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CHAPTER 5
5.1 : ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION

Important terminology
Coulomb (C):
The basic unit used to measure electric charge.

Joule (J):
A joule is the work done by a constant 1-N force applied
distance.

through a 1-m

## where N is the newton, m is the meter, kg is the kilogram, s is the

second, Pa is the pascal, and W is the watt.

Joule (J)
One joule can also be defined as:
The work required to move an electric charge of one
coulomb through an electrical potential difference of one
volt, or one '"coulomb volt" (CV). This relationship can be
used to define the volt.
The work required to produce one watt of power for one
second, or one "watt second" (Ws) (compare kilowatt
hour). This relationship can be used to define the watt.

Important terminology
Ampere (A): One ampere or amp is the current that flows when 1
Coulomb of charge passes each second (1 A = 1 C/s)

Volt (V):

## If a charge of 1 Coulomb may be moved between two points

in space with expenditure of 1 Joule of work, 1 Volt is said
to be a potential difference existing between these points (1
V = 1 J/C)

Watt (W):

## The rate at which work is done or energy expended. The

watt is defined as 1 Joule per second (1 J/s).

## Quantities and SI Units

SI UNITS used in electricity:
VOLTS (V): unit of potential difference, emf, or voltage
OHM (): unit of resistance
AMPS (AMPERES) (A): unit of current
COULOMBS (C): unit of charge (= the charge moved when one amp of current
runs for one second).
WATTS (W):

## unit of power (power energy per unit time). In electrical circuits,

one watt is produced when a current of one amp flows down a
potential difference of one volt.

## Quantities and SI Units

Six Basic SI unit used in electrical engineering field:

## Electrical Simple Rules.

One watt is one joule per second.

## One amp is one coulomb per second.

If you double the voltage the current will double.
If you halve the voltage the current will halve.

## If you double the resistance the current will halve.

If you halve the resistance the current will double.

Quantity

Basic unit

Symbol

length

Luminous
intensity

mass

kilogram

kg

time

second

Electric current

ampere

Thermodynamic
temperature

Kelvin/ Celsius

K/C

Luminous
intensity

Candela

cd

Charge
-Electricity is any effect resulting from the presence and/or movement

of electrical charges.
- Electrical charge is property of the atomic particles,
- measured in Coulomb (C)
Battery (source of electromotive force, emf)

+
Conducting wire
(atoms within)

+
Motion of charge

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Electric Current
An electric current is the flow of electric charges.
Conventionally this is the flow of positive charge.
In a simple circuit such as that illustrated, the current in the wire

## is composed of electrons that flow from the negative pole of the

battery (the cathode at the bottom of the battery) and return to
the positive pole (the anode at the top of the battery, marked by
a +).

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Electric Current
Electric current is the time rate of change of

## charge, measured in Amperes (A).

Mathematically, the relationship between current
i, charge q, and time t, is

dq
i
dt
Current is measured in amperes (A),
1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second

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Kirchhoffs Laws
The algebraic sum of all electric currents into and out of

## any junction of an electric circuit is zero.

I = 0
I = I1 +I2 + + In

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Electric Current
Two common types of current are;

## Direct Current (dc)

A direct current (dc) is a current
that remains constant with time.
The symbol I is used to represent
such a constant current.

## An alternating current (ac) is a current

that varies sinusoidally with time.
A time-varying current is represented by
the symbol i.

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Voltage
Some work or energy transfer is required to move the electron in a

## conductor in a particular direction. This work is performed by an

external electromotive force (emf), typically represented by the
battery.
The emf is also known as voltage or potential difference.
Electric potential is the energy required to move a unit of electric

## charge to a particular place in a static electric field.

Voltage can be measured by a VOLTMETER.
The unit of measurement is the VOLT (V).

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## Energy and Power

Power is a certain amount of energy used in a certain length of time

P = energy/time = W/t

Joule's law:

P VI

## where P is the electric power,

V the potential difference, and
I the electric current.

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## Energy and Power

P = power = voltage x current

= E

x I

Or,
P = (I x R) x I = I2R

Or,
P = E x (E/R) = E2/R

=pxt
= I2 x R x t

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## Energy and Power

Power can be delivered or absorbed as defined by the polarity
of the voltage and the direction of the current.

## Power delivered or supplied

by voltage source

+
V

I
Power absorbed by resistor

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## Energy and Power

Ohms Law
defines the relationship between
the three fundamental electrical
quantities: current, voltage, and
resistance .
When a voltage is applied to a
circuit containing only resistive
elements, current flows
according to Ohm's Law, which
is shown below;

## Ohm's law states that the electrical

current (I) flowing in a circuit is
proportional to the voltage (V) and
inversely proportional to the resistance
(R).
If the voltage is increased, the current
will increase provided the resistance of
the circuit does not change.
Increasing the resistance of the circuit
will lower the current flow if the voltage
is not changed.
The formula current , I = V/R

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## Energy and Power

Ohms Law
The formula can be reorganized so that the relationship can easily be
seen for all of the three variables.

V = I R or
Where:

I = V/R

or

R = V/I

## I = Electrical Current (Amperes)

V = Voltage (Volt)
R = Resistance (Ohms)

## When the current flows from a higher potential to a lower potential (v

= iR). If current flows from a lower to high potential, then v = -iR.

