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Basic Persian
Lesson 1
ch

well

water

drad

has

that

1. n ch ast

that is a well

2. n b ast

that is water

3. ch b darad

a well has water

4. b bi ast

water is blue

5. n b bi ast

that water is blue

6. n be ch ast

that is well water

place

foot

bu

smell

dud

smoke

zud

early

mad

he/she came

1. u j drad

he/she has a place

2. u p drad

he/she has foot

3. dud bu drad

the smoke has smell

4. b bi ast

the water is blue

5. u zud mad

he/she came early

Exercise 1.1
1. Learn the pronunciations of a and by pronouncing them aloud.
2. Learn the meaning of the above Persian words and pronounce them aloud.
3. Copy the above example sentences five times.

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Lesson 2
sn

easy

dars

lesson

we

in

this

bud

was

kr

job/work

man

dram

I have

1. in dars sn ast

this lesson is easy

2. n dars sn bud

that lesson was easy

3. kre m sn ast

our work/job is easy

4. n be ch ast

that is well water

5. u p drad

he/she has foot

6. man kr dram

I have work

7. darse man sn ast

my lesson is easy

8. in darse man ast

this is my lesson

9. u zud mad

he/she came early

10. n ch b drad

that well has water

Forming Interrogative Sentences


For forming an interrogative sentence add the word y in the beginning of a declarative one. For a
positive answer to an interrogative sentence, use the word bale and for a negative answer use the
word na.

Excerice 2.1

Answer the Following Questions:

1. y in dars sn ast?

bale, in dars sn ast

2. y kre m sn ast?

bale, kre m sn ast

3. y n ch b drad?

bale, n ch b drad

4. y u zud mad?

bale, u zud mad

5. y b bi ast?

bale, b bi ast

6. y n be ch ast?

bale, n be ch ast

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7. y dud bu drad?

bale, dud bu drad

8. y u j drad?

bale, u j drad

Exercise 2.2

Read the Following Words Loudly and Distinctly:


sn - dars - m - in - bud - kr - man - dram

Lesson 3
asb

horse

gu

ear

dom

tail

sag

dog

dar

door/in

yek

one

do

two

dast

hand

lab

lip

1. in asb ast

this is a horse

2. n asb do gu drad

that horse has two ears

3. in asb yek dom drad

this horse has a tail

4. asbe mn do gu drad

my horse has two ears

5. in dar ast

this is a door

6. u yek asb drad

he/she has a horse

7. n asb ast

that is a horse

8. in asbe mn ast

this is my horse

9. n sag, yek dom drad

that dog has a tail

10. in sage u ast

this is his/her dig

11. in labe mn ast

this is my lip

12. n daste ust (ust = u ast)

that is his/her hand

13. u do asb drad

he/she has two horses

14. man yek sag dram

I have a dog

15. man do p dram

I have two feet

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16. asb dom drad

a horse has a tail

17. asb lab drad

a horse has lips

18. u do dast drad

he/she has two hnds

19. in sag do lab drad

this dog has two lips

20. n dar ast

that is a door

Exercise 3.1

1. Remember the pronunciation of o in the word do (two). Pronounce


this word several times.
2. Learn these combinations and make others similar to them: abe ch
kre m do gu
3. Put the following declarative sentences into interrogative:
1. u yek sag drad

y u yek sag drad?

2. asb dom drad

y asb dom drad?

3. n sag ast

y n sag ast?

4. in asbe ust

y in asbe ust?

5. n sag do gu drad

y n sag do gu drad?

6. in be ch ast

y in be ch ast?

7. n ch b drad

y n ch b drad?

8. n daste ust

y n daste ust?

Exercise 3.2

Put the following words in the right order:

1. drad - yek - u - sag

u yek sag drad

2. dom - asb - n - drad

n asb dom drad

3. man - sag - gu - drad - do - e

sage man do gu drad

4. asb - ast - n

n asb ast

5. man - in - ast - sage

sage man in ast

6. asb - u - do - drad

u do asb drad

7. p - do - man - dram

man do p dram

8. drad - dom - asb

asb dom drad

9. asbe - do - p - u - drad

asbe u do p drad

10. ch - be - ast - n

n be ch ast

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Lesson 4
mu

hair

abru

eyebrow

damq/bini

nose

sar

head

dahan/dahn

mouth

cam

eye

kucak

little/small

bozorg

big/large

va/o

and

1. u do gue bozorg drad

he/she has two large ears

2. daste man kucak ast

I have a small hand

3. sare man mu drad

I have hair on my head

4. u yek damqe bozorg drad

he/she has a large nose

5. man do cam dram

I have two eyes

6. u yek dahan drad

he/she has a mouth

7. man yek sar dram

I have a head

8. u do p drad

he/she has two feet

9. man yek dahn va/dahno do lab dram


(dahan + o = dahno)

I have one mouth and two lips

10. u do abru va/abruvo do cam drad (abru + o


= abruvo)

he/she has two eyebrows and two eyes

11. sare man va/mano sare u mu drand

he/she and I have hair on our heads

12. sare u kucak va/kucako gue u bozorg ast

his/her head is small and his/her ears are large

13. u do dast va/dasto do p drad

he/she has two hands and two feet

14. daste u kucak va/kucako daste man bozorg


ast

his/her hands are small and mine are large

15. sare om bozorg ast

your head is large

Exercise 4.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y daste man kucak ast?
2. y sare u bozorg ast?

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3. ya asb dom drad?


4. y in sag do gu drad?
5. y in labe man ast?
6. y in dar ast?
7. y in dars, sn ast?
8. y man zud madam?
9. y kre m sn ast?
10. y man do p dram?
The plural of the majority of nouns is formed by adding "h" to the singular and sometimes by adding
"n".

Exercise 4.2

Add h to the singular nouns below to make them plural:


ch

chh

dars

darsh

kr

krh

sag

sagh

gu

guh

lab

labh

dast

dasth

sar

sarh

abru

abruh

cam

camh

Read and learn the following pronouns:


man

om

you

to

thou

he/she

we

in

they

Lesson 5
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ketb

book

kels

class

drid

you have

medd

pencil

be

to

madid

you came

xne

house

raft

he/she went

se

three

madim

we came

1. om do ketb drid

you have two books

2. u yek qalam drad

he/she has one pen

3. kelse ma bozorg ast

our classroom is large

4. u se medd drad

he/she has three pencils

5. ma be kels madim

we came to class

6. u be xne raft

he/she went to the house

7. asbe u bozorg ast

his/her horse is big

8. om se medd drid

you have three pencils

9. medde man bi ast

my pencil is blue

10. u be kels raft

he/she went to class

11. man do qalam dram

I have two pens

12. u yek damq drad

he/she has one nose

13. ketbe u bi ast

his/her book is blue

14. medde man kucak ast

my pencil is small

15. u yek sage bozorg drad

he/she has a big dog

16. u do medde bi drad

he/she has a blue pencil

17. man do camo do abru dram

I have two eyes and two eyebrows

18. u do dasto do pa drad

he/she has two hands and two feet

19. ketbe u kucak ast

his book is small

20. medde man bozorg ast

my pencil is big

Exercise 5.1

Answer the following questions:


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1. y om yek qalam drid?

bale, om yek qalam drid

2. y u do medd drad?

bale, u do medd drad

3. y kelse m bozorg ast?

bale, kelse m bozorg ast

4. y man do dasto do p dram?

bale, man do dasto do p dram

5. y man do lab dram?

bale, man do lab dram

6. y om zud be kels madid?

bale, om zud be kels madid

7. ya om do dast drid?

bale, om do dast drid

8. y om do gu drid?

bale, om do gu drid

9. y asb dom drad?

bale, asb dom drad

10. y in daste man ast?

bale, in daste man ast

11. y n ketbe man ast?

bale, n ketbe man ast

12. y sag dom drad?

bale, sag dom drad

13. y om do p drid?

bale, om do p drid

14. y om do cam drid?

bale, om do cam drid

15. y daste u kucak ast?

bale, daste u kucak ast

16. y daste man bozorg ast?

bale, daste man bozorg ast

17. y medde man bi ast?

bale, medde man bi ast

18. y man do gu dram?

bale, man do gu dram

19. y man do dast dram?

bale, man do dast dram

20. y dars sn ast?

bale, dars sn ast

Negative Form of the Verbs


The prefixes na or ne make the verbs negative:
Examples:
dram nadram
raft naraft
miravam nemiravam
There is a special case for the word ast (is). To make it negative the prefix ni is added instead of
na at the beginning:
Example:
ast nist

Exercise 5.2

Change the following positive sentences into negative:


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1. in dars sn ast

in dars sn nist

2. kre m sn ast

kre m sn nist

3. n ch b drad

n ch b nadrad

4. u do asb drad

u do asb nadrad

5. in asbe ust

in asbe u nist

6. man do ketb dram

man do ketb nadram

7. u be kels raft

u be kels naraft

8. man se qalam dram

man se qalam nadram

9. om do ketb drid

om do ketb nadrid

10. man do medd dram

man do medd nadram

11. n ketbe ust

an ketbe u nist

12. man be kels raftam

man be kels naraftam

Numbers
1. yek

one

2. do

two

3. se

three

4. cahr

four

5. panj

five

6. e

six

7. haft

seven

8. hat

eight

9. noh

nine

10. dah

ten

Sentences
1. man dah ketb dram

I have ten books

2. u hat qalam drad

he has eight pens

3. y oma yek ketb drid?

do you have a book?

4. man e ketbe bi dram

I have six blue books

5. u haft medde bi nadrad

he/she does not have seven blue pencils

6. m cahr sag nadrim

we do not have four dogs

Combinations
do p - panj ch - noh dars - haft asb - cahr ketb - e medd - se xne - hat sag

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Lesson 6
vardam

I brought

vard

he/she brought

vardid

you brought

bordam

I took away

bord

he/she took away

bordid

you took away

didam

I saw

om didid

you saw

1. man om r didam.

I saw you.

2. man u r nadidam.

I did not see him/her.

3. om u r didid.

you saw him/her.

4. u mar did.

he/she saw me.

5. man ketbh r bordam.

I took away the books.

6. y u medde om r bord?

did he/she take away your pencil?

7. y om qalame ur be xne bordid?

did you take his/her pen home?

8. om m r nadidid

you did not see us.

9. u ketbh r be xne nabord.

he/she did not take the books home.

10. man cahr medde bi be kels vardam.

I brought four blue pencils to class.

11. y om qalame u r vardid?

didyou bring his/her pen?

12. y u ketbe om r be xne bord?

did he/she take your book home?

13. y u om r did?

did he/she see you?

14. man dah ketb dram.

I have ten books.

15. y om m r didid?

did you see us?

16. u be kels naraft.

he did not go to class.

17. m zud be kels madim.

we came to class early.

18. y om ketbe u r be kels vardid?

did you bring his/hr book to class?

19. man medde om r nadidam.

I did not see your pencil.

20. u yek xne drad.

he/she has a house.

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Verb Conjugation
Past tense of the verb:
Didan

To see

man didam

I saw

to didi

you saw/thou sawest

u did

he/she saw

m didim

we saw

om didid

you saw

ian didand

they saw
vardan

To bring

man vardam

I brought

to vardi

you brought/thou broughtest

u vard

he/she brought

m vardim

we brought

om vardid

you brought

in vardand

they brought
Bordan

To take away

man bordam

I took away

to bordi

you took away/thou tookest away

u bord

he/she took away

m bordim

we took away

om bordid

you took away

in bordand

they took away

Execrcise 6.1

Answer the following questions with positive and negative sentences:


1. y om mar ( = man r) didid?

na, man om r nadidam.

2. y u ketb r bord?

bale, u ketb r bord.

3. y medde u dar kels bud?

na, medde u dar kels nabud.

4. y in qalame om ast?

bale, in qalame man ast.

5. y u m r did?

na, u m r nadid.

6. y om ketbh r bordid?

bale m ketbh r bordim.

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7. y u ketbe om r be kels bord?

na, u ketbe mar be kels nabord.

8. y u be kels raft?

bale, u be kels raft.

9. y om medde mar didid?

na, man medde om r nadidam.

10. y u yek xne drad?

bale, u yek xne drad.

11. y om dah ketb drid?

na, m dah ketb nadrim.

12. y u do ketbe bi drad?

bale, u do ketbe bi drad.

13. y oma cahr sag drid?

na, m cahr sag nadrim.

14. y oma panj medd darid?

bale, m panj medd drim.

15. y in dars sn ast?

na, in dars sn nist.

16. y medde man bi ast?

bale, medde man bi ast.

Exercise 6.2

Put the following words in the right order:


1. medde - do - bi - u - drad

u do medde bi drad.

2. bozorg - ast - m - kelse

kelse m bozorg ast.

3. zud - be - man - madam - kels

man zud be kels madam.

4. p - do - om - va - drid - do - dast

om do p va do dast drid.

5. kucak - daste - ast - u

daste u kucak ast.

6. gu - om - drid - do

om do gu drid.

7. ch - b - drad - n

n ch b drad.

8. e - bi - ketbe - dram - man

man e ketbe bi dram.

9. yek - sag - drad - u

u yek sag drad.

10. ketbh - bordam - r - man

man ketbh r bordam.

11. be - xne - bordid - om - u - r - qalame

om qalame u r be xne bordid.

12. man - bi - cahr - be - kels - medde vardam

man cahr medde bi be kels vardam

13. qalame - vardid - om - u - r - y

y om qalame u r vardid?

14. ketbe - u - om - r - bord - be - xne

u ketbe om r be xne bord.

15. u - r - didid- om - y

y om u r didid?

16. u - xne - yek - drad

u yek xne drad.

17. ketbe - om - r - u - kels - be - bord

u ketbe om r be kels bord.

18. qalam - dah - nadram - man

man dah qalam nadram.

19. zud - xne - be - om - madid

be om zud be xne madid.

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20. do - man - cam - gu - o - dram - do

man do guo do cam dram

Exercise 6.3

Read the following words aloud; then find their equivalents in English:
kucak - bozorg - damq - dahn - abru - sar - mu - dom - lab - gu - asb - sag - didid - bordam - zud
- dud - mad - vard - did - bord - j - ch - b- drad - bi - sn - vardid - didam - dars - n - in bud

Lesson 7
xord

he/she ate

dnegh

university

bzr

bazaar

deraxt

tree

goft

he/she told

sib

apple

raftam

I went

az

from

xarid

he/she bought

1. u be bzr raft.

he went to the bazaar.

2. u az bzr sib xarid.

he bought apples at the bazaar.

3. u sib r xord.

he ate the apple.

4. man dar dnegh om r nadidam.

I did not see you at the university.

5. man az dnegh be xne raftam.

I went home from the university.

6. u m r dar bzr did.

he/she saw us at the bazaar.

7. ketbe om dar kels ast.

your book is the classroom.

8. u sibe om r naxord.

he/she did not eat your apple.

9. u be man goft.

he/she told me.

10. m be dnegh raftim.

we went to the university.

11. man ketbe om r vardam.

I brought your book.

12. u ketbe om r be xne bord.

he/she took your book home.

13. y om medde mar be kels vardid?

did you bring my pencil to class?

14. man in r dar dnegh nadidam.

I did not see them at the university.

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15. u mar dar kels did.

he/she saw me in class.

16. m om r nadidim.

we did not see you.

17. y om sibe mar xordid?

did you eat my apple?

18. man ketbe om r be dnegh nabordam.

