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Project Report

TYPES OF CRANES

MUHAMMAD UMAR

Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Summary
The project report on the topic of cranes and its types contains the following
headings:1
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3
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Introduction of cranes
Historical background of cranes
Basic structure of cranes
Diagramatic explanation of cranes
Mechanics and working of cranes
Types of cranes
Improvements in cranes with time
Industrial applications of cranes
Local or domestic use of cranes
Advantages of cranes
Disadvantages and accidents related to cranes
Care about cranes
Future horizons

Preface
Workshop being an advanced and all time progessive area has so much
applications that one can hardly imagine.This report regarding the cranes and
its types has sufficient material to get an over view of the topic with respect to
old present and future ages.
During the making of this book the main objectives in my mind were:1
2
3
4
5
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To cover the basic information that how cranes came into being, got
modified and lead to the present form.
To present the basic structure of cranes.
To show the working mechanism and mechanics of cranes.
To over view the applications of cranes.
To discuss about various types of cranes.
To develop a better understanding of the topic with respect to our
subject.

The special features of this publications are:1


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3
4
5
6
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Up to date information.
Many basic structural study with comprehensive details.
Starting from ancient root moved to modern cranes.
Emphasis on understanding of cranes and its types in modern world.
Examples from daily life.
All terms used are purely technical.
Resource CD and PPT files for better understanding of the topic.

Objectives
While writing this book the objectives in my mind were:-

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

To cover the basic information that how cranes came into being, got
modified and lead to the present form.
To present the basic structure of cranes.
To show the working mechanism and mechanics of cranes.
To over view the industrial usage of cranes.
To over view the local use of cranes in our life.
To discuss about various types of cranes in detail.
To Develop basic movement of Crane with

Introduction

A crane is a lifting machine, generally equipped with a winder (also called a


wire rope drum), wire ropes or chains and sheaves, that can be used both to lift
and lower materials and to move them horizontally.
It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus
move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly
employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in
the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the
manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.
Archimedes said:
Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand and I will lift the world
This statement from the ancient times is self explaining that cranes either in
simplest form were thought and were present in all times. The common
thinking that any big sized machine is a crane is not that much true. According
to definition any simple or complex machine that may be small or big if helps
in carrying load and heavy operations, than it is a crane. Cranes are of various
types according to motility, shapes, working etc.

Historical view of cranes


5

The first construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were
powered by men or beasts of burden, such as donkeys. These cranes were used
for the construction of tall buildings. Larger cranes were later developed,
employing the use of human treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavier
weights.
In the High Middle Ages, harbour cranes were introduced to load and unload
ships and assist with their construction some were built into stone towers for
extra strength and stability. The earliest cranes were constructed from wood,
but cast iron and steel took over with the coming of the Industrial Revolution.
For many centuries, power was supplied by the physical exertion of men or
animals, although hoists in watermills and windmills could be driven by the
harnessed natural power. The first 'mechanical' power was provided by steam
engines, the earliest steam crane being introduced in the 18th or 19th century,
with many remaining in use well into the late 20th century. Modern cranes
usually use internal combustion engines or electric motors and hydraulic
systems to provide a much greater lifting capability than was previously
possible, although manual cranes are still utilised where the provision of
power would be uneconomic.
Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms each tailored to a specific use.
Sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest
tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings, and the largest floating
cranes, used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.

In Ancient Greece
The earliest known are:Greco-Roman Trispastos ("Three-pulley-crane"), the simplest crane type (150
kg load)
Greco-Roman Pentaspastos ("Five-pulley-crane"), a medium-sized variant (ca.
450 kg load)
The crane for lifting heavy loads was invented by the Ancient Greeks in the
late 6th century BC. The archaeological record shows that no later than c.515
BC distinctive cuttings for both lifting tongs and lewis irons begin to appear
on stone blocks of Greek temples. Since these holes point at the use of a lifting
device, and since they are to be found either above the center of gravity of the
block, or in pairs equidistant from a point over the center of gravity, they are
regarded by archaeologists as the positive evidence required for the existence
of the crane.
The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist soon lead to a widespread
replacement of ramps as the main means of vertical motion. For the next two
hundred years, Greek building sites witnessed a sharp drop in the weights
handled, as the new lifting technique made the use of several smaller stones
more practical than of fewer larger ones. In contrast to the archaic period with
its tendency to ever-increasing block sizes, Greek temples of the classical age
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like the Parthenon invariably featured stone blocks weighing less than 15-20
tons. Also, the practice of erecting large monolithic columns was practically
abandoned in favour of using several column drums.
Although the exact circumstances of the shift from the ramp to the crane
technology remain unclear, it has been argued that the volatile social and
political conditions of Greece were more suitable to the employment of small,
professional construction teams than of large bodies of unskilled labour,
making the crane more preferable to the Greek polis than the more labourintensive ramp which had been the norm in the autocratic societies of Egypt or
Assyria.
The first unequivocal literary evidence for the existence of the compound
pulley attributed to Aristotle (384-322 BC), but perhaps composed at a slightly
later date. Around the same time, block sizes at Greek temples began to match
their archaic predecessors again, indicating that the more sophisticated
compound pulley must have found its way to Greek construction sites by then.

In Ancient Rome
Reconstruction of a 10.4m high Roman Polyspastos powered by a treadwheel
at Bonn, Germany
The heyday of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire,
when construction activity soared and buildings reached enormous
dimensions. The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further
The simplest Roman crane, the Trispastos, consisted of a single-beam jib, a
winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Having thus a mechanical
advantage of 3:1, it has been calculated that a single man working the winch
could raise 150 kg (3 pulleys x 50 kg = 150), assuming that 50 kg represent
the maximum effort a man can exert over a longer time period. Heavier crane
types featured five pulleys (Pentaspastos) or, in case of the largest one, a set of
three by five pulleys (Polyspastos) and came with two, three or four masts,
depending on the maximum load. The Polyspastos, when worked by four men
at both sides of the winch, could already lift 3000 kg (3 ropes x 5 pulleys x 4
men x 50 kg = 3000 kg). In case the winch was replaced by a treadwheel, the
maximum load even doubled to 6000 kg at only half the crew, since the
treadwheel possesses a much bigger mechanical advantage due to its larger
diameter. This meant that, in comparison to the construction of the Egyptian
Pyramids, where about 50 men were needed to move a 2.5 ton stone block up
the ramp (50 kg per person), the lifting capability of the Roman Polyspastos
proved to be 60 times higher (3000 kg per person).
However, numerous extant Roman buildings which feature much heavier
stone blocks than those handled by the Polyspastos indicate that the overall
lifting capability of the Romans went far beyond that of any single crane. At
the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, for instance, the architrave blocks weigh up
to 60 tons each, and the corner cornices blocks even over 100 tons, all of them
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raised to a height of about 19 m. In Rome, the capital block of Trajan's


Column weighs 53.3 tons, which had to be lifted to a height of about 34 m.
It is assumed that Roman engineers lifted these extraordinary weights by two
measures: First, as suggested by Heron, a lifting tower was set up, whose four
masts were arranged in the shape of a quadrangle with parallel sides, not
unlike a siege tower, but with the column in the middle of the structure
(Mechanica 3.5). Second, a multitude of capstans were placed on the ground
around the tower, for, although having a lower leverage ratio than treadwheels,
capstans could be set up in higher numbers and run by more men (and,
moreover, by draught animals).

In the Middle Ages


Small-scale reconstruction of the medieval gantry crane at Brugge harbor
Medieval port crane with building overhanging in the former Hanse town of
Danzig (Gdask).
During the High Middle Ages, the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a
large scale after the technology had fallen into disuse in western Europe with
the demise of the Western Roman Empire. The earliest reference to a
treadwheel (magna rota) reappears in archival literature in France about 1225,
followed by an illuminated depiction in a manuscript of probably also French
origin dating to 1240.In navigation, the earliest uses of harbor cranes are
documented for Utrecht in 1244, Antwerp in 1263, Brugge in 1288 and
Hamburg in 1291, while in England the treadwheel is not recorded before
1331.
Generally, vertical transport could be done more safely and inexpensively by
cranes than by customary methods. Typical areas of application were harbors,
mines, and, in particular, building sites where the treadwheel crane played a
pivotal role in the construction of the lofty Gothic cathedrals. Nevertheless,
both archival and pictorial sources of the time suggest that newly introduced
machines like treadwheels or wheelbarrows did not completely replace more
labor-intensive methods like ladders, hods and handbarrows. Rather, old and
new machinery continued to coexist on medieval construction site and
harbors.
Apart from treadwheels, medieval depictions also show cranes to be powered
manually by windlasses with radiating spokes, cranks and by the 15th century
also by windlasses shaped like a ship's wheel. To smooth out irregularities of
impulse and get over 'dead-spots' in the lifting process flywheels are known to
be in use as early as 1123.
The exact process by which the treadwheel crane was reintroduced is not
recorded, although its return to construction sites has undoubtedly to be
viewed in close connection with the simultaneous rise of Gothic architecture.
The reappearance of the treadwheel crane may have resulted from a
technological development of the windlass from which the treadwheel
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structurally and mechanically evolved. Its reintroduction may have been


inspired, as well, by the observation of the labor-saving qualities of the
waterwheel with which early treadwheels shared many structural similarities.
Firstly when big sized cranes were there the movement was locked to two
dimentional but with time need and progress cranes with three dimentional
free movements were formed and modified.

The development of slewing level luffing cranes from 18561956

Another type of crane or similar to it is a derric and it may be explained as:A derrick is a lifting device composed of one mast or pole which is hinged
freely at the bottom. It is controlled by lines (usually four of them) powered by
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some means such as man-hauling or motors, so that the pole can move in all
four directions.
In old times there was no discrimination between the two but now they are
studied as two different tools but their progress is inter relivant so in the
history section they will be treated as same.

The development of floating cranes 19051936

Enormous advances now mean that huge loads can be lifted by


offshore- and derricking- and slewing cranes where hoisting capacities
of 2000 tons or more are routine. Figure illustrate the
development of cranes over relatively short periods of time and show
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the vast differences in size and lifting capacity. figure


show typical cranes that are in use today.

