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Principal of DPT

DPT is based upon capillary action, where low surface tension fluid penetrates
into clean and dry surface breaking discontinuities.
Penetrant may be applied to the test component by dipping, spraying or
brushing. After adequate penetration time has been allowed, the excess
penetrant is removed, a developer is applied. The developer helps to draw
penetrant out of the flow where an invisible indication becomes visible to the
Inspection is performed under ultraviolet or white light, depending upon the type
of dye used, fluorescent or non fluorescent (visible).
Material, non ferrous material (metal, plastic or ceramics) penetrant may be
applied to an non ferrous materials and ferrous materials.
DPT Hairline crack, surface porosity, fatigue cracks in service components.
Principal of MPT
First step in MP inspection is to magnetize the component that is to be inspected,
if any defect on or near the surface are present, the defect will create a leakage
field. After the component has been magnetized, iron particles, either a dry or
wet suspended form, are applied to the surface of the magnetized part. The
particles will be attracted and cluster at the flux leakage filed. Thus forming a
visible indication that that inspector can detect.
Principal of Radiography testing
Shortwave length high intensity electromagnetic radiation penetrate to materials
Principal of PMI
The principle of operation is that one or more gamma ray or X-ray sources are
used to generate a beam of low energy radiation to excite the material under
analysis. The material under analysis then emits a characteristic radiation
spectrum which can be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively to
determine which elements are present and in what quantity
Dries metal and removes surface moisture
Reduces temperature difference between
base metal and weld
It slows the cooling rate in the weld and base material, producing a more ductile
metallurgical structure with greater resistance to cracking.
Helps maintain molten weld pool
Helps drive off absorbed gases

Interpass temperature is more imp. With regard to the mechanical and

microstructural properties of weldments. High values of interpass temperature
tend to reduce the weld metal strength and touchness. For carbon & chromemoly steels 300 to 350 deg cen. For Stainless steel-175 deg cen. Max for Nickel
alloys 150 deg cen. Max and for superaustentic steel 98 deg. Cen. Max.

The steel is heated to a temperature below close to the lower critical
temperature with a specific rate of heating. It is held at the temperature for a
desired length of time, followed by cooling with a specific rate up to certain
There is no change in grain structure.
Stress relieving is done Fabricated Components of CS & LAS:

To reduce Internal Stresses

To soften the steel partially

To soften HAZ

The basic principle of thermoelectric thermometry is that a thermocouple
develops an emf which is a function of the difference in temperature of its
measuring junction & reference junction. If the temperature of reference junction
is known, the temperature of the measuring junction can be determined by
measuring the emf generated in the circuit

A106 Gr.B
A312 TP

415 Mpa
515 Mpa





NI-8 TO 10.5




Ni-10-14,Mo-2 to 3
Ni-4.5 to 6.5, Mo-2.5 to 3.5

What is ITP
Testing is the activity performed to prove the conformance of the application to
standards. Hence, a test plan specifies the ways to follow to prove the
conformance of an application to standards.
What is QAP

Quality Assurance is the activity performed to prevent the occurrence of errors in

the total project. Hence, QA plan specifies the ways to follow to prevent the
occurrences of errors in product development
Quality Assurance - All those systematic actions necessary to provide
adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirement of
Quality Plan - A document setting out specific quality practices, resources and
sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, service contract or
Quality Control The operational techniques and activities that are used to
fulfil requirement for quality.
What is ISO
A set of guidelines to effectively manage the important activities in an
What is ISO 9000
Quality management and quality assurance standards guidelines for use.
What is ISO 9001
Quality assurance in design, development, production, installation & servicing
ISO 9002
Quality assurance in production and installation
ISO 9003
Quality assurance in final inspection and testing
ISO 9004
Quality management and quality system elements guidelines.
What is WPS?
The WPS is a written document that provides direction to the welder for making
production welds in accordance with Code / Standard requirements.
What is PQR?
Procedure Qualification Record certifies that test welds performed in accordance
with the WPS meet Code requirements and summarizes the specific test results.