I did not take your book to the university.

19. y in medde omst?

is this your pencil?

20. na, n medde man nist.

no, that is not my pencil.

21. y n medde omst?

is that your pencil?

22. bale, an medde man ast.

yes, this is my pencil.

23. in deraxte sib ast.

this is an apple tree.

24. in sib az n deraxt ast.

this apple is from that tree.

25. ma sib r az bzr xaridim.

I bought the apple from the bazaar.

26. u ketb r az man xarid.

he bought the book from me.

27. man be bzr naraftam.

I did not go to the bazaar.

28. y om sibe u r xordid?

did you eat his/her apple?

29. na, man sibe u r naxordam.

no, I did not eat his apple.

30. bale, man sibe u r xordam.

yes, I ate his apple.

Verb Conjugation
Past tense of the verb (in the negative form):
Naxordan

Not to eat

man naxordam

I did not eat

to naxordi

you did not eat/thou didest not eat

u naxord

he/she did not eat

m naxordim

we did not eat

om naxordid

you did not eat

in naxordand

they did not eat


Nagoftan

Not to say/Not to tell

man nagoftam

I did not say

to nagofti

you did not say/thou didest not say

u nagoft

he/she did not say

m nagoftim

we did not say

om nagoftid

you did not say

in nagoftand

they did not say


Naxaridan

Not to buy

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man naxaridam

I did not buy

to naxaridi

you did not buy/thou didest not buy

u naxarid

he/she did not buy

m naxaridim

we did not buy

om naxaridid

you did not buy

in naxaridand

they did not buy

Exercise 7.1

Put the following verbs in negative form:


bordam

nabordam

didid

nadidid

raft

naraft

didam

nadidam

ast

nist

xordam

naxordam

drad

nadrad

xord

naxord

xaridand

naxaridand

drand

nadrand

bordid

nabordid

dram

nadram

didand

nadidand

bord

nabord

did

nadid

bordim

nabordim

xaridam

naxaridam

Exercise 7.2

Answer the following questions:


1. y om yek qalame bi drid?

bale, man yek qalame bi dram

2. y u zud be xne raft?

na, u zud be xne naraft

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3. y kelse m dar dnegah ast?

bale, kelse m dar dnegah ast

4. y ketbe om dar kels bud?

na, ketbe m dar kels nabud

5. y u sib r az bzr xarid?

bale, u sib r az bzr xarid

6. y u ketbe om r be kels vard?

na, u ketbe m r be kels nayvard

7. y om in r dar dnegh didid?

bale, m in r dar dnegh didim

8. y om medde mar be xne bordid?

na, man medde om r be xne nabordam

9. y n ketbe omst?

bale, n ketbe mst

10. y in sib az n deraxt ast?

na, in sib az n deraxt nist

11. y om ketbe mar dar kels didid?

bale, man ketbe om r dar kels didam

12. y in dars sn ast?

na, in dars sn nist

13. y in qalame omst?

bale, in qalame man ast

14. y om ketbh r be kels bordid?

na, m ketbh r be kels nabordim

15. y om yek xne drid?

bale, m yek xne drim

16. y om yek sag drid?

na, man yek sag nadram

17. y om ketbe u r be xne bordid?

bale, m ketbe u r be xne bordim

18. y om zud be xne raftid?

na, m zud be xne naraftim

19. y man zud be kels madam?

bale, om zud be kels madid

20. y ketbe om bist?

na, ketbe man bi nist

Exercise 7.3

Put the following words in the right order:


1. zud - kels - be - man - raftam.

man zud be kels raftam.

2. sib - u - az - r - xarid - bzr.

u sib r az bzr xarid

3. dar - kelse - m - dnegh - ast.

kelse m dar dnegh ast

4. az - sibh - u - naxord - in.

u az in sibh naxord

5. ketbe - man - om - r - vardam dnegh - be

man ketbe om r be dnegh vardam

6. deraxte - n - ast - sib

n deraxte sib ast

7. dram - yek - man - medde - bi.

man yek medde bi dram

8. yek - sag - u - drad.

u yek sag drad

9. do - om - drid - gu.

om do gu drid

10. bozorg - ast - m - kelse.

kelse m bozorg ast

11. do - om - p - va - dast - do - drid.

om do p va do dast drid

12. drad - b - ch - n.

n ch b drad

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13. be - om - xne - madid.

om be xne madid

14. cam - do - man - do - va - dram - gu.

man do camo do gu dram

15. cahr - u - ketb - kels - be - vard.

u cahr ketb be kels vard

Numbers
11 yzdah

16 nzdah

12 davzdah

17 hafdah

13 sizdah

18 hajdah/hadah/ha dah

14 cahrdah

19 nuzdah

15 pnzdah

20 bist

Lesson 8
Rangh = Colors
rang

color

sefid/sepid

white

sabz

green

syh

black

zard

yellow

rowan

light

1. Medde man syh ast.

My pencil is black.

2. Ketbe u zard ast.

His/her book is yellow.

3. Muye u syh ast.

His/her hair is black.

4. Range in sib sabz ast.

The color of this apple is green.

5. Range n medd zard ast.

The color of that pencil is yellow.

6. Ketbe u bist.

His/her book is blue.

7. n sag syh ast.

That dog is black.

8. Man yek medde zard az bzr xaridam.

I bought a yellow pencil from the bazaar/market.

9. In e ketbe sabz az bzr xaridand.

They bought six green books from the


bazaar/market.

10. U yek qalame biyo yek ketbe zard az bzr


xarid.

He/she bought a blue pen and a yellow book from


the market.

11. U medde syh nadrad.

He/she does not have a black pencil.

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12. In camhye syh drand.

They have black eyes.

13. U yek medde biyo do ketbe zard be kels


vard.

He/she brought a blue pencil and two yellow


books to class.

14. y in ketbe zard dar kels bud?

Was this yellow book in the classroom.

15. Medde sabze u dar kels nabud.

His/her green pen was not in the classroom.

sir

dark

sorx/qermez

red

qahveyi

brown

xkestari

grey

banaf

purple

1. n sib sorx ast.

That apple is red.

2. In deraxt, sibe sorx drad.

This tree, has red apples.

3. Man az bzr cahr medde qermez xaridam.

I bought four red pencils from the market.

4. Range jmeye/lebse man qahveyist.

The color of my clothes is brown.

5. U do medde banaf drad.

He/she has two purple pencils.

6. In qalame xkestari nadrand.

They do not have grey pens.

7. Range jmeye/lebse m xkestarist.

The color of my clothes is grey.

8. y om qalame xkestari drid?

Do you have a grey pen?

9. Range lebse u qermez nist.

The color of his/her clothes is red.

10. Man yek qalame xkestariyo do medde


banaf dram.

I have a grey pen and two purple pencils.

Exercise 8.1

1. Put the following words in the right order:

1. medd - range - n - ast - qahveyiye - sir.

range n medd qahveyiye sir ast.

2. qalam - range - in - rowan - zarde - ast.

range in qalam zarde rowan ast.

3. n - range - sib - qermeze - ast - sir.

range n sib qermeze sir ast.

4. e - sabz - ketbe - drand - in.

in e ketbe sabz drand.

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5. sag - ast - n - syh.

n sag syh ast.

6. yek - zard - xaridam - man - medde.

man yek medde zard xaridam.

7. n - range - zard - medd - ast.

range n medd zard ast.

8. sage - syah - dram - man - yek.

man yek sage syh dram.

9. syh- in - medde - nadrand.

in medde syh nadrand.

10. kels - medde - sabze - u - dar - nabud.

medde sabze u dar kels nabud.

2. Find the English equivalents of the following words:


1. rang

color

2. nzdah

sixteen

3. syh

black

4. sepid

white

5. deraxt

tree

6. sib

apple

7. jme

clothes

8. bist

twenty

9. didam

I saw

10. bordid

you took away

11. hat

eight

12. kels

class

13. sarh

heads

14. in

they

15. kucak

little/small

16. abru

eyebrow

17. mu

hair

18. xordand

they ate

19. did

he/she saw

20. ch

a well

Lesson 9
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ostd

professor

pk kardan

to clean

taxtepkkon

duster/eraser

sandali

chair

kels

class/classroom

taxteye syh

blackboard

gerd

student

miz

table

daftar

notebook

kqaz

paper

1. Dar in kels nuzdah gerd ast.

There are nineteen students in this class.

2. Dar in kels yek ostd ast.

There is one professor in this class.

3. gerdn ketbo daftar drand.

The students have books and notebooks.

4. Ostd b taxtepkkon taxteye syh r pk


kard.

The professor cleaned the blackboard with a


duster.

5. n gerd do daftaro do medd drad.

That student has two notebooks and two pencils.

6. Range daftare man zardo range medde man


qermez ast.

The color of my notebook is yellow, and the color


of my pencil is red.

7. Kqaze daftare n gerd sepid ast.

That student's notebook paper is white.

8. Ostde m yek sandaliyo yek miz drad.

Our professor has a chair and a table.

9. Kelse m dar dnegh ast.

Our classroom is in the university.

10. Dar in kels yek taxteye syho, mizo yek


sandali ast.

There is a blackboard, a table, and a chair in this


classroom.

Exercise 9.1

Put the following words in the right order:

ostd - kels - dar - ast.

ostd dar kels ast.

sandali - nadrand - gerdn.

gerdn sandali nadrand.

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medde - nadram - man - bi.

man medde bi nadram.

man - qalame - range - ast - syh.

range qalame man syh ast.

agerd - n - daftar - drad - do.

n gerd do daftar drad.

do - bozorg - ostd - drad - ketbe.

ostd do ketbe bozorg drad.

nadrim - kqaze - m - zard.

m kqaze zard nadrim.

kels - dar - taxtepkkon - in - yek - ast.

yek taxtepkkon dar in kels ast.

ostd - drad - sandaliyo - yek - miz - yek.

ostd yek sandaliyo yek miz drad.

ketb - nadrad - ostd - daftaro.

ostd daftaro ketb nadrad.

Answer the following questions:

1. y om dar xne panj sandali drid?

Bale, m dar xne panj sandali drim.

2. y dar in kels bist gerd ast?

Na, dar in kels bist gerd nist.

3. y om taxteye syh r pk kardid?

Bale, man taxteye syh r pk kardam.

4. y ostd qalame bi drad?

Na, ostd qalame bi nadrad.

5. y ostd taxteye syh r pk kard?

Bale, ostd taxteye syh r pk kard.

6. y range qalame man syh ast?

Na, range qalame man syh nist.

7. y range medde om zard ast?

Bale, range medde m zard ast.

8. y gerdane in kels sandali drand?

Na, gerdane in kels sandali nadrand.

9. y ostd yek sandali drad?

Bale, ostd yek sandali drad.

10. y om zud be kels madid?

Na, man zud be kels nymadam.

Verb Conjugation
Present tense of the verbs:
Nevetan

To write

Man minevisam

I write

To minevisi

you write/thou writest

U minevisad

he/she writes

M minevisim

we write

om minevisid

you write

In minevisand

they write

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Xaridan

To buy

Man mixaram

I buy

To mixari

you buy/thou buyest

U mixarad

he/she buys

M mixarim

we buy

om mixarid

you buy

In mixarand

they buy
vardan

To bring

Man miyvaram

I bring

To miyvari

you bring/thou bringest

U miyvarad

he/she brings

M miyvarim

we bring

om miyvarid

you bring

In miyvarand

they bring

Present tense of the verbs:


Bordan

To take away

Man mibaram

I take away

To mibari

you take away/thou takest away

U mibarad

he/she takes away

Ma mibarim

we take away

om mibarid

you take away

In mibarand

they take away

Exercise 9.2

1. Write the present tense of the following verbs:


1. Xordan = to eat

2. Raftan = to go

3. Istdan = to stand

4. Kardan = to do

2. Write the equivalent of the following words in English:


mixaram - miyvardid - mibarim - minevisim - mibaram mixarid - miyvarid - minevisand

Lesson 10
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ruye

on

heste

slowly

tond

fast

zir

under

blaye

over/above

jelove/pie

in front of

kuth

short

derz

long

1. Ketbe ostd ruye miz ast.

The professor's book is on the table.

2. Qalame om zire sandalist.

Your pen is under the chair.

3. Medde u derz ast.

His pencil is long.

4. Qalame om kuth ast.

Your pen is short.

5. Man jelove mize ostd istdam.

I stood in front of the professor's table.

6. Pye man zire miz ast.

My foot is under the table.

7. U tond miravad.

He goes fast.

8. Man tond be xne raftam.

I went home fast.

9. U heste be kels mad.

He/she came home slowly.

10. om do medde kuth drid.

You have two short pencils.

Exercise 10.1

1. Write the following sentences in Persian:

1. This pencil is long.

In medd derz ast.

2. That pen is short.

In qalam kuth ast.

3. My book is on the table.

Ketbe man ruye miz ast.

4. You have two long pencils.

To do medde derz dri.

5. I stood in front of your table.

Man jelove mize om istdam.

6. She went to the class slowly.

U heste be kels raft.

7. Your pen is under your table.

Qalame om zire miz ast.

8. My hand is over the book.

Daste man ruye ketb ast.

9. Your book was under this table.

Ketbe to zire in miz ast.

10. Have you a red pencil?

Ay yek qalame sorx drid?

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2. Put the following words in the right order:

1. sandaliye - syh - ostd - yek - drad.

ostd yek sandaliye syh drad.

2. yek - medde - kuth - dram - man.

man yek medde kuth dram.

3. qalame - ruye - syh - ast - miz.

qalame syh ruye miz ast.

4. sabz - medde - zire - ast - sandali.

medde sabz zire sandali ast.

5. gerd - yek - taxteye syh - r - pk kard.

yek gerd taxteye syh r pk kard.

6. u - mar - daftare - vard.

u daftare mar vard.

7. medd - in - ast - kuth.

in medd kuth ast.

8. ruye - taxtepkkon - ast - sandali.

taxtepkkon ruye sandali ast.

9. man - om - r - ketbe - miz - ruye - didam.

man ketbe om r ruye miz didam.

10. kels - gerdn - in - nadrand - daftar.

gerdne in kels daftar nadrand.

3. Write the equivalents of the following words in English:


1. drim

11. bozorg

2. j

12. sabze

3. dud

13. qahveyiye sir

4. sn

14. daftar

5. dars

15. banaf

6. kr

16. kqaz

7. sag

17. gerdn

8. lab

18. bist

9. dast

19. nist

10. damq

20. mu

4. Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. jme
2. deraxt
3. dnegh
4. dom

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5. gu
6. bzr
7. zard
8. miz
9. asb
10. kr

5. Answer the following questions:


1. y ketbe om ruye mize ostd ast?
2. y om gerde in kels hastid?
3. y om qalame syah drid?
4. y om az xne be dnegh madid?
5. Cand ketb ruye mize om st?
6. om cand daftar drid?
7. y in medd zard ast?
8. y om zud be kels madid?
9. y range jmeye om xkestarist?
10. Cand gerd dar in kels ast?

Lesson 11
1. diab

last night

2. emab

tonight

3. ab

night

4. diruz

yesterday

5. emruz

today

6. ruz

day

7. ce?

what?

8. daqiqe

minute

9. sat

hour/oclock

1. Emab sate hat dar xne hastam.

I am home at 8 oclock tonight.

2. Diab sate cahr az dnegh be xne raftam.

I left the university for home at 4 oclock last


night.

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3. Diruz sate cahr dar xne budam.

