

153:3

i a 1 180

sin a sin i

R

3R

2

4

and we obtain

2 sin1 i 3 sin i

153:4

289

1.4

0.8

t (R / n )

0.8

0.8

1

0.6

0.4

40

20

60

80

100

()

Fig. 153c

b 180 2 i0

sin i0 sin b

R

R

2

and

2 sin i0 sin2 i0

153:5

Equations (153.3), (153.4), and (153.5) allow us to calculate D1 and D2 from the take-off

angle i at the focus. The travel-times are given in the following table.

i ( )

i 0 ( )

D1 ( )

D2 ( )

D ( )

t2 (R/v)

0

10

30

40

41.8

0

7.5

22.0

28.8

30.0

0

5.1

18.6

34.6

47.1

0

7.6

26.6

45.8

58.9

0

12.7

45.2

80.4

106.0

0.75

0.76

0.92

1.19

1.41

For angular distance D greater than 108.2 there are no reected rays. The travel-time

curves corresponding to the direct (1) and reected (2) rays are shown in Fig. 153c.

290

Seismology

154. Consider a spherical Earth of radius R 3000 km and constant P-wave speed of

propagation of 4 km s1. Within it there is a core of radius R/2 and constant velocity

v1. At a station at epicentral distance D from an earthquake with focus at the surface,

the observed time interval is tS-P 547.0 s. Given that Poisson's ratio is 1/6, and that

the arrival of the P-wave is at 12 h 23 m 20.4 s, calculate:

(a) The epicentral distance.

(b) The time of the earthquake.

(a) For a spherical Earth of constant velocity the travel time of the direct ray is given by

t2

FO0

R

2 sin

v

v

2

154:1

Taking into account the presence of the core the maximum distance for the direct ray is (Fig. 154)

R

max 2

cos

) max 120

R

2

Since Poissons ratio is 1/6 we have

s

1

l

) m 2l

6 2l m

and we can calculate the relation between the velocities of the P-wave (a) and the S-wave (b),

r 9

l 2m >

r

>

a

=

5

rr

)a

b ) b 2:53 km s1

m >

2

>

b

;

r

Using (154.1) and assuming the same path for P- and S-waves, from the time interval S-P

we obtain the distance:

1 1

S-P

) 77:7

t

2R sin

2 b a

O

max

n1

F

Fig. 154

R/2

291

(b) To calculate the time of origin we subtract from the arrival time of the P-wave the

value of the travel time for that distance:

tP

2R

3000 77:7

sin 2

sin

940:9 s

a

2

4

2

t0 12 h 23 m 20:4 s 940:9 s 12 h 07 m 39:5 s

155. Consider the Earth formed by a sphere of radius R 4000 km, Poisson's ratio

1/8, and constant S-wave speed of propagation 3 km s1. Within it, there is a liquid

core of radius R/2. There occurs an earthquake with a focus in the interior of the

Earth. At a station of epicentral distance D the observed time interval is tS-P 600 s.

This focus may be at a depth of either R/10 or 2R/5. Calculate the correct depth of the

focus, and the epicentral distance.

First we determine the maximum distance for direct rays which dont penetrate into the

core, which according to Fig. 155 corresponds to Dmax D1 D2:

R

cos 1 2

Rh

R

cos 2 2 ) 2 60

R

If the depth of the focus is R/10 then

h

R

5

) cos 1 ) 1 56 ) max 116

10

9

2

5

h R ) cos 1 ) 1 33:56 ) max 94

5

6

S

F

h

Fig. 155

2 1

R/2

292

Seismology

For a point on the surface at distance D, the S-P time interval implies, assuming the same

path for P- and S-waves,

t S-P

FP FP FP

a b

b

a

ab

155:1

From the value of Poissons ratio the relation between the P and S velocities is given by

s s r

1

l

m

l 2m

7m

7

)l )a

b

s

8 2 l m

3

r

3r

3

Substituting in (155.1) the S-P interval equal to 600 s we obtain the length of the ray:

FP 600

ab

5212 km

a b

2

FP R h2 R2 2RR h cos

2

FP R h2 R2

cos

2RR h

2

If h R then D 106 , but this result is not possible because the maximum distance of

5

R

the direct ray for that depth is 94 . If h

then D 86 , this result is possible because

10

this distance is less than the maximum distance. The depth is, then, 400 km.

156. Consider the Earth of radius R and constant velocity v with a core of radius 6R/10

and constant speed of propagation 2v. An earthquake occurs with focus at 8R/10 from

the centre of the Earth. A wave emerges from that focus with a take-off angle of 15 .

(a) Will it pass through the core?

(b) What epicentral distance will it reach?

(c) What will be the travel time of the wave (in units of R/v)?

(a) First we calculate the maximum epicentral distance for a ray which doesnt

penetrate the core. According to Fig. 156a the maximum distance is

max 1 2

6

R

10

) 1 41:4

cos 1

8

R

10

6

R

10

cos 2

) 2 53:1

R

max 41:4 53:1 94:5

From this value we calculate the take-off angle ih for this ray:

1 ih 90 ) ih 48:6

293

ih

6R/10

2n

8R/10

Fig. 156a

S

i

B

i0

i2

A

i

F

ih

i2

6R/10

2

O

3

2n

8R/10

Fig. 156b

For take-off angles less than 48.6 the rays travel through the core.

Since the velocity in the core is greater than in the mantle, to nd out which rays

penetrate into the core, we also need to know the critical angle. Rays with incidence angle

at the coremantle boundary with i > ic are totally reected and dont penetrate into the

core. According to Snells law the critical angle is given by

sin ic

1

) ic 30:0

v

2v

We calculate, using Snells law, the angle of incidence i corresponding to the take-off angle

of 15 (Fig. 156b):

8

6

R sin ih

R sin i

10

10

) i 20:2

v

v

Since the incidence angle i (20.2 ) is less than the critical angle (30 ) and less than the

angle corresponding to the maximum distance (48.6 ), the ray with take-off angle of 15

penetrates into the core.

294

Seismology

(b) Applying Snells law we nd the angle of the transmitted ray in the core i2 (Fig. 156b):

8

6

R sin ih

R sin i2

10

10

v

2v

i2 43:7

ih 1 180 i 180 ) 1 5:2

i2 2 i2 180 ) 2 92:6

and using Snells law we determine i0 the incidence angle at the surface and D3:

6

6

R sin i2

R sin i R sin i

o

10

10

2v

v

v

3 i io 8:3

) io 11:9

1 2 3 106

(c) The travel time is

t

FA AB BS

v

2v

v

where

s

2

2

8R

6R

8 6

FA

2 R R cos 1 0:21 R

10

10

10 10

s

2

6

6

6 6 2

AB

R

R 2

R cos 2 0:87 R

10

10

10 10

s

2

6

6

R R2 2 RR cos 3 0:42 R

BS

10

10

so

t 1:07

R

v

157. Assume a spherical Earth of radius R 6000 km and constant S-wave speed of

propagation 4.17 km s1. Poisson's ratio is 1/4. At a station at epicentral distance 60

an earthquake is recorded with a time interval t S-P 554 s. Calculate the depth of the

earthquake.

Given that Poissons ratio is 0.25, the P-wave velocity is

s

p

1

l

) l m ) a 3b 7:22 km s1

4 2l m

295

R

Rh

Fig. 157

From the time interval S-P we can calculate the length of the ray FS (Fig. 157):

FS FS

ab

FS

b

a

ab

S-P

t

ab

FS

5469 km

ab

t S-P

157:1

The distance along the ray in terms of the angular epicentral distance D, using the cosine

law, is

q

FS R2 R h2 2RR h cos

Substituting FS from (157.1):

5370

q

R2 R h2 2RR h cos

157:2

We substitute in (157.2) the values R 6000 km and D 60 and solve for h, nding two

possible solutions:

h1 4706 km

h2 1294 km

158. Assume a spherical Earth of radius R and P-wave velocity which can be

expressed by the equation v(r) a br2. The speed of propagation at the surface

of the Earth is v0 and at the centre of the Earth it is 2v0. What angular distance D does

a wave reach which penetrates to a depth equal to half the Earths radius?

If the velocity distribution inside the Earth is v(r) a br2, the ray paths are circular with

radius given by (Fig. 158)

296

Seismology

7/4 R

7/4 R

/2 /2

R/2

Fig. 158

r

dv

p

dr

158:1

r R ) v v0 a bR2

r 0 ) v 2v0 a

and

v0 )

r2

2

R

) v v0 2 2

R

a 2v0

b

The radius of curvature of the ray which penetrates to r R/2 is that corresponding to the

ray parameter

r0

R

p0 0 0

158:2

2v

v

The velocity at depth R/2 is

0

0 12 1

R

B

7

B

0

2C C

C

v v0 B

@2 @RA A v0 4

p0

R

2R

7 7v0

v0

2

297

dv

d

v0

a br2 2br 2 2 r

dr dr

R

r

r

7R

p2br

4

The epicentral (angular) distance corresponding to this ray is found by applying the cosine

law to the triangle POS:

2

2

7

9

9R

R

R R2 2 R cos ) 96:4

4

4

4

2

p

159. The Earth consists of a mantle of radius R and speed of propagation v a= r,

and a core of radius R/2 and speed of propagation 4v0, where v0 is the speed of

propagation at the Earths surface. Calculate:

(a) The maximum epicentral distance corresponding to a wave that travels only

through the mantle.