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## Energy and Power

Resistor
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which
implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
When a voltage (V) is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a
current (I) will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that
voltage.
It is usually made from metallic alloys and carbon compounds.
Resistance factor depend on cross-sectional area (A), length (l) and
resistivity () of the material used as shown in the figure.
Mathematically:
length, l

L
R
A
cross - sectional area, A

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## Energy and Power

A material with low resistivity is a good conductor; examples are gold,

## copper and aluminum.

An insulator like mica and paper has a very high resistivity.
Table 2: Resistivity of common materials at 20o C
Material

Resistivity (.m)

Usage

Silver

1.64 x 10^-8

Conductor

Cooper

1.72x10^-8

Conductor

Aluminum

2.8x10^-8

Conductor

Gold

2.45x10^-8

Semiconductor

Carbon

4x10^-5

Semiconductor

Germanium

47x10^-2

Semiconductor

Silicon

6.4x10^2

Semiconductor

Paper

10^10

Insulator

Mica

5x10^11

Insulator

Glass

10^12

Insulator

Teflon

3x10^12

Insulator

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## Energy and Power

Example;
Calculate the electrical resistance per meter length at 20o C of a

## cooper conductor of 2.5mm 2 cross section area.

Table 2: Resistivity of common materials at 20o C
Material

Resistivity (.m)

Usage

Silver

1.64 x 10^-8

Conductor

Cooper

1.72x10^-8

Conductor

Aluminum

2.8x10^-8

Conductor

Gold

2.45x10^-8

Semiconductor

Carbon

4x10^-5

Semiconductor

Germanium

47x10^-2

Semiconductor

Silicon

6.4x10^2

Semiconductor

Paper

10^10

Insulator

Mica

5x10^11

Insulator

Glass

10^12

Insulator

Teflon

3x10^12

Insulator

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## Calculate the electrical resistance per meter length at

20o C of a gold conductor of 3.5mm 2 cross section area.

Material

Resistivity (.m)

Usage

Silver

1.64 x 10^-8

Conductor

Cooper

1.72x10^-8

Conductor

Aluminum

2.8x10^-8

Conductor

Gold

2.45x10^-8

Semiconductor

Carbon

4x10^-5

Semiconductor

Germanium

47x10^-2

Semiconductor

Silicon

6.4x10^2

Semiconductor

Paper

10^10

Insulator

Mica

5x10^11

Insulator

Glass

10^12

Insulator

Teflon

3x10^12

Insulator

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## Energy and Power

Conductance -the ability for electricity to flow a certain path
Reciprocal of resistance is conductance and denoted by G

1
G
R
It measures of how well an element will conduct electric current.

The unit for conductance is Siemens (S), and previously called mho

## () - ohm spelled back-ward.

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Measurement Equipment

multimeter
ammeter
ohmmeter

megger

voltmeter

Watt-hour
wattmeter meter

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## Circuit Design (series)

A series circuit is a circuit which provides only one path for current to flow

between two points in a circuit so that the current is the same through
each series component. The total resistance of a series circuit is equal to
the sum of the resistances of each individual resistor.
R1

R2

R3

+ V1 - + V2 - + V3 -

RN

Rseries

+ VN -

+VVs

Vs

(a)

(b)

units :
Current :

VS
I
RT

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## Circuit Design (parallel) and Current

Division
Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same

## potential difference (voltage), however the currents through them add.

The conductance of the resistors then add to determine the
conductance of the network.

Vs

I
I1
+
V1
-

I2
+
R1 V
2

R2

IN
+
VN RN

Rparallel
+V-

Vs

(a)

(b)

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## Circuit (parallel) and Current Division

The equivalent resistance (Req) of the network can be computed:

1
1
1
1
1
1

...
R T R equivalent R 1 R 2 R 3
RN
1
1
1
1
RT

...

R
R
R
R
2
3
N
1

Current:

I I1 I 2 I 3 ... I N

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Exercise

R 2 = 10

R1=5

R 3 = 15

Calculate:

RT R1 R2 R3

Total resistance RT
Total current , I

5 10 15
30

150V

V1, V2 and V3

Solutions:
RT R1 R2 R3 5 10 15 30

Vs 150V
I

5A
RT 30
V
I
R

VN
RN

V2 5 x10 50V
V3 5 x15 75V

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## Circuit Design (combination)

A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series

connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or
the other,

Assignment

## One 18 watt lamp and two 60-watt light bulb are

plugged into a 120V circuit. For either DC or AC, the
two bulbs are connected each other in parallel and in
series with the lamp in the same circuit. Calculate;
i. the current flow through each light
ii. the total resistance of the circuit,
iii. the total energy consumed in a year,
the cost of electrical energy for the year (assume 365
days per year) if the lights have been used for 8 hour
per day (based on \$0.286/kWh).

i. the current flow through each light
(0.15A,05A,0.5A)
ii. the total resistance of the circuit, (RT=920)
iii. the total energy consumed in a year,
(402.96kW)
iv. the cost of electrical energy for the year
(assume 365 days per year) if the lights have
been used for 8 hour per day (based on
\$0.286/kWh). (\$115.25)

Exercise 2
One 100W lamp and one 200W lamp are plugged into a

## 120V circuit. For either DC or AC. The two lamps are

connected in parallel. Calculate the current flow through
each lamp, the total resistance of the circuit, the total
energy consumed in a month (30 days x 12 hours per
day), and the cost of electrical energy for the year (based
on current TNB rates).

## Exercise 2: Calculate the following

current flow through each lamp,
the total resistance of the circuit,
the total energy consumed in a month,