I was home at 4 oclock yesterday.

4. y abh zud be xne miravid?

Do you go home early every night?

5. y om diab dar xne budid?

Were you at home last night?

6. y om diruz sate hat be dnegh


madid?

Did you come to the university at 8 oclock last


night?

7. Man emruz be dnegh naraftam.

I did not go to the university today.

8. Ruzh cand sat dar dnegh kr mikonid?

How many hours do you work at the university


every day?

9. Man diab zud be xane raftam.

I went home early last night.

10. Man emruz zud be dnegh madam.

I came to the university early today.

11. Dar yek ruz hat sat kr mikonid.

You work 8 hours in a day.

12. gerdn ruye kqaze sepid minevisand.

The students write on white paper.

13. Man az bzr kqazo daftar xaridam va be


dnegh bordam.

I bought a paper and a notebook from the market


and took to the university.

14. y om ketbe mar be xne bordid?

Did you take my book home?

15. Ostde m emruz sate hat be dnegh


mad.

Our professor came to the university at 8 oclock.

16. Ce satist?

What time is it?

17. sat daho dah daqiqe ast.

It is ten minutes past ten.

18. sat noho bist daqiqe ast.

It is twenty minutes past nine.

19. sat hato pnzdah daqiqe ast.

It is fifteen minutes past eight.

Numbers
21 bisto yek

30 si

22 bisto do

40 cehel

23 bisto se

50 panjh

24 bisto cahr

60 ast

25 bisto panj

70 haftd

26 bisto e

80 hatd

27 bisto haft

90 navad

28 bisto hat

100 sad

29 bisto noh

1000 hezr

30 si

Exercise 11.1

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1. Answer the following questions:


1. y om emruz be bzr raftid?
2. y om diruz be dnegh amadid?
3. y om diruz az bzr sib xaridid?
4. y om emruz az dnegh be xne miravid?
5. y ketbe om dar kels bud?
6. y om dar xne deraxte sib drid?
7. y medde man ruye miz ast?
8. y om ostd r dar dnegh didid?
9. y om mar diruz dar ke1s nadidid?
10. y om medde mar be xne bordid?
11. y in dars sn ast?
12. y om medde syh drid?
13. y medde qermeze om dar xne ast?
14. y emruz zud be kels madid?
15. y muye man syh ast?

2. Put the following words in the right order:


1. kqaze - in - nadrand - sepid
2. mize - ostd - ruye - ketb - panj - ast
3. az - xne - u - dnegh - be - raft
4. miz - taxtepkkon - ast ruye
5. om - syh - qalame - range - ast
6. sandali - nadrand - gerdn
7. ostd - sandali - yek - miz - yek - drad - va
8. man - zud - kels - be - madam - emruz
9. ostd - r - dar - diruz - nadidam - kels
10. bi - ruye - miz - medde - ast

3. Use each of the following words in simple sentences:


1.
minevisam

2.
ab

3.
bastani

4.
ce

5.
daqiqe

6.
sepid

7.
kuth

8.
rang

10.
9.
cehelo
xkestari
haft

4. Put the following verbs into negative:


1. bordam

nabordam

2. didid

nadidid

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3. raftam

naraftam

4. xordi

naxordi

5. goft

nagoft

6. xarid

naxarid

7. mixaram

nemixaram

8. mibaram

nemibaram

9. miyvaram

nemiyvaram

10. minevisand

neminevisand

Lesson 12
b

with

inj

here

nj

there

yek rob

a quarter

nimsat

half hour

gozate

past

sniye

second

ham

too/also

hamn

same

1. gerdn sate hato nim be dnegh


miyyand.

The students come to the university at eight


thirty.

2. Ostd ham hamn sat be dnegh miyyad.

The professor arrives at the university at the


same time.

3. Ostdo gerdn yek sat dar kels hastand.

The professor and the students are in class for


one hour.

4. Ostd ruye taxteye syh minevisad.

The professor writes on the blackboard.

5. gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand.

The students write on paper with pencil.

6. Sate davzdah az dnegh be xne miravim.

I go home at twelve oclock from the university.

7. Emruz yek rob be e be xneye om


miyyam.

I come to your home at quarter to six today.

8. Sate hato nim az xne be dnegh miravim.

I go to the university from home at half past


eight.

9. Ketbe om inj nist.

Your book is not here.

10. Medde om diruz nj bud.

Your pencil was there yesterday.

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11. Yek rob az hat gozate ast.

It is a quarter past eight.

12. Dah daqiqe az dah gozate ast.

It is ten minutes past ten.

13. Bist daqiqe az dah gosate ast.

It is twenty minutes past ten.

14. Yek sat ast daqiqe ast.

An hour is sixty minutes long.

15. Yek daqiqe ast sniye ast.

A minute is sixty seconds long.

16. Yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast.

A day is twenty four hours long.

17. om be dnegh beravid, man ham


miyyam.

Go to the university, I will also go.

18. gerdn sate hat madand, ostd ham


hamn sat mad.

The students came at eight, the professor came


at the same time.

Exercise 12.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Ce satist?

Sat hafto nim ast.

2. Cand sat dar ruz kr mikonid?

Hat sat dar ruz kr mikonam.

3. y nimsat si daqiqe ast?

Bale, nimsat si daqiqe ast.

4. y yek rob pnzdah daqiqe ast?

Bale, yek rob pnzdah daqiqe ast.

5. y om sate hato nim be dnegh


miravid?

Na, man sate hato nim be dnegh


nemiravam.

6. Cand sat dar hafte kr mikonid?

Cehel sat dar hafte kr mikonam.

7. y emab sate hat dar xne hastid?

Bale, emab sate hat dar xne hastam.

8. y om diruz be dnegh madid?

Na, man diruz be dnegh naymadam.

9. y ostde m dar kels ast?

Bale, ostde m dar kels ast.

10. y gerdn be kels raftand?

Na, gerdn be kels naraftand.

Verb Conjugation
Present tense of the verb "to be":
Budan

To be

Man hastam

I am

To hasti

You are/thou art

U hast

He/she is

Ma hastim

We are

om hastid

You are

In hastand

They are

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Negative:
Man nistam

I am not

To nisti

You are not/thou are not

U nist

He/she is not

M nistim

We are not

om nistid

You are not

In nistand

They are not

Past tense:
Man budam

I was

To budi

you were/thou wert

U bud

He/she was

M budim

We were

om budid

You were

In budand

They were

Present tense of the verb "to come":


madan

To come

Man miyyam

I come

To miyyi

thou comest

U miyyad

he/she comes

Ma miyyim

we come

om miyyid

you come

In miyyand

they come

Past tense:
Man madam

I came

To madi

You came/thou comest

U mad

He/she came

M madim

We came

om madid

You came

In madand

They came

Negative:
Man naymadam

I did not come

To naymadi

You did not come/thou didest not come

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U naymad

He/she did not come

M naymadim

We did not come

om naymadid

You did not come

In naymadand

They did not come

Present tense of the verb "to go":


Raftan

To go

Man miravam

I go

To miravi

You go/thou goest

U miravid

he/she goes

M miravim

we go

om miravid

you go

In miravand

they go

Past tense:
Man raftam

I went

To rafti

You went/thou went

U raft

He/she went

M raftim

We went

om raftid

You went

In raftand

They went

Exercise 11.2
Conjugate the present and past tense of the following verbs:
vardan - bordan - didan - xordan - xaridan - goftan - nevetan

Exercise 11.3
Put the following verbs into the negative:
bord - didam - xordam - xaridand - goftim - nevetand - rafti - hastim - budam - madand - miravam
- raft - hast - didand - xordim - xarid - goftand - nevetand - bordim - vardand - vard - xordi xaridam - did - didam - nevetim - vardim

Lesson 13
anbe

Saturday

Yekanbe

Sunday

Doanbe

Monday

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Seanbe

Tuesday

Cahranbe

Wednesday

Panjanbe

Thursday

dine/Jom'e

Friday

mh

moon/month

sl

year

1. Yek hafte haft ruz ast.

1. A week is seven days long.

2. Yek mh si ruz ast.

2. A month is thirty days long.

3. Yek sl sisado asto panj ruz ast.

3. A year is three hundred and sixty five days


long.

4. Yek sl davzdah mh y panjho do hafte ast.

4. A year is twelve months or fifty two weeks


long.

5. Jomeh m be dnegh nemiyyim.

5. We do not go to the university on Fridays.

6. Jomeh ostdn be dnegh nemiyyand.

6. Professors do not go to the university on


Fridays.

7. Ruze anbe gerdn be dnegh miyyand.

7. Students go to the university on Saturdays.

8. Emruz Yekanbe ast.

8. Today is Sunday.

9. Diruz anbe bud.

9. Yesterday was Saturday.

10. Man ruzhye Jome dar xne hastam.

10. I am home on Fridays.

11. Man ruzhye anbe dar danegh hastam.

11. I am at the university on Saturdays.

12. Man ruzhye Doanbe va Cahranbe be


dnegah miyyam.

12. I go to the university on Mondays and


Wednesdays.

Exercise 13.1

Put the following words in the right order:


1. gerdn - dar - sat - yek - kels - hastand

gerdn sate yek dar kels hastand.

2. kqaz - gerdn - medd - ruye - minevisand


- b

gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand.

3. om - inj - ketbe - nist

ketbe om inj nist.

4. ast - yek - sat - ast - daqiqe

yek sat ast daqiqe ast.

5. dnegh - miravim - be - anbeh - m

ma anbeh be danegah miravim.

6. bud - diruz - Cahranbe

diruz Cahranbe bud.

7. dar - ruzhye - Panjanbe - nistam - dnegh

ruzhaye Panjanbe dar dnegh nistam.

8. sat - yekruz - ast - davzdah

yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast.

9. sl - yek - mh - davzdah - ast

yek sl davzdah mh ast.

10. gerdn - medd - b - kqaz - ruye minevisand

gerdn b medd ruye kqaz minevisand.

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Exercise 13.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Emruz cand anbe ast?
2. Diruz cand anbe bud?
3. Hafte cand ruz ast?
4. Yek ruz cand sat ast?
5. Yek sat cand daqiqe ast?
6. Yek daqiqe cand sniye ast?
7. y om ruzhaye Doanbe be dnegh miravid?
8. y om ruzhye Jome dar xne hastid?
9. Yek sl cand ruz ast?
10. Yek sl cand hafte ast?

Exercise 13.3

Find the negative form of the following sentences:


1. Emruz sate hat az xne be bzr raftam.
2. Az bzr kqazo meddo qalam xaridam.
3. Sate noh az bzr be xne madam.
4. Dar xne darse kels r b medd nevetam.
5. Sate daho nim az xne be dnegh raftam.
6. Sate yzdah ostde m mad.
7. gerdn va ostd be kels raftand.
8. Dar kels ostd dars r ruye taxteye syh nevet.
9. M ham dars r b medd ruye kqaz nevetim.

ADJECTIVES
positive degree:

bozorg, kuth, zib, bad

comparative degree:

bozorgtar, kuthtar, zibtar, badtar

superlative degree:

bozorgtarin, kuthtarin, zibtarin, badtarin

Lesson 14
zohr/nimruz

noon

kond

slow

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dorost

just/right/exact

kuk kardan

to wind up

sobh/bmdd

morning

qorub

evening

xarb

out of order

xub

well/good

xbidan

to sleep

1. Dorost zohr ast.

It is exactly noon.

2. Dorost sat dah ast.

It is exactly ten oclock.

3. Sate om dah daqiqe tond ast.

You clock/watch is ten minutes fast.

4. Sate man dar bisto cahar sat panj daqiqe


kond kar mikonad.

My clock/watch runs five minutes slow during


twenty four hours

5. Man zohr satam r kuk kardam.

I wound up my clock/watch at noon.

6. Man diruz satam r kuk kardam.

I wound up my clock/watch yesterday.

7. Man abh sate dah mixbam.

I sleep at ten oclock every night.

8. Dar yek ruz hat sat kr mikonam.

I work eight hours per day.

9. Yek sat ast daqiqevo yek daqiqe ast sniye


ast.

An hour is sixty minutes, and a minute is sixty


seconds.

10. In sat kond kr mikonad.

This clock/watch runs slow.

11. Sate om dar bisto cahr sat yek rob tond


kr mikonad.

You clock/watch runs fifteen minutes too fast


during twenty four hours.

12. Sobhh be dnegh miyyamo zohrh be


xne miravam.

I go to the university in the morning and I come


home every noon.

13. In sat xarb asto kr nemikonad.

This clock is out of order and does not work.

14. In sat xarb ast va dar bisto cahr sat panj


sat kond kr mikonad.

This clock is out of order and runs five hours slow


during twenty four hours.

15. y om abh sate hat mixbid?

Do you sleep at eight oclock every night?

16. Sate om xub kr mikonad.

Your clock/watch works well.

17. Sate man diruz bad kr mikard.

My clock worked poorly yesterday.

18. Sate man dorost asto b sate dnegh


yeki st.

My clock/watch is right and is the same as the


university's.

19. Sate om dorost nist.

You clock/watch is not right.

20. Sate man kucak ast.

My clock/watch is small.

Exercise 14.1

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Answer the following questions:


1. Cand sat dar ruz kr mikonid?

Man hat sat dar ruz kr mikonam.

2. y om abh sate noh mixbid?

Na, man abh sate dah mixbam.

3. y om ruzh mixbid?

Na, man ruzh nemixbam.

4. Ce sati mixbid?

Sate dah mixbam.

5. y sate om dorost kr mikonad?

Bale, sate man dorost kr mikonad.

6. y sate om kond kr mikonad?

Na, sate m kond kr nemikonad.

7. y sate om tond kr mikonad?

Na, sate man dorost kr mikonad.

8. Ce sati ast?

Sat panj ast.

9. y sobhh be dnegh miyayid?

Bale, sobhh sate hat be dnegh miravam.

10. y zohrh be xane miravid?

Bale, dorost zohr be xane miravam.

11. Yek sat cand daqiqe ast?

Yek sat ast daqiqe ast.

12. Yek robe sat cand daqiqe ast?

Yek robe sat pnzdah daqiqe ast.

13. Nimsat cand dadiqe ast?

Nimsat si dadiqe ast.

14. Yek sl cand ruz ast?

Yek sl sisado asto panj ruz ast

15. Yek ruz cand sat ast?

Yek ruz bisto cahr sat ast.

Exercise 14.2

Compare and categorize the following adjectives:


xogel/zib

pretty

bozorg

large/big

arzn

cheap

zet

ugly

gern

expensive

dur

far

Exercise 14.3

Put the following sentences into Persian:


1. Did you see us in the market?

y m r dar bzr didid?

2. I have a red pen and two blue pencils.

Man yek qalame sorxo do medde bi dram.

3. I am at home today.

Man emruz dar xne hastam.

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4. I did not see him yesterday.

Man u r diruz nadidam.

5. The students are in the class.

gerdn dar kels hastand.

6. Our professor came to the class at half past


eight.

Ostde m sate hato nim be kels mad.

7. I went home at a quarter past four yesterday.

Man diruz sate cahro rob' be xne raftam.

8. It is ten minutes past six.

Sat eo dah daqiqe ast.

9. We do not come to the university on Fridays.

M ruzhye dine be dnegh nemiyyim.

10. There are sixty seconds in one hour.

Yek sat ast daqiqe ast.