(b) The critical angle of the wave reected at the core, and the angle at which it leaves

the surface.

(c) The epicentral distance Dc corresponding to the critical angle.

(d) Plot the travel-time curve, specifying Dc and Dm.

(a) The value of a in the velocity distribution is found from the value of velocity at the surface:

1

1

r R ! v v aR 2 ) a v R 2

0

a

12

R

R

v v0

v0

r

r

For this general type of distribution of velocity with depth a < 1, the angular distance for a

surface focus (Fig. 159a) is given by

2

1 p

159:1

cos

1a

0

where

r

R

) 0

v

v0

The maximum distance for a ray which travels only through the mantle, that is that reaches

depth R/2, can be calculated from the velocity at that depth, vm:

0 11

R

R

2

p

1 R

BRC

vm v0 @ A v0 2 ) p 2 2p p p

R

vm v0 2 2 2 v0

2

298

Seismology

c

F

i0

ic

/2

/2

R/2

Fig. 159a

1

1 R

p

B2 2 v0 C

2

C

cos1 B

m

@ R A 92:4

1

1

v0

2

0

(b) The critical angle of a reected ray at the mantle-core boundary applying Snells law is

sin ic

1

p

) ic 20:7

v0 2 4v0

The take-off angle at the surface i0 for this ray is found by again applying Snells law:

R

R sin i0 2 sin20:7

p

) i0 7:2

v0

v0 2

r0

p

dr

p

c 2

2

r

p2

rp

where

R

2

r0 R

r0 sin i0

R

p

v0

8v0

r

r

r3=2

1 p

v v R 2 v0 R

0

rp

c

1

4

dr

r

R=2 r

R3

3

r

64

R3=2

159:2

299

c

dx

2

p p cos1

n

n

x x a

n an

r

an

xn

8

1

1

18

cos1

cos1 p

6

8

8

20

R 4 3

sin 1 a

sin

for 0 92:4

t

1a

2

v0 3

4

By substitution of values of D we nd the travel time curve given in Fig. 159b.

1.2

1.0

t (R/n)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

c

20

m

40

60

80

()

Fig. 159b

160. A spherical medium of radius R has a constant speed of propagation v0 from the

surface down

R/2, and from R/2 to the centre a core of variable speed of propaga to

1=2

R

tion v v0

.

r

(a) What value should i0 have for the waves to penetrate into the core?

(b) Calculate the epicentral distance reached by a wave leaving a focus at the surface

at angle i0.

(a) The velocity at the top of the core (r R/2) is

300

Seismology

S

F

l

i0

n0

R/2

Fig. 160

0 11

2

p

BRC

v1 v0 @ A v0 2

R

2

Applying Snells law we nd the critical angle ic for incident rays at the core (Fig. 160):

R

R sin ic

p2

v0

2v 0

) ic 45

The take-off angle i0, for a focus at the surface corresponding to the critical angle, using

Snells law, is

R

R sin i0 2 sin ic

v0

v0

) i0 20:7

The rays that penetrate into the core must leave the focus with take-off angles less than

20.7 .

(b) For a ray with take-off angle i0 which penetrates the core the epicentral distance is the

sum of that corresponding to the part that has travelled through the mantle, D1, plus the

part that has travelled through the core, D2:

21 2

Since in the core the velocity varies with depth with the law given in the problem, the

epicentral distance is given by

2

1 p

cos

2

1a

1

where a is the exponent of the velocity distribution

v v0 ra ) a

1

2

301

and p is the ray parameter, which can be obtained using Snells law:

and

R

R sin i0 2 sin i1

p

p

v0

2v 0

Then, we nd

R

r

) 1 p2

v

2v 0

0

1

R sin i0

B

C 4 1 p

2

1 B v0 C

2

cos

2

cos

2

sin

i

0

@ R A 3

1 12

p

2 2v 0

The distance D1 can be determined using the sine and cosine laws for the triangle FOP

(Fig. 160):

R

2 l ) sin1 2l sin i0

1

R

sin i0 sin 1

l 2 R2 2Rl cos i0

R2

1 p

) l R cos i0

4R2 cos2 i0 3R2

4

2

p

1 p

4

2sin1 2 cos i0

4cos2 i0 3 sin i0 cos1 2 2 sin i0

2

3

161. Consider a spherical Earth of radius 6000 km and surface velocity of 6 km s1, with

p

a velocity distribution of the type vr a= r. At the distance reached by a wave

emerging at a take-off angle of 45 from a focus on the surface, calculate the interval

between the arrival times of the direct P- and reected PP-waves (the PP-wave is one that

is reected at the surface at the midpoint between

focus and the point of observation).

the

a

R

The velocity distribution is of the type v v0

where

r

p

a

r R ) v v0 p ) a v0 R

R

12

R

v v0

r

and the ray parameter p for a ray with take-off angle of 45 is

1

6000 p

R sin i0

2

p

707 s

6

v0

302

Seismology

For this type of velocity distribution the relation between the ray parameter and the

epicentral distance is

1a

p 0 cos

161:1

2

In this problem the value of 0 is

r

R

) 0 1000 s

v

v0

Substituting the values in (161.1) we obtain the distance for the ray with take-off angle

of 45 :

3

707 1000 cos ) 60

4

The PP-wave which arrives at D 60 travels twice the distance which a P-wave does for a

distance of 30 . For this type of velocity distribution the travel time for a distance D is

given by

20

1 a

sin

t

1a

2

In our case for the P- and PP-waves at distance 60 we substitute the values of the problem

and nd

tP 60 943 s

tPP 60 2tP 30 1021 s

The time interval between the PP- and P-waves 60 is

tPP tP 1021 943 78s

162. In an elastic spherical medium of radius r0, the velocity increases with depth

according to v arb. If v0 6 km s1, r0 6000 km, and, at a point at distance

D 90 , the slope of the travel-time curve is 500 s, determine:

(a) The value of b.

(b) The value of rp and of vp of the wave reaching an epicentral distance of 90 .

(a) For this type of velocity distribution the travel time in terms of the epicentral

distance is given by

20

t

sin 1 b

162:1

1b

2

As we know the velocity at the surface,

r

r0

) 0 1000 s

v

v0

303

The ray parameter p is known, because it is equal to the slope of the travel-time curve

which for D 90 is given as 500 s. Using the relation between p and D for this type of

velocity distribution,

dt

0 cos 1 b

p

d

2

h

h

pi

pi 1

p p

1

500 1000 cos 1 b ) cos 1 b ) 1 b ) b

4

4

2

4 3

3

(b) At the point of greatest penetration rp for D 90 , we have the relation

p

rp sin 90 rp

) rp pvp

vp

vp

and also

1

r0 3

vp v0

rp

From these two equations we obtain rp and vp:

1

3 1 3

rp 3564

vp

7:1 km s1

p

500

163. Consider a spherical Earth of radius R, the northern hemisphere with a constant

speed of propagation v0, and the southern hemisphere with a speed of propagation of

1

R 2

.

v v0

r

(a) Calculate the travel time of seismic waves for a focus on the equator and stations

on the same meridian.

(b) In which hemisphere does the wave at a distance of 60 arrive rst?

(a) In the northern hemisphere the velocity is constant and the rays have straight paths

and their travel time is (Fig. 163)

2R

sin

0 < < 90

163:1

v0

2

In the southern hemisphere the velocity increases with depth and the rays have curved

paths. Their travel time is given by

tN

tS

20

sin1 b

2

1b

where

b

R

R

1

0

and v v0

)b

v0

r

2

Substituting in (163.2) we obtain for the travel time in the southern hemisphere

163:2

304

Seismology

S1

n0

S2

Fig. 163

tS

4R

3

sin

3 v0

4

163:3

(b) The travel times for waves in the northern and southern hemisphere are given by

Equations (163.1) and (163.3). By substitution of D 60 we obtain

R

v0

p

R2 2

R

S

0:47

t

v0 6

v0

The waves arrive rst in the southern hemisphere.

tN

(mantle and core), the core of radius R/2. The speeds of propagation are v ar1=2

for the mantle and v aR1=6 r1=3 for the core. The surface velocity is v0. For a wave

leaving a focus with angle of incidence 14.5 , calculate the angular distance D at

which it reaches the surface.

We calculate a by applying the boundary conditions

1

r R ) v v0 ) v0 aR 2 ) a v0 R2

1

R 2

Mantle : v v0

r

1

R 3

Core : v v0

r

We determine the ray parameter corresponding to the ray with take-off angle i0 14.5 ,

using Snells law (Fig. 164a):

p

R

v

v0

4v0

305

S

F

i0

i0

R/2

i2

Fig. 164a

0 11

2

1

BRC

v1 v0 @ A v0 22

R

The incident angle i of this ray on the mantlecore boundary, applying Snells law, is given by

R

sin i R sin i

0

2

) i 45

1

v

0

v 22

0

0 11

3

1

BRC

v2 v0 @ A v0 23

R

which is less than at the bottom of the mantle and there is no critical angle. Applying

Snells law again we obtain the angle i2 of the refracted ray in the core:

sin i sin i2

) i2 39

v1

v2

The take-off angle of the last ray which travels only in the mantle is given by

R

R sin i0

2 1 ) i0 20:7

v0

v 0 22

In our case the angle 14.5 is less and the ray penetrates into the core.

