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Thermodynamics

Fall 2010 Course Number: 14319

Instructor: Larry Caretto

1

window air conditioning units of 6 kW cooling capacity. A person at rest

may be assumed to dissipate heat at a rate of about 360 kJ/h. There are 10

light bulbs in the room, each with a rating of 100 W. The rate of heat

transfer to the classroom through the walls is 15,000 kJ/h. If the room air is

to be maintained at a constant temperature of 21oC, determine the number

of air-conditioning units required.

In this problem, we define the system to be the air in the room. We can assume that

the air behaves as an ideal gas. If the temperature remains constant, there is no

change in the internal energy of the air. Since the volume of the room remains

constant, there is no work done.1 Thus the first law reduces to the equation that Q =

0. We account for the different heat sources in the total heat rate, Q, as follows. The

heat input comes (a) from the 40 students, Qs = (40 people)(360 kJ/hperson)

(kWs /kJ)(h/3600 s) = 4 kW, (b) heat transfer through the wall, Q w = (15,000 kJ/h)

(kW/kJs)(h/3600 s) =4.167 kW, and (c) heat added by the light bulbs, Qb = 10(100

W) = 1000 W = 1 kW. Thus the total heat input is 4 + 4.167 + 1 = 9.167 kW. The

heat removal comes from the air conditioners which remove 5 kW each. Thus for the

net Q to be zero we must have N air conditioners such that (5 kW)N = 9.167 kW. To

satisfy this requirement, we must have two air conditioning units.

A 0.5 m3 rigid tank contains regrigerant-134a initially at 160 kPa and 40%

quality. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant until the pressure

reaches 700 kPa. Determine (a) the mass of refrigerant in the tank and (b)

the amount of heat transferred. Also, show the process on a P-v diagram

with respect to the saturation lines.

The mass of refrigerant may be found from the initial state using the equation that m

= V / v1 where V = 0.5 m3 and v is found from the temperature and the quality. Since

we are given an initial quality, x1 = 40%, we know that we are in the mixed region.

The specific volume is found from the specific volumes of the saturated liquid and

vapor, which are found in Table A-12 on page 930: vf(160 kPa) = 0.0007437 m3/kg

and vg(160 kPa) = 0.12348 m3/kg. We then find the initial specific volume as follows.

3

(0.4) 0.12348 m3 0.049838 m3

v (1 x)v f xvg (1 0.4) 0.0007437 m

kg

kg

kg

With this specific volume, we then find the refrigerant mass as follows:

Note that is both the mass and volume remain constant, the specific volume remains constant. Since both

the temperature and specific volume are constant, the internal energy is a constant, regardless of whether or

not we assume that air is an ideal gas.

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

Phone: 818.677.6448

Fax: 818.677.7062

V

0.5 m 3

v 0.049838 m 3

= 10.03 kg

kg

To compute the heat transfer we apply the first law, Q = U + W. We assume that

there is no volume change in the rigid tank. If there is no volume change, no work

is done. With W = 0, Q = U. We find U = m(u2 u1) where the specific internal

energies are found from the property tables. At the initial state we find u from the

quality in the same way that we found the volume.

kg

kg

kg

process, the final state has the

same specific volume as the initial

state (0.049838 m3/kg) and a

given pressure of 700 kPa.

Knowing these data we can plot

the constant volume path for this

process as shown in the figure at

the left. We see that the initial

state (1) is in the mixed region

and the increase in pressure, at

constant volume, brings the final

state into the gas region.

(P = 700 kPa, v = 0.049838

m3/kg) in the superheat table, A13, on page 930, we see that the

final specific volume in the table

for P = 700 kPa = 0.70 MPa (at a

temperature of 160oC) is only

0.048597 m3/kg. Furthermore, the

specific volume is increasing with

temperature so that the final state

is at a higher temperature than

the final temperature in the table.

The internal energy at the final state can be found by extrapolation beyond the last

value in the table, using the same formula as for interpolation, with the last two

points in the table.

u 357.41 kJ

kg

367.29 kJ

0.048597 m

kg

kg

357.41kJ

kg

0.047306 m

0.049838 m 3

kg

kg

0.047306 m

376.79 kJ

kg

kg

kg

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

Phone: 818.677.6448

Fax: 818.677.7062

kg

As a result of heat transfer from the refrigerant, the pressure drops to 50

psia. Show the process on a P-v diagram with respect to the saturation

lines, and determine (a) the final temperature, (b) the amount of

refrigerant that has condensed, and (c) the heat transfer.

The solution of this problem is similar to the previous one. It is a constant volume

process so that the work is zero and the heat transfer equals the change in internal

energy. The P-v diagram for this problem is shown below. The process starts at the

saturated vapor line at 120 psia and as heat is removed, some refrigerant condenses,

moving the process into the mixed region at the final state where P2 = 50 psia..

Since the final state is in the mixed region, we know that the final temperature is the

saturation temperature at the final pressure of 50 psia. From table A-12E on page

977, we find that the final temperature, Tsat(50 psia) = 40.23oF.