Exercise 14.4

Learn the following combinations that denote possessive case:


ketbam

my book

ketbat

your book/thy book

ketba

his/her book

ketbaman

our book

ketbatn

your book

ketban

their book

Exercise 14.5

Write the possessive cases of these nouns:


medd

meddam (my pencil)

sar

sarat (your head)

dast

dasta (his/her hand)

dars

darsamn (our lesson)

dar

daratn (your door)

sag

sagan (their dog)

kqaz

kqazam (my paper)

Lesson 15
Fasl

season

bahr

spring

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zemestn

winter

tbestn

summer

pyiz

autumn/fall

emsl

this year

prsl

last year

bax kardan

to divide

odan

to become

1. Yek mh si ruz ast.

A month is thirty days long.

2. Yek sl davzdah mh ast.

A year is twelve months long.

3. Panjho do hafte yek sl miavad.

A year is fifty two weeks long.

4. Emsl tabestn dar Tehrn nabudam.

I was not in Tehran this summer.

5. Tbestne prsl dar Tehrn budam.

I was in Tehran this past summer.

6. Sisado asto panj ruz ham yek sl ast.

Three hundred sixty five days makes up a year.

7. Yek sl r be davzdah mh bax kardeand.

A year is divided into twelve months.

8. Har fasl se mh ast.

A season is three months long.

9. Bahr, tbestn, pyiz, zemestn, cahr fasle


sl hastand.

Spring, summer, autumn, and winter are the four


seasons of the year.

10. Prs1, tbestn az Tehrn be Espahn


raftam.

I went from Tehran to Ispahan last summer.

Exercise 15.1

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. anbe 2. hafte 4. ruz 5. daqiqe 7. emsl 8. fasl 10. diruz 3. bahr 6. mh 9. miavad

Exercise 15.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Yek sl cand fasl ast?
2. Yek ruz cand sat ast?
3. Yek hafte cand ruz ast?
4. Sal r be cand fasl bax kardeand?
5. Har fasl cand mh ast?
6. Har sal cand hafte ast?
7. Yek sl cand ruz ast?
8. Emruz cand anbe ast?
9. Diruz cand anbe bud?
10. In fasl ce faslist (= fasli ast)?

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Exercise 15.3

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dar - Tehrn - nabudam - prsl
2. emsl - az Tehrn - tbestn - miravam - be Espahn
3. cahr - yek - fasl - sl - ast
4. dar - xne - sat - hastam - yek
5. sat - diab - xbidam - noh
6. in sntar - diruz - dars - az - ast - dars
7. yek - se - mh - fasl - ast
8. diruz - ketb - dah - bzr - az - xaridam
9. in - hafte - dnegh - sobhh - dar - dram - kr
10. man - sat - sobhh - hat - xne - dar - nistam

Lesson 16
Mhhye sl

The months of the year

Farvardin

Mehr

Ordibehet

bn

Xordd

zar

Tir

Dey

Amordd

Bahman

ahrivar

Espand
Nowruz

Iranian new year

garm

warm

sard

cold

hav

air/weather

1. Farvardin, Ordibehet, Xordd, se mhe bahr


hastand.

Farvardin, Ordibehet, and Xordd are the 3


months of spring.

2. Tir, Amordd, ahrivar, se mhe Tbestn


hastand.

Tir, Amordd, and ahrivar, are the 3 months of


summer.

3. Dey, Bahman, Espand, se mhe zemestn


hastand.

Dey, Bahman, and Espand, are the 3 months of


winter

4. Mehr, bn, zar, se mhe pyiz hastand.

Mehr, bn, and zar, are the 3 months of


autumn.

5. Nowruz, naxostin ruze Farvardin ast.

Nowruz, is the first day of Farvardin.

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6. Bisto yekome mhe Mrc ham naxostin ruze


Farvardin ast.

The twenty first of March is also the first day of


Farvardin.

7. Zemestnh hav sard ast.

The weather is cold in the winter.

8. Tbestnh hav garm ast.

The weather is warm in the summer.

9. Dar mhe Amordd havye Tehrn, garm ast.

The weather of Tehran is warm in the month of


Amordd.

10. Dar mhe Bahman havye Tehrn, sard ast.

The weather of Tehran is cold in the month of


Bahman.

11. Yek sl be cahr fasl bax miavad.

A year is divided into four seasons.

12. Har fasl se mh ast.

Every season is three months long.

13. e mhe naxoste sl siyo yek ruz hastand.

The first six months of the year are thirty one


days long.

14.e mhe dovome sl si ruz ast.

The second six months of the year are thirty days


long.

15. Har yek az mhhye bahr siyo yek ruz ast.

Each of the spring months is thirty one days long.

16. Har yek az mhhye tbestn siyo yek ruz


ast.

Each of the summer months is thirty one days


long.

17. Har yek az mhhaye pyiz si ruz ast.

Each of the autumn months is thirty days long.

18. Har yek az mhhye zemestn si ruz ast.

Each of the winter months is thirty days long.

19. Dar fasle bahro pyiz, havye Tehrn, xub


ast.

Tehran's weather is good during the spring and


autumn seasons.

20. Dar fasle tbestno zemestan, havye


Tehrn, xub nist.

Tehran's weather is not good during the summer


and winter seasons.

Exercise 16.1

Put the following sentences into negative:


1. Emruz hav sard ast.
2. Diruz hav garm bud.
3. Emsl tbestn hav garm bud.
4. Prsl zemestn hav sard bud.
5. Dar tbestn havye Tehran garm ast.
6. Dar zemestn havye Tehrn sard ast.
7. Zemestnh man dar Tehrn hastam.
8. Emsl tbestn az Tehrn be Espahn raftam.
9. Diruz havye xubi bud.
10. Emruz sate e hav sard bud.

Exercise 16.2

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Answer the following questions:


1. y emruz sard ast?
2. y diruz garm bud?
3. y dar Amorddmh havye Tehrn garm ast?
4. y dar Bahmanmh havye Tehrn sard ast?
5. y tbestnh dar Tehrn hastid?
6. y nowruz naxostin ruze sl ast?
7. y bisto yekome mhe Mrc ruze naxoste Farvardin ast?
8. Farvardinmh cand ruz ast?
9. Tirmh cand ruz ast?
10. Deymh cand ruz ast?

Exercise 16.3

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. hav - dar - garm - tbestn - ast.
2. ast - hav - sard - zemestnh.
3. naxostin - Farvardin - ruz - Nowruz - ast.
4. fasl - har - mh - se - ast.
5. mh - ruz - si - ast - yek.
6. sal - fasl - yek - ast - cahr.
7. sl - yek - hafte - panjaho do - ast.
8. naxoste - anbe - hafte - ruze - ast.
9. Tehrn - zemestnh - man - hastam - dar.
10. mhe - naxoste - bahr - Farvardin - aste.

Exercise 16.4

Write a sentence for each of the following words:


1. sard 2. naxost 3. sat 4. zohr 5. garm 6. mh 7. emsl 8. hav 9. sl 10. emruz

Lesson 17
xorid

sun

setre

star

abr

cloud

aftab

sunlight

tbidan

to shine

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zamin

earth

mahtab/mhtb

moonlight

abri

cloudy

ftbi

sunny

smn

sky

1. Xorid be zamin mitbad.

The sun shines on the earth.

2. Xorid az zamin dur ast.

The sun is far from the earth.

3. ftab zamin r garm mikonad.

The sun warms the earth.

4. ftab m r garm mikonad.

The sun warms us up.

5. Mahtb garm nist, va zamin r garm


nemikonad.

Moonlight is not warm, and does not warm the


earth.

6. Xorid bozorg asto setregn kucak hastand.

The sun is large and the stars are small.

7. Xorido mho setregn dar smn hastand.

The sun, the moon, and the stars are in the sky.

8. abh m xorid r nemibinim.

We do not see the sun at night.

9. Ruzh m setregn r nemibinim.

We do not see the stars during the day.

10. abh setregn r dar smn mibinim.

We see the stars in the sky at night.

11. Emruz hav abrist, va xorid r nemibinim.

It is cloudy today, and we do not see the sun.

12. Diruz hav ftabiyo garm bud.

Yesterday the weather was sunny and warm.

13. Zemestnh ftb ziyd garm nist.

The sunlight is not very warm in the winter.

14. Ruzhye zemestno abhye tbestn kuth


hastand.

Winter days and summer nights are short.

15. abhaye zemestno ruzhye tbestn boland


hastand.

Winter nights and summer days are long.

Exercise 17.1

Put into Persian:


1. The sun is bigger than the earth.

Xorid bozorgtar az zamin ast.

2. It was sunny yesterday.

Diruz ftbi bud.

3. It is cloudy today and the sun does not shine.

Emruz abristo xorid nemitbad.

4. The sky is blue.

smn bist.

5. It is cold in winter.

Zemestn sard ast.

6. It was warm last summer.

Tbestne pi garm bud.

7. Autumn is a beautiful season.

Pyiz fasle zibyist.

8. There are four seasons in a year.

Sl cahr fast ast.

9. It is not cloudy tonight.

Emab abri nist.

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10. Saturday is the first day of the week.

anbe ruze naxoste hafte ast.

Exercise 17.2

1. Name the days of the week.


2. Name the months of the year.
3. Count from twenty to a hundred.
4. Name the seasons of the year.
Exercise 17.3

Answer the following questions:


1. y abh xorid r mibunid?
2. y om bozorgtar az man hastid?
3. y ruzh setregn r mibinid?
4. y diab hav abri bud?
5. y emruz hava ftbiyast?
6. y xorid bozorgtar az zamin ast?
7. Abr ce rang ast?
8. y ruzh mh ra mibinid?
9. y zamin, kucaktar az xorid ast?
10. y Nowruz, naxoste sl ast?

Exercise 17.4

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. setre 2. naxost 3. Amordd 4. abr 5. durtar 6. bahr 7. cehel 8. prsl 9. xbid 10. Doanbe

Lesson 18
barf

snow

tagarg

hail

bd

wind

ghi

sometimes

sf

cloudless/clear

vazidan

to blow

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meh

fog

brn

rain

baridan

to rain

besyr/xeyli

very/very much

1. Dar mhe Amordd havye Tehrn besyr


garm ast.

Tehran's weather is very warm in the month of


Amordd.

2. Dar Bahmanmh havye Tehrn besyr sard


ast.

Tehran's weather is very cold in the month of


Bahman.

3. Brn dar bahro pyiz, va barf dar zemestn


mibarad.

It rains in spring and autumn, and it snows in


winter.

4. Bd dar bahro pyiz va ghi ham dar


zemestn mivazad.

Wind blows in spring and autumn and sometimes


in winter.

5. Emruz hav kami abri ast.

The weather is a little cloudy today.

6. Tabestne Tehrn besyr garm, va zemstne


n, besyr sard ast.

Tehran's summer is very warm, and its winter is


very cold.

7. Emruz havye Tehrn abri bud, bd mad,


abrh r bord, hav sf od.

Tehran's weather today was cloudy, the wind blew


the clouds away and it became clear.

8. Prsl brn zyd naymad; vali emsl ham


barfo ham barne zydi mad.

Last year it did not rain very much; but this year
it rained and snowed a lot.

9. Prsl yek ruz sobh meh mad, vali zud raft.

Last year one morning it turned foggy, but it


quickly cleared up.

10. Prsl, zemestn hav besyr sard naod.

Last year, winter the weather did not turn too


cold.

Exercise 18.1

Answer these questions:


1. Amorddmh dar kodam fasl ast?
2. Ordibehetmh dar kodm fasl ast?
3. Kodm fasl garmtar ast?
4. Sardtarin fasl kodm ast?
5. Dar ce fasli bran zyd mibrad?
6. Dar ce fasli bd zyd mibrad?
7. Kodm fasl hav zyd sard miavad?
8. Kodm fasl hav zyd garm miavad?
9. Ay dar bahr brn zydtar mibrad y dar pyiz?
10. Ay barf dar zemestn mibrad?

Exercise 18.2

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Compare the following adjectives:


1. garm 2. sard 3. zyd 4. arzn 5. gern 6. boland 7. kuth 8. zib 9. bad 10. bozorg

Exercise 18.3

Learn the following ordinal numbers:


yekom/naxost/avval

first

doyom/dovom

second

seyom/sevom

third

caharom

fourth

panjom

fifth

eom

sixth

haftom

seventh

hatom

eighth

nohom

ninth

dahom

tenth

yzdahom

eleventh

davzdahom

twelveth

sizdahom

thirteenth

cahardahom

fourteenth

panzdahom

fifteenth

nzdahom

sixteenth

hafdahom

seventeenth

hajdahom/hadahom/ha dahom

eighteenth

nuzdahom

nineteenth

bistom

twentieth

bisto yekom

twenty first

bisto dovom

twenty second

siyo dovom

thirty second

cehelo sevom

forty third

panjaho cahrom

fifty fourth

asto panjom

sixty fifth

haftdo eom

seventy sixth

hatdo haftam

eighty seventh

navado hatom

ninety eighth

sadom

hundredth

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hezrom

thousandth

Exercise 18.4

Write five simple sentences about winter.


Exercise 18.5

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. ruz - Farvardin - naxoste - Nowruz - ast
2. hav - tbestnh - besyr - miavad - garm
3. ftb - mikonad - garm - m - r
4. mahtb - nist - garm - va - nemikonad - garm - m - r
5. setregn - r - dar - abh - mibinim - smn
6. nemibinim - setregn - r - ruzh
7. hav - ftbi - diruz - bud
8. mitbad - be - xorid - zamin
9. dovome - bahr - Ordibehet - mh - ast
10. mh - Xordd - bahr - sevome - ast

Lesson 19
mdar

mother

bardar

brother

doxtar

girl/daughter

pedar

father

zan

wife/woman

pesar

boy/son

xhar

sister

mard

man

owhar

husband

Pedaram asto se sl drad va dar dnegh dars


midahad.

My father is sixty three years old and teaches at


the university.

Mdaram panjhsle asto dar xne kr mikonad.

My mother is fifty three years old and works at

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home.
Har ruz sobh pedaram be dnegh miravad, va
dar nj dars midahad amm mdaram dar xne
asto krhye xne r mikonad.

Every morning my father goes to the university


and teaches there, but my mother is at home
taking care of the house work.

Man se xharo do bardar dram.

I have three sisters and two brothers.

Xaharne man har se az man kucaktarand.

My sisters are all younger than me.

Yeki az xharne man owhar drad.

One of my sisters has a husband.

Do xhare digare man dar xneye pedaro


mdaram hastand.

My two other sisters live at home with my


parents.

Bardarne man har do az man bozorgtar


hastand va dar xneye xodan hastand.

My brothers are all older than me and live in their


own homes.

Man har ruz be dnegh miravamo dar nj dars


mixnam.

I go to the university every day and study there.

Ruzhye Jome ostdn be dnegh nemiyyand,


man ham be nj nemiravam.

On Fridays the professors do not go to the


university and I do not go there either.

Dar dneghe m zanno mardn, doxtarno


pesarn b ham dars mixnand.

In our university women and men, girls and boys


all study together.

Exercise 19.1

Give negative and positive answers to the following questions:


1. y om har ruz be dnegh miravid?
2. y pedare om dar dnegh dars midahad?
3. y om bardar drid?
4. y om xhar drid?
5. y bardare om az om bozorgtar ast?
6. y xhare om az om kucaktar ast?
7. y xhare om dar xneye pedaratn ast?
8. y bardare bozorge om kr mikonad?
9. y xhare kucake om dar xne ast?
10. y xhare bozorge om owhar drad?