Mechanics and working of cranes


Before entering the study of the working of a crane we will firstly over view
its structure:

Figure showing the structure of a crane


The medieval treadwheel was a large wooden wheel turning around a central
shaft with a treadway wide enough for two workers walking side by side.
While the earlier 'compass-arm' wheel had spokes directly driven into the
central shaft, the more advanced 'clasp-arm' type featured arms arranged as
chords to the wheel rim, giving the possibility of using a thinner shaft and
providing thus a greater mechanical advantage.
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Contrary to a popularly held belief, cranes on medieval building sites were


neither placed on the extremely lightweight scaffolding used at the time nor on
the thin walls of the Gothic churches which were incapable of supporting the
weight of both hoisting machine and load. Rather, cranes were placed in the
initial stages of construction on the ground, often within the building. When a
new floor was completed, and massive tie beams of the roof connected the
walls, the crane was dismantled and reassembled on the roof beams from
where it was moved from bay to bay during construction of the vaults. Thus,
the crane grew and wandered with the building with the result that today all
extant construction cranes in England are found in church towers above the
vaulting and below the roof, where they remained after building construction
for bringing material for repairs aloft.
Less frequently, medieval illuminations also show cranes mounted on the
outside of walls with the stand of the machine secured to putlogs.

Mechanics and operation


In contrast to modern cranes, medieval cranes and hoists - much like their
counterparts in Greece and Rome - were primarily capable of a vertical lift,
and not used to move loads for a considerable distance horizontally as well.
Accordingly, lifting work was organized at the workplace in a different way
than today. In building construction, for example, it is assumed that the crane
lifted the stone blocks either from the bottom directly into place, or from a
place opposite the centre of the wall from where it could deliver the blocks for
two teams working at each end of the wall. Additionally, the crane master who
usually gave orders at the treadwheel workers from outside the crane was able
to manipulate the movement laterally by a small rope attached to the load.
Slewing cranes which allowed a rotation of the load and were thus particularly
suited for dockside work appeared as early as 1340. While ashlar blocks were
directly lifted by sling, lewis or devil's clamp (German Teufelskralle), other
objects were placed before in containers like pallets, baskets, wooden boxes or
barrels.
It is noteworthy that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to
forestall the load from running backward .This curious absence is explained by
the high friction force exercised by medieval treadwheels which normally
prevented the wheel from accelerating beyond control.

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Harbor usage
According to the present state of knowledge unknown in antiquity,
stationary harbor cranes are considered a new development of the Middle
Ages. The typical harbor crane was a pivoting structure equipped with double
treadwheels. These cranes were placed docksides for the loading and
unloading of cargo where they replaced or complemented older lifting
methods like see-saws, winches and yards.
Two different types of harbor cranes can be identified with a varying
geographical distribution: While gantry cranes which pivoted on a central
vertical axle were commonly found at the Flemish and Dutch coastside,
German sea and inland harbors typically featured tower cranes where the
windlass and treadwheels were situated in a solid tower with only jib arm and
roof rotating. Interestingly, dockside cranes were not adopted in the
Mediterranean region and the highly developed Italian ports where authorities
continued to rely on the more labor-intensive method of unloading goods by
ramps beyond the Middle Ages.
Unlike construction cranes where the work speed was determined by the
relatively slow progress of the masons, harbor cranes usually featured double
treadwheels to speed up loading. The two treadwheels whose diameter is
estimated to be 4 m or larger were attached to each side of the axle and rotated
together. Today, according to one survey, fifteen treadwheel harbor cranes
from pre-industrial times are still extant throughout Europe. Beside these
stationary cranes, floating cranes which could be flexibly deployed in the
whole port basin came into use by the 14th century.

Mechanical principles
Cranes can mount many different utensils depending on load (left). Cranes can
be remote-controlled from the ground, allowing much more precise control,
but without the view that a position atop the crane provides (right).
The stability of a mobile construction crane can be jeopardized when
outriggers sink into soft soil, which can result in the crane tipping over.
There are two major considerations in the design of cranes. The first is that the
crane must be able to lift a load of a specified weight and the second is that the
crane must remain stable and not topple over when the load is lifted and
moved to another location.

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Lifting capacity
Cranes illustrate the use of one or more simple machines to create mechanical
advantage.

The lever. A balance crane contains a horizontal beam (the lever)


pivoted about a point called the fulcrum. The principle of the lever
allows a heavy load attached to the shorter end of the beam to be lifted
by a smaller force applied in the opposite direction to the longer end of
the beam. The ratio of the load's weight to the applied force is equal to
the ratio of the lengths of the longer arm and the shorter arm, and is
called the mechanical advantage.

The pulley. A jib crane contains a tilted strut (the jib) that supports a
fixed pulley block. Cables are wrapped multiple times round the fixed
block and round another block attached to the load. When the free end
of the cable is pulled by hand or by a winding machine, the pulley
system delivers a force to the load that is equal to the applied force
multiplied by the number of lengths of cable passing between the two
blocks. This number is the mechanical advantage.

The hydraulic cylinder. This can be used directly to lift the load or
indirectly to move the jib or beam that carries another lifting device.

Cranes, like all machines, obey the principle of conservation of energy. This
means that the energy delivered to the load cannot exceed the energy put into
the machine. For example, if a pulley system multiplies the applied force by
ten, then the load moves only one tenth as far as the applied force. Since
energy is proportional to force multiplied by distance, the output energy is
kept roughly equal to the input energy (in practice slightly less, because some
energy is lost to friction and other inefficiencies).

Stability
For stability, the sum of all moments about any point such as the base of the
crane must equate to zero. In practice, the magnitude of load that is permitted
to be lifted (called the "rated load" in the US) is some value less than the load
that will cause the crane to tip (providing a safety margin).
Under US standards for mobile cranes, the stability-limited rated load for a
crawler crane is 75% of the tipping load. The stability-limited rated load for a
mobile crane supported on outriggers is 85% of the tipping load. These
requirements, along with additional safety-related aspects of crane design, are
established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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Standards for cranes mounted on ships or offshore platforms are somewhat


stricter because of the dynamic load on the crane due to vessel motion.
Additionally, the stability of the vessel or platform must be considered.
For stationary pedestal or kingpost mounted cranes, the moment created by the
boom, jib, and load is resisted by the pedestal base or kingpost. Stress within
the base must be less than the yield stress of the material or the crane will fail.
As the purpose of this publication is solely to study the types of cranes thats
why the mechanics section has got only a birds eye view.

Types of cranes
They are commonly used in the construction industry and in the
manufacturing of heavy equipment. Cranes for construction are normally
temporary
structures, either fixed to the ground or mounted on a purpose built vehicle.
They can either be controlled from an operator in a cab that travels along with
the crane, by a push button pendant control station, or by radio type controls.
The crane operator is ultimately responsible for the safety of the crews and the
crane
.

The most basic types of cranes

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The few main types of cranes


The cranes visible in the figure are showing the history as well as the
advancement in cranes with time. Although the concept about cranes in ones
mind would be as abig machine but the basic type of crane can break the the
concept.On the basis of modern crane study and advancement there are two
basic types of cranes:1. Fixed Cranes
2. Mobile or Movable Cranes
Now we will discuss the two types of cranes in detail:-

Fixed cranes
As the name indicates, these cranes would not show any appreciable
movement. Exchanging mobility i.e. the ability to move; for the ability to
carry greater loads and reach greater heights as compare to any other type of
cranes,and it is due to increased stability, these types of cranes are
characterised that they (or at least their main structure) does not move during
the period of use. However, many can still be assembled and disassembled and
sometimes show a little movement too but again it is not appreciable to a limit
that we may say them mobile. Mobile cranes are so much easy to use and
move but the importance and use of fixed cranes hasnt lost its importance and
we see them everywhere.The most important by use and stability are:1. Tower crane
2. Self-erecting crane
3. Telescopic crane
4. Hammerhead crane
5. Level luffing crane
6. Gantry crane
7. Overhead crane
8. Deck crane
9. Jib crane
10. Bulk-handling crane
11. Loader crane
12. Stacker crane

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Tower cranes
The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. Fixed to the ground (and
sometimes attached to the sides of structures as well), tower cranes often give
the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in the
construction of tall buildings.
The jib (colloquially, the 'boom') and counter-jib are mounted to the turntable,
where the slewing bearing and slewing machinery are located. The counter-jib
carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the
load from the trolley. The Hoist motor and transmissions are located on the
mechanical deck on the counter-jib, while the trolley motor is located on the
jib. The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or controls
the crane by radio remote control from the ground. In the first case the
operator's cabin is most usually located at the top of the tower attached to the
turntable, but can be mounted on the jib, or partway down the tower. The
lifting hook is operated by using electric motors to manipulate wire rope
cables through a system of sheaves.

In order to hook and unhook the loads, the operator usually works in
conjunction with a signaller (known as a 'rigger' or 'swamper'). They are most
often in radio contact, and always use hand signals. The rigger directs the
schedule of lifts for the crane, and is responsible for the safety of the rigging
and loads.
A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic jib (mobile) crane of
greater reach (also see "self-erecting crane" below) and in the case of tower
cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane
(or derrick) will often be lifted to the roof of the completed tower to dismantle
the tower crane afterwards.
It is often claimed that a large fraction of the tower cranes in the world are in
use in Dubai. And definitely it represents their progressing rate.

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Self-erecting crane
Generally a type of tower crane, these cranes, also called self-assembling or
"Kangaroo" cranes, lift themselves off the ground using jacks, allowing the
next section of the tower to be inserted at ground level or lifted into place by
the partially erected crane itself. They can thus be assembled without outside
help, or can grow together with the building or structure they are erecting.

With a combination of superior reach, safer operating techniques and quiet


operation, selferecting cranes outperform telehandlers. The cranes are used in
areas not accessible to a telehandler and reach across an entire jobsite instead
of one area, thus enhancing safety. Radio remote control allows operation
close to the load to accurately pick and place materials. Users benefit from the
cranes ability to work in environmentally sensitive areas due to electric power
operation from a genset that is quieter than mobile alternatives.

