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JACK

USER
MANUAL
VERSION 8.2

Copyright Notice and Terms of Use


Copyright (c) 2014 Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software Inc. All rights
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... X
WHAT ARE THE JACK PRODUCTS? .......................................................................................................................... XII
CLASSIC JACK......................................................................................................................................................... XII
TEAMCENTER VISUALIZATION JACK (TCVIS JACK) ................................................................................................ XII
NX HUMAN ........................................................................................................................................................... XIII
PROCESS SIMULATE HUMAN ................................................................................................................................. XIII
WHATS NEW IN JACK 8.2? .................................................................................................................................... XIV
HOW DO I USE THIS MANUAL? ............................................................................................................................... XIV
WHAT IS THE COURSE OBJECTIVE? ....................................................................................................................... XIV
WHO IS THE AUDIENCE? ......................................................................................................................................... XV
WHAT ARE THE SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS? ............................................................................................................. XV
CHAPTER 1: JACKS INTERFACE........................................................................................................................1
CONTROL BAR ...........................................................................................................................................................2
Menus ...................................................................................................................................................................2
Icon Toolbar.........................................................................................................................................................3
Object Selector .....................................................................................................................................................3
Message Area .......................................................................................................................................................4
Move Controller ...................................................................................................................................................4
Move - By .............................................................................................................................................................5
Global vs. Local Transformations ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Snap to Geometry ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

GRAPHICS WINDOW ..................................................................................................................................................9


Change View ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
Context Sensitive Menus .................................................................................................................................... 11
Picking with the Middle Mouse Button .............................................................................................................. 12
Space Bar Completion ....................................................................................................................................... 13
INTERNATIONAL MENUS.......................................................................................................................................... 13
CHAPTER 1 TUTORIAL: JACKS INTERFACE.............................................................................................................. 14
Exercise: Control Bar Basics ............................................................................................................................. 14
Exercise: Object Selector ................................................................................................................................... 14
Exercise: Using the Mover Dialog ..................................................................................................................... 15
Exercise: Snap to ............................................................................................................................................... 15
Exercise: Global vs Local .................................................................................................................................. 16
Exercise: Navigating the Jack Scene ................................................................................................................. 17
Exercise: Context Sensitive menus ..................................................................................................................... 17
Exercise: Picking with the MMB ........................................................................................................................ 18
Exercise: Space bar completion ......................................................................................................................... 18
CHAPTER 2: FILE MANAGEMENT .................