The epicentral distance is the sum of the distances corresponding to the paths in the

mantle and in the core:

21 2

306

Seismology

S

F

Fig. 164b

2

p

2

cos1

1b

0

where

p

R

4v0

R

0 2 1

v0 23

and where p is the ray parameter and r/v. Substituting the values we obtain

2 76:4

To calculate D1 we suppose that there is no core and a ray with take-off angle i0 14.5

would arrive at distance D3 which is related with D1 by (Fig. 164b)

21 3 4

The distances D3 and D4 can be determined using the equation

2

1 p

cos

1b

0

where for D3

0 R

2

R

v0

R

3

R 2

2

2

0 11 v 0

2

BR C

v0 @ A

R

2

307

Surface waves

and we obtain

0

1

R

B4v0 C

2

C

3

cos1 B

@ R A 100:6

1

1

2

1

R

C

B

B

C

2

1 B 4v0 C

cos B

4

C 60:0

1

3

@

A

1

R

2

2 2

v0

40:6 76:4 117:0

Surface waves

165. A Rayleigh wave in a semi-innite medium has a 20 s period. If the P-wave

velocity is 6 km s1 and Poissons ratio is 0.25, calculate the depth at which u1 0,

and at which depth the particle movement becomes prograde.

Since Poissons ratio is 0.25, we nd the relation between P- and S-waves:

s s

1

l

l 2m

3m p

s

)lm)a

3b

4 2 l m

r

r

6

a 6 ) b p 3:4 km s1

3

cR 0:919b 3:2 km s1

The displacement u1 is given by

u1

@ @c

@x1 @x3

A expikrx3 ik x1 cR t

c B expiksx3 ik x1 cR t

1=2

c2

r i 1 R2

0:85i

a

1=2

c2

0:39i

s i 1 R2

b

308

Seismology

Then,

u1 0 ) ikA exp0:85kx3 0:39ikB exp0:39kx3 0

165:1

so

k

2p

2p

0:1 km1

l

TcR

We can write B in terms of A using the boundary condition of zero stress at the free surface:

t31 0jx3 0 ) 2rA 1 s2 B 0

so

B 1:47iA

Substituting in (165.1) we obtain the value of x3:

exp0:85kx3 0:39 1:47 exp0:39kx3

x3 12 km

At 12 km depth u1 is null and for greater values of depth the particle motion is prograde

while for lesser values of depth it is retrograde.

166. Given a layer of thickness H and shear modulus m 0 on top of a half-space or

semi-innite medium in which l 0, study (without expanding the determinant)

whether there exist surface waves that propagate in the x1-direction. Are they

dispersive waves?

In the liquid layer ( m 0) the P- and S-velocities are

s s

s

0

m

l0 2m0

l0

b0 0

) a0

r

r

r

and in the solid half-space

s

2m p

2b

l0)a

r

where eij

1

2

ui; j uj;i .

t0ij 0

In the half-space: l 0 ) tij 2 meij

If there are surface waves propagating in the x1-direction, their displacements in terms of

the potentials are given by (Fig. 166)

In the layer: m0 0 )

u1 ;1 c;3

u2 u 2

u3 ;3 c;1

309

Surface waves

x3

x1

= 0

0

=0

Fig. 166

The boundary conditions at the free surface are null normal stresses:

0

t33 0

x3 H )

t031 0

and at the boundary between the liquid layer and the solid half-space continuity of the

normal component of the displacement and stress and zero tangential stresses,

8

u3 u03

>

>

>

< t t0

33

33

x3 0 )

0

>

t

t

>

32 0

> 32

:

0

t31 0

In the liquid layer there is only the P-wave potential . Taking (x1, x3) as the incidence

plane

0 A expikr0 x3 ik x1 ct B expikr0 x3 ik x1 ct

r

c2

0

r

1

a02

where c is the velocity of wave propagation in the x1-direction

In the half-space

c C expiksx3 ik x1 ct

u2 E expiksx3 ik x1 ct

D expikrx3 ik x1 ct

r

c2

1

r

a2

s

c2

s

1

b2

In the layer we have only guided P-waves and r0 is real, while in the half-space for surface

waves, r and s must be imaginary. Then a > b > c > a0 must be satised.

310

Seismology

x3 H

0

0

t033 0 ) A 1 r02 eikr H B 1 r02 eikr H 0

x3 0

t31 0 ) 2Dr C Cs2 0

u03 u3 ) Ar0 Br0 Dr C

t033 t33 ) l0 1 r02 A B 2m Dr2 Cs

0

0

eikr H

eikr H

0

0

0

0

r

r

l0 1 r02 l0 1 r02

be zero:

0

s2 1

1

2ms

0

2r

0

r

2mr2

Expanding the determinant and working r0, r, and s in terms of the variable c, we obtain c

(k), the velocity of waves in the x1-direction. They have the form of guided waves in the

liquid layer and surface waves in the half-space. Since the velocity c(k) is a function of the

wavenumber the waves are dispersive.

167. There is a liquid layer of density r and speed of propagation a on top of a rigid

medium (half-space). Derive the dispersion equation of waves in the layer by boundary conditions and by constructive interference in terms of v. Plot the dispersion

curve for the different modes.

Given that the layer is liquid the only potential is :

A exp ikrx3 B expikrx3 exp ik x1 ct

167:1

The boundary conditions at the free surface are zero normal stress and at the boundary

between the liquid layer and the rigid half-space zero normal component of displacement

(Fig. 167a):

x3 H ) t33 0

x 3 0 ) u3 0

where

t33 ly r2 ro2 0

u3 ;3

r

c2

1

r

a2

By substitution of (167.1) we obtain

AeikrH BeikrH 0

AB0)AB

311

Surface waves

x3

liquid layer

x1

0

rigid half-space

Fig. 167a

x3

O

B

A

x1

0

P

Fig. 167b

Then, 2A cos krH 0. For waves propagating in the layer, r must be real and c > a. The

solution is given by

1

krH n p;

n 0; 1; 2; . . .

167:2

2

The solution can also be found by the method of constructive interference. The condition

of constructive interference implies that waves coinciding at a given wavefront (AB) are in

phase, that is, the distance along the ray must be an integer multiple of the wavelength,

taking into account possible phase shifts (Fig. 167b). In our case on the free surface,

x3 H, there is a phase shift of p (l/2) and we write the condition as (Fig. 167b)

AP PQ QB

la

nla

2

or

2p

A P P Q Q B p 2pn

la

312

Seismology

Substituting

A P P Q Q B 2H cos i

we obtain

2p

2H cos i p 2pn 1

la

167:3

a

sin i ) cos i

c

r

r

a2 a c 2

a

1 2

1 r

2

c

c a

c

a

and ka k.

c

Substituting in (167.3), we obtain the same solution obtained in (167.2):

a

1

ka Hr n p

c

2

This expression can also be written as

"

#12

r

1

oH c2

1

1

1 2 p2

167:4

1 n p)c 2 n

krH n p )

2

c

2

a

2 H 2 o2

a2

The fundamental mode (FM) corresponds to n 0, and n 1 to the higher modes (HM).

In the FM and the higher modes, the frequency oc corresponding to the zero in the

denominator in (167.4) is called the cut-off frequency, as there are no values of c for o <

oc. For a mode of order n the cut-off frequency is given by

1

p n a

2

oc

H

The dispersion curve is shown in Fig. 167c.

c

FM

1 HM

2 HM

2H

Fig. 167c

3

2H

5

2H

313

Surface waves

rigid semi-innite medium. Derive the dispersion equation c(v) for P-SV and SH-type

channelled waves for the fundamental mode (FM) and the rst higher mode (1HM).

Plot the dispersion curve for the SH motion.

For a SH-wave which propagates in the x1-direction its displacement is given by

u2 E expiksx3 F expiksx3 exp ik x1 ct

The P- and SV-waves are given by their scalar potentials and c:

A expikrx3 B expikrx3 exp ik x1 ct

c C expiksx3 D expiksx3 exp ik x1 ct

where r and s were dened in Problem 166.

The boundary conditions for SH-waves are null stress at the free surface and null

displacement at the boundary with the rigid medium (Fig 168a):

x3 H ) t32 0 m

@u2

@x3

x 3 0 ) u2 0

By substitution we have

EeiksH FeiksH 0

E F 0 ) F E

Ee

iksH

iksH

0 ) cosksH 0 ) ksh

Ho

c

c2

1

1

p)c

2

b2

1

n p

2

! 1

2

1

1 2 p2

n

2 H 2 o2

b2

168:1

This equation give us, for the SH component, the frequency dependence of the velocity c(o).