Telescopic cranes
A telescopic crane has a boom that consists of a number of tubes fitted one
inside the other. A hydraulic or other powered mechanism extends or retracts
the tubes to increase or decrease the total length of the boom. These types of
booms are often used for short term construction projects, rescue jobs, lifting
boats in and out of the water, etc. The relative compactness of telescopic
booms make them adaptable for many mobile applications.

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Note that while telescopic cranes are not automatically mobile cranes, many of
them are. These are often truck-mounted.

Hammer head cranes

The "hammerhead", or giant cantilever, crane is a fixed-jib crane consisting of


a steel-braced tower on which revolves a large, horizontal, double cantilever;
the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting trolley, the jib is
extended backwards in order to form a support for the machinery and counterbalancing weight. In addition to the motions of lifting and revolving, there is
provided a so-called "racking" motion, by which the lifting trolley, with the
load suspended, can be moved in and out along the jib without altering the
level of the load. Such horizontal movement of the load is a marked feature of
later crane design. These cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to
350 tons.
The design of hammerkran evolved first in Germany around the turn of the
19th century and was adopted and developed for use in British shipyards to
support the battleship construction program from 1904-1914. The ability of
the hammerhead crane to lift heavy weights was useful for installing large
pieces of battleships such as armour plate and gun barrels. Giant cantilever
cranes were also installed in naval shipyards in Japan and in the USA. The
British Government also installed a giant cantilever crane at the Singapore
Naval Base (1938) and later a copy of the crane was installed at Garden Island
Naval Dockyard in Sydney (1951). These cranes provided repair support for
the battle fleet operating far from Great Britain.

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The principal engineering firm for giant cantilever cranes in the British
Empire was Sir William Arrol & Co Ltd building 14. Of around 60 built across
the world few remain; 7 in England and Scotland of about 15 worldwide.
The Titan Clydebank is one of the 4 Scottish cranes on the Clydebank and
preserved as a tourist attraction.

Level luffing crane


Normally a crane with a hinged jib will tend to have its hook also move up and
down as the jib moves (or luffs). A level luffing crane is a crane of this
common design, but with an extra mechanism to keep the hook level when
luffing.

A level luffing crane is a crane mechanism where the hook remains at the
same level whilst luffing; moving the jib up and down, so as to move the hook
inwards and outwards relative to the base.[1]
Some types of crane are inherently level luffing: those with a fixed horizontal
jib, such as gantry, hammerhead or the fixed-jib tower cranes commonly used
in construction. Usually though, the description is only applied to those with a
luffing jib that have some additional mechanism applied to keep the hook level
when luffing.

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Level luffing is most important when careful movement of a load near ground
level is required, such as in construction or shipbuilding. This partially
explains the popularity of fixed horizontal jibs in these fields.

Toplis cable luffing


Stothert & Pitt crane with Toplis gear
An early form of level luffing gear was the "Toplis" design, invented by a
Stothert & Pitt engineer in 1914.[2][3] This is also a purely mechanical
linkage, arranged by the reeving of the hoist cables to the jib over pulleys at
the crane's apex above the cab, so that luffing the jib upwards allows more free
cable and lowers the hook to compensate.
Horse-head jibs
Horse-head jib, showing the level position of the hook
Horse-head design
The usual mechanism for level luffing in modern cranes is to add an additional
"horse head" section to the top of the jib. By careful design of the geometry,
this keeps level merely by the linked action of the pivots.[4]
Powered level luffing
As cranes and their control systems became more sophisticated, it became
possible to control the level of luffing directly, by winching the hoist cable in
and out as needed. The first of these systems used mechanical clutches
between luffing and hoist drums, giving simplicity and a "near level" result.[5]
Later systems have used modern electronic controls and quickly reversible
motors with good slow-speed control to the hoist winch motors, so as to give a
positioning accuracy of inches. Some early systems used controllable
hydraulic gearboxes to achieve the same result, but these added complexity
and cost and so were only popular where high accuracy was needed, such as
for shipbuilding.
Luffing cabs
Luffing mechanisms have also been applied to the driver's cab being mounted
on its own jib, following the movement of the crane's main jib [6] These are
used for tasks such as ship unloading, where the view from the driver's cab is
greatly improved by cantilevering it forwards and over the ship.

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Gantry crane
A gantry crane has a hoist in a fixed machinery house or on a trolley that runs
horizontally along rails, usually fitted on a single beam (mono-girder) or two
beams (twin-girder). The crane frame is supported on a gantry system with
equalized beams and wheels that run on the gantry rail, usually perpendicular
to the trolley travel direction. These cranes come in all sizes, and some can
move very heavy loads, particularly the extremely large examples used in
shipyards or industrial installations. A special version is the container crane (or
"Portainer" crane, named by the first manufacturer), designed for loading and
unloading ship-borne containers at a port.
Both overhead travelling cranes and gantry cranes are types of crane which
lift objects by a hoist which is fitted in a trolley and can move horizontally on
a rail or pair of rails fitted under a beam. An overhead travelling crane, also
known as an overhead crane or as a suspended crane, has the ends of the
supporting beam resting on wheels running on rails at high level, usually on
the parallel side walls of a factory or similar large industrial building, so that
the whole crane can move the length of the building while the hoist can be
moved to and fro across the width of the building. A gantry crane or portal
crane has a similar mechanism supported by uprights, usually with wheels at
the foot of the uprights allowing the whole crane to traverse. Some portal
cranes may have only a fixed gantry, particularly when they are lifting loads
such as railway cargoes that are already easily moved beneath them.
Overhead travelling cranes and gantry cranes are particularly suited to lifting
very heavy objects and huge gantry cranes have been used for shipbuilding
where the crane straddles the ship allowing massive objects like ships' engines
to be lifted and moved over the ship. Two famous gantry cranes built in 1974
and 1969 respectively, are Samson and Goliath, which reside in the largest dry
dock in the world in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Each crane has a span of 140
metres and can lift loads of up to 840 tonnes to a height of 70 metres, making
a combined lifting capacity of over 1,600 tonnes, one of the largest in the
world.
However, gantry cranes are also available running on rubber tyres so that
tracks are not needed, and small gantry cranes can be used in workshops, for
example for lifting automobile engines out of vehicles.

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Container crane
A ship-to-shore rail mounted gantry crane is a specialised version of the gantry
crane in which the horizontal gantry rails and their supporting beam are
cantilevered out from between frame uprights spaced to suit the length of a
standard freight container, so that the beam supporting the rails projects over a
quayside and over the width of an adjacent ship allowing the hoist to lift
containers from the quay and move out along the rails to place the containers
on the ship. The uprights have wheels which run in tracks allowing the crane
to move along the quay to position the containers at any point on the length of
the ship. The first versions of these cranes were designed and manufactured by
Paceco Corporation. They were called Portainers and became so popular that
the term Portainer is commonly used as a generic term to refer to all ship-toshore rail mounted gantry cranes.

Workstation Gantry Cranes


Workstation gantry cranes are used to lift and transport smaller items around a
working area in a factory or machine shop. Some workstation gantry cranes
are equipped with an enclosed track, while others use an I-beam, or other
extruded shapes, for the running surface. Most workstation gantry cranes are
intended to be stationary when loaded, and mobile when unloaded.

23

Rail Mounted or EOT Gantry Cranes


Electrical Overhead Travelling (EOT) cranes or Gantry Cranes are commonly
found in factory applications such as steel yards, paper mills or locomotive
repair shops. The EOT gantry crane functions similarly to an overhead bridge
crane, but has rails installed on the ground and gantry-style legs to support the
crane. Capacities range from 2 to 200 tons. Most are electrically powered and
painted safety yellow.

Overhead crane
Also known as a 'suspended crane', this type of crane work very similar to a
gantry crane but instead of the whole crane moving, only the hoist / trolley
assembly moves in one direction along one or two fixed beams, often mounted
along the side walls or on elevated columns in the assembly area of factory.
Some of these cranes can lift very heavy loads.
An overhead crane is a type of crane where the hook-and-line mechanism
runs along a horizontal beam that runs along two widely separated rails. Often
it is in a long factory building and runs along rails along the building's two
long walls. It is similar to a gantry crane.
An overhead crane typically consists of three important parts:
1. The hoist, providing up/down motion to lift items.
2. The trolley, providing left/right motion for the hoist and load.
3. The bridge, providing back/forward motion for trolley, hoist, and load.
This is permanently installed in a factory, shop, or warehouse to move items
not moveable by humans or forklifts.

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The most common overhead crane use is in the steel industry. Every step of
steel, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, the steel is handled by an
overhead crane. Raw materials are poured into a furnace by crane, hot steel is
stored for cooling by an overhead crane, the finished coils are lifted and
loaded onto trucks and trains by overhead crane, and the fabricator or stamper
uses an overhead crane to handle the steel in his factory. The automobile
industry uses overhead cranes for handling of raw materials. Smaller
workstation cranes handle lighter loads in a work-area, such as CNC mill or
saw.

Deck crane
Located on the ships and boats, these are used for cargo operations or boat
unloading and retrieval where no shore unloading facilities are available. Most
are diesel-hydraulic or electric-hydraulic

The most advanced form of a deck crane is a GLB deck crane. GLB electrohydraulic deck cranes are designed for bulk carriers. We focused on giving the
GLB a robust design, and excellent control and operational properties. The
range covers lifting capacities from 25 to 36 tonnes, with 18-30 m outreaches.
GLB cranes are built from modules, and are easy to maintain and install.

25

General
design:
GLB cranes are designed to meet the rules of all recognised classification
societies and regulatory bodies. They are designed to work in the tough
conditions that go with grab and log handling. The cranes have a stepless
control system, and hoisting, luffing and slewing motions are independent of
each other. This means that at their maximum capacity GLB cranes can
operate at full speed using all three movements at the same time. These cranes
can be supplied with the tools needed for handling particular cargoes.