Exercise 19.2

Make sentences out of the following words:


1. man - pedare - dar - xne - nist - ruzh
2. dar - mdaram - xne - mikonad - kr
3. mdar - besyr - bozorgtar - va - pedaram - az - man - hastand
4. az - xharne - yeki - owhar - man - drad

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5. yeki - xharn - kr - man - az - xne - r - mikonad - e

Exercise 19.3

Learn the following pronouns:


pedaram = my father

pedaramn = our father

pedarat = your father

pedaratn = your father

pedara = his/her father

pedaran = their father

xodam = myself

xodamn = ourselves

xodat = yourself

xodatn = yourselves

xoda = himself/herself

xodan = themselves

ketbe xodam = my own book

ketbe xodamn = our own book

ketbe xodat = your own book

ketbe xodatn = your own book

ketbe xoda = his/her own book

ketbe xodan = their own book

Exercise 19.4

Correct these sentences:


1. in az xne be bzr raft.
2. man emruz sobh dar xne hast.
3. u diruz be dnegh miravad.
4. pedare man az man kucaktar ast.
5. man az mdaram bozorgtar hastam.

Lesson 20
m = supper

xork/qaz = food

nn = bread

nhr = lunch

ir = milk

panir = cheese

sobhne/ct = breakfast

bidr odan = to wake

ostan = to wash

Sobhh sate e az xb bidr miavam.

I wake up at six o'clock every morning.

Dasto suratam r miuyam.

I wash may hands and face.

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Nno paniro ir mixoram, va be dnegh


miravam.

I eat bread with cheese and milk and head to the


university.

Sate hato nim dar kels hastam.

I am in the classroom at eight thirty.

Ostd be kels miyyad va dars midahad.

The professor arrives at class and teaches.

Sobhh se sat dars mixnam.

I study for three hours every morning.

Sate yzdaho nim az dnegh be xne


miravam.

I leave the university for home at eleven thirty.

Dorost sate davzdah nhr mixoram.

I eat lunch exactly at twelve o'clock.

Sate dovo nim dobre be dnegh miravam.

I again go to the university at two thirty.

Do sat digar dars mixnam.

I study another two hours.

Pas az n be xne miravam.

After that I go home.

Dar xne ham kami dars mixnamo kami kr


mikonam.

At home I study and work a little.

Sate hat m mixoramo sate dah mixbam.

I eat supper at eight and sleep at ten.

Exercise 20.1

Answer the following questions:


Sobhh ce sati az xb bidr miavid?
y abh zud mixbid?
y dar zemestn dasto suratetn r b be sard miuyid?
y dar tbestn dasto suratetn r b be garm miuyid?
Ce sati sobhne mixorid?
Ce sati nhr mixorid?
Ce saati m mixorid?
ir ce rang ast?
Dar zemestn xorke sard behtar ast y xorke garm?
abi cand sat mixbid?

Exercise 20.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:


1. pedaratn

2. xoda

3. pedaram

4. ghi

5. amm

6. setregn

7. pas az n

8. dobre

9. mixbam

Exercise 20.3

Correct these sentences:


1. U xodan be man goft.

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2. Yeki az xaharne man owhar drand.


3. Mahtb m r garm mikonad.
4. Nowruz, ruze naxoste Ordibehet ast.
5. Hav besyr sard bud, tagarg mivazido bd mibrid.
6. Diab hav sf budo setregn r nemididim.
7. Emruz dorost sate davzdah m xordam.
8. om ketbe xodetn r be xne bordand.
9. Zemestn havye Tehrn besyr garm ast.
10. Tbestnh dar Tehrn barf mibrad.

Lesson 21
otqe neiman

livingroom

otqe xb

bedroom

otqe nhrxori

dining room

nowkar

man-servant

otqe paziryi

guestroom

pazxne

kitchen

paz

cook

ruuyi

lavatory

kolfat

maid-servant

mehmn

guest

Xneye m panj otq drad, se otqe n bozorgo


do otqe an kucak ast.

Our house has five rooms, three of its rooms are


large and two are small.

Yeki az otqhye bozorg, otqe neiman ast ke


m dar n mineinim.

One of its large rooms is the living room where


we sit.

Yeki az otqhye kucak barye xb ast ke m dar


an mixbim.

One of the small rooms is the bedroom where we


sleep.

Dar otqe nhrxori xork mixorim.

We eat food in the dining room

Dar otqe paziryi az mehmn paziryi mikonim.

We entertain a guest in the guestroom.

Yeki az otqhye kucak barye nowkaro kolfate


mst.

One of the small rooms is for the maid and the


sevant.

Kolfato nowkare m zano owhar hastand.

Our maid and servant are husband and wife.

M paz nadrim va xodemn pazi mikonim.

We do not have a cook and must cook our own


food.

Sobhh ke az xb bidr miavim har yek az m


be ruuyi miravad va dast o surate xod r
miuyad.

Every morning when we get up each one of us


goes to the bathroom and washes his face and
hands.

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Sate hafte sobh barye xordane sobhne be


otqe nhrxori miravim.

At seven o'clock we go to the dining room to have


breakfast.

Barye xordane nhr va m hameye m


dasthye xodemn r miuyim, pas az n be
otqe nhrxori barye xordane xork miravim.

We wash our hands before lunch and dinner, then


we go into the dining room to have our meals.

Pas az xordane nhr dobre har yek be sare kre


After having lunch we return to our work.
xod miravim.
abh do sat pas az xordane m hameye m
mixbim.

Every night we go to bed two hours after dinner.

Exercise 21.1

Write five simple sentences about your family.


Exercise 21.2

Use each of the following words in simple sentences:


1. bozorgtar

2. haryek

3. hame

4. ostam

5. mard

6. bidr odam

7. pazxne

8. otqe nowkar

9. paziryi kardam

10. sobhne

Exercise 21.3

Answer these questions:


1. Sobhh ce sati az xb bidr miavid?
2. abh ce sati mixbid?
3. Nhr r ce sati mixorid?
4. Ce sati m mixorid?
5. Sobhh ce sati sare kr miravid?
6. y om paz drid, y xodatn pazi mikonid?
7. Xneye om cand otq drad?
8. abi cand sat mixbid?
9. y om abh dir mixbid?
10. Zemestn r bitar dust drid y tbestn r?

Lesson 22
mndan

to remain

hendese

geometry

zabn

language

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pkize

clean

trix

history

Prsi

Persian

poxtan

to cook

joqrfi

geography

mre/hesb

arithmetic

komak kardan

to help

Pariyo Kuro dar dabestn dars mixnand.

Pari and Kurosh study at the elementary school.

Pari xhare Kuro ast va Kuro bardare Pari ast.

Pari is Kurosh's sister, and Kurosh is Pari's


brother.

Pari kelse dovomo Kuro cahrom ast.

Pari is in second, and Kurosh is in fourth grade.

Sobhh bham az xne be dabestn miravand.

Every morning they go to school together.

Kuro do sl bozorgtar az Pari ast.

Kurosh is two years older than Pari.

Dar dabestn har do zabne Prsi, mre,


hendese, trix, va joqrfi mixnand.

At school they both study Persian, arithmetic,


geometry, history, and geography.

abh Kuro dar xne be Pari komak mikonad.

Every night Kurosh helps Pari at home.

Pedaran ruzh sate hat be sare kr miravado


abh sate haft be xne miyyad.

Their father goes to work every day at eight


o'clock, and every night he goes comes home at
seven o'clock.

Mdaran dar xne mimnado xne r pkize


mikonado barye in xork mipazad.

Their mother stays at home, cleans the house,


and cooks meals for them.

Pariyo Kuro pas az in ke kre xod r tamm


kardand be apazxne miravando be mdaran
komak mikonand.

Pari and Kurosh go to the kitchen after finishing


their work and help out their mother.

Exercise 22.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y Pari xhare Kuro ast?
2. y Kuro bardare Pari ast?
3. Pari dar ce kelsi ast?
4. Kuro dar ce kelsi ast?
5. Kuro cand sl bozorgtar an Pari ast?
6. Dar dabestn ce mixnand?
7. y abh Kuro be Pari komak mikonad?
8. Pedaran ce sati be sare kar miravad?
9. Ce sati pedaran be xne bar migardad?
10. Madaran dar xne ce mikonad?

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Exercise 22.2

Write the infinitive of five different verbs.


Exercise 22.3

Conjugate the present tense of the verb budan.


Exercise 22.4

Conjugate the past tense of the verb xordan.


Exercise 22.5

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Man u r didam.
2. Ostd dar kels dars midahad.
3. Sate hato nim gerdn dar kels budand.
4. Mdaram diruz be bzr raft.
5. Pedare om diab be xneye m mad.

Numbers
100 sad

600 esad

200 devist

700 haftsad

300 sisad

800 hatsad

400 cahrsad

900 nohsad

500 pnsad

1000 hezr

Lesson 23
xohl odan

to become happy

bidr kardan

to waken

piyde

on foot

kif

school bag

bz miavad

opens

hanuz

yet

xarideid

you have bought

xstan

to want

rasidan

to reach

hardo

both

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Pariyo Kuro diab be pedaran goftand:


Dabestne m, ruze Cahranbe bz miavado
hanuz om barye m ketb, daftar, meddo
kqaz naxarideid.

Pari and Kurosh told their father last night: Our


school will open on Wednesday and you have not
yet bought us any books, notebooks, pencils and
papers.

Pedaran goft: Fard ke Doanbe ast hame b


ham be bzr xhim raft.

Their father said: Tomorrow is Monday and we


will all go to the market together.

Baceh besyr xohl odando be otqe xbe xod


raftand.

The children became happy and went to their


rooms.

Fard sobhe zud har do az xb bidr odando


pedaro mdar r bidr kardand.

The next day they woke up early and awakened


their mother and father.

Pas az xordane sobhne piyde be bzr raftand.

After having breakfast they left for the market.

Dar xiybnh daste Pari dar daste mdar, va


daste Kuro dar daste pedar bud.

In the streets Pari's hand was in her mother's and


Kurosh's was in his father's.

Pas az nim sat be bzr rasidand.

They reached the market after half hour.

Pedar barye har do ketb, daftar, qalam,


meddo kqaz xarid.

Their father bought books, notebooks, pens,


pencils, and papers for both of them.

Pari goft: Pedar jn, man yek kif mixham.

Pari said: Dear father, I want a school bag.

Pedar barye Pari yek kife qahveiyo barye Kuro


yek kife siyh xarid.

Their father bought a brown school bag for Pari


and a black one for Kurosh.

In ketb, daftar, qalam, meddo kqaze xod r


dar kifhyan goztando be xne madand.

They put their books, notebooks, pens, pencils,


and papers in their bags and came home.

Exercise 23.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Ce ruzi Pariyo Kuro b pedaran be bzr raftand?
2. y om bzre Tehrn r dideid?
3. y Pariyo Kuro piyde be bzr raftand?
4. Pas az cand sat be bzr rasidand?
5. y dar xiybnh daste Pari dar daste mdara bud?
6. y pedar barye har do ketb, daftar, meddo qalam xarid?
7. Pari be pedar ce goft?
8. y kife Pari qahvei bud?
9. y kife Kuro siyh bud?
8. y Pariyo Kuro ketbo daftare xod r dar kife xod goztand?

Exercise 23.2

Write the equivalent of the following words in English:


1. hav

2. barye

3. bace

4. zud

5. dir

6. xiybn

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7. otqe paziryi

8. rasidan

9. piyde

10. mre

11. hendese

12. mixham

13. devist

14. komak mikonad

15. mndan

16. dust dtan

17. bitar

18. Prsi

19. poxtan

20. trix

Conjugation of Verbs

Perfect tense:
Xordan

To eat

man xordeam

I have eaten

to xordei

you have eaten

u xorde ast

he/she has eaten

m xordeim

we have eaten

om xordeid

you have eaten

in xordeand

they have eaten

Perfect tense:
Rasidan

To reach

man rasideam

I have reached

to rasidei

you have/thou hast reached

u raside ast

he/she has reached

m rasideim

we have reached

om rasideid

you have reached

in rasideand

they have reached

Pefect tense:
Raftan

To go

man rafteam

I have gone

to raftei

you have/thou hast gone

u rafte ast

he/she has gone

m rafteim

we have gone

oma rafteid

you have gone

in rafteand

they have gone

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Future tense:
Amadan

To come

man xham mad

I shall come

to xhi mad

you will come

u xhad mad

he/she will come

m xhim niad

we shall come

om xhid mad

you will come

in xhand mad

they will come

Future tense:
Didan

To see

man xham did

I shall see

to xhi did

you will see

u xhad did

he/she will see

m xhim did

we will see

om xhid did

you will see

in xhand did

they will see

Future tense:
Xaridan

To buy

man xham xarid

I shall buy

to xhi xarid

you will buy

u xhad xarid

he/she will buy

m xhim xarid

we shall buy

om xhid xarid

you will buy

in xhand xarid

they will buy

Lesson 24
dust

friend

gie

stamp window

hangm

when

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nme

letter

postxne

post office

slem

safe/healthy

posti

postman

tambr

stamp

fahmidan

to realize

sandoqe post

mailbox

andxtan

to drop/to throw

pkat

envelope

ahr

city

Yeki az dustne man, yek mh ast ke be Landan


rafte ast.

One of my friends has gone to London for a


month.

Diruz sate nohe sobh posti nmeyi az Landan


barye man vard.

The postman brought me a letter from London at


nine o'clock yesterday morning.

In nme r duste man ferestde bud.

My friend had sent me the letter.

Nme r xndam.

I read the letter.

Hangmi ke fahmidam u slem be ahre Landan


raside ast, xohl odam.

I was happy when I realized he had safely


reached the city of London.

Diab psoxe nmeye u r nevetamo emruz


sobh n r be postxne bordam.

Last night I wrote an answer to his letter, and


took it to the post office this morning.

Az yeki az gieh tambr xaridamo be pkat


casbndam, va nme r dar sandoqe post
andxtam.

I bought a stamp from a window, pasted it to an


envelope, and dropped the letter in a mailbox.

Az postxne be xneye bardaram raftam.

I went to my brother's place after the post office.

Bardaram goft: Sate hate sobh be xneye


om telefon kardam, om dar xne nabudid.

I called your home at eight o'clock this morning,


and you were not home, my brother said.

Goftam: dorost ast, man be postxne rafte


budam.

That is correct, I had gone to the post office, I


said.

Exercise 24.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y om ahre Landan r dideid?
2. Postxneye Tehrn dar ce xiybni ast?
3. y om postxneye Tehrn r dideid?
4. Tambre post r az koj mixarid?
5. y om dusti dar ahre Landan drid?
6. Hangmi ke tambr r be pkat casbndid, pkat r koj miyandzid?

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7. Sobhh ce sati az xne birun miravid?


8. y om sobhh dir be xne bar migardid?
9. y om be dustne xod ke dar Irn nistand nme minevisid?
10. y om psoxe nmeh r zud minevisid?