The boundary conditions for P and SV are similarly

x3

x1

, ,

0

rigid medium

Fig. 168a

314

Seismology

x3 H ) t31 0; t33 0

x3 0 ) u1 0; u3 0

where

t33

t31

u1

u3

2me31

;1 c;3

;3 c;1

l 2mr2 AeikrH r2 BeikrH lAeikrH BeiksH 2msCeiksH DeiksH 0

2rAeikrH BeikrH 1 s2 CeiksH DeiksH 0

A B sC D 0

rA B C D 0

For a solution we put the determinant of the system of equations equal to zero:

1

1

s

s

r

r

1

1

ikrH

ikrH

2 iksH

2 iksH 0 168:2

2re

2re

1

s

e

1

s

e

l r2 l 2meikrH l r2 l 2meikrH

2mseiksH

2mseiksH

Expanding the determinant and putting it equal to zero, we obtain the dependence with

frequency of the velocity c(o) which gives us the dispersion curve.

For the wave with SH component the dispersion curve is given in Fig. 168b:

!12

1

1 2 p2

c

n

2 H 2 o2

b2

c

FM

1 HM

2 HM

2H

Fig. 168b

3

2H

5

2H

315

Surface waves

For n 0 the curves correspond to the fundamental mode and for 1
n to the higher

modes. For all modes, including the fundamental mode, there is a cut-off frequency oc

(n1)pb/2H, with n 0 for the fundamental mode and n 1, for higher-order modes.

169. For a liquid layer of thickness H with a rigid medium above and below, derive

the dispersion equation c(v) of the fundamental and higher modes. For the FM, at

what height above the layer is the motion circular?

Given that the medium is a liquid, motion is represented only by the scalar potential f:

169:1

A exp ikrx3 B expikrx3 exp ik x1 ct

r

c2

1.

where r

a2

The boundary condition at the two boundaries between the liquid and rigid solid is that

the normal component of the displacement is null (Fig. 169):

x 3 0 ) u3 0

x 3 H ) u3 0

Substituting u3 ;3 we have

AB0

169:2

AeikrH BeikrH 0

which leads to the equation

A eikrH eikrH 0

169:3

Consider rst that r is real, that is, c >a. Then, from (169.1)

2iA sin krH 0 ) krH np; n 0; 1; 2; :::

with n 0, fundamental mode (FM), and n 1 for higher modes.

For the FM, n 0 and r 0, and then

r

c2

10)ca

Hk

a2

The displacements from (169.1) and (169.2) are

x3

rigid medium

H

liquid layer

0

x1

rigid medium

Fig. 169

316

Seismology

@

Aikrexp ikrx3 exp ikrx3 exp ikx1 ct

@x3

@

Aik exp ikrx3 exp ikrx3 exp ikx1 ct

u1

@x1

For the FM r 0, then u3 0 and this is a P-wave, with only a u1 component, which

propagates in the x1-direction. For all HM the displacements have both components

For the rst higher mode (1HM), n 1:

r

o c2

H

1p

c a2

1

c2

1

p2

a2 o2 H 2

If

1

p2

ap

)c!1

0

then

o

a2 o 2 H 2

H

u3

The cut-off frequency is oc > ap/H. For each higher mode there is a cut-off frequency onc

> nap/H.

_

_

If r ir is imaginary, then c < a and this implies that 2 sinhkr H 0 which is

impossible (1< sinhx <1).

The particle motion inside the layer is circular when

u1 u3

169:4

so

u1 u3 ) 1 r exp ikrx3 1 r exp ikrx3 0

Taking only the amplitudes of the displacements,

1 r cos krx3 1 r cos krx3 0 ) cos krx3 0

1

1 p

krx3 n p ) x3 n

2

2 kr

For the FM, we have seen that u3 0, so there is no circular motion. For the 1HM, the

height in the layer at which the motion is circular is

3p

x3

2kr

The height inside the layer at which the motion is circular depends in each higher mode of

the frequency.

170. In the hypothetical case of a layer of thickness H and speed of propagation b0 on

top of a semi-innite medium of speed of propagation b, the phase shifts at the free

surface and the contact plane are

2 s 3

c2

7

6

6 b0 1 7

p

7

1 6

and

tan 6s7:

6

4

27

4 1 c 5

b2

317

Surface waves

Determine:

(a) The dispersion equation using constructive interference.

(b) The cut-off frequency of the fundamental mode and rst higher mode.

(c) Plot the dispersion curve of the FM and 1HM using units of c/b and H/l for

b 2b0 .

(a) The distance from A to B along the ray path is (Fig. 170a)

AB 2H cos i

According to Snells law

b0

c s

b0 c2

1

cos i

c b02

sin i

kb0 sin i kb0

b0

k

c

As explained in Problem 167, the condition for constructive interference is that the distance

AB along the ray path be an integer multiple of the wavelength, taking into account the

phase shift at the free surface and the boundary surface between the two media:

0

p

s

2pn

170:1

2kB0 H cos i tan1

4

s

where

s

c2

s0

1

b02

s

c2

s 1 2

b

By substitution in (170.1) we obtain the dispersion equation

B

H

A

Fig. 170a

318

Seismology

v

u 2

u c

u

ub02 1

1

tan 2kHs0 2n p u

u

4

c2

t

1 2

b

s

c2

s

"

#

1

b02

c2

p

tan 2kH

1

s > 0

where

b0 < c < b

4

2

b02

c

1 2

b

p

p

Given that tan B > 0 ) B so that b< c < b, then

4

2

If k 0 then

s

c2

1

p 0

p

b02

2bb

1 s ) c p

tan

2

4

2

b b02

c

1 2

b

so

If c b then

p

p

tanB 1 ) B

tan 2kHs0

4

2

s

s

c2

p p

p

b2

0

2kH

)

k

)

s

1

1

4 2

8Hs0

b02

b02

so

If c b0 then

p

0

tan 2kHs0

4

s

c2

p

p

0

s0

1

0

)

tan

kHs

0 ) k 1 ) kHs0

02

4

4

b

For the rst higher mode (1HM), n 1:

7

s0

0

tan 2kHs p

4

s

The tangent function is positive for the range [0, p/2]:

0 2kHs0

For c b0

7p p

4

2

170:2

319

Surface waves

7p

7p

tan 2kHs0

)k1

0 ) kHs0

4

8

For c b

7p

7p p

9p

1 ) 2kHs0

)k

tan 2kHs0

4

4

2

8Hs0

(c) Taking b b/2, the dispersion equation for the FM is

s

4c2

s

"

#

1

2

b2

4c2

p

c

2

s

#

tan 2kH

)

1

"

s

2

2

4

b

2

b

c

H

c

1 2

5 3 sin 8p

4

1

l

b

b

But we have seen that

p p

H

1

)

4 2

l 16s0

p

c b ) s0 3

2kHs0

H

1

p

l 16 3

Giving values to H/l we can calculate the corresponding values of c/b by means of a

numerical method. For example, we obtain,

H/l

c/b

0.0

0.01

0.02

0.036

0.63

0.68

0.78

1

For the rst higher mode (1HM), we arrive at the same equation, given that tan(a p/4)

tan(a 7p/4), but vary the intervals of H/l and kHs0 :

7p

9p

kHs0

8

8

7

H

9

16s0

l 16s0

H

7

at one limit we have the value s0 0 which corresponds to c b0 and c/b

For

l 16s0

0.5.

H

9

H

9

we have s 0 and c b, and consequently p.

For

0

l 16s

l 16 3

The dispersion curves for the fundamental mode and the rst higher mode are shown in

Fig.170b.

320

Seismology

1.0

1 HM

FM

0.5

0.10

1

16

0.20

0.30

16

9

3

Fig. 170b

medium of speed of propagation b, the phase shifts at the free surface and the contact

plane are:

8 s 9

2>

>

>

>

> 1 c >

>

>

>

2>

=

<

b

p

d1 and d2 sin1 s

>

>

2

>

>

c2

>

>

>

>

1

>

>

;

: b02

Calculate:

(b) For the fundamental and rst higher mode, and the minimum and maximum

frequencies as functions of H, b, and b0 .

(c) For this mode, given b0 b/2, the maximum and minimum frequencies, and the

corresponding values of c.

(a) As in Problem 170, the condition of constructive interference with the phase shifts

given in this problem results in (Fig. 171)

s

4p

p

H cos i sin1 0 2pn

l

2

s

where

171:1

321

Surface waves

H

A

Fig. 171

s

c2

s 1 2

b

s

c2

s0

1

b0 2

According to Snells law

b0

c s

b0 c2

1

cos i

c b02

sin i

s

c2

s!

1

s

b2

p

c2

1

2Hks0 2pn sin1 0 ) cos 2Hk

2

s

b02

c2

1

b02

(b) The fundamental mode (FM) corresponds to the values

s

c2

1 2

b

p

0
2Hks0
) 1 s 0

2

2

c

1

b02

The velocity at the limit of lowest frequencies, k 0, is given by

s

c2

1 2

b

s

2b02 b2

k 0 ) 0 s 1 ) c2 02

s

b b2

c2

1

b02

q

p

s

1

0

b2 b02

)

0

)

s

0

)

c

b

)

s

k

4Hs0

s0

b0

322

Seismology

s

c2

1 2

b

3p

2Hks0 2p ) 0 s 1

2

2

c

1

b02

In the lowest limit

k1

3p

s

1

) 0 0 ) s 0 ) c b ) s0 0

4Hs0

s

b

k1

In the highest frequency limit

q

b2 b02

3pb0

p

4H b2 b02

p

s

2b02 b2

k2 0 ) 0 1 ) s s 0 ) c2 2

) s0

Hs

s

b b02

s

b2 b02

b2 b02

p

p b2 b02

k2 p

H b2 b02

b

p

p

3p

p 3 2p

H

3

2

r

)

;cb

k1

2

H4

l

l

8

b

2

4H b

4

r

b2

r

p

p

p b2

p 5 2p

H

2

5

4

r p

) p ; c b

k2

2

l

l

5

H

3

2

3

b

4H b2

4

172. Consider a layer of thickness H and parameters m0 and r0 on top of a semic

H

innite medium of parameters m 4m0 and r r0 . If a and b:

b

l

(a) Write the dispersion equation of the Love wave in terms of a and b.