Jib crane
A jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member (jib or boom),
supporting a moveable hoist, is fixed to a wall or to a floor-mounted pillar. Jib
cranes are used in industrial premises and on military vehicles. The jib may
swing through an arc, to give additional lateral movement, or be fixed. Similar
cranes, often known simply as hoists, were fitted on the top floor of warehouse
buildings to enable goods to be lifted to all floors.

Floor Mounted Jib Crane


o Up to 5 Ton Standard Capacities
o Up to 20 Feet Span

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o Unlimited Custom Design

Wall Mounted Jib Crane


o Up to 5 Ton Standard Capacities
o Up to 20 Feet Span
o Unlimited Custom Design

Special Application Jib Cranes


o Up to 1 Ton Capacity
o Up to 16 Feet Span
o 3 Different Mounting Styles: Floor, Ceiling and Wall.

Jib extension on a scotch derrick


By linking the extension to the main jib (in the example above there is a rigid
tie-bar between the top of the pillar and the end of the extension) you can
arrange for the load to remain at about the same height as the crane jib is
luffed, that is if you lift the main jib the load moves closer to the crane but
remains at the same level.

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This was common on dockside cranes, although the example shown below,
taken from a 1930s book on engineering, is a very large crane, probably based
on one at a ship yard rather than a quay. These are known as 'horses heads', at
least by sailors.

Bulk-handling crane
Bulk-handling cranes are designed from the outset to carry a shell grab or
bucket, rather than using a hook and a sling. They are used for bulk cargoes,
such as coal, minerals, scrap metal etc.

A bulk-handling crane is one that, instead of a simple hook that can handle a
range of slung loads, has an integral grab for lifting bulk cargoes such as coal,
mineral ore etc.
Where the grab is a two-piece hinged bucket, it is known as a shell grab or
shell bucket. Working the grab requires extra cables from the crane jib, so
requires a specialised design of crane throughout, not merely an attachment.
Some grabs use 2 cables for lift and control, others use 4.
In 1927, Stothert & Pitt of Bath, Somerset produced the first specialised bulkhandling crane. This was to unload coal at Barking power station in London.

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Orange-peel grabs
Where a cargo is coarser in size than minerals, commonly for scrap metal, then
an orange-peel grab may be used instead of a shell. These have six or eight
segments of "peel" independently hinged around a central core. They are
better able to grab at an uneven load, rather than just scooping at small pieces.
If the load is made of long thin pieces, a grab may also be able to carry far
more than a single "grabful" at one time.
Although orange-peel grabs may be hung from cables on a jib, they're also
commonly mounted directly onto a jib. This is more suitable for grabbing at
awkward loads that might otherwise tend to tip a hanging grab over. They may
also use hydraulics to control the segments rather than weight and hoist cables.

Kangaroo cranes
Another of Stothert & Pitt's innovations was the kangaroo crane. Rather than
slewing (rotating) the crane to reach the delivery hopper on-shore, a kangaroo
crane has its own in-built hopper beneath the jib, that slews with it as the crane
rotates. Dumping the grab contents into the hopper now only requires the
quicker luffing movement, without needing to slew for each load.

The term "kangaroo crane" has also been applied more recently to jumping
cranes, tower cranes used in the construction of skyscrapers that are capable of
raising their towers as construction grows upwards.

Loader crane

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A loader crane (also called a knuckle-boom crane or articulating crane ) is a


hydraulically-powered articulated arm fitted to a truck or trailer, and is used
for loading/unloading the vehicle. The numerous jointed sections can be
folded into a small space when the crane is not in use. One or more of the
sections may be telescopic. Often the crane will have a degree of automation
and be able to unload or stow itself without an operator's instruction. The
numerous sections can be folded into a small space when the crane isnt in use.

Unlike most cranes, the operator must move around the vehicle to be able to
view his load; hence modern cranes may be fitted with a portable cabled or
radio-linked control system to supplement the crane-mounted hydraulic
control levers.
In the UK and Canada, this type of crane is almost invariably known
colloquially as a "Hiab", partly because this manufacturer invented the loader
crane and was first into the UK market, and partly because the distinctive
name was displayed prominently on the boom arm.
A rolloader' crane is a loader crane mounted on a chassis with wheels. This
chassis can ride on the trailer. Because the crane can move on the trailer, it can
be a light crane, so the trailer is allowed to transport more goods.

Stacker crane
A crane with a forklift type mechanism used in automated (computer
controlled) warehouses (known as an automated storage and retrieval system
(AS/RS)). The crane moves on a track in an aisle of the warehouse. The fork
can be raised or lowered to any of the levels of a storage rack and can be
extended into the rack to store and retrieve product.

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The product can in some cases be as large as an automobile. Stacker cranes are
often used in the large freezer warehouses of frozen food manufacturers. This
automation avoids requiring forklift drivers to work in below freezing
temperatures every day.
This crane is a machine integrated into an Automated Storage/Retrieval
System, also known as AS/RS. The AS/RS are computer-controlled systems
for storing and retrieving products in manufacturing warehouses and facilities.
The stacker cranes role in the system is to transfer large unit loads from a
specific storage slot to a pickup or delivery station. The stacker crane is a large
carriage that is built directly between the aisles of the AS/RS. In a highly
sophisticated system, multiple stacker cranes can be assigned to one aisle. It
can be built to move either vertical or parallel in the aisle.
OCS stacker crane is highly reputed for the stable automatic pallet
transportation. Well-equipped option for single or double load devices, it
allows the maximum throughput with high-speed and stable bay performance.

Single-mast stacker crane


The single-mast stacker crane MAGITO now offers the familiar top
performance of the Mustang for heights of up to 18 m. A new construction
concept for the mast head provides for additional stability, which allows the
device to optimally bear the high speed and accelerations. The MAGITO can
be combined with all standard load handling devices and is thus suitable for all
applications between 14 and 18 m.

Depth stacker-cranes
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Single or double depth stacker-cranes


Mono or bi-pallet stacker-cranes
Curve stacker-crane (transferring, switching)
A complement to traditional storage functions, these technologies are perfectly
suited to :
- Negative or controlled temperature warehouses,
- Bufferstock with rapid turnover,
- Supply of order preparation stations integrated in or exterior to storage,

Mobile Cranes
These are the new type of cranes and are movable to a great extent. This
movement is of the crane from one place to another as well as the movement
of crane basic work tool. The most basic type of crane consists of a steel truss
or telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform, which could be a rail,
wheeled, or even on a cat truck. The boom is hinged at the bottom and can be
either raised or lowered by cables or hydraulic cylinders. The main types of
mobile or movable cranes are:1. Truck-mounted crane
32

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Sidelift crane
Rough terrain crane
All terrain crane
Crawler crane
Railroad crane
Floating crane
Aerial crane

Now we will discuss each type in detail:

Truck-mounted crane
Cranes mounted on a rubber tire truck will provide great mobility. Outriggers
that extend vertically or horizontally are used to level and stabilize the crane
during hoisting. A crane mounted on a truck carrier provides the mobility for
this type of crane.
Generally, these cranes are able to travel on highways, eliminating the need for
special equipment to transport the crane. When working on the jobsite,
outriggers are extended horizontally from the chassis then vertically to level
and stabilize the crane while stationary and hoisting. Many truck cranes have
slow-travelling capability (a few miles per hour) while suspending a load.
Great care must be taken not to swing the load sideways from the direction of
travel, as most anti-tipping stability then lies in the stiffness of the chassis
suspension. Most cranes of this type also have moving counterweights for
stabilization beyond that provided by the outriggers. Loads suspended directly
aft are the most stable, since most of the weight of the crane acts as a
counterweight. Factory-calculated charts (or electronic safeguards) are used by
crane operators to determine the maximum safe loads for stationary
(outriggered) work as well as (on-rubber) loads and travelling speeds.

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Truck cranes range in lifting capacity from about 14.5 US tons to about 1300
US tons.
1930s and 1940s small mobile motor cranes
By the early 1930s motor lorries equipped with petrol engined cranes were in
regular use, the railways used them in larger goods yards (often for handling
containers), those seen on non-railway work were usually owned by a
contractor and hired out with its driver as required. There were some
apparently purpose built vehicles in which the driver could turn his seat round
to operate the crane but there norm seems to have been a crane unit with
operators seat (in the open, cabs came in in the later 1930s but open seats were
seen into the 1960s) bolted to the rear of a lorry chassis. For people working
on OO scale the Airfix 'RAF Recovery Set' includes a crane that saw
widespread use in railway yards after the second world war (and the associated
articulated lorry tractor was also a type used by BR, although not with the long
RAF trailer). As far as I am aware nothing similar is yet available in N.