Types of stainless steel

There are different types of stainless steels: when nickel is added, for instance, the austenite
structure of iron is stabilized. This crystal structure makes such steels virtually non-magnetic
and less brittle at low temperatures. For greater hardness and strength, more carbon is added.
With proper heat treatment, these steels are used for such products as razor blades, cutlery,
and tools.
Significant quantities of manganese have been used in many stainless steel compositions.
Manganese preserves an austenitic structure in the steel, similar to nickel, but at a lower cost.
Stainless steels are also classified by their crystalline structure:

Austenitic, or 200 and 300 series, stainless steels have an austenitic crystalline
structure, which is a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Austenite steels make up
over 70% of total stainless steel production. They contain a maximum of 0.15%
carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel and/or manganese to
retain an austenitic structure at all temperatures from the cryogenic region to the
melting point of the alloy.

200 Seriesaustenitic chromium-nickel-manganese alloys. Type 201 is

hardenable through cold working; Type 202 is a general purpose stainless
steel. Decreasing nickel content and increasing manganese results in weak
corrosion resistance.[18]

300 SeriesThe most widely used austenite steel is the 304, also known as
18/8 for its composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel.[19] 304 may be
referred to as A2 stainless (not to be confused with A2 grade steel, also named
Tool steel, a steel). The second most common austenite steel is the 316 grade,
also called marine grade stainless, used primarily for its increased resistance to
corrosion. A typical composition of 18% chromium and 10% nickel,
commonly known as 18/10 stainless, is often used in cutlery and high quality
cookware. 18/0 is also available.

Superaustenitic stainless steels, such as alloy AL-6XN and 254SMO, exhibit great
resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion because of high molybdenum
content (>6%) and nitrogen additions, and the higher nickel content ensures better
resistance to stress-corrosion cracking versus the 300 series. The higher alloy content
of superaustenitic steels makes them more expensive. Other steels can offer similar
performance at lower cost and are preferred in certain applications, for example
ASTM A387 is used in pressure vessels but is a low alloy carbon steel with a
chromium content of 0.5% to 9%.[20] Low-carbon versions, for example 316L or 304L,
are used to avoid corrosion problems caused by welding. Grade 316LVM is preferred
where biocompatibility is required (such as body implants and piercings).[21] The "L"
means that the carbon content of the alloy is below 0.03%, which reduces the
sensitization effect (precipitation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries) caused
by the high temperatures involved in welding.

Ferritic stainless steels generally have better engineering properties than austenitic
grades, but have reduced corrosion resistance, because of the lower chromium and
nickel content. They are also usually less expensive. They contain between 10.5% and

27% chromium and very little nickel, if any, but some types can contain lead. Most
compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic
grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni. These alloys
can be degraded by the presence of chromium, an intermetallic phase which can
precipitate upon welding.

Martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion-resistant as the other two classes but
are extremely strong and tough, as well as highly machinable, and can be hardened by
heat treatment. Martensitic stainless steel contains chromium (1214%), molybdenum
(0.21%), nickel (less than 2%), and carbon (about 0.11%) (giving it more hardness
but making the material a bit more brittle). It is quenched and magnetic.

Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels have corrosion resistance

comparable to austenitic varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to even higher
strengths than the other martensitic grades. The most common, 17-4PH, uses about
17% chromium and 4% nickel.

Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim
usually being to produce a 50/50 mix, although in commercial alloys the ratio may be
40/60. Duplex stainless steels have roughly twice the strength compared to austenitic
stainless steels and also improved resistance to localized corrosion, particularly
pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are characterized by
high chromium (1932%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and lower nickel contents than
austenitic stainless steels.
The properties of duplex stainless steels are achieved with an overall lower alloy
content than similar-performing super-austenitic grades, making their use costeffective for many applications. Duplex grades are characterized into groups based on
their alloy content and corrosion resistance.

Lean duplex refers to grades such as UNS S32101 (LDX 2101), S32304, and

Standard duplex is 22% chromium with UNS S31803/S32205 known as 2205

being the most widely used.

Super duplex is by definition a duplex stainless steel with a Pitting Resistance

Equivalent Number (PREN) > 40, where PREN = %Cr + 3.3x(%Mo + 0.5x
%W) + 16x%N. Usually super duplex grades have 25% chromium or more
and some common examples are S32760 (Zeron 100 via Rolled Alloys),
S32750 (2507) and S32550 (Ferralium),.

Hyper duplex refers to duplex grades with a PRE > 48 and at the moment only
UNS S32707 and S33207 are available on the market.