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Sentence patterns: Contrast clauses

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Aim: This exercise is to help you to use contrast clauses correctly.

Though / although / even though / while:


You use contrast clauses when you want to make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other or makes it
appear unexpected or surprising. Some contrast clauses called concessive clauses are introduced by conjunctions
such as although, even though or while.
Although Mrs. Sims had lived in Hong Kong all her life, she knew very little Cantonese.
While the number of families with access to the Internet and cable television has risen sharply in the past
decade, what tends to be overlooked is that a significant proportion of households are unable to afford the fees
for these services.
Dont use but in sentences beginning with although, even though or while. Here is a common mistake:

Although Kelvin worked hard, but he failed the examination.

You can leave out the subject and the verb be in a contrast clause when the subject of the contrast clause and the main
clause are the same (e.g. he was in the following sentence).
Though / Although [he was] hard working, Kelvin failed the examination.

Albeit
You will sometimes see the word albeit used in formal English. Albeit can come before an adjective, adverb, or
adverbial phrase. In the sentence below, albeit rather reluctantly means even though she did so rather reluctantly.
Jayne participated in the charity walk, albeit rather reluctantly.

Despite, in spite of
You can also use despite or in spite of to make a contrast. These are followed by either a noun phrase or an ing form.
Despite working hard, Kelvin failed the examination.
In spite of his hard work, Kelvin failed the examination.
This sentence is incorrect:

Despite he worked hard, Kelvin failed the examination.

If you want to follow despite or in spite of with a clause you must add the fact that.

Despite the fact that he worked hard, Kelvin failed the examination.

Yet
The word yet has many meanings. One of these is a similar meaning to but, although it expresses more surprise about
something unexpected. It can come between adjectives, adverbs or clauses. For example:
He was poor yet generous.
He worked slowly yet effectively.
He loved animals, yet he hated snakes.

EXERCISE: Complete the gap with the most appropriate language from a), b) or c)
in each sentence

1. _______________ he wasn't feeling very well, David was determined to take part in the interuniversity athletics meet.
a) Even
b) Due to
c) Although

2. Kelly managed to pass the examination _______________ she hadnt spoken the language for
over two months.
a) in spite of
b) despite the fact that
c) even though

3.

_______________ having the best qualifications among all the applicants, Justin was not
offered the job.
a) In spite of the fact that
b) Despite
c) Because

4. Fifteen years ago very few people used the Internet _______________ its use was limited to
the military.
a) on account of
b) in spite of
c) because

5. _______________ it is very popular, many older people do not know how to use the Internet.
a) Even though
b) on account of
c) despite
6. _______________ its fast download speed, Broadband has many advantages.
a) Due to the fact that
b) Because of
c) While
7.

_______________ acknowledging the benefits of learning English for academic or


employment purposes, many scholars are concerned that some students learn English at
the expense of their first language.
a) Whereas
b) While
c) In spite of the fact that

8. Sally performed credibly in the final examination _______________ suffering from a heavy
cold.
a) albeit
b) yet
c) despite
9. Albert studied mathematics for two semesters, _______________ with little enthusiasm.
a) albeit
b) although
c) despite