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Modern diesel engined cranes, with hydraulic rams to lift and sometimes to
extend the jib and an electric or hydraulic motor to wind in the hoisting cable,
started to appear in the late 1950s. These use a compressor to provide the
hydraulic pressure and because compressors heat up the fluid they use oil
rather than water to avoid the risk of steam forming. The example shown
below is traced from a photo taken in the 1950s showing such a crane being
used to load coke into road lorries. Note there is limited articulation and little
use of the hydraulics, the jib is raised and lowered by the two rams behind the
cab, and the grab is operated by hydraulics, but the rest is all mechanical
linkages. Note the double wheels at the front, single at the rear.
Early mobile hydraulic crane
The application of hydraulics to produce more complex articulated and
extending jibs had to wait for general engineering to catch up and produce
sufficiently accurate parts and effective seals but by the 1980s most rail
mounted cranes were of this general type.
Note that by the mid 1930s cranes were by law clearly marked with their safe
working load, usually in the form SWL 1 TON written in white on both sides
of the jib (the law requiring the safe load to be established had been passed in
1844 but it was the 1880s before the tests produced meaningful results). The
size of the lettering varied depending on the type of crane, small hand cranes
where the operator was standing close to the jib might use lettering as small as
two inches high but for large cranes with a cab the lettering was usually the
full height of the jib side. In the 1920s and less commonly in the 1930s some
cranes had something like 3 TONS written on the side but the safe working
load was a legal requirement so the SWL abbreviation soon became standard.
Up until the 1960s for regular heavy loads the best option was the overhead
gantry crane, some were fixed in position, others mounted on a bridge across
35

two parallel raised rails (technically 'travelling gantry cranes'). Larger railway
yards often had a gantry crane, some were fixed but most I believe were the
travelling type (often called a Goiliath crane by railwaymen).
Kibri do a rather nice vintage gantry crane (B-7452), this has a fixed base and
a covered gantry with railed walk ways and can span two tracks. Vollmer offer
a modern tubular metal fixed gantry crane (7901), which would look well on
any layout set after the 1960s, and as mentioned elsewhere they also offer the
only really convincing ISO container handling crane (7905). The British firm
Knightwing offer a neat cast white metal small fixed gantry crane well suited
to industrial use.
Two types which the modeller might attempt are the very small gantry or
overhead conveyor and the very large travelling gantry crane suitable for a
heavy engineering factory or larger railway goods yard. The sketch below
shows the most basic form, a simple I section rail with a carriage running on
the bottom web that might be used in an engineering works to lift heavy items
on and off railway wagons (technically this is an 'overhead conveyor' rather
than a crane). At a works the rail could extend into a building through a
doorway (the doors being cut away to allow this) so items could be transferred
to and from inside the building and the railway wagons. Note this requires two
doors (usually sliding rather than hinged), one either side of the top rail.

Sidelift crane
A sidelifter crane is a road-going truck or semi-trailer, able to hoist and
transport ISO standard containers. Container lift is done with parallel cranelike hoists, which can lift a container from the ground or from a railway
vehicle.

36

The is the most advanced form and this family includes the state of the art of
Ferrari technology:
Piston pumps and load sensing distributor
Proportional levers or multifunctional joystick
Full CAN BUS integrated management
Lifting capacity under spreader up to 6 high 8'6''
FERRARI EC 08
Outstanding forklift truck for empty container handling providing stability and
performances at top market level.
Lifting capacity under spreader up to 9 tons, stacking up to 8 high + 1
Telescopic side spreader 20' 40' single or double lift
EC 08 offers its best performances in :
- narrow terminals
- end on stacking
- fork handling
- double stacking
Being equipped with special spreaders to safely, neatly and quickly handle
empty containers at the terminals, it is developed the new type vehicles
focusing on several crucial features-excellent visibility, high-mounted pillarless cabin, wider view mast, easy and tireless maneuverability, increased
operation efficiency and operator friendliness as well.

37

Rough terrain crane


A crane mounted on an undercarriage with four rubber tires that is designed
for pick-and-carry operations and for off-road and "rough terrain"
applications. Outriggers are used to level and stabilize the crane for hoisting.
These telescopic cranes are single-engine machines, with the same engine
powering the undercarriage and the crane, similar to a crawler crane. In a
rough terrain crane, the engine is usually mounted in the undercarriage rather
than in the upper, as with crawler crane.

No matter where you want to build, the Rough Terrain Crane is ready to help
with realistic functions! Flip down the outriggers to stabilize the load and
extend the powerful telescoping boom! Rotate the base and activate the
working controls on the back to lower the winch and raise the payload. Entire
crane rotates 360 degrees.

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All terrain crane


A mobile crane with the necessary equipment to travel at speed on public
roads, and on rough terrain at the job site using all-wheel and crab steering.
ATs combine the roadability of Truck-mounted Cranes and the
manoeuvrability of Rough Terrain Cranes.
ATs have 2-9 axles and are designed for lifting loads up to 1200 metric tons.

All Terrain Crane adopts 4-section box type powered telescoping, with allround hexagonal boom profile, made of high-tensile structural steel, with
longitudinal reinforcement for improving partial stability of boom lower plate,
better lateral rigidity for boom. 5 sheaves at boom head, the 2nd, 3rd sections
and the top one synchronously telescope, telescoping system contains doubleaction cylinder and wire ropes, and with holding valve fitted in the cylinder. 2axle chassis with environment engine, all axle drive, all wheel steering and
crab walk possible, equipped with advanced hydro-pneumatic suspension and
off-road tires, suitable for variable complicated ground conditions. The vehicle
can travel on various rough road, operate 360full circle, and also on midextended outrigger or on tires, and travel with a suspended load.
For example maximum capacity on outriggers 90 t Base machine is as
follows:
Chassis
Manufactured by Marchetti, steel torsion-resistant box type construction,
width
2.75 m.
2.76
Outriggers
4 hydraulically telescoping beam outriggers. Independent movement controls
on
each side of the carrier and in the upper structure cab. Two different outrigger
positions available 6.9 m & 5 m. The outriggers pads are always clasped to
the
vertical cylinders.
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Engine
IVECO engine F3A turbo-intercooler EUROMOT 2, 6 cylinder in line, water
cooled. Max power 287 kW (385 HP) at 2000 rpm. Max torque 1700 Nm at
1000
rpm. Fuel tank capacity 450 liters.
Suspension
All axles have hydro-pneumatic suspensions. Longitudinal and transverse
level
control and locking to allow motion from the upper structure cab. Automatic
leveling system for road travel. Cylinder stroke 220 mm.
Electrical system
24 V EEC compliant lighting system. N. 1 working light fixed to upper
structure
cabin.
Superstructure
Continuous 360 rotation.
Hoist gear
Grooved drum, epicyclical reducer and automatic disk brakes. Axial piston
engine
and descent control. Rotation indicator. Anti-slewing rope, length 230 m
diameter
19 mm. Hoisting capacity at the 4th level, 6000 daN.
Boom elevation
Through 1 hydraulic double-effect cylinder with safety valve. Boom angle
from 1
to 82
Slewing
Planetary gear & external sprocket, epicyclical reducer and automatic multiple
disk brakes.
Hydraulic system
One axial pistons load sensing pump for the cranes main circuits; one geared
pump for slewing and for the outriggers; one geared pump for the service
circuit.
Possibility of activating three contemporary maneuvers. Thermostatically
controlled oil cooler for heavy duty jobs.

40

Crawler crane
A crawler is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks (also
called crawlers) that provide stability and mobility. Crawler cranes range in
lifting capacity from about 40 US tons to 3500 US tons.
Crawler cranes have both advantages and disadvantages depending on their
use. Their main advantage is that they can move around on site and perform
each lift with little set-up, since the crane is stable on its tracks with no
outriggers. In addition, a crawler crane is capable of traveling with a load. The
main disadvantage is that they are very heavy, and cannot easily be moved
from one job site to another without significant expense. Typically a large
crawler must be disassembled and moved by trucks, rail cars or ships to its
next location.

Crawler cranes deliver excellent mobility over soft surfaces. These multiplepurpose cranes can be used in a broad range of applications, ranging from
construction to civil engineering and port cargo handling.Here are given some
specifications of the latest model of a crawler crane for understanding its
details:

18-tons (16.3-tonnes) pick-and-carry capacity 360.

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Pull & pin boom - 70ft (20m) length.

Telescopic jib for up to 100ft (30.5m) tip height.

173 hp (129kW) diesel engine standard.

Low ground bearing pressure of 5.6 psi (0.39 kg/cm2) or less with
counterweight removed.

Mantis-engineered auger options with optional hydraulic tool circuit.

Two-speed independent hydrostatic track drive to 3 mph (4.8 km/hr).

8ft (2.44m) minimum travel width (with 18ins (457mm) tracks).

Extraordinary 7ft 11ns (2.41m) minimum clearance height.

Choice of track shoe widths, apex swamp pads or bolt-on rubber track
pads to suit any ground surface.

51-54,000lb (23-24.5-tonne) shipping weight fully equipped hauls as


a single, ready-to-work load.

Steep 70% gradeability thanks to low centre of gravity.

Hydraulic on-the-fly track frame retraction and extension.

12,000lb (5.4-tonne) planetary main winch with full load single line
speeds to 222 fpm (67.7 mpm).

Optional Mantis WP-750 Heavy Duty Work Platform for 82ft (25m)
working height.

Railroad crane
A railroad crane has flanged wheels for use on railroads. The simplest form is
a crane mounted on a railroad car. More capable devices are purpose-built.
Different types of crane are used for maintenance work, recovery operations
and freight loading in goods yards. A railroad crane, (crane car or wrecker
(US) or breakdown crane (UK)) is a type of crane used on a railroad for one
of three primary uses: freight handling in goods yards, permanent way (PW)
maintenance, and accident recovery work. Although the design differs
according to the type of work, the basic configuration is similar in all cases: a
rotating crane body is mounted on a sturdy chassis fitted with flanged wheels.
The body supports the jib (UK) (boom (US)) and provides all the lifting and
42

operating mechanisms; on larger cranes, an operator's cabin is usually


provided. The chassis is fitted with buffing and coupling gear to allow the
crane to be moved by a locomotive, although many are also self-propelled to
allow limited movement about a work site.
For cranes with a jib that extends beyond the length of the chassis, a match
wagon (also known as a 'jib carrier' (UK) or 'boom car' (US)) is provided to
protect the jib and to allow the crane to be coupled within a train. The match
wagon is usually a long, flat wagon that provides a means of securing the jib
for transportation; storage areas for special equipment or supplies are usually
fitted too. It was not uncommon for the match wagon to be built on a
withdrawn revenue-earning wagon.

Railroad cranes are usually designed specifically for one of three purposes:
Goods yard cranes
Usually the smallest of the railroad cranes, goods yard cranes were used in the
larger goods yards to provide lifting capability in areas away from the groundmounted goods cranes normally provided in such yards.
They were often small enough to be operated by hand, and were not normally
self-propelled, instead requiring the use of a shunting engine to move them
into position. Once cheap road-going mobile cranes were available, these
43

superseded the rail-mounted variety due to their greater flexibility and


mobility.
Maintenance cranes
The most varied forms of crane are used for maintenance work. General
purpose cranes may be used for installing signalling equipment or pointwork,
for example, while more specialised types are used for track laying.

