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Suleena Mahajan
Eng 1020
Professor Silva
31 October 2008
Animal Farm
Most political ideologies are biased towards the working class. Therefore, a
socioeconomic structure, communism, was established to eliminate class distinctions and
provide equal rights to every citizen. However, most of the time the ideas of communism
always result in a dictatorship-based society. The Animal Farm, by George Orwell, is a
satirical allegory fable that criticizes the ideals of communism and demonstrates how
communism eventually leads to dictatorship through portraying farm animals as a
working class society. The use of diction, language, and imagery throughout the book
also further impact the emphasis of the failures of communism.
The setting of the story takes place at Manor Farm. The leader of animal farm, a
boar named Old Major, is telling his fellow animals a dream he had a few days ago. In
his dream, all the animals live in peace and harmony with no human beings to control
them. However, Old Major dies three nights later leaving three pigs, Napoleon,
Snowball, and Squealer to make his dream a reality. The animals rebel against Mr. Jones,
the farmer, and drive him away from his land. The pigs change the name of the farm
from Manor to Animal Farm. They come up with the seven commandments of
Animalism, which included four legs good, two legs bad. At first, Animal Farm was a
success. Then Napoleon started to crave power. He protested that Snowball is a villain

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and he drove off Snowball from the farm. Napoleon started to change the seven
commandments one by one in favor of the pigs. As days progressed, Napoleon and
Squealer started walking with two legs and changed the commandment to four legs
good, two legs ever better. The pigs also started drinking whisky, wearing Mr. Jones
clothes and participating in other human behavior that they had once condemned.
Napoleon starts acting like a dictator and treats the animals even worse then Mr. Jones
did. In the end, the principles of the original Animalism becomes fully shattered when the
farm animals couldnt distinguish Napoleon from a human being.
The first technique, satire, is displayed throughout the book. This makes the
argument even more interesting. The satirical element is shown through the use of
mockery towards the working class and the ruling class. One instance of mockery on the
working class is conveyed when the most loyal and hard working animal, Boxer the
horse, had collapsed and was immediately sent to the slaughterhouse. The animals had
seen Boxer being sent to a van that clearly stated Alfred Sims Slaughter house,
however, the pigs responded by telling the animals that Boxer was being sent to a
surgeon, and that the surgeon had forgotten to paint the van once he had bought it.
Without giving the response a second thought, the animals agree with the pigs. In this
case, Orwell is mocking the working class for their nave ness and their unwillingness to
question the authority making it seem as if they want to be subjugated by the ruling class.
Another instance of satire or ridicule is shown in the beginning of the fable. Old
Majors dream foretold that all animals were living in peace and harmony, and that there
was no human being to control them. Equality was reached in his dream. This is another

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satirical element because the animals believed Old Major right away. They were so
certain that equality could exist in a working class society even though it is impossible
because eventually a totalitarian society will form from this justice. This demonstrates
how the farm animals are extremely gullible, and controllable.
Another use of mockery by Orwell is perceived how he has represented certain
animals to take the role of well-known communist leaders. The communists are
symbolized as pigs. Pigs are generally recognized as being dirty, lazy, and greedy. This
is what Orwell thinks of the communist leaders. He views them as being dirty, lazy, and
Orwell also mocks the Russian communists through an allegorical representation.
For instance, Napoleon is an allegory of Joseph Stalin and Snowball, Napoleons
competitor, is an allusion of Leon Trotsky. Orwell uses precise instances that convey that
these two pigs have the same thinking and personality as the real Soviet leaders. For
example, in the beginning of the story, the pigs said that the reason they should overthrow
Mr. Jones is so equality can be attained. This idea of communism worked at first, but the
pigs gradually changed the principles of Animalism to advance themselves as the leader.
Three of the seven original commandments were whatever goes upon two legs is an
enemy, no animal shall kill another animal, and all animals are equal. The first
commandment was later revised to four legs good, two legs even better, since the pigs
started to walk on two legs instead of four. The second commandment was changed to
no animal shall kill another animal without cause. The pigs decided to kill Boxer
because he was no use to them after he aged. The third commandment was also changed

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to all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. The pigs granted
themselves as being superior to the other animals. Just as the commandments changed,
the ideas of communism also changes when a particular group becomes power hungry
and rule the working class as dictators.
Some readers find the subject of communism to be tedious, however, George
Orwell uses animals to make the controversies of communism more vivid for the readers.
The target audience for this book is probably everyone. Even children will be able to
understand the concept of communism through the use of farm animals. They will be
able to comprehend that the pigs are the bad guys in this fable.
The use of diction and language also plays a key role in the Animal Farm. The
way Orwell has written the book makes the concept of communism easier to articulate.
If the audience hasnt read the book, they will think that Napoleon is the narrator of the
book. However, the narrator of the book is an anonymous character. Through this
unknown character, the audience is able to figure out that the ideals of communism are
not working. Only the readers, not the farm animals, are able to articulate that Napoleon
has established a totalitarian society.
All that year the animals worked like slaves. But they were happy in their work;
they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything they did was for the
benefit of themselves and those of their kind who would come after them, and not
for a pack of idle, thieving human beings. (Orwell 110)

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The use of imagery makes Orwells argument even stronger. As we read the
book, the images of the events start playing in our head. Hence, the audience begins to
develop pathos from the reading. This pathos targets the emotions of the readers. The
audience has the ability to experience the pain and suffering faced by the farm animals.
The readers know that the ruling class is oppressing the working class. The following
scene conveys strong pathos to the readers.
So Napoleon, with the help of his dogs, slaughters anyone who is said to be
disloyal. The tale of confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of
corpses lying before Napoleon's feet and the air was heavy with the smell of
blood, which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones." To top it off,
Napoleon outlaws Beasts of England, which had served as one of the only
remaining ties between Animal Farm and old Major. (Orwell 99)
The book is written in parts with ten chapters. The tone and style of the book is
very descriptive and detailed. Each chapter contains a different theme relating to the
communism. Mostly, Orwell depicts three main steps that lead to the failures of
communism. First, a revolution begins, and then comes rivalry, and finally dictatorship.
All of the elements presented by Orwell are very effective in conveying his
argument. The use of satire is very significant in this book because Orwell indirectly
criticizes and attacks the Russian Revolution through mockery. The allegory was
effective because the pigs represented real soviet leaders. The fable characteristic made
communism easy to understand. The use of diction, language, and imagery helped

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express pathos to the audience. The beliefs of Animalism are similar to the beliefs of
communism. This satirical allegory fable is a very effective way for people to understand
the true meaning of the pessimistic ideals of communism.

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Works Cited Page
Orwell, George . Animal Farm. 1st . Orlando: Harcourt, 2003.