1 3

(b) Calculate the values of b corresponding to a ; and 1 for the fundamental

2 4

mode and rst higher mode.

(c) For which values of b is the node of the amplitude of the rst higher mode at a

depth of H/2?

(a) The dispersion equation for Love waves is

323

Surface waves

q2

s)

m

1 bc 2

2

c

q

tan kH

1

2

b02

m0 c02 1

(

In this problem,

172:1

m 4m0

r r0

then,

r

r

m

m

b

0

!b

b

r

4r 2

We now introduce a and b:

a

b

c

c

) 0 2a

b

b

H

2p 2pb

)k

l

l

H

Substituting in (172.1):

p

p

1 a2

2

tan 2pb 4a 1 4 p

4a2 1

a 1; b 0 and c b

1

a ; b ! 1 and c b0

2

r

9

"

r#

1

3

9

16

a ) tan 2pb 4 1 4 r ) b 0:17

4

16

9

4 1

16

For the 1HM,

1

a ; b!1

2

p

p

1

a 1 ) tan 2pb 4a2 1 0 ) 2pb 3 p ) b p 0:29

2 3

0

1

s

r

r!

2

p

3

3

7

7

1

1A 4

4

) pb 5 tan

p ) b 0:61

a ) tan@2pb 4

4

4

20

20

(c) Inside the layer the amplitude of the displacements of the Love wave are given by

h

x3 i

u02 2A0 cos ks0 H 1

cos k s0 H x1 ct

H

324

Seismology

The nodes are the points where the amplitude is zero. For the 1HM the node is located at

the value of x3 which satises the relation

x3 3p

ks0 H 1

H

2

If we want a node located at x3 H/2 then

k

3p

3

) b p

s0 H

2 4a2 1

If we substitute the values of a, , 1, and we obtain for b innity, 0.86, and 1.34. The

innite value of b corresponds to l 0.

Focal parameters

173. Consider three stations with coordinates:

St1 36.2 N, 4.8 E;

St2 37.0 N, 2.4 E; St3 38.6 N, 4.0 E

An earthquake is recorded at the three stations with the following respective S-P

time intervals:

t 1SP 26:7 s

t SP

27:0 s

2

t SP

22:5 s

3

Given that the focus is at the surface, the P-wave velocity is constant and equal to 6

km s1, and Poissons ratio is 1/3, calculate the coordinates of the epicentre.

Given that Poissons ratio is 1/3,

1

l

s

) l 2m ) a

3 2l m

s

l 2m

2b

r

From the S-P time intervals, calling x the epicentral distance (Fig. 173):

x x

x

) x 2t SP b

t SP

b a 2b

Given that a 6 km s1 then b 3 km s1.

The epicentral distances corresponding to each station in kilometres and degrees are

x1 26:7 6 160 km

x2 27 6 162 km

160

1:44

111:11

162

1:46

111:11

x3 22:5 6 135 km

135

1:22

111:11

325

Focal parameters

40N

39N

St3

38N

E2

E1

St2

37N

St1

36N

35N

1E

2E

3E

4E

5E

6E

Fig. 173

36:2 xe 2 4:8 ye 2 1:442

37:0 xe 2 2:4 ye 2 1:462

38:6 xe 2 4:0 ye 2 1:222

Solving the system we nd two possible solutions:

37:40 N; 3:83 E

xe ; ye

37:63 N; 4:71 E

174. A focus is at a depth h, in a medium with constant P- and S-wave speeds of

propagation a and b. Calculate an expression for the depth h in terms of the time

interval between the P and sP phases.

If L is the distance along the ray, the travel-time of the P-wave from the focus to the station

is given by (Fig. 174)

tP

L

a

326

Seismology

jh

ih

F

ih

A

Fig. 174

An sP-wave leaves the focus upward as an S-wave is reected at the Earths surface and

converted into a P-wave that travels to the station. Its travel time is (Fig. 174)

0

t sP

FS SF L

b

a

a

If we consider the length along the ray L from F and F0 to the station to be the same for both

waves, then the sP-P time interval is (Fig. 174)

t sP t P t 0

FS SF

b

a

174:1

At the focus at depth h, the takeoff angle of the direct P-wave is ih and the take-off angle

of the sP-wave is jh. We can write

FS

h

cos jh

0

SF

h

0

cosjh ih

) SF

sin jh sin ih cos jh cos ih

cos

jh

FS

a sin jh

sin ih

b

By substitution in (174.1) we obtain

t 0 h

cos jh cos ih

b

a

175. The displacement vector l of an earthquake is (0, 1, 0) and the vector normal to

the plane of displacement n is (0, 1, 0). Determine:

(a) The components of the P-wave displacement at the point of azimuth 45 and angle

of incidence 30 .

327

Focal parameters

(a) The elastic displacements due to a dislocation Du in the direction of li on a plane of

normal ni (Fig. 175) are given by

uPk u lnk lk dij m li nj ni lj Gki;j

where Greens function corresponding to the P-wave in the far eld for an innite medium

is given by

1

r

g

g

d

t

Gki

i

k

4pra2 r

a

and its derivative is

Gki;j

1

_ tr

g

g

g

d

4pra3 r i k j

a

where gi are the direction cosines of the line from the focus to the observation point.

The amplitude of the displacement is then

uPk

u

lns ls dij m li nj lj ni gi gk gj

3

4pra r

175:1

In our problem the direction cosines of the ray of the waves arriving at the point are

p

2

g1 sin i cos az

4

p

2

g2 sin i sin az

4

p

3

g3 cos i

2

X3

P

r

i

li= ni

e

az

X2

Fig. 175

X1

328

Seismology

The orientation of the source is given by li (0, 1, 0) and ni (0, 1, 0), and substituting in

(175.1) gives

uP1 A l 2mg22 g1

uP2 A l 2mg22 g2

uP3 A l 2mg22 g3

u

A

4pa3 rr

Substituting the direction cosines of the ray we obtain,

p

2

1

uP1 A l m

4

4

p

2

1

P

u2 A l m

4

4

p

3

1

P

u3 A l m

2

4

(b) The mechanism corresponds to a fault on the (x1, x3) plane which opens in the

direction of its normal, x2, under tensional forces in that direction.

176. The focal mechanism of an earthquake can be represented by a double-couple

(DC) model. The orientation of the fault plane is azimuth 30 , dip 90 , and slip angle

0 . Calculate:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

What kind of fault it is. Sketch it, indicating the direction of motion.

The auxiliary plane.

The azimuth of the stress axis.

A wave incident at a station has azimuth 180 and angle of incidence at the focus

of 90 . Calculate the amplitude of the components of the P-wave at that station.

(a) Given that the dip of the plane is 90 , the fault plane is vertical, and since the slip

angle is 0 , the motion is horizontal. Thus, it corresponds to a right lateral strikeslip fault (Fig. 176).

N

A

u

l

A

n

Fig. 176

329

Focal parameters

(b) From the azimuth ( 30 ), dip (d 90 ), and slip (l 0 ) we can calculate the

unit vectors li and ni which give the direction of the fracture and of the normal to

the fault plane:

1

n1 sin d sin sin Yn cos Fn

p 2

3

sin Yn cos Fn

n2 sin d cos

2

n3 cos d 0 cos Yn

p

3

l1 cos l cos cos d sin l sin

sin Yl cos Fl

2

1

l2 cos l sin cos d sin l cos sin Yl cos Fl

2

l3 sin l sin d 0 cos Yl

A Fn 90 ) Fn 120

dA Yn 90

cos Yl

lA sin1

0 ) Yi 90

sin Yn

where Y and F are the spherical coordinates for the vectors n and l (r 1, unitary vectors)

and for the auxiliary plane,

B 30 90 120

dB 90

cos Yn

lB sin1

0

sin Yl

(c) The T-axis is on the same plane as ni and li at 45 between them, and the direction

cosines are

0 1 0

10 1 1

p

T1

n1 n2 n3

2

@ T2 A @ l1 l2 l3 A@ p1 A

176:1

2

Z1 Z2 Z3

T3

0

where Zi is the axis normal to ni and li, that is, Zi ni li which results in Zi (0, 0, 1).

p

p

31 31

p ; p ; 0 . The azimuth of the T-axis is

Substituting in (176.1) we obtain Ti

2 2

2 2

p

31

1 T2

1

p

75

FT tan

tan

T1

31

(d) The direction cosines of the direction from the focus to the station are

g1 sin ih cos az 1

g2 sin ih sin az 0

g3 cos ih 0

330

Seismology

The amplitude of the displacements for a shear fracture or double-couple (DC) source in an

innite medium is given by

Rih ; az ) uPj Ani lk nk li gi gk gj

uP1 0:84A

uP2 0

uP3 0

A

M0

4pa3 rr

177. An earthquake is caused by a shear fracture. The vectors n and l (normal and

direction of travel) are, in terms of the angles F and Y,

n 57:13 ; 66:44

l 305:96 ; 50:09

Calculate the orientation of the fault plane, the auxiliary plane, and the tension (T )

and pressure (P) stress axes.