Exercise 24.2

Conjugate the future tense of the verb: To Go = Raftan


Exercise 24.3

Conjugate the perfect tense of the verb: To See = Didan


Exercise 24.4

Put the following verbs into negative:


man budeam

man xham goft

man miravam

to budei

to xhi goft

to miravi

u bude ast

u xhad goft

u miravad

m budeim

m xhim goft

m miravim

om budeid

om xhid goft

om miravid

in budeand

in xhand goft

in miravand

Lesson 25
havpeym

airplane

neastan

to sit/to land

forudgh

airport

dast ddan

to shake hands

tksi

taxi

mosfer

passenger

sir/Mr.

digari

the other

didani

worth seeing

miyn

among

gomrok

customs

mrikyi

American

miymad

was coming

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xodrow

automobile

qye Edvrd Jnson va qye Yegne b ham


dust hastand.

Mr. Edward Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are friends.

qye Yegne be m goft: Emruz sobh sate


haft b yek tksi az ahr be forudghe Mehrbd
raftam.

Mr. Yeganeh told us: This morning at seven


o'clock I took a taxi from the city to the Mehrabad
airport.

qye Edvrd Jnson, yeki az dustne man, az


Nyu York be Tehrn miymad.

One of my friends, Mr. Edward Johnson, was


arriving in Tehran from New York.

Yek rob be hat, yek havpeymye mrikyi be


zamin neast, duste man dar in havpeym bud.

At quarter to eight, an American airplane landed,


and my friend was on board.

Dare havpeym bz od. Mosfern hame be


gomrok raftand.

The airplane door opened. All passengers went


through customs.

Pas az nim sat birun madand.

They came out after a half hour.

Duste man ham birun mad, b u dast ddamo


hle u r porsidam.

My friend came out as well, I shook his hand and


greeted him.

Bardare man ham be forudgh made bud t


duste mar bebinad. B xordove u be ahr
madim.

My brother had also come to the airport to see my


friend. We left for the city in his car.

qye Jnson yek hafte dar Tehrn mimnado dar Mr. Johnson will stay in Tehran for a week, as a
xneye m mehmn ast.
guest in our home.
M az u paziryi xhim kard.

We will entertain him.

Dar in hafte be jhye didaniye ahre Tehrn


xhim raft.

This week we will visit the interesting sights of the


city of Tehran.

Pas az yek hafte u be ahrhye digare Irn xhad


raft.

After a week he will visit other cities around Iran.

Exercise 25.1

Answer these questions:


1. qye Jnson az kodm ahr be Tehrn mad?
2. qye Jnson b otomobil be Tehrn mad?
3. y qye Jnson b havpeymye mrikyi be Tehrn mad?
4. Ce sati havpeym be zamin neast?
5. Mosafern az havpeym be koj raftand?
6. qye Jnson dar Tehrn mehmne kist?
7. qye Jnson ce moddat dar Tehrn xhad mand?
8. U pas az yek hafte be koj xhad raft?
9. y qye Jnson be jhye didaniye ahre Tehrn xhad raft?
10. qye Jnson b xodrove ke be ahr mad?

Exercise 25.2

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Conjugate the perfect tense of the verbs:


Ddan = To Give, Gereftan = To Take
Exercise 25.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. What day is it today?
2. Today is Tuesday.
3. What day was yesterday?
4. Yesterday was Monday.
5. What day will tomorrow be?
6. Tomorrow will be Wednesday.
7. It was cold yesterday.
8. It was warm in summertime.
9. It is cold in winter.
10. It was cloudy last night.

Lesson 26
be suye

towards

zang zadan

to ring

sed zadan

to call

ruuyi

lavatory

avaz kardan

to change

taxte xb

bed

jmedn

suitcase

andar/andarun odan

to enter

rhnamyi kardan

to guide

xomad goftan

to welcome

nen

to show

anjm ddan

to finish

ekf

closet

hammm

bathroom

Xneye qye Yegne dar xiybne Taxte Jamid


ast.

Mr. Yeganeh's house is on Takht-e Jamshid


Avenue.

Xodrove bardara jelove xne istd.

His brother's automobile stopped in front of the


house.

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qye Jnson, qye Yegnevo bardar az


xodrow piyde odand va be suye dare xne
raftand.

Mr. Johnson, Mr. Yeganeh, and his brother got out


of the automobile and went towards the door.

qye Yegne zang r zad.

Mr. Yeganeh rang the bell.

Nowkara dar r bz kard.

His servant opened the door.

qye Yegnevo bardara be qye Jnson


tarof kardand va u naxost andarune xne od.

Mr. Yeganeh and his brother gestured Mr.


Johnson politely and he was the first to enter the
house.

qye Yegne u r be otqi rhnamyi kard va u


andarune n otq od.

Mr. Yeganeh directed him to a room which he


entered.

Xnome Yegne ham be in otq mad, be qye


Jnson xomad gofto taxte xb, ekf,
hammmo ruuyi r be u nen dd.

Mrs. Yeganeh also entered the room, welcomed


Mr. Johnson, and showed him the bed, the closet,
the bathroom.

Nowkar ham jmedanhye qye Jnson r vard


va dar otq gozt.

The servant brought Mr. Johnson's suitcases and


placed them in the room.

Hame birun raftand t qye Jnson dasto surate


xod r beuyado jmeye xod r avaz konad.

Everyone left so that Mr. Johnson could wash up


and change his clothes.

Pas az yek sat qye Jnson krhye xod r


anjm ddo duste xod qaye Yegne r sed zad.
Har do be otqe paziryi raftando nj neastand.

After an hour Mr. Johnson was finshed, and called


his friend Mr. Yeganeh. They both went to the
livingroom and sat there.

Exercise 26.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Xneye qye Yegne kojst? ( koj ast?)
2. Ke zange xne r zad?
3. Ke dar r bz kard?
4. Ke be qye Jnson tarof kard?
5. Ke naxost andarune xne od?
6. Ke qye Jnson r be otq rhnamyi kard?
7. Xnome Yegne be qye Jnson ce goft va be u ce nen dd?
8. Ke jmednhye qye Jnson r vard?
9. Nowkar jmednh r koj gozt?
10. Pas az ce moddati qye Jnson krhye xod r anjm dd?
11. qye Jnson ke r sed zad?
12. qye Jnsono qye Yegne be koj raftando ce kardand?

Exercise 26.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:


1. xne
2. xiybn

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3. bardaram
4. zang
5. bz
6. andarun
7. ekf
8. xoda

Exercise 26.3

Correct the following sentences:


1. Man qye Yegne r dar xiyban did.
2. qye Jnson mehmnhye qye.
3. Havpeym sate hat be zamin neastand.
4. U daste xod r dar kels nadidand.
5. Sate nohe ab posti nmeyi barye man vardi.
6. Bardaram nme r dar sandoqe post andxtam.
7. Yeki az dustne man yek mh ast ke be Landan rfteand.
8. Xharam dusti dar ahre Tehrn drid.
9. Pedaram sobhh sate hat az xne birun miravad.
10. M kami zabne Prsi midnam.

Exercise 26.4

Learn the different parts of the following verbs:


Infinitive

Present tense

Past tense

Past participle

kardan

kon

kard

karde

budan

bud

bude

madan

mad

made

vardan

var

vard

varde

bordan

bar

bord

borde

didan

bin

did

dide

xordan

xor

xord

xorde

raftan

row

raft

rafte

xaridan

xar

xarid

xaride

nevetan

nevis

nevet

nevete

odan

ow

od

ode

tbidan

tb

tbid

tbide

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vazidan

vaz

vazid

vazide

ddan

deh

dd

dde

xndan

xn

xnd

xnde

Lesson 27
aknun/inak

now

neasteand

they are sitting

ehterm

respect/honor

boland odand

they raise up

cy

tea

nalbaki

saucer

gap mizadand

they were talking

piband

apron

qand

sugar

pi/jelow

in front of/before

surat

face

irini

sweets

fenjn

cup

mizbn

host

hangm

when

ne kard

he/she combed

kenr

beside

mixordand

they were eating

qye Jnsono qye Yegne aknun dar otqe


paziryi neasteando bham gap mizanand.

Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are now seated in


the livingroom and talking.

Xnome Yegne dar in hangm dar pazxne


bud.

Mrs. Yeganeh was in the kitchen at this time.

Az pazxne birun mad, pibande xod r baz


kard, dasto surate xod r ost, jmeye xne r
avaz kard, sare xod r ne kardo be otqe
paziryi raft.

She came out of the kitchen, took off her apron,


washed up, changed her clothes, combed her hair
and entered the livingroom.

qaye Jnsono qye Yegne be ehterme u az


jye xod boland odand.

Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh rose up from their


seats as a sign of respect for her.

Hangmi ke Xnome Yegne neast, in ham


dobre neastand.

They sat down again when Mrs. Yeganeh took her


seat.

Nowkare xne cyo irini vardo pie qye


Jnson bord.

The servant brought some tea and sweets and


offered them to Mr. Johnson.

qye Johnson yek fenjn cy bardto do tekke

Mr. Johnson picked up a cup of tea and dropped

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62

qand dar n andxt.

two pieces of sugar in it.

Pas az n yek irini ham bardto kenre nalbaki


gozt.

Then he picked up a sweet and placed it on the


saucer.

qvo xnome Yegne ham cyo iriniye xod r


bardtand va nowkar az otq birun raft.

Mr. and Mrs. Yeganeh took their tea and sweets


and the servant left the room.

Mehmno do mizbn cy mixordando gap


mizadand.

The guest and the two hosts drank tea and


talked.

Exercise 27.1

Without referring to the translation tell what you read in your own words.
Exercise 27.2

Answer the following questions with complete sentences:


1. qye Jnson va qye Yegne aknun dar koj neasteand?
2. qye Jnsono qye Yegne ce mikonand?
3. ya Xnome Yegne jmevo kafhvo jurbhye xod r avaz kard?
4. Hangmi ke qye Jnsono qye Yegne, Xnome Yegne r didand ce kardand?
5. Hangmi ke Xnome Yegne neast in ce kardand?
6. Nowkare xne ce vard?
7. Nowkare xne cyo irini r pie ke bord?
8. qye Jnson ce bar dt?
9. qye Jnson dar fenjne cy ce andxt?
10. qye Jnson irini r koj gozt?

Exercise 27.3

Put all the verbs in the sentences into present tense.


Exercise 27.4

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. In doxtare man ast.
2. Doxtare man yzdah sle ast.
3. Pesare om cand sle ast?
4. Emruz hav besyr sard ast.
5. y om dar Tehrn zendegi mikonid?
6. Yeki az bardarne man dar Espahn zendegi mikonad.
7. Diab dir be xne raftam.

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8. Nowruz, ruze naxoste sle Iraniyn ast.


9. Havye in otq garm ast, yeki az panjareh r bz konid.
10. Yeki az dustnam be dneghhye Englestn rafte ast.

Lesson 28
gerd madand

they gathered

deh

village

dehnein

villager

dowr

around

pir

old

davat kard

he/she invited

garde kardan

to take a walk/browse/wander

mnand

like

npk

dirty

ketzr

field

jow

barley

kte budand

they had sown

guspand

sheep

boz

goat

xorus

cock

negahdri kardan

to take care

jnvar

animal

sudmand

useful

nm

name

porsid

he/she asked

mde kardan

to prepare

tang

narrow

gandom

wheat

gv

cow

xar

donkey

morq

hen

zir

because

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qye Yegne b pesare bozorgo Xnoma va


qye Jnson ruze dine b xodrow az Tehrn
birun raftand.

Mr. Yeganeh, his eldest son, his wife, and Mr.


Johnson, left Tehran by car on Friday.

Pas az do sat be yek deh rasidand.

They reached a village after two hours.

Dehneinn ke didand xodrow andarune deh ode


ast, dowre n gerd madand.

The villagers gathered around the automobile


after they saw it enter the village.

Yeki az in ke pirmardi bud, in r be xneye


xod davat kard.

One of them, an old man, invited them to his


home.

In ham xodrow r dar kenri goztando be


xneye pirmard raftand.

They left the automobile in a corner and went to


the old man's house.

qye Yegne nme pirmard r porsid, pir-mard


goft: Nme man Kuro ast.

Mr. Yeganeh asked the old man for his name, the
old man replied: My name is Kurosh.

Pas az rasidan be xne zane Kuro in r be


After reaching the house, Kurosh's wife directed
otqi rhnamyi kardo pas az nim sat cy mde them to a room and after a half hour prepared tea
kardo barye in vard.
and brought it inside.
In pas az xordane cy dar deh garde kardand.

They browsed around village after drinking their


teas.

qye Jnson goft: Xnehye deh mnande


xnehye ahr bozorgo zib nistand va kuce ham
tango npk ast.

Mr. Johnson said: The village houses are not as


large and beautiful as the one's in the city, and
the alley is narrow and dirty.

Pas az dah daqiqe az deh birun raftando be


ketzr rasidand.

After ten minutes they left the village and reached


a field.

Bitare zaminh r gandomo jow kte budand.

Most of the field was planted with barley and


wheat.

Dehneinn az gv, guspand, boz, xar, asb,


morqo xorus negahdri mikonand, zir in
janvarn sudmand hastand.

The villagers take care of cows, sheep, goats,


donkeys, horses, hens and cocks, because these
are useful animals.

Exercise 28.1

Answer the following questions:


1. qye Yegne b ke az Tehrn birun raft?
2. Ce ruzi qye Yegne az Tehrn birun raft?
3. Pas az cand sat be deh rasidand?
4. Ce kasni dowre min gerd madand?
5. Ke in r be xneye xod davat kard?
6. y in be xneye an pirmard raftand?
7. Nme n pirmard ce bud?
8. Zane Kuro ce kard?
9. In pas az xordane cy ce kardand?
10. qye Jnson dar breye xnehye deh ce goft?

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11. qye Jnson dar breye kucehye deh ce goft?


12. qye Yegnevo digarn az deh ke birun raftand be koj rasidand?
13. Dar zaminh bitar ce kte budand?
14. Jnvarni r ke dar deh budand nm bebarid?
15. y gvo guspand sudmand hastand?

Exercise 28.2

Make a sentence for each of the following words:


1. deh

5. rasidan

9. sudmand

2. pir

6. rhnamyi kardan

10. bozorgtar

3. davat

7. ahr

4. nm

8. daqiqe

Exercise 28.3

Explain what you read in your own words without refering to the previous
pages.
Exercise 28.4

Put the sentences you created in Exercise 28.2 into negative.


Exercise 28.5

Name five villages around Tehran.


Lesson 29
asr

evening

hamrhn

companions

xo gozatan

to have a good time

sude

comfortable

byad

must

mixham

I want

safar

trip/voyage

xvar

east

jonubi

southern

bxtar

west

markazi

central

taqriban

nearly

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ncram

Im obliged

gungun

different

yani

it means

dur

far

xnevde

family

oml

north

bax

part

sepas

afterwards

bedrud goftan

to say goodby

Asre dine qye Yegnevo hamrhn az garde


bar gatand va slem be xne rasidand.

Mr. Yeganeh and companions returned home fine


on Friday evening.

Hame barye xordane cy be otqe paziryi


raftand.

They all went to the livingroom for tea.

qye Jnson be xnevdeye Yegne goft: Man


dar xneye om besyr sude hastamo dar inj
be man xo migozarad.

Mr Johnson said to the Yeganeh family: I am


very comfortable at your home and am having a
good time.

Vali man byad ahrhye digare Irn r ham


bebinam.

But I have to visit other cities around Iran.

Naxost be omle Irn mixham beravam va


zarbyjn, Gilno Mnzandarn r b Gorgn
bebinam.

First I want to go north of Iran and visit


Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Gorgan.

Sepas mixham safari be xvare Irn yani


xorsn beravam.

Then I want to take a trip to Khorasan in eastern


Iran.

Pas az n be baxhye jonubiye Irn mnande


Kermn, Ba1ucestn, Prso Xuzestn xham raft
va safari ham be bxtare Irn xham kard t
Kordestn r bebinam.

Then I will visit the southern regions like Kerman,


Baluchistan, Pars and Khuzistan, and also take a
trip to see Kurdistan in western Iran.

Sepas ahrhye markazi, mnande Qom, Kn,


Espahno Ark r xham did, t taqriban hameye
Irn r dide bam.

Then I will see the cities in the central region, like


Qom, Kashan, Espahan and Arak, so that I would
have visited the entire Iran.

Man gomn dram yek ketbe joqrfi be zabne


Englisi dar breye Irn benevisamo barye
nevetane in ketb ncram baxhye gungune
Irn r bebinam.

I have in mind to write a geographical book on


Iran, and in order to do that I am obliged to visit
the different parts of the country.

Fard sobh b om bedrud xham goft va b


preyi dustne Englisiye xod in safare duro derz
r qz xham kard.

Tomorrow morning I will say goodby to you all,


and leave on this long trip with several of my
English friends.

Exercise 29.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Key qaye Yegne va hamrhna az safar bar gatand?
2. Vaqti be xne rasidand be kodm otq raftand?
3. y qye Jnson dar xneye qye Yegne sude bud va be u xo migozat?

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4. y qye Jnson mixst ahrhye digare Iran r bebinad?


5. y qye Jnson mixst naxost be ome Irn beravad?
6. y zarbyjn dar ome Irn ast?
7. y Prs dar jonube Irn ast?
8. Yeki az ahrhye bxtare Irn r nm bebarid?
9. y qye Jnson mixst yek ketbe joqrfi dar breye Irn benevisad?
10. y qye Jnson mixst baxhye gungune Irn r bebinad?

Exercise 29.2

Fill in the missing words:


1. Cand ruz ast havye Tehrn sard .......... ?
2. Diruz hlam xub .......... va natavnestam be kels ..........
3. Emruz be bzr .......... va yek .......... kaf ..........
4. Dehneinn dar .......... zendegi ..........
5. Diruz sate eo nim be xneye om .......... amm oma ..........
6. Diab .......... abri ..........
7. Espahn yeki az ahrhye .......... Irn ..........
8. Tbestnh havye Tehrn ..........
9. Yek hafte .......... ruz ..........
10. Yek sl .......... ruz ast.

Exercise 29.3

Write the plural form of the following sentences:


1. Man be Espahn raftam.
2. y bardare om dar Tehrn ast?
3. Ketbe man ruye mize om nabud?
4. Kuceye deh tang ast?
5. Man daste xod r ostam.
6. U pas az xordane nhr az xne birun raft.
7. Pye man yax karde ast.
8. ahrnein dar ahr zendegi mikonad.
9. Sandaliye man qahveyi ast.
10. Daro panjareye in otq bz asto havye otq sard ode ast.

Lesson 30
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naxostin

first

molyem

mild

golbi

pears

beh

quinces

anr

pomegranate

gowje

plum

holu

peaches

pundan

to cover

tondar

thunder

okufe kardan

to blossom

rudxne

river

bq

garden

kevarz

farmer

zardlu

apricot

gils

cherry

mive

fruit

lblu

black cherry

portoql

orange

nrangi

tangerine

limu

lemon

barq

lightening

daraxidan

to shine

por

full

farvardeh

crops

sed

sound/noise

Bahr naxostin fasle sl ast.

Spring is the first season of the year.

Havye in fasl molyem ast.

The weather is mild during this season.

Na ziyd sardo na ziyd garm ast.

It is not too cold and not too warm.

Deraxtne mive mnande sib, beh, anr, holu,


gils, lblu, gowje, zardlu, portoql, nrangiyo
limu okufe mikonand.

Fruit trees like apples, quinces, pomegranates,


peaches, cherries, black cherries, plums, apricots,
oranges, tangerines, and lemons blossom.

okufeh, mivehye tbestniyo pyizi miavand.

Blossoms turn into summer and autumn fruits.

Dar in fasl barfhye kuh b miavad.

In this season snow on the mountains melt.

be in barfh rudxneh r por mikonad.

Water from the snow fills the rivers.

Kevarzn be in rudxneh r be zaminhye


keto bqh mibarand va farvardehye xod r
b midahand.

Farmers take the water from these rivers to their


fields and gardens and water their crops.

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Ghi abre siyhi smn r mipunad, barq


mizanad, sedye tondar be gu mirasado pas az
n brne tondi mibrad, sepas hav sf
miavado xorid dobre midaraxad.

Sometimes a dark cloud covers the sky, lightning


strikes, and the sound of thunder is heard; then
there is a shower and finally it clears and the sun
shines again.

Exercise 30.1

Answer the following questions:


1. y bahr naxostin fasle sal ast?
2. Havye in fasl cegune ast?
3. y havye in fasl ziyd garm ast?
4. Havye ce fasli ziyd garm ast?
5. Havye ce fasli ziyd sard ast?
6. Deraxtne mive dar ce fasli okufe mikonand?
7. y deraxtne portoql, narangiyo limu ham dar bahr okufe mikonand?
8. Rudxneh dar ce fasli por b hastand?
9. Kevarzan be rudxneh r ce mikonand?
10. Sedye tondar dar ce fasli bitar be gu mirasad?

Exercise 30.2

Learn the following ordinal numbers:


naxostin - dovomin - sevomin - cahromin - panjomin - eomin - haftomin - hatomin - nohomin dahomin

Exercise 30.3

Write five simple sentences about summer.


Exercise 30.4

Fill in the missing words:


1. Xordd mhe .......... bahr ast.
2. ahrivar mhe .......... tbestn ast.
3. Mehr mhe .......... pyiz ast.
4. Dey mhe .......... zemestn ast.
5. U .......... be xneye man mado m montazer .......... budim.
6. Zemestn fasle .......... asto .......... ziyd mibrad.
7. Xorid be zamin .......... va zamin r .......... mikonad.
8. Setregn .......... abh dar .......... mibinam.

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9. Mahtb .......... nisto m r garm .......... .


10. Zamin .......... az xorid ast.
11. Zemestn .......... fasl ast.
12 .......... garmtarin fasl ast.
13. M .......... xorid r nemibinim.
14. Ruzh m setregn r ..........
15. Ruzhye zemestno abhye tbestn .......... ast.
16. Yek sat ast ..........o yek daqiqe .......... ast.
17. Yek abne .......... ruz sat ast.
18. Man b gac .......... taxte syah nevetam va b .......... pk kardam.
19. Yek sl .......... ruz ast.
20. .......... ruze naxoste sl ast.

Exercise 30.5

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. My pencil is longer than yours.
2. This room is the largest.
3. This boy is the tallest student in the school.
4. Shahreza is the widest street in Tehran.
5. My hand is bigger than yours.
6. Im the shortest girl in the class.
7. Mount Damavand is higher than Alvand.
8. Please close this window, I feel a little cold.
9. The people mostly catch cold in winter.
10. This shoe is tight for me.

Lesson 31
oxm zadan

to plough

xue

ear of corn

kam kam

by and by

rasidan

to ripen

sabz odan

to peep out

ds

sickle

byri kardan

to irrigate

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derow kardan

to cut

xarman kardan

to heap up (corn)

bd ddan

to air

kubidan

to thresh

dne

seed

kh

straw

syb

mill

sybn

miller

rd kardan

to grind into flour

jod kardan

to separate

nnvyi

bakery

xamir kardan

to make dough

nnv

baker

dokn

shop

Kevarzn dar pyiz zamine ket r oxm mizanando gandom mikrand.


Gandom kam kam sabz miavad.
Barfe zemestno brne pyizo bahr n r byri mikonad.
Gandom boland miavad, xue mikonado dar tbestan mirasad.
Kevarz b ds gandom r derow mikonad, va gandome derow ode r xarman mikonad, t xub xok
avad.
Sepas n r mikubad, bd midahado dneh r az khh jod mikonad.
Sepas gandomh r pk mikonado be syb mibarad.
sybn gandom r rd mikonando, rd r be nnvyi mibarad.
Xamirgir n r xamir mikonado mipazad.
M be dokne nnvyi miravim, pul midahimo nn mixarim, nn r be xne miyvarimo b xorkhye
gungun mixorim.

Exercise 31.1

Explain in your own words what you read.


Exercise 31.2

Answer the following questions:


1. Kevarz ce hangm zamin ra oxm mizanad?
2. Pas az oxm zadan ce mikonad?
3. y barfe zemestn barye gandome xue ode sudmand ast?
4. y kevarz dar zemestn gandom r byri mikonad?

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5. Gandom key boland miavad?


6. Gandom key xue mikonad?
7. y gandom dar tbestn mirasad?
8. B ce ciz kevarz gandom r derow mikonad?
9. Dne r az kh cegune jod mikonad?
10. sybn kist?
11. y sybn gandom r rd mikonad?
12. rd r be koj mibarad?
13. Xamirgir kist?
14. Nn r ce mikonad?
15. M nn r az koj mixarim?

Exercise 31.3

Write a sentence for each of the following words:


1. pul

2. xork

3. kh

4. xue

5. mive

6. nnvyi

7. syb

8. brn

9. kam kam

10. xaridan

Exercise 31.4

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dar - Tehrn - oml - dnegh - ast
2. az - dur - dnegh - xneye - ast - man
3. diab - xbidn - bd - man
4. diab - xne - madam - dir - be
5. diruz - hav - sard - od - asr
6. ast - mz - do - ke - garm - ode ast
7. man - bardar - pariruz - raft - Espahn - be
8. do - digar - mali - Englestn - be - miravam
9. xhe - an - panjare - - mikonam - bebandid
10. ostd - dir - be - m - kels - mad

Exercise 31.5

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Kafhye man kohne odeand, mixham yek joft kafe now bexaram.
2. Pye man bozorgo in kaf barye pye man tang ast.

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3. Agar be bzr raftid dah varaqe kqaz barye man bexarid.


4. Pesare om dah ruz ast ke be dabestn nemiyyad.
5. Yeki az dustne xod r prsl dar mrik didam.

Lesson 32
xar

end

miyne

middle

garm

heat

daraje

degree

tan

body

angur

grapes

estaxr

pool

dary

sea

en

sand

foruxte miavand

they are sold

tatil

holiday

xonak

cool

otobus

bus

tlebi

persian melon

garmak

a kind of melon

kenr

side

en kardan

to swim

hendevne

water melon

Tbestn, dovomin fasle sl ast.

Summer is the second season of the year.

Az xare bahr hav kam kam garm miavado


miyneye tbestan hav besyr garm ast.

Little by little it starts getting warmer at the end


of summer, and the weather is very warm in the
middle of summer.

Garmye Tehrn ghi be cehel darajeye sntigrd


mirasad.

The temperature in Tehran can sometimes reach


forty degrees Celsius.

Dar tbestn dabestnh, dabirestnhvo


dneghhye Irn tatil miavand.

The elementary schools, secondary schools, and


universities of Iran close down.

Bitare gerdno ostdn az Tehrn be ahrhye


digar y be jhye xonak miravand.

Most students and professors leave Tehran for


other cities or cooler places.

dinehvo ruzhye digar ke tatil ast mardome


Tehrn b xodrow y otobus be kenre dary
miravand.

Fridays and holidays people of Tehran leave for


the seaside by car or bus.

Dar b en mikonand, ruye enh mixbando

They swim in the water, lie on the sand, and get

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tanhyan r ftab midahand.

some sun.

Dar ahre Tehrn ham estaxrhyi barye en


sxteand va har kas mitavand b pule kami az in
extaxrh bahremand avad.

There have been pools built in the city of Tehran


for swimming and anyone can use these pools for
very little money.

Dar in fasl tlebi, garmak, hendevne, gils,


gowje, zardluvo angurhye gungun mirasando
dar bzr foruxte miavand.

In this season there are melons, watermelons,


cherries, plums, apricots, and various grapes sold
in the market.

Mardom dar fasle tbestn ziyad mive mixorand.

Everyone eats a lot of fruits in the summertime.

xare ahrivarmh hav kam kam ru be xonaki


miravado pyize zib qz miavad.

At the end of the month of Shahrivar the weather


slowly cools off and the beautiful autumn begins.

Exercise 32.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Kodm fasl garmtarin fasle sl ast?
2. Kodm fasl sardtarin fasle sl ast?
3. y dar bahr hav molyem ast?
4. Garmye Tehrn dar tbestn be cand daraje mirasad?
5. Barye ce dabestnh va dabirestnh dar tbestn tatil miavand?
6. y om dar tbestn dar Tehrn mimnid?
7. Mardome Tehrn tbestnh be koj miravand?
8. y om b otobus mosferat kardeid?
9. y om xub en mikonid?
10. y om daryye Mzandarn ra dideid?
11. Zardlu ce rang ast?
12. Ce miveyi r bitar az hame dust drid?
13. Pyiz zibtar ast y tbestn?
14. Tbestn r bitar dust drid y zemestn r?
15. Key hav ru be xonaki miravad?

Exercise 32.2

Name the months of the year.


Exercise 32.3

Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Man emruz xasteam va nemitavnam dars bexnam.
2. Darshye Prsi kam kam dovr miavand.
3. Emruz sardtar az diruz ast.
4. Xhe mikonam yek varaqe kqaz be man bedahid.

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5. Diruz hlam xub nabud va be kelse Prsi naymadam.

Exercise 32.4
Fill in the missing words:
1. Ostd b .......... ruye taxteye syh nevet.
2. Man b .......... taxteye syh r pak kardam.
3. Pedaram si sl az man .......... ast.
4. Man yeke pas az nimruz .......... mixoram.
5. .......... dar deh zendegi mikonad.
6. Havye bahr va pyiz .......... ast.
7. Daryaye Mzandarn dar .......... Irn ast.
8. Tehrn pyetaxt .......... ast.
9. M mitavnim kam .......... Prsi bexnim.
10. Sobhh zud az xb.......... .

Lesson 33
kevar

country

mellat

nation

xoki

land

bax

part

din

religion

Kalimi

Jewish

Budyi

Buddhist

poni

Japanese

Mosalmn

Moslem

kore

globe

Englisi

English

Rusi

Russian

Frnsavi

French

lmni

German

mrikayi

American

Torkiye

Turkey

Cini

Chinese

Masihi

Christian

Brahman

Brahman

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Zartoti

Zoroastrian

Xokihye koreye zamin r be panj bax


kardeand.

The land masses of the globe have been divided


into five continents.

Nme in panj bax az in qarr ast: 1. Asy 2.


Orup 3. friq 4. mrikye omli va mrikye
Jonubi. 5. Ostrly.

The names of these five divisions are: 1. Asia 2.


Europe 3. Africa 4. North America and South
America 5. Oceania.

Har yek az in baxh be kevarhye gungun


bax odeando dar har kevari, mellati ke drye
zabno dine jod ast zendegi mikonad.

Every one of these divisions has been divided into


different countries, and in each country lives a
nation with its separate language and religion.

Irni dar Irn zendegi mikonado zabna Prsi


ast.

An Iranian lives in Iran and his language is


Persian.

Englisi dar Englestn zendegi mikonado zabna


Englisi ast.

An Englishman lives in England and his language


in English.

Frnsavi dar Frnse zendegi mikonado zabna


Frnsavi ast.

A Frenchman lives in France and his language is


French.

Rusi dar Rusiye zendegi mikonado zabna Rusi


ast.

A Russian lives in Russia and his language is


Russian.

lmni dar lmn zendegi mikonado zabna


lmni ast.

A German lives in Germany and his language is


German.

mrikyi dar mrik zendegi mikonado zabna


Englisi ast.

An American lives in America and his language is


English.

Tork dar Torkiye zendegi mikonado zabna Torki


ast.

A Turk lives in Turkey and his language is Turkish.

Cini dar Cin zendegi mikonado zabna Cini ast.

A Chinese lives in China and his language is


Chinese.

poni dar pon zendegi mikonado zabna


poni ast.

A Japanese lives in Japan and his language is


Japanese.

Mardome jahn dinhye gungun drand, be in


arh: Masihi, Zartoti, Brahman, Budyi, Kalimiyo
Mosalmn.

People of the world belong to different religions,


as listed here: Christianity, Zoroastrianism,
Brahman, Buddhism, Jewish and Muslim.

Exercise 33.1

Answer the following questions:


1. om ahle kodm kevar hastid?
2. Zabne om cist?
3. Ce dini drid?
4. y om zabne Englisi midnid?
5. y om zabne frsi r mitavnid bexanid?
6. lmni koj zendegi mikonad?
7. Englisi koj zendegi mikonad?
8. Zabne mardome Cin cist?
9. Zabne mardome mrik cist?

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10. Mardome Irn ce dinhyi drand?

Exercise 33.2

Write five simple sentences about the climate of Iran.


Exercise 33.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:


1. He is an Iranian, but he lives in U.S.A.
2. I learned Persian in Iran.
3. Is this the road to Isfahan?
4. His servant brought a letter for me yesterday.
5. We have studied thirty-three parts of this text.

Conjugation of Verbs
Subjunctive mood of the verb: Xordan (To eat)
Present

Perfect

agar bexoram

agar xorde bam

agar bexori

agar xorde bi

agar bexorad

agar xorde bad

agar bexorim

agar xorde bim

agar bexorid

agar xorde bid

agar bexorand

agar xorde band

Negative
agar naxoram

agar naxorde bam

agar naxori

agar naxorde bi

agar naxorad

agar naxorde bad

agar naxorim

agar naxorde bim

agar naxorid

agar naxorde bid

agar naxorand

agar naxorde band

Lesson 34
kambi

nearly

anjir

fig

farvn

abundant

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barg

leaf

mirizad

falls down

micinand

they pluck

preyi

a number

dame barfi

snowman

boxri

stove

anbr

storage

sabok

light

pam

wool

pami

woollen

mipuand

they wear

rav

usually

bzi

play

dorost mikonand

they make

pyn yft

it is finished

Pyiz fasle zibyi ast.

Autumn is a beautiful season.

Dar in fasl kambi hameye miveh mirasand.

In this season nearly all fruits ripen.

Mivehye pyizi mnande anr, anjir, sib,


portoql, nrangiyo limu farvn ast.

Autumn fruits like pomegranates, figs, apples,


oranges, tangerines, and lemons are abundant.

Barghye deraxtn kam kam zard miavando


mirizand.

The leaves slowly turn yellow and fall down.

Kevarzan miveh r az deraxtne bqhye xod


micinando dar anbr negah midrand t az sarm
xarb naavand.

Farmers pluck the fruits off the trees in their


gardens and keep them in storage so that they do
not spoil.

Mardom jmehye pamiye zemestni mipuand.

People wear woollen winter clothes.

Mhe xare pyiz hav sardtar miavado sepas


zemestne sard miyyad.

It gets colder the last month of autumn and then


the cold winter arrives.

Dar zemestn barf bridan rav asto hame j r


sepid mikonad.

It usually snows in the wintertime and white


covers everywhere.

Baceh barfbzi r dust drando az barf, dame


barfi dorost mikonand.

Children love to play with snow, and make


snowmen.

abhye zemestn mardom kamtar dar


xiybnhye ahr dide miavand.

People are seldom seen in the streets on winter


nights.

Naxoste ab be xnehye xod miravando kenre


boxri mineinand.

At the beginning of the night they go to their


homes and sit by the heater.

Preyi niz be sinem y tetr miravand.

A number go to the movies or the theater.

Mhe Espand hav ziyd sard nist.

The weather is not cold during the month of


Espand.

Espand ke pyn yft hav molyem miavado b

By the end of Espand the weather is milder, and

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madane bahr deraxtn dobre sabz mivand.

with the arrival of spring the trees turn green


again.

Exercise 34.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Havye pyiz behtar ast y havye bahr?
2. Nme cahr miveye pyizi r beguyid?
3. Barge deraxtn key mirizand?
4. Keavarzn mivehyi r ke cidand koj migozrand?
5. Cer miveh r pyiz micinand?
6. Jmehye tbestni ce rang ast?
7. Ce hangm jmeye pami mipuim?
8. Ay havye zemestn sardtar ast y havye pyiz?
9. Dar ce fasli bitar bd miyyad?
10. Ay om zemestn r dust drid?

Exercise 34.2

Explain your daily program in Persian.


Exercise 34.3

Write the future tense of the verb goftan.


Conjugation of Verbs
Passive Voice - Indicative mood
Present

Perfect

Imperfect

xaste miavam

xaste odeam

xaste miodam

xaste miavi

xaste odei

xaste miodi

xaste miavad

xaste ode ast

xaste miod

xaste miavim

xaste odeim

xaste miodim

xaste miavid

xaste odeid

xaste miodid

xaste miavand

xaste odeand

xaste miodand

Pluperfect

Preterite

Future

xaste ode budam

xaste odam

xaste xham od

xaste ode budi

xaste odi

xaste xhi od

xaste ode bud

xaste od

xaste xhad od

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xaste ode budim

xaste odim

xaste xhim od

xaste ode budid

xaste odid

xaste xhid od

xaste ode budand

xaste odand

xaste xhand od

Lesson 35
vpasin

the last

seps

thank

xod

god

bahre bebarim

to make use of/take advantage of

dnemand

authority/learned

pyn ddim

we finished

harf/gap zadan

to speak

irin

sweet/nice

ern

poets

rete

branch

dstn

fable

xndani

worth reading

n odan

to become familiar with

qz kardan

to begin

be sni

easily

mitavnim

we can

nevete ode ast

has been written

andie

thoughts

farjm

result/fruit

dne

science

In dars vpasin darse ketbe naxost ast.

This is the last lesson of the basic text.

Seps xod r ke in ketb r pyn ddimo aknun


mitavnim kami Prsi r bexnimo benevisimo
harf bezanim.

Thank God that we finished this textbook and can


now somewhat read, write, and speak in Persian.

Prsi zabne irini asto, har kas mitavnad be


sni n r yd begirad.

Persian is a nice language, and anyone can easily


learn it.

Agar yeki do sle digar in zabn r bexnim,


mitavnim az ketbhyi ke be zabne Prsi
nevete odeand bahre bebarim.

If we continue studying this language for another


two years, we would be able to take advantage of
the books written in the Persian language.

erne Irni erhye ziydi be zabne Prsi


gofteand; dnemandne Irni ketbhye ziydi
dar retehye gungune dne be in zabn
neveteand; dstnhye Prsi irino xndani

Iranian poets have written many poems in


Persian; learned Iranians have written various
scientific books in this language; Persian stories
are nice and worth reading.

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81

hastand.
Agar in zabn r dorost yd begirim, mitavnim
hameye in ketbh r bexnimo b andieye
Irniyn sn avim.

If we learn this language properly, we could read


all these books and become familiar with Iranian
thoughts.

Omidvrim betavnim cizi r ke qz kardeim be


anjm rasnim t kuee m bi farjm namnad.

I hope we can finish what we have begun, so that


our efforts would not be fruitless.

Exercise 35.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Cand mh Prsi xndeid?
2. Prsi zabne kodm mellat ast?
3. y om mitavnid Prsi r tond benivisid?
4. y om mitavanid Prsi harf bezanid?
5. y ere Prsi r mitavnid bexnid?
6. Zabne Englisi r zudtar yd gereftid y Prsi?
7. y zabne lmni az zabne farsi dovrtar ast?
8. y om Frnsavi hastid?
9. Dovrtarin zabn kodam ast?
10. Ce zabni az hame sntar ast?

Exercise 35.2

Put the following words in the right order:


1. dovri - ziyd - Prsi - zabn - nist
2. Englisi - zabn - dovrtar - az - Prsi - zabn - ast
3. u - Englisi - ast - pedar
4. zabn - man - Frnsavi - nemidnam - xub
5. xharam - Prsi - zabn - r - behtar - man - az - harf - mizanad
6. Cini - zabne - dovri - besyr - ast
7. hend - mardom - be - zabnhye - harf - gungun - mizanand
8. mardom - hame - Englisi - mrik - harf - mizanand
9. zabne - Prsi - ast - irin
10. Rusi - zabne - besyr - dovri - ast

Exercise 35.3

Write five simple sentences about the class room.


Exercise 35.4

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Explain the difficulties you had in learning Persian.


PERSIAN VERBS
Persian verbs like the verbs of English and German languages have three Principal Parts:

I) Present root
II) Past root
III) Past participle
All different tenses of the verbs are derived from the above three parts; and the auxiliary verbs used
in conjugating the different tenses are:
odan, budan, xstan.
Let us take the verb xordan (to eat) as an example and show its different tenses.

I) Present root: xor


II) Past root: xord
III) Past participle: xordei
I) Verbs Formed from the Present Root: xor
1. Subjunctive Mood
Let me eat
I may eat
If I eat
agar bexoram = ( be + xor + im )
agar bexori = ( be + xor + i )
agar bexorad = ( be + xor + ad )
agar bexorim = ( be + xor + im )
agar bexorid = ( be + xor + id )
agar bexorand = ( be + xor + and )

2. Indicative Mood
I eat
I am eating
I shall eat
mixoram = ( mi + xor + am )
mixori = ( mi + xor + i )

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moxorad = ( mi + xor + ad )
mixorim = ( mi + xor + im )
mixorid = ( mi + xor + id )
mixorand = = ( mi + xor + and )

Imperative Singular: xor/bexor


Imperative Plural: xorid/bexorid
Present participle: xorn

II) Verbs Formed from the Past Root: xord


3. Indicative mood: Preterite
I ate
xordam = ( xord + am )
xordi = ( xord + i )
xord
xordim = ( xord + im )
xordid = ( xord + id )
xordand = ( xord + and )

4. Indicative mood: Imperfect


I was eating/I used to eat
mixordam = ( mi + xord + am )
moxordi = ( mi + xord + i )
mixord = ( mi + xord )
mixordim = ( mi + xord + im )
mixordid = ( mi + xord + id )
mixordand = ( mi + xord + and )

5. Indicative Mood: Future


I shall eat
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xham xord = ( xh + am + xord )


xhi xord = ( xh + i + xord )
xhad xord = ( xh + ad + xord )
xhim xord = ( xh + im + xord )
xhid xord = ( xh + id + xord )
xhand xord = ( xh + and + xord )

Infinitive mood: xordan


Infinitive mood shortened form: xord
Gerundive (adjective): xordani

III) Verbs Fomed from the Past Participle: xorde


6. Indicatice mood: Present
I have eaten
xordeam = ( xorde + am )
xordei = ( xorde + i )
xorde ast = ( xorde + ast )
xordeim = ( xorde + im )
xordeid = ( xorde + id )
xordeand = ( xorde + and )

7. Indicatice mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect)


I had eaten
xorde budam = ( xorde + bud + am )
xorde budi = ( xorde + bud + i )
xorde bud = ( xorde + bud)
xorde budim = ( xorde + bud + im )
xorde budid = ( xorde + bud + id )
xorde budand = ( xorde + bud + and )

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8. Subjunctive mood: Perfect


I may have eaten
xorde bam = ( xorde + b + am )
xorde bi = ( xorde + b + i )
xorde b = ( xorde + b)
xorde bim = ( xorde + b + im )
xorde bid = ( xorde + b + id )
xorde band = ( xorde + b + and )

Passive Voice
Infinitive: xorde odan ( to be eaten )
9. Indicative mood: Present
xorde miavam = ( xorde + mi + av + am )
xorde miavi = ( xorde + mi + av + i )
xorde miavad = ( xorde + mi + av + ad )
xorde miavim = ( xorde + mi + av + im )
xorde miavid = ( xorde + mi + av + id )
xorde miavand = ( xorde + mi + av + and )

10. Indicative mood: Perfect


I have been eaten
xorde odeam = ( xorde + ode + am )
xorde odei = ( xorde + ode + i )
xorde ode ast = ( xorde + ode + ast )
xorde odeim = ( xorde + ode + im )
xorde odeid = ( xorde + ode + id )
xorde odeand = ( xorde + ode + and )

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11. Indicative mood: Imperfect


I would be eaten
xorde miodam = ( xorde + mi + od + am )
xorde miodi = ( xorde + mi + od + i )
xorde miod = ( xorde + mi + od )
xorde miodim = ( xorde + mi + od + im )
xorde miodid = ( xorde + mi + od + id )
xorde miodand = ( xorde + mi + od + and )

12. Indicative mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect)


I had been eaten
xorde ode budam = ( xorde + ode + bud + am )
xorde ode budi = ( xorde + ode + bud + i )
xorde ode bud = ( xorde + ode + bud )
xorde ode budim = ( xorde + ode + bud + im )
xorde ode budid = ( xorde + ode + bud + id )
xorde ode budand = ( xorde + ode + bud + and )

13. Indicative mood: Preterite (Past Participle)


I was eaten
xorde odam = ( xorde + od + am )
xorde odi = ( xorde + od + i )
xorde od = ( xorde + od )
xorde odim = ( xorde + od + im )
xorde odid = ( xorde + od + id )
xorde odand = ( xorde + od + and )

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14. Indicative mood: Future


I will be eaten
xorde xham od = ( xorde + od + am )
xorde xhi od = ( xorde + od + i )
xorde xhad od = ( xorde + od )
xorde xhim od = ( xorde + od + im )
xorde xhid od = ( xorde + od + id )
xorde xhand od = ( xorde + od + and )

15. Subjunctive mood: Present


I may be eaten
xorde avam = ( xorde + av + am )
xorde avi = ( xorde + av + i )
xorde avad = ( xorde + av + ad )
xorde avim = ( xorde + av + im )
xorde avid = ( xorde + av + id )
xorde avand = ( xorde + av + and )

16. Subjunctive mood: Perfect


I may have been eaten
xorde ode bam = ( xorde + ode + b + am )
xorde ode bi = ( xorde + ode + b + i )
xorde ode bad = ( xorde + ode + b + ad )
xorde ode bim = ( xorde + ode + b + im )
xorde ode bid = ( xorde + ode + b + id )
xorde ode band = ( xorde + ode + b + and )

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Active Voice
Negative
17. Indicative mood
Present

nemixoram

Perfect

naxordeam

Imprefect

nemixordam

Pluperfect

naxorde budam

Preterite

naxordam

Future

naxham xord

Subjunctive mood
Present

naxoram

Perfect

naxorde bam

Passive Voice
18. Indicative mood
Present

xorde nemiavam

Perfect

xorde naodeam

Imprefect

xorde nemiodam

Pluperfect

xorde naode budam

Preterite

xorde naodam

Future

xorde naxham od

19. Subjunctive mood


Present

xorde naavam

Perfect

xorde naode bam

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