Breakdown cranes
The largest cranes are used for accident recovery work, usually forming part of
a breakdown train that includes staff accommodation and recovery equipment.
These are large enough to lift derailed rolling stock back onto the track,
although two or more cranes may be required to safely recover a locomotive.
In US terminology, a 'breakdown crane' is often referred to as a 'wrecker'.
Construction
A railroad crane generally resembles a conventional fixed-location crane
except that the platform the crane sits on is a heavy-duty reinforced flat car.
Directly underneath the center of gravity for the crane is a pivot point that
allows the crane to swivel around 360; in this way the crane can locate its
boom over the worksite no matter what its location is along the track. The
trucks on the car under the crane will often include traction motors so that the
crane is able to move itself along the track, and possibly tow additional cars.
Larger cranes may be provided with outriggers to provide additional stability
when lifting. Sleepers are often carried on the match car to put under the
outriggers to spread the weight applied to the trackbed.
Breakdown cranes (sometimes called wrecking cranes or 'big hooks) were
necessary to every railroad to recover derailed rolling stock and engines; while
also assisting with bridge building and yard construction.

Floating crane
Floating cranes are used mainly in bridge building and port construction, but
they are also used for occasional loading and unloading of especially heavy or
awkward loads on and off ships. Some floating cranes are mounted on a
pontoon, others are specialized crane barges with a lifting capacity exceeding
10,000 tons and have been used to transport entire bridge sections. Floating
cranes have also been used to salvage sunken ships.
Crane vessels are often used in offshore construction. The largest revolving
cranes can be found on SSCV Thialf, which has two cranes with a capacity of
7,100 metric tons each.The floating cranes can be used in carrying out highstandard harbour projects, as well as for loading-unloading, transhipping
44

assignments and transportation of heavy loads. Floating cranes made by


Gottwald are the ideal choice for cargo handling on waterways with few quays
or none at all or if capacities have been exhausted:

based on proven Gottwald Mobile Harbour Crane technology

for cargo handling independent of quay availability

designed for ship-to-ship or ship-to-quay handling.

One Single Idea Many Fields of Application


Gottwald floating cranes are mobile and can be used:

in rivers (mid-stream transhipment)

in ports

in protected waters

in coastal waters

on the open sea

Proven Mobile Harbour Crane Technology on the Water


Gottwald Floating Cranes combine Mobile Harbour Crane technology with a
barge and can be designed as:

Harbour Pontoon Cranes: the crane is on a pedestal mounted on an


individually designed barge.

Portal Harbour Cranes mounted on a barge: with this special type of


crane, the barges have rails upon which the HSK can be travelled
thanks to its rail-mounted portal. This enables the crane to service
several holds without warping the barge.

The numerous variants are developed to meet the requirements of the specific
fields of application.

45

Above the slew ring, they have the same components as Gottwald Mobile
Harbour Cranes. As a result, this crane type provides all the benefits of the
proven Mobile Harbour Cranes, such as:

diesel-electric or fully electric drives for optimised efficiency

designed to handle all forms of cargo (containers, bulk, general and


project cargoes)

rapid change of lifting gear.

Floating cranes are available in all variants including 4-rope grab variants for
professional bulk handling.

Aerial crane
Bell 47 helicopters were the first, lightweight aerial cranes to be used in the
early 1950s. Unfortunately, due to the helicopter's limited power, it was never
capable of carrying more than just a few hundred pounds of cargo. In the
1960s, the Sikorsky S-58 replaced the Bell 47 because of its larger power
margin. Even today, S-58s can be found carrying medium-size loads. The
1960s also brought the Bell 211 HueyTug, a specially produced commercial
version of the UH-1C for lifting medium loads, and even the popular Bell 206
was used for light loads. But there continued to be a demand for aircraft able
to lift even larger loads. Aerial crane or 'Sky cranes' usually are helicopters
designed to lift large loads. Helicopters are able to travel to and lift in areas
that are difficult to reach by conventional cranes. Helicopter cranes are most
commonly used to lift units/loads onto shopping centers and highrises. They
can lift anything within their lifting capacity, (cars, boats, swimming pools,
46

etc.). They also perform disaster relief after natural disasters for clean-up, and
during wild-fires they are able to carry huge buckets of water to extinguish
fires.
Some aerial cranes, mostly concepts, have also used lighter-than air aircraft,
such as airships.

So Helicopters used to lift heavy loads are called aerial cranes or skycranes.
As aerial cranes, helicopters carry loads connected to long cables or slings in
order to place heavy equipment when other methods are not available or
economically feasible, or when the job must be accomplished in remote or
inaccessible areas, such as the tops of tall buildings or the top of a hill or
mountain, far from the nearest road. Helicopters were first used as aerial
cranes in the 1950s, but it was not until the 1960s that the popularity of the use
of skycranes in the construction and other industries began to catch on. The
most consistent use of helicopters as aerial cranes is in the logging industry to
lift large trees out of rugged terrain where vehicles aren't able to reach, or
where environmental concerns prohibit the buildings of roads.These
operations are referred to as longline because of the long, single sling line used
to carry the load.

47

Disadvantages and accidents

Overload preventers
The main principles concerned are:
1. Overload preventers with strain gauges or load cells.
2. Overload preventers with load measuring pins.
Overload preventers with strain gauges
The strain gauges or load cells can be built-in directly behind a deadend
of a hoisting wire rope or in a yoke which is carrying wire rope
sheaves, or underneath a gear-box. Usually the crane driver can check
the approximate weight of the carried load on a display in his cabin.

48

Overload preventers with load measuring pins


High quality stainless steel load pins contain strain gauges which are
mounted in a particular way which give a load proportional signal. The
load measuring pins can be built-in in a wire rope sheave or in the pin
of a hydraulic cylinder. Load monitoring can also be done in the crane
drivers cabin etc.
Anti-collision systems
Some anti-collision systems work using the principles of:
sonar;
radar;
low frequency near-field induction.
Miscellaneous 287
Sonar
Although the principle is very good, there is the danger with this system
that a strong wind can blow the sonar waves away.

Radar
Radar usually uses advanced microwave or Doppler radar technology
combined with some digital signal processing. Safety circuits are builtin,
and the system can sense objects up to a distance of about 40 m.
The maximum crane travel speed is about 200 m_min.
The radar beam which is sent out will be reflected by solid objects
and will be received by the same radar antenna. It can measure the
distance between two objects and also the speed with which the object
is approaching the sensed object.
Low-frequency near-field induction system
These low frequency systems work at a frequency of approximately 90
to 220 kHz and have a working maximum range of about 30 m. A
transmitter and antenna is installed on the first crane and a receiver and
antenna on the adjacent crane. With this system it is possible to install
three distance steps between the cranes, which should be respected. For
example:
at 30 m distance an audible signal is given;
at 20 m distance the crane speed is decreased;
at 5 m distance the final stop signal is given.

49

Maintenance
General
With a well made piece of equipment, maintenance becomes a major
factor to keep this machinery in good condition. An organization with
reliable maintenance engineers should be formed to do this important
job. Discipline is needed to carry out regular inspections at the right
time and with the necessary care and attention.
For rolling equipment like straddle carriers and AGVs (Automated
Guided Vehicles), a well equipped workshop will be the best place to
concentrate all important maintenance jobs.
Moveable platforms which can surround the taller equipment such
as straddle carriers can be useful, as can moveable grease guns with
long, flexible grease hoses and moveable drain containers. Special cricks
can help to change heavy tyres rapidly and easily.
The extensive maintenance manuals normally give enough information
about the frequency of inspection and the items which are to be
checked and maintained. The same principles apply to mobile cranes
which are able to move around freely. However, as they are normally
too large to be worked on inside a workshop, the maintenance must be
carried out in situ or in a predetermined maintenance position at the
terminal or quay. Refuelling of the diesel engines also needs to be
organized with precision.
For cranes running on rails, such as the many types of ship-unloading
and loading equipment, stacking cranes, etc. the maintenance work
must be carried out in situ. The complete systems and the automation
require specialist skills. The training of a suitable team of operatives is
310 Cranes Design, Practice, and Maintenance
expensive and time consuming, but absolutely necessary. Inspection and
maintenance of the hydraulic equipment similarly demands specialist
knowledge and a sound understanding of the systems which are in use.
Mechanical engineers must inspect the wire ropes and wire rope systems,
hoist-, travel-, luff- and slew mechanisms, brakes, gearboxes, and
drums. Steel structures also require checking for fatigue cracking and
50

other faults. Bolts should be checked regularly for signs of loosening,


corrosion, cracking or other damage. Greasing and lubrication are an
important part of this whole process because while this essential procedure
is being undertaken, the engineers can carry out visual, mechanical
and other testing at the same time. Greasing and lubrication need
to be thorough and not skimped on even though it is both costly and
messy. It is one of the most important ways in which the useful life
of equipment can be extended and the downtime through repair and
breakdown reduced.
Railtracks should be inspected from time to time, especially those
tracks which are laid on sleepers and ballast beds.
Allowable deviation of the span if span15 m, G3mm
if span.15 m, Gto
10mm increasing
Allowable deviation of one rail
from the nominal straight line in
the horizontal plane max 1:1000
Allowable deviation of one rail
from the nominal straight line in local 1:1000; over the full
the vertical plane length of the track 1:5000
CAUTION: During crane operations, do not enter a crane cab without the
knowledge and expressed consent of the operator.
Conduct of Operators
Mobile crane operations can be complex and subject to hazards beyond those
experienced with fixed equipment. Mobile crane operators require applicable
experience and must exercise intelligence, care, and common sense in addition
to knowing the following rules:

Do not engage in any attention-diverting activity while operating the


crane.

When physically or mentally unfit, do not engage in the operation of


equipment.

Respond to signals from the appointed signal person. Obey a stop


signal no matter who gives it. (See Hand Signals.)

Operators are responsible for those operations under their direct


control. Whenever there is any doubt as to safety, consult with the
supervisor before handling the loads.