The orientation of the fault plane and auxiliary plane in terms of the angles , d, and l (azimuth,

dip, and slip) are found directly from the given values (Fig. 177), using the following relations:

A Fn 90 147:13

dA Yn 66:64

1 cos Yl

135:68

lA sin

sin Yn

B Fl 90 35:96

dB Yl 50:09

1 cos Yn

lB sin

31:12

sin Yl

Z

Y

qp

X

n

l

qn

T

P

fn

N

Fig. 177

331

Focal parameters

To calculate the T and P axes, we calculate rst the direction cosines of the l and n axes

from the given angles:

x1 sin Y cos F

n1 0:50; l1 0:45

x3 cos Y

n3 0:40; l3 0:64

Given that the T and P axes are on the same plane as n and l at 45 between them, we can

write, as in Problem 176,

0

1

0 1 0

1 p1

T1

l1 n1 Z1 B 2 C

@ T2 A @ l2 n2 Z2 AB p1 C

177:1

@

A

2

T3

l3 n3 Z3

0

where the Z-axis is normal to n and l and is found by Z n l. Its direction cosines

are (Z1, Z2, Z3) (0.72, 0.14, 0.66). By substitution of ni, li, and Zi in (177.1) we

obtain

9

T1 0:67 sin YT cos FT >

=

T2 0:11 sin YT sin FT

) T YT 42:27 ; FT 9:32

>

;

T3 0:74 cos YT

1 0

l1

P1

@ P2 A @ l2

P3

l3

0

n1

n2

n3

0 1 1

p

1

Z1 B 2 C

1 C

Z2 AB

@ p A ! PYP 80:02 ; FP 268:03

2

Z3

0

178. The seismic moment tensor relative to the geographical axes (X1, X2, X3) (north,

east, nadir) is

0

1

2 1 1

Mij @ 1 0 1 A

1

1 2

Find the values of the principal stresses, and the orientation of the tension and

pressure stress axes.

First we calculate the eigenvalues of Mij. Since Mij is a symmetric tensor its eigenvalues are

real and the corresponding eigenvectors mutually orthogonal (Problem 111):

0

1

2 s 1

3

1

1

0s

1 0 ) s @ 2 A

1

1

1

2 s

s1 3; s2 2; s3 1

332

Seismology

0

3

Mij @ 0

0

0

2

0

1

0

0 A

1

In this form Mij is referred to the coordinate system formed by the eigenvectors or principal

axes. Given that the sum of the elements of the principal diagonal is not zero, the source

has net volume changes. Then, we can separate Mij into two parts: an isotropic part with

volume changes (ISO) and a deviatoric part without volume changes. The second part can

be separated into two parts: a part corresponding to a double-couple or shear fracture (DC)

and a part corresponding to a non-double-couple source usually expressed as a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD). Thus the moment tensor is separated into three parts,

namely

M M ISO M DC M CLVD

The isotropic part is given by

1

4

M ISO s0 s1 s2 s3

3

3

The deviatoric part (DCCLVD) is given by

Mij0 Mij dij so

and in our case

Mij0

s1

@ 0

0

05

0

B3

0

B

2

0 AB

B0 3

@

s3

0 0

1

0

s2

0

C

C

0 C

C

A

7

3

M 0ij M DC M CLVD

1

s s3

B2 1

B

0

Mij B

0

@

0

0

Mij0

2

B

@0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

s2

C B 2

C B

CB 0

0

A @

1

0

s1 s3

2

1

1

3

B

B

C B

0 AB 0

B

@

2

0

C

C

C

0 C

C

A

1

0

3

2

3

0

s2

0

C

C

0 C

s2 A

2

333

Focal parameters

The orientation of the P and T axes is calculated from the double-couple part MDC:

0

1

1 0 0

MijDC 2@ 0 0 0 A

0 0 1

MijDC M0 li nj lj ni

1

1

~

) nYn 45 ; Fn 0

n : p ; 0; p

2

2

1

1

~

p

; 0;

) lYl 45 ; Fl 0

l:

2

2

In the same way as in Problems 176 and 177, we determine T and P from n and l, nding

rst Z n l:

0

1

0 1 0

1 p1

T1

l1 n1 Z1 B 2 C

C

@ T2 A @ l2 n2 Z2 AB

B 1 C

@ p A

T3

l3 n3 Z3

2

0

T1 1 sin YT cos FT

T2 0 sin YT sin FT ! T YT 90 ; FT 0

T3 0 cos YT

For the P-axis,

0

P1

l1

@ P2 A @ l2

P3

l3

n1

n2

n3

1 1

p

Z1 B 2 C

B

1 C

Z 2 AB

CPYP 0 ; FP 0

@ p A

Z3

2

0

1

20 s is 6.13.

(a) Calculate the amplitude of these waves at a station 3000 km away. If the instruments amplication is 1500, what will be the amplitude of the seismograms

waves and the seismic energy?

(b) If Ms Mw, and the area of the fault is 12 km 8 km with m 4.4104 MPa, nd

the fault slip Du.

(a) The surface wave magnitude Ms is given by

Ms log

A

1:66 log 3:3

T

334

Seismology

where A is the ground motion amplitude, T is the period of the wave, and D is epicentral

distance in degrees. Knowing the magnitude and period of the waves we can calculate the

wave amplitude:

A

3000

1:66 log

3:3

T

111:11

A

) log 0:454 ) A 2:84 20 1500 8:5 cm

T

6:13 log

We have reduced the ground motion to the amplitude of the seismogram using the

amplication of the instrument (1500).

Knowing the magnitude we can calculate the seismic energy:

log Es 11:8 1:5Ms ) Es 1021 ergs 1014 J

(b) Mw 6.13 2/3 log M0 6.1; M0 2.191018 Nm

If M0 mDu S, with S 12 8 9.6107 m2, then

u

M0

2:19 1018 Nm

0:52 m

mS 4:4 1010 N m2 9:6 107 m2

Heat ow

180. Assume that the temperature variation within the Earth is caused by gravitational forces under adiabatic conditions. Knowing that the coefcient of thermal

expansion at constant pressure is aP 2105 K1 and the specic heat at constant

pressure is cP 1.3 kJ kg1 K1, determine an expression for the gradient of the

temperature with depth. Compare it with the value observed at the surface which is

30 K km1, knowing that, at 200 km depth, T 1600 K.

Under adiabatic conditions, there is no heat ow and the variation of pressure with depth z

is a function of gravity g and density r:

dP rgdz

180:1

dU dQ PdV

dQ TdS

where Q is the heat, U is the internal energy, S is the entropy, T is the absolute temperature,

P is the pressure, and V is the volume.

If we use the specic variables (variables divided by mass) we can write

du dq pdv

dq Tds

Considering that

dS

@S

@T

dT

@S

@P

dP

we can write

@s

dq Tds T

@T

@s

dT T

@P

P

dP

According to the denition of specic heat at constant pressure, cP and the increase in heat

dq are given by

335

336

cP T

@S

@T

dq cP dT T

@s

@P

180:2

dP

G u Ts pv

Taking the differential in this expression, and taking into account the second law of

thermodynamics

du Tds pdv

we obtain

dG vdp sdT

If we compare this expression to the differential of the Gibbs function

@G

@G

dG

dp

dT

@p T

@T p

we differentiate again and using the Schwartz theorem we obtain

@v

@s

@T P

@P T

But the coefcient of thermal expansion is dened as

1 @v

ap

v @T p

In consequence we can write Equation (180.2) as

dq cp dT Tvap dp

In our case the process is adiabatic and in consequence using this equation and Equation

(180.2) we obtain

dT T ap g

cp

dz

180:3

where we have taken into account that the variables are by unit mass so rv 1, and

substituting the values we obtain:

dT 1600 2 105 10 K K1 ms2

0:25 K km1

dz

1:3 103 J kg1 K1

We observe that this result is two orders of magnitude lower than the observed values. This

shows that observations correspond to heat ow at the lithosphere and are not satised by

purely adiabatic conditions.

Heat ow

337

181. If the Earths temperature gradient is 1 C/30 m, calculate the heat loss per

second due to conduction from its core. Compare this with the average power

received from the Sun.

Data:

Thermal conductivity K 4 W m1 C1.

Earths radius R 6370 km.

Solar constant: 1.35 kW m2.

The heat ow is given by

q_ KA

dT

dr

A 4pR2 5:10 1014 m2

and

dT

1 C

dr

30 m

Substituting the values

q_ 6:80 1013 J s1 1:63 1013 cal s1

the average power received on the Earths surface by the radiation from the Sun is

1:35 103

W

5:10 1014 m2 6:89 1017 J s1 1:65 1017 cal s1

m2

In consequence, from these values we can see that on the Earths surface the average solar

power is much larger than that due to the heat ow from inside the Earth.