The amount of refrigerant that has

condensed is the total mass minus

the mass that is vapor at the final

state. This is m x2m. We can find

the total mass from the specific

volume at the initial state and the

total volume of the container: m =

V/v1, where v1 is the volume of the

saturated vapor, vg, at the initial

pressure of 160 psia. From Table A12E on page 977 we find that

vg(160 psia) = 0.29316 ft3/lbm, so

that the total mass is given by the

following equation.

V

20 ft 3

m

v 0.29316 ft 3

68.222 lbm

lbm

The specific volume at the final state is the same as the initial specific volume, so we

can find the quality at this final state from the saturated liquid and vapor specific

volumes at the final pressure of 50 psia, taken from Table A-12E.

3

0.28316 ft

3

0.01252 ft

v vf

lbm

lbm

0.3000

3

3

ft

vg v f 0.94791 ft

0.01252

lbm

lbm

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

Phone: 818.677.6448

Fax: 818.677.7062

mcondensed = m mx2 = (1 x2) m = ( 1 0.3000 ) ( 68.222 lbm ) = 47.75 lbm.

We have to find the internal energy at the initial and final states to compute the heat

transfer. The initial internal energy is simply ug(160 psia) = 108.50 Btu/lbm (Table A12E). The internal energy at the final state is found from the saturation properties

and the quality, x2 = 0.3000.

(0.3000) 100.69 Btu

47.396 Btu

(1 0.3000) 24.832 Btu

lb

lb

lbm

m

m

The heat transfer can now be found from the first law.

Q = U + W = m(u2 u1) + W = (68.222 lbm)(47.396 108.50) Btu/lbm + 0 = 4 ,169

Btu.

E-mail: lcaretto@csun.edu

Mail Code

8348

Phone: 818.677.6448

Fax: 818.677.7062

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

4

Page 5

a constant pressure of 175 kPa. Water is stirred by a paddle wheel while a

current of 8 A flows for 45 min through a resistor placed in the water. If

one half of the liquid is evaporated during this constant-pressure process

and the paddle-wheel work amounts to 400 kJ, determine the voltage of the

source. Also, show the process on a P-v diagram with respect to the

saturation lines.

In this problem we assume that the insulation on the piston-cylinder device reduces

the heat transfer to a negligible amount so that we may assume that Q = 0. The

evaporation of the liquid comes from the addition of work from the resistor and the

paddle wheel. At the same time, the piston is expanding, at constant pressure, so

that the water is doing work. Since the pressure is constant, this work is simply equal

to P(V2 V1).

For this problem the first law becomes:

Q = 0 = U + W = m(u2 u1) + P(V2 V1) + Wresistor + Wpaddle

We can write the volumes as the product of mass times specific volume and use the

fact that P = P1 = P2 to introduce the enthalpy, h = u + Pv.

Wresistor Wpaddle = m(u2 u1) + Pm(v2 v1) =m[(u2 + P2v2) (u1 + P1v1)] = m(h2 h1)

We can find the mass from the initial state where we know V1 = 5 L and v1 = vf(P1 =

175 kPa). Using Table A-5 on page 916 to find vf, we compute the mass as follows.

V

V1

5L

m 1

kg

0.001 m3

4.730 kg

L

Since the paddle wheel and resistance work are inputs, these are negative. Thus the

values of Wresistor and Wpaddle are EIt and 400 kJ, where E is the voltage that we want

to find and I is the given current of 8 A. The enthalpy at the initial state is simply h f

at 175 kPa. The enthalpy at the final state is the enthalpy of a mixture with a quality

of 50% at the same 175 kPa pressure. We thus have h1 = hf(175 kPa) = 487.01 kJ/kg,

where we use Table A-5 for the saturation data. Using the same table and the value

of x2 = 50% we find h2 as follows.

kg

kg

kg

Substituting the work terms and enthalpy and mass into our first law gives an

equation for the unknown voltage.

Wresistor Wpaddle = EIt + 400 kJ = m(h2 h1) = (4.730 kg)(1593.56 487.01) kJ/kg

Combining the numerical data gives an equation for the work done by the resistor.

EIt = 4834 kJ = 4834 kWs

We can solve this to find the voltage applied to the resistor.

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

Page 6

4834 kW s

4834 kW s 1 m 1000 V A

= 224 V.

I t

(8 A)(45 m) 60 s

kW

A piston-cylinder device initially contains steam at 200 kPa, 200 oC, and 0.5

m3. At this state a linear spring (F x) is touching the piston but exerts no

force on it. Heat is now slowly transferred to the steam causing the

pressure and the volume to rise to 500 kPa and 0.6 m3, respectively. Show

the process on a P-v diagram with respect to the saturation lines and

determine (a) the final temperature, (b) the work done by the steam, and

(c) the total heat transferred.

The path for this process is shown in the diagram below. The initial point of the path is (P1,

V1) = (200 kPa, 0.5 m3); the final point is (P2, V2) = (500 kPa, 0.6 m3).

P2

P

P1

V

V1

V2

The linear path results from the linear relationship between spring force and

displacement and the linear relationship between displacement and volume. The

equilibrium point of the spring occurs at the initial volume, since the spring is

touching the piston but exerting no force at this point. The pressure due to the

spring is then given by the following equation.