Before leaving the crane unattended, perform the following tasks:

land any load, bucket, lifting magnet, or other device


51

disengage the master clutch

set travel, swing, boom brakes, and other locking devices

put controls in the off or neutral position

secure the crane against accidental travel

stop the engine.

An exception to stopping the engine may exist when crane operation is


frequently interrupted during a shift and the operator must leave the crane.
Under these circumstances, the engine may remain running and the following
conditions, including the previous bulleted items above, shall apply:

crane is situated where unauthorized entry of the crane can be observed

crane is located within an area protected from unauthorized entry.

When a local weather storm warning exists, follow the recommendations of


the manufacturer for securing the crane.
If there is a warning sign on the switch or engine starting controls, do not close
the switch or start the engine until the warning sign has been removed by the
person who placed it or an appointed person.
Before starting the crane, see that all controls are in the off or neutral position
and that all personnel are in the clear.
If power fails during operations:

set all brakes and locking devices

move all clutches or power controls to the neutral position

if practical, land the suspended load under brake control.

Be familiar with the equipment and its proper care. If adjustments or repairs
are necessary, promptly report this to the appointed person and notify the next
operator.
Test all controls at the start of a new shift. If any controls fail to operate
properly, they require adjustment or repair before operations begin.
Follow the manufacturer's boom assembly and disassembly procedures. Any
deviation from the manufacturer's procedure shall require blocking of the
boom or boom sections to prevent inadvertent dropping of the boom.

52

When removing pins or bolts from a boom, workers should stay out from
under the boom.
Each outrigger shall be visible to the operator or to a signaler during extension
or setting.
Operating Practices
Swing RadiusPinch Point Clearance
When the crane is in operation, maintain a minimum clearance of 30 inches
(76 centimeters) between the swing radius of the crane superstructure or
counterweights and any stationary object. When this clearance cannot be
maintained, isolate pinch point hazards with barricades or safeguards. Where
possible, flag or barricade the swing radius.
Handling the Load
Load no crane beyond the specifications of the load rating chart, except for
test purposes.
CAUTION: Total load always includes the lifted item and the rigging.
Additionally, the crane hook, block, and load line may also be considered part
of the load. Attachments to the boom such as a jib or auxiliary whip lines
affect crane stability and may be considered part of the load. Consult the
manufacturers operating manual for direction.
When the precise load weight is not known, the person responsible for the lift
shall ascertain that the weight does not exceed the crane rating at the radius at
which the load is to be lifted.
CAUTION: If a load of unknown weight is potentially near the cranes
capacity, a load-indicating device should be used. If a load must "break-loose"
before lifting, or while being handled, or if it may meet an obstruction, a loadindicating device should be used.
If a lift is potentially limited by structural competence of the crane, rather than
by stability, the load shall be determined within plus or minus 10% before it is
lifted.
Use regular lay wire rope for crane load lines with an operating design factor
of no less than 3.5.
Load lines with rotation-resistant ropes require an operating design factor of
no less than 5.
Note: Standard ASME B30.5-3.2.1 grants special provisions for the use of
rotation-resistant ropes with an operating design factor less than 5, but no less
than 3.5. These provisions are not intended for duty cycle of repetitive lifts.
53

The crane manufacturer shall be consulted and strict compliance with ASME
B30.5 is required if such special provisions are implemented.
Attaching the Load
Perform the following tasks when attaching the load:

Never wrap the hoist rope around the load.

Attach the load to the hook by means of slings or other devices of


sufficient capacity.

If the crane is not equipped with automatic drum and boom braking
systems and the load is to remain suspended for any considerable
length of time, set the drum and boom brakes to hold the load.

Holding the Load


Do not leave the controls while the load is suspended.
As an exception to the direction above, when a load is to be held suspended
for a period exceeding normal lifting operations, the operator may leave the
controls provided:

The supervisor and the operator establish requirements for restraining


the boom hoist, telescoping, load, swing, and outrigger functions.

Barricades, or whatever other precautions may be necessary, are taken.

No person should be permitted to stand or pass under a suspended load.

Moving the Load


CAUTION: Ground- and Bearing-Pressure Considerations. It is important
to ensure that no underground installations exist that could be compromised,
such as electrical vaults, conduit banks, tanks, and piping. When crane load
foundations and bearing pressure are a concern to crane stability and
underground installation integrity, site utility layout, crane manufacturers
ground-loading information, crane configuration, and load and travel path
information shall be evaluated and analyzed by a qualified person. The
qualified person shall determine if ground scans, soil stability tests, and
structural analysis of underground structures is necessary. If analysis is
performed, a documented plan to ensure crane stability and integrity of
underground installations shall be provided to the supervisor of the lift
operation and discussed with involved or affected personnel.
54

Preconditions. The person directing the lift (supervisor or designated leader)


shall ensure:

crane is level and, where necessary, blocked

load is well secured and balanced in the sling or lifting device before it
is lifted more than a few inches

lift and swing path is clear of obstructions

all persons are clear of the swing radius of the crane counterweight.

Before Starting the Lift. Before starting the lift, the operator shall ensure:

hoist rope is not kinked

multiple-part lines are not twisted around each other

hook is over the load in such a manner as to minimize swinging

if there is a slack rope condition, the rope is seated on the drum and in
the sheaves as the slack is removed

wind speed and other weather conditions shall be considered. Do not


attempt lifts if weather conditions are adverse to safe load-handling
operations.

load line is plumb so the cranes will not drag the load sideways.

During Lifting Operations. During lifting operations, care shall be taken to


ensure:

no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.

load, boom, or other parts of the machine do not contact any


obstructions or enter the Danger Zone around electrical transmission
lines (see Operating Cranes Near Energized Transmitters or Electric
Power Lines) or a transmitter tower (see Operating Near a Transmitter
Tower).

CAUTION: When landing loads on blocking, the loads must be set on


adequate blocking to prevent damage to the slings and the loads must be safely
landed and properly blocked to avoid unexpected roll over or tipping before
being unhooked and unslung.
Side Loading. Side loading of booms shall be limited to freely suspended
loads. Do not drag loads sideways.

55

Avoid Loads Over People. The operator should avoid carrying loads over
people.
Wheel-Mounted Cranes - Lifting Over Front. On wheel-mounted cranes, do
not lift over the front area, except as specified by the manufacturer.
CAUTION: Working on or under a suspended load is prohibited, except when
the load can be supported by blocking or cribbing, can be securely braced, or
can be supported substantially by some other means that would prevent the
load from moving. Loads being lifted and set in place may require special
handling control measures that may require personnel to position their hands
or other body parts under the load when inspecting, landing, setting, or
controlling the load. To ensure that appropriate controls are implemented to
control unwanted movement of the load, issues concerning "hands-on" work
under suspended loads, guiding or controlling suspended loads, and fine load
control shall be discussed and resolved during pre-lift planning.
Brake Test - When Load Approaching Rated Load. Whenever a load
approaching the rated load is handled, the operator shall test the brakes by
lifting the load a few inches and applying the brakes.
Outriggers. Anytime the load or radius requires the use of outriggers, fully
extend or deploy them per the load rating chart specifications. Outriggers are
set to remove the machine weight from wheels. When outrigger floats are
used, they shall be attached to the outriggers. Blocking under outrigger floats,
shall meet the following conditions:

Have sufficient strength to prevent crushing, bending, or shear failure.

Be of adequate size and thickness to completely support the float,


transmit the load to the supporting surface, and prevent shifting,
toppling, or excessive settlement under load.

Use blocking only under the bearing surface of the outrigger.

Minimum Two Wraps on Drums. Neither the load nor the boom shall be
lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the
respective drums.
Lifts with Two or More Cranes. When two or more cranes are used to lift a
load, a designated person shall direct the lifting operation. That person
analyzes the operation and instructs involved personnel in the proper crane
positioning, rigging, and the movements that will be accomplished. Decisions,
such as the necessity to reduce crane ratings, load position, boom location,
ground support, and speed of movement shall be made. A pre-lift meeting shall
be held by the designated person with the crane operators and other involved
personnel in attendance. The plan/procedure shall be reviewed and questions
shall be resolved.

56

Moving Cranes From One Job Site to Another (Transit). Prepare the crane
for transit in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. (See Lattice
Boom Dismantling/Assembly concerning lattice boom dismantling/assembly.)
The following additional precautions shall be exercised while the crane is in
transit from job to job:

Carry the boom in line with the direction of motion.

Secure the superstructure against rotation (or place the boom in a boom
rack mounted on the carrier), except when negotiating turns when there
is an operator in the cab or the boom is supported on a dolly.

Lash down or otherwise secure empty hook(s) to restrain them from


swinging freely. If questions arise about this provision, the
manufacturer's instructions shall govern.