182. At the Earths surface, the heat ow is 60 mW m2 and T0 0 C. If all the heat is

generated by the crust at whose base the thermal conductivity is K 4 W m1 C1, and

T is 1000 C, determine the thickness of the crust and the heat production per unit volume

If we assume that all the heat is generated at the crust and there is no heat ow from the

mantle at the crust base, then we can write

_ zH 0

qj

Using the temperature equation for a at Earth for one-dimensional heat-ow and the

stationary case we can write

T

e

e 2 q_ 0

z z T0

K

2K

q_ 0

H

For z H:

TH

q_ 0 H

TH T0 2K

T0 ) H

2K

q_ 0

338

H 133:3 km

and the heat production by unit of volume is

e

q_ 0

4:5 104 mW m3

H

183. Consider the crust to be H 30 km thick and the heat ow at the surface to be

60 mW m2.

(a) If all the heat is generated in the crust, what is the value of the heat generated per

unit volume? (Take K 3 W m1 K1)

(b) If all the heat is generated in the mantle with a distribution Aez=H mW m3 , what

is the value of A? What is the temperature at 100 km depth?

(a) We solve the heat equation for a stationary one-dimensional case, assuming a at

Earth with one-dimensional ow in the z-direction (vertical) positive downward.

In this case the solution of the heat equation is given by

T

e 2 q_ 0

z z T0

2K

K

where e is the heat generated by unit volume and time, K is the thermal conductivity, q0 and

T0 are the heat ow and temperature at the surface of the Earth, respectively

If all the heat is generated at the crust we can write (Fig. 183)

z H ! q_ 0 0

The heat generated by unit volume is

dT

e2z q_ 0

_ zH 0 K

K

qj

zH 0

dz zH

2K K

e

q_ 0 60 103

2 106 W m3

H

30 103

e Aez=H

the heat equation is

d2 T

e

A

ez=H

dz2

K

K

and the solution is given by

T

A 2 z=H

H e

Cz D

K

183:1

where C and D are constants of integration. They may be estimated from the boundary

conditions at the surface

Heat ow

339

q0

T0

qH

TH

Fig. 183

A 2

A

H D ! D T0 H 2

K

K

A

z 0 ! q_ q_ 0 0 ! C H

K

z 0 ! T T0

T

A 2 z=H AH

A AH

H e

z T0 H 2

Hez=H z H T0

K

K

K

K

183:2

If the heat has its origin in the mantle, the ow at the base of the crust is

dT

q_ 0

_ zH q_ o K

)A

qj

dz zH

H e1 1

q_ 0

z=H

He

z

H

T z

K e1 1

T z 100

60 103

3 100=30

3

3

30

10

e

100

10

30

10

2249 K

3e1 1

184. Calculate the thickness of the continental lithosphere if its boundary coincides

with the 1350 C geothermal, knowing that the surface temperature is 15 C,

the heat ow at the surface is q_ 0 46 mW m2 , the lithospheric mantles thermal

conductivity is K = 3.35 W m1 K1, and the radiogenic heat production is

P = 0.01 103 mW m3

The geothermal equation at depth z is given by:

Tz T0

q_ 0

P0

z z0

z z0 2

K

2K

184:1

340

where K is the thermal conductivity, T0 is the temperature at the surface of the Earth (in K), q_ 0

is the heat ow at the surface, and P0 is the radiogenic heat production at the Earths surface.

At the Earths surface z0 = 0, and Equation (184.1) becomes:

Tz T0

q_ 0

P0 2

z

z

K

2K

P0 2 q_ 0

z z Tz T0 0

2K

K

So

q_ 0

K

s

2

q_ 0

P0

p

4

Tz T0

K

2K

q_ 0 q_ 20 2P0 KTz T0

P0

P0

2

2K

K 3.35 W m1 K1

q_ 0 46 103 W m2

P0 0.01106 mW m3

Tz 1623 K

T0 288 K

we obtain two solutions, but only z = 98.27 km is realistic (the second one gives a depth

larger than the Earths radius).

185. On the surface of an Earth of radius 6000 km, the temperature is 300 K, the heat

ow is 6.7 mW m2, and the thermal conductivity is 3 W m1 K1. If the heat production per unit volume inside the Earth is homogeneously distributed, what is the

temperature at the centre of the planet?

We begin solving the problem of heat conduction inside a sphere with constant internal

heat generation per unit volume e and conductivity K. The differential equation for heat

conduction with spherical symmetry is

1 d

e

2 dT

r

185:1

2

r dr

dr

K

Integrating twice and using the boundary conditions:

Surface: r = R ! T = T0

Center: r = 0 ! T nite

we obtain the solution

e 2

T T0

R r2

6K

dT

q_ K

) q_ 0 r R 6:7 mW m2

dr

e r

d

e 2

T0

R r2

K

dr

6K

3

185:2

Heat ow

341

e 3:35 109 Wm3

From Equation (185.1) the temperature at the Earths centre is

Tr0 300

3:35 109

62 1012 7000 K

63

186. Consider a spherical Earth of radius R = 6000 km and a core at R/2, in which

there is a uniform and stationary distribution of heat sources per unit volume. The

heat ow at the surface is 5 mW m2, the thermal conductivity is 3 W m1 K1, and

the temperature at the coremantle boundary is 4000 K. Calculate the temperature at

the Earths surface.

We consider the problem as one of heat conduction inside a sphere with conductivity K and

constant heat generation per unit volume e inside the core (radius R/2). We begin with

Equation (185.1)

1 d

e

2 dT

r

r2 dr

dr

K

The boundary conditions at the coremantle boundary and its centre are

r R=2 ! T TN

r 0 ! T finite

where TN is the temperature at the coremantle boundary

Integrating twice we obtain

e

T r TN

6K

!

2

R

r2

2

dT

eR

q_ 3

)e 0

q_ 0 r R K

2:5 109 W m3

dr rR

3

R

2:5 109

T r R 4000

63

6000 103

2

6000 10

250 K

with its base at 500 km and constant thermal conductivity K. If the temperature

at the base of the crust is T1 and at the surface of the Earth is T0 = 0 C,

determine:

(a) An expression for the heat ow through the crust.

342

(c) The temperature at the base of the crust if, at that depth, q_ 5:5 1013 W and

K = 4 W m1 C1.

(a) We assume a spherical Earth where the temperature varies only in the radial

direction. Then we can solve the problem as one of spherical unidirectional ow.

For the stationary case, when the conductivity and heat generation are constant, the

Fourier law may be written as

q_ KA

dT

dr

187:1

where A 4pr2 is the area in the normal direction to the heat ow. Integrating this

equation:

q_

4p

R0

r1

dr

K

r2

T0

dT

T1

where the conditions at the Earths surface are, r = R0 !T = T0 and at the base of the crust,

r = r1 !T = T1.

Solving Equation (187.1), assuming that K is constant, we obtain

4pK

4pKr1 R0

T0 T1

T0 T1

q_ 1

1

R0 r1

r1

R0

187:2

(b) The temperature distribution inside of the Earth may be obtained by integration of

Equation (187.1):

T

q_ r dr

K

dT

4p r1 r2

T1

T r T1

R0 r r1

T0 T1

R0 r1 r

(c) The radial distance to the base of the crust is r2 = 5500 km, so, using expression

(187.2), we obtain

T1 T0

_ 0 r1

qR

5:5 1013 500 103

0

16579 C

4pKr1 R0

4p 4 5500 103 6000 103

This result implies a constant increase of temperature from the Earths surface

of 1 C each 33.2 m similar to the observed gradient in the real Earth of 1 C

per 30 m

188. Assume that the heat ow inside the Earth is due to solar heating of the

Earths surface. Calculate the maximum penetration of this ow in the diurnal and

annual cycles. Take as typical values for the Earth K = 3 Wm1 K1, r = 5.5 g cm3,

Cv = 1 kJ kg1 K1.

Heat ow

343

We assume the heat propagation inside the Earth coming from the solar radiation on its

surface as unidirectional ow thermal diffusion (inside the Earth) with periodic variation of

surface temperature. The diffusivity equation is

k

@ 2 T @T

@z2

@t

188:1

K

, K is the thermal conductivity, r is the density,

rCv

and Cv is the specic heat at constant volume. We solve Equation (188.1) using the

separation of variables

where the thermal diffusivity is k

T z; t Z zyt

Substituting in (188.1) we obtain the solution

Z z Aeaz Beaz

yt Ceka

where a is the constant of separation of variables. Using the boundary condition of periodic

ow and the temperature T0 at the Earths surface,

z 0 ) T T0 eiot

and as Z(z) exists only inside the Earth, B = 0. At the surface, z = 0, so

2

ACeka t T0 eiot

Then

AC T0

ka2 io

But putting, i 12 1 i2 , we have

r

o

a 1 i

2k

Then, we can write the temperature variation inside of the Earth as:

r

r

o

o

zi

z ot

T z; t T0 exp

2k

2k

This equation corresponds to a periodic wave, with angular frequency o propagating for

positive z values (to the Earths interior) and with the amplitude decreasing with depth. The

propagation velocity and wavelength are given by

r

2k

v

o

r

8k

l 2pv p

o

344

The values of l corresponding to the daily and annual cycles give their maximum penetration:

Daily cycle:

2p

7:2 105 s1

24 60 60

K

3 W m1 K1

k

rCv 5:5 103 K gm3 103 J Kg1 K1

Then

r

8 0:5 106

0:74 m

lp

7:2 105

Annual cycle:

2p

2 107 s1

365 24 60 60

l 14 m

The penetration of the solar radiation as periodic heat conduction inside the Earth is very

shallow due to the poor heat conduction.

189. Consider a lithospheric plate of 100 km thickness created from asthenospheric

material originating from a ridge in the asthenosphere with constant temperature Ta and

in which no heat is generated. Given that k = 106 m s1, that the temperature at the base

of the lithosphere is 1100 C, and in the asthenosphere is 1300 C, calculate the age of the

plate, and, if the velocity of drift is 2 cm yr1, how far it has moved away from the ridge.

The heat propagation inside the plate is given by:

K @2T @2T

@T

2 u

rcv @x2

@z

@x

189:1

where T is the temperature, r is the density, cv is the specic heat at constant volume, and u

is the horizontal velocity of the plate in the x-direction (normal to the plate front). If we

assume that the horizontal conduction of heat is insignicant in comparison with the

horizontal advection and vertical conduction, we can write, using the following change

of variable t = x/u,

K @ 2 T @T

rcv @z2

@t

Integrating this equation and using the boundary conditions at the ridge and surface:

x 0 ! T Ta

z0!T 0

we obtain for the temperature distribution

T z; t Ta erf

z

p

2 kt

345

Geochronology

where

K

rcv

2 x

2

erf x p ey dy

p 0

k

L

L

1100 1300erf p ) erf p 0:846

2 kt

2 kt

Values of the error function, erf(x), may be obtained from tables. If erf(x) = 0.846, x = 1.008, then

L

L2

1010

p 1:008 ) t

2 kt

2:5 1015 s 79 Myr

If the displacement velocity is 2 cm yr1, the plate has moved 1580 km.

190. If the concentrations of 235U and 235Th in granite are 4 ppm and 17 ppm,

respectively, and the respective values of heat production are 5.7 104 W kg1

and 2.7 105 W kg1, respectively, calculate the heat ow at the base of a granite

column of 1 m cross-section and 30 km height (the density of granite is 2.65 g cm3).

We estimate rst the mass of the granite column:

M rV 2:65 103 1 30 103 7:95 107 kg

If the concentration of

235

235

U:

235

4 7:95 107

318 kg

106

U is

For 235Th, the heat ow is

235

Geochronology

191. The mass of 1 millicurie of 214Pb is 3 1014 kg. Calculate the value of the decay

constant of 214Pb.

The mass of the sample is

346

3 1014 kg 3 1017 g

N

M

N0

where N is the number of atoms in the sample, N0 is Avogadros number 6.02 1023,

and M is atomic number 214. Solving for N we obtain

N

8:44 1038 atoms

214

1 curie

dN

lN 3:7 1010 disintegrations s1

dt

l

3:7 107

0:44 1031 s1

8:44 1038

192. The isotope 40K decays by emission of b particle with a half-life of 1.83 109

years. How many b decays occur per second in one gram of pure 40K?

The average life t of a radioactive material is a function of the decay constant l:

t

1

1

!l

0:55 109 yr1 1:73 102 s1

l

1:83 109

The number of atoms N contained in 1 g of 40K may be estimated from Avogadros number

N0 and the atomic number M:

1

N

1 6:02 1023

M !N

0:15 1023 atoms

N0

40

dN

lN 0:26 1021 Bq

dt

193. The half-life of 238U is 4468 106 yr and of 235U is 704 106 yr. The ratio

235 238

U/ U in a sample is 0.007257. Given that the ratio was 0.4 at the time of

formation, calculate the samples age.

From the half-life T1/2 we can obtain the decay constant l:

0:693

l

0:693

4468 106

0:693

9:8434 1010 yr1

704 106

T1=2

l238

l235

N N0 elt

193:1

347

Geochronology

N235 N0235 el235 t

N238 N0238 el238 t

If we divide these equations:

N235 N0235 l238 l235 t

e

N238 N0238

Substituting the values given in the problem we obtain

4:0095 8:2924 1010 t ! t 4:8 109 yr

194. Date a meteorite which contains potassium knowing that its content of 40K is

1.19 1014 atoms g1, of 40Ar is 4.14 1017 atoms g1, and that the half-life of

40

K!40Ar is 1.19 109 years.

We obtain the decay constant of the

40

0:693

T1=2

0:693

l

0:58 109 yr1

1:19 109

We can solve the problem considering it as a case of radioactive parent atom disintegrating to a daughter stable atom. At time t 0 we have n0 parent atoms at the sample,

and at time t there remain NR radioactive atoms in the sample and NE daughter atoms,

from the disintegration of the n0 parent atoms:

n0 NR NE

But

n0 NR NE

NE

1

nt

NR

NR

From Equation (193.1) we obtain the age of the sample:

nt n0 elt !

n0

NR

elt 1

nt

NR

194:1

so

1

NE

t ln 1

l

NR

NE, the number of atoms of 40K in the sample, can be estimated from the number of atoms

contained in 1 g of potassium:

1

N

40 ! N 1:506 1022 atoms g1

6:023 1023

348

so

NE 1:506 1022 1:19 1014 1:792 1036 atoms g1

Then the age of the meteorite from (194.1) is

1

1:792 1036

t ln 1

7:4 1010 yr

l

4:41 1017

195. At an archaeological site, human remains were found and assigned an age of

2000 years. One wants to conrm this with 14C dating whose half-life is 5730 yr. If the

proportion of 14C/12C in the remains is 6 1013, calculate their age. (Assume that at

the initial time the 14C/12C ratio was 1.2 1012.)

The decay constant l may be obtained from the half-life:

T1=2

0:693

0:693

!l

1:2094 104 yr1

l

5730

R R0 elt

where R0 (14C/12C)t 0 and R (14C/12C).

Then the age of the remains is

1

R0

1

1:2 1012

ln

2379 yr

t ln

l

R

1:2094 104

9 1013

196. Mass spectrometry of the different minerals in an igneous rock yielded the

following table of values for the concentrations of 87Sr originating from the radioactive decay of 87Rb and of 87Rb, with the concentration expressed relative to the

concentrations of 86Sr of non-radioactive origin.

Mineral

87

Sr /86Sr

A

B

C

D

E

F

0.709

0.715

0.732

0.755

0.756

0.762

87

Rb /86Sr

0.125

0.418

1.216

2.000

2.115

2.247

Express on a 87Sr/86Sr87Rb/86Sr diagram the isochron corresponding to the formation of the rock, and calculate the age of the rock. Take l 1.42 1011 yr1.

For the decay of

87

Rb

87

Sr now 87 Sr 0 87 Rb now elt 1

196:1

349

Geochronology

0.80

0.78

86Sr

87Sr

0.76

0.74

0.72

0.70

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

87Rb

86Sr

Fig. 196

where [87Sr]now and [87Rb]now are the number of atoms of each isotope at time t, [87Sr]0 is the

amount of original number of atoms of the isotope 87Sr [87Sr]now, and l is the decay constant.

Equation (196.1) may be written as

87

87

Sr

Sr 87 Rb lt

86 86

e 1

196:2

86 Sr

Sr 0

Sr now

now

87

Sr

This equation corresponds to a line (y a bx) with intercept 86 and slope (elt 1),

Sr 0

which is called an isochron.

If we plot the values given in the problem (Fig. 196) we can obtain the equation of the

line by least-squares tting:

y 0:025x 0:705

The age of the sample can be obtained from the slope b 0.025:

el t 1 b

ln1 b

t

l

Substituting the values of b and l:

t 1:72 109 yr:

350

producing a series of rocks with different concentrations of 87Rb with respect to the

content of 86Sr:

Sample

87

Rb/86Sr

A

B

C

D

1.195

2.638

4.892

5.671

(a) Calculate the proportions of 87Sr/86Sr and 87Rb/86Sr that these rocks will have

after 500 Myr. Take l 1.421011 yr1.

(b) Express in a 87Sr/86Sr87Rb/86Sr diagram the isochrons corresponding to t 0

and t 500 Myr.

(a) Using the same method as in the previous problem, we can write

87

87

Sr 87 Sr 87 Rb lt

Rb 1:421011 5108

86

e 1 0:709 86

e

1

86 Sr

86 Sr

Sr

Sr

0

0.78

0.76

86

87

Sr

Sr

t = 500 Ma

0.74

0.72

t=0

0.70

4

87Rb

86Sr

Fig. 197

351

Geochronology

The results for each rock are given in the following table

Sample

87

Sr/86Sr

A

B

C

D

0.717

0.728

0.744

0.749

87

Rb/86Sr

1.187

2.619

4.857

5.631

(b) For t 500 Myr, we carry out a least-squares tting to obtain the isochron,

which results in

y = 0.007x 0.709

In Fig. 197 the isochrones corresponding to t 0 and t 500 Myr are shown.

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