Pspring

F k ( x xe )

A

A

V V1

A k V V1

A

A2

The total pressure, P, acting on the water will be the sum of the constant pressure

from the weight of the piston (and atmospheric pressure), P1, and Pspring.

P P1 Pspring P1 k

V V1

A2

This equation is seen to provide a linear relationship between pressure and volume

as shown in the diagram above. The work is the area under the path which is the

area of a trapezoid: W = (P1 + P2)(V2 V1)/2. Using the values of pressure and volume

given in the problem allows us to find the work.

P1 P2

( 200 500) kPa

kJ

(V2 V1 )

0 .6 m 3 0 .5 m 3

35 kJ

2

2

kPa m 3

The heat transfer is given by the first law: Q = U + W = m(u2 u1) + W. We have to

find the values of u1 and u2 from the property tables for water. In addition, we can

find the mass from the initial volume, V1 = 0.5 m3, and the initial specific volume, v1.

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

Page 7

At the initial state of P1 = 200 kPa and T1 = 200oC, we find the following properties in

the superheat table, Table A-6 on page 918: v1 = 1.08049 m3/kg and u1 = 2654.6

kJ/kg. We can then find the mass as follows.

V1

0 .5 m 3

m

v1 1.08049 m3

0.46275 kg

kg

From this system mass, we can compute the specific volume at the final state where

V2 = 0.6 m3.

v2

3

V2

0.6 m3

1.2966 m

kg

m

0.46275 kg

At the final pressure of 500 kPa, the specific volume, v2 = 1.2966 m3/kg occurs

between temperatures of 1100oC and 1200oC in Table A-6 on page 920. Interpolating

between these two points gives the temperature and internal energy at the final

state.

u 4259.0 kJ

4470.0 kJ

4259.0 kJ

3

3

kg

4325.8 kJ

1.2966 m

1.26728 m

3

kg

kg

kg

kg

1.35972 m

1.26728 m

kg

kg

kg

1200 o C 1100 o C

1.2966 m 3 1.26728 m 3 1131 .7 o C

T 1100 C

3

3

kg

kg

1.35972 m

1.26728 m

kg

kg

o

`

So, the final temperature, T2 = 1132oC.

The heat transfer is found from the first law as usual.

Q = m(u2 u1) + W = (0.46275

kg)(4325.8 2654.6)kJ/kg + 35

kJ = 808 kJ.

6

A piston-cylinder device

initially contains 0.8 m3 of

saturated water vapor at

250 kPa. At this state, the

piston is resting on a set of

stops and the mass of the

piston is such that a

pressure of 300 kPa is

required to move it. Heat is

now slowly transferred to

the steam until the volume

doubles. Show the process

on a P-V diagram with

ME 370, L. S. Caretto, Fall 2010

Page 8

respect to saturation lines and determine (a) the final temperature, (b) the

work done during this process, and (c) the total heat transfer.

The P-v diagram for this process is shown at the right. During the first part of the

process, from point 1 to point 2, the pressure is too low to lift the piston, so the

process occurs at constant volume. Once the pressure reaches 300 kPa, the piston

starts to rise and the remainder of the expansion (a doubling of volume) occurs at

constant pressure.

The total heat transfer is found from the first law as Q = U + W = m(u3 u1) + W,

where W is found as the area under the path: W = P2-3(V3 V1) and P2-3 is the constant

pressure of 300 kPa = P2 = P3. We know that V1 = 0.8 m3 and V3 = 2 V1 = 1.6 m3.

Thus, the work is found as follows.

kJ

W = 240 kJ

kPa m 3

The mass is found from the initial volume of 0.8 m3 and the initial specific volume

which is the specific volume of a saturated vapor at 250 kPa. This is found from Table

A-5 on page 916.

V1

V1

0.8 m 3

m

1.113 kg

kg

Since the mass is constant and the volume doubles, the final specific volume is twice

the initial specific volume: v3 = 2v2 = 1.43746 m3/kg. The final state with this specific

volume and a pressure of 300 kPa (0.3 MPa) is found in the superheat tables, Table A6 on page 918, to occur at a temperature between 600oC and 700oC. The final

temperature is found by interpolation.

700 o C 600 o C

T3 600 C

1.49580 m

kg

1.34139 m

1.437464 m 3

kg

kg

1.34139 m

662.2 o C

kg

`

So the final temperature, T3 = 662oC.

The initial internal energy for the saturated vapor state is found from Table A-5, u 1 =

ug(250 kPa) = 2536.8 kJ/kg. The internal energy at the final state is found by an

interpolation similar to the one used for the temperature.

u3 3301.6 kJ

3479.5 kJ

3301.6 kJ

kg

m 3 1.34139 m 3 3412.3 kJ

1

.

437464

3

3

kg

kg

kg

kg

1.49580 m

1.34139 m

kg

kg

kg

The heat transfer is found from the usual equation for the first law.

Q = m(u3 u1) + W = (1.113 kg)(3412.3 2536.8)kJ/kg + 240 kJ = 1214 kJ.

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