Notes: 1) When the machine moves under its own power from one location to
another on a job site, the supervisor and/or crane operator shall determine the
machine's condition for travel. 2) See Definitions and Acronyms, Travel, and
Transit.
Traveling with a Load. Traveling with suspended loads entails many
variables (i.e., the type of terrain, boom length, momentum in starting and
stopping, etc.) Therefore, it is impossible to formulate a single standard
procedure with any assurance of safety. Thus, while traveling with a load, a
designated person, in coordination with the crane operator, must evaluate
prevailing conditions and determine applicable safety precautions.
Before a crane travels with a load, determine that the manufacturer does not
prohibit this practice. If the manufacturer has approved traveling with a load, a
designated person shall be responsible for the operations. Decisions such as
the necessity to reduce crane ratings, load position, boom location, ground
support, travel route, speed of movement, and outrigger position shall be in
accordance with that persons determination and the manufacturers
instructions. No person shall ride on the machine during "pick-and-carry"
operations. Unless allowed by the manufacturers operating instructions or
written approval from the manufacturer, do not place the load on any part of
the crane. Check the specified tire pressure and travel with the boom in line
with the direction of travel. Avoid sudden starts and stops. Use tag or restraint
lines as necessary to control swinging of the load.
CAUTION: The travel path should be smooth, firm, and level. If soil stability
is questionable, soil tests may be necessary to determine stability. Where
potential underground hazards exist (such as electrical vaults, conduit banks,
tanks, and piping), they must be evaluated and action must be taken to make
sure mobile crane operations can be accomplished safely.
A crane with or without a load must not travel with the boom so high that it
may bounce back over the cab.
57

During "pick-and-carry" operations, exercise extra caution to avoid electrical


hazards from working near energized transmitters or power lines (see
Operating Cranes Near Energized Transmitters or Electric Power Lines).
During "pick-and-carry" operations, always use a minimum of two signal
persons to assist the crane operator; one signal person will serve as the flagger
with key responsibility for watching the load and signaling as necessary to
control load movement. The second signal person will have the key
responsibility to watch for and signal as necessary to avoid hazards involving
the crane's movement. Typical obstructions and hang-ups include power lines
and any other obstructions for which the crane operator may not have a clear
line of sight

.
Rotational Speed. When the crane is rotated, avoid sudden starts and stops.
Limit the rotational speed such that the load does not swing out beyond the
radius at which it can be controlled. Use tag or restraint lines as necessary to
control the load.
Boom at Fixed Angle. When a crane is to be operated with the boom at a
fixed angle, the boom-hoist pawl or other positive holding device shall be
engaged.
Use of Winch Heads. A winch head shall not be used without the knowledge
of the operator. While a winch head is being used, the operator shall be within
convenient reach of the power unit control lever.
58

Riding Hook or LoadNot Permitted. Personnel are not permitted to ride the
bare hook, hook ball or a suspended load. (For personnel lifting, see Lifting of
Personnel.)
Footing. A firm footing under both crawler tracks, all tires, or individual
outrigger pads should be provided. Where such a footing does not exist,
timbers, cribbing, or other structural members shall be provided to distribute
the load. Do not exceed the bearing capacity of the underlying material. (See
Caution: Ground-and Bearing-Pressure Considerations above.) The crane must
be level within tolerances and in accordance with the instructions from the
manufacturer.
Ballast or Counterweight. Ensure ballast or counterweight is in place as
specified by the crane manufacturer. The addition of ballast or counterweight
other than that specified by the crane manufacturer is dangerous and not
allowed.
Personnel Lifting. (See Lifting of Personnel.) Contact the PNWD Hoisting
and Rigging subject matter expert.
Operating Cranes Near Energized Transmitters or Electric Power Lines.
It is recognized that operating mobile cranes where they can become
electrified from electric power lines and transmitter towers is an extremely
hazardous practice. It is advisable to perform the work so there is no
possibility of the crane, load line, or load becoming a conductive path.
Note: A sign warning of electrocution hazards is required on cranes, see Signs.
Operating Near a Transmitter Tower. Before initiating work near a
transmitter tower (e.g., radio, microwave) where an electrical charge can be
induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter shall be
de-energized or tests shall be made to determine if electrical charge is induced
on the crane. If an electrical charge is induced and the transmitter cannot be
de-energized, the following shall be done:

The equipment shall be provided with an electrical ground directly to


the upper rotating structure supporting the boom.

Ground jumper cables shall be attached to the materials that are being
handled.

Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the


immediate area before operations.

Operating Near Electric Power Lines (See Figure 1). Any overhead wire
shall be considered to be an energized line unless and until the owner of the
line or the electrical utility authorities indicate that it is not an energized line.
Do not rely on the coverings of wires for protection. Crane activities shall be
59

conducted so that no part of the crane, load line or load becomes a conductive
path. Cranes shall not be used to perform any lifting operations under power
lines if any combination of boom, load, load line, or machine component has
the capability of entering the prohibited zone or if the requirements of Crane
Operations Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power Lines are
Energized have not been met. Cranes should not be used to handle loads over
power lines. The following four conditions must be considered when operating
a mobile crane near electric power lines:

Power lines de-energized and grounded as in Crane Operation Near


De-energized and Grounded Electric Power Lines.

Power lines energized, crane operating less than the erected/fully


extended boom length away as in Power Lines Energized, Crane
Operating Within the Erected/Fully Extended Boom Length of the
Prohibited Zone.

Power lines energized, crane within prohibited zone as in paragraph


Crane Operations Within the Prohibited Zone and the Power
Lines are Energized.

Crane in transit, no boom and load lowered as in Crane in Transit


With No Boom and Load Lowered.

Required Notification Before Work. A minimum of 48 hours before


commencement of operations near electric power lines, notify the electrical
utility for an onsite meeting to establish conditions to safely complete the
operations. Prior to the beginning the work activity, notify electrical utilities in
person or by phone, the day the work activity will take place to re-establish the
location, equipment and working conditions.
Crane Operation Near De-energized and Grounded Electric Power Lines.
This describes the preferred condition under which the operation can be
performed safely. The hazard of injury or death due to electrocution has been
removed. The following steps shall be taken to ensure that de-energization of
the power lines has occurred:

The power company or owner of the power lines shall de-energize the
lines.

The lines shall be visibly grounded to avoid electrical feedback and


appropriately marked at the job-site location.

Figure 1. Operating Cranes Near Electrical Power Lines Not Within a Boom
Length of Prohibited Zone. (Crane does not have the capacity to boom down,
swing or extend into the prohibited zone.)

60

A qualified representative of the owner of the lines or a designated


representative of the electrical utility shall be on site to verify that the steps
above have been completed and that the lines are not energized.
If cage-type boom guards, insulating links, or other proximity warning devices
are used on cranes, such devices shall not be used as a substitute for
requirements of Operating Cranes Near Energized Transmitters or Electric
Power Lines. If such devices are used, due to the lethal nature of electrical
hazards and to lessen the potential of false security, the crane operator, crew,
and load handling personnel shall receive instructions and have an
understanding of:

the electrical hazard involved

operating conditions for the devices

limitations of such devices

testing requirements prescribed by the device manufacturer.

61

Conclusion

Recommended Daily, when used:

Check the control mechanisms for maladjustment that may interfere


with proper operation.

Check safety devices and operator aids for proper operation (see
Operator Aids).

Inspect hydraulic hoses. Hoses that flex in normal operation of crane


functions shall be visually inspected.

Examine crane hooks and latches for deformation, chemical damage,


cracks, and wear.

Examine the hydraulic system for proper oil level.

Visually inspect running ropes. A visual inspection shall consist of


observation of the rope that can reasonably be expected to be in use
during the day's operations. These visual observations should be
concerned with discovering gross damage, such as the following,
which may be an immediate hazard:
o rope distortion such as kinking, crushing, unstranding,
birdcaging, main strand. displacement, or core protrusion (loss
of rope diameter in a short rope length or unevenness of outer
strands should provide evidence that the rope or ropes must be
replaced).

62

o general corrosion.
o broken or cut strands.
o number and distribution of visible broken wires (see Wire
Rope, for further guidance).

Ensure inspections (wire rope and crane) are current via inspection
sticker, other documentation or verbal confirmation from equipment
custodian.

Perform other inspections as recommended by the manufacturer

Tips on using cranes and hoists


Before moving a load:
" _ Ensure all loose materials, parts, blocking and packing have been removed
from the load before lifting.
" _ Remove any slack from the sling and hoisting ropes before lifting the load.
" _ Make sure that the lifting device seats in the saddle of the hook.
To move loads safely:
" _ Move crane controls smoothly. Avoid abrupt, jerky movements of the load.
" _ Follow signals only from one slinger in charge of the lift, except a stop
signal.
" _ Make sure everyone is away from the load before hoisting.
" _ Sound a bell, siren or other warning device and start to hoist slowly.
" _ Ensure nothing links or catches on the load while raising it or travelling.
" _ Ensure that nothing obstructs the movement of a load.
" _ Keep the load under control when lowering a load. If the braking system
stops working, the load can
usually be lowered by reversing the hoist controller to the first or second point.

Before leaving the crane:


" _ Remove the load hanging on crane hooks.
" _ Raise all hooks to a mid position.
" _ Spot the crane at a designated location.
" _ Place all controls in the OFF position.
" _ Open the main switch to the OFF position.

Avoid when operating an overhead crane:


" _ Do not operate a crane if limit switches are out of order, or if cables show
defects.
" _ Do not attempt lifts beyond the rated load capacity of a crane or slings.
63

" _ Do not lift a load from the side. Centre the crane directly over the load
before hoisting to avoid swinging
the load.
" _ Do not allow anyone to ride on a load or hooks.
" _ Do not leave slings dangling from the load hook. Have sling hooks placed
on the sling ring when carrying
slings to the load.
" _ Do not raise loads higher than necessary to clear objects.
" _ Do not pass a load over workers.
" _ Do not reverse a motor until it has come to a full stop except to avoid
accidents

Visualizing Crane Selection and Operation in Virtual


Environment
Abstract
Selecting suitable cranes in a construction project needs careful planning to
meet several requirements from capacity,
safety and spatial aspects. To provide construction managers with visual
assistance, we present a method
to design and implement advanced 3D animation methods to visualize crane
selection and construction processes
in 3D virtual environment. This paper discusses this approach including
spatial conflict detection for
equipment workspace using virtual crane animation based on forward and
inverse kinematics. In addition, the
virtual cranes can dynamically present their kinematics action while respecting
the functional constraints for
safety and effectiveness of operations. A prototype system developed in Java
language is used to demonstrate
the feasibility of the proposed method for realizing the proposed method.

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Keywords
Visualization, construction operations, simulation, virtual reality, crane
selection, kinematics animation, workspace.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Xiangyang Tan and Hong Pang from Concordia
University for their contribution in developing the 3D models of cranes and
Yunke Zhang for organizing engineering constraints.

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Bibliography
http.www.wikipedia.com
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http.www.encyclopedia.com
http.www.scribe.com
Cranes,design, practice, and maintainance By Ing. J. Verschoof
http.www.engineeringcivil.com
Cranes By W.C.Mason
http.www.OSH answers.com
http.www.pnl.gov
PNNL Hoisting and Rigging Manual By Mike Fullmer
Lifts, hoists and cranes By DA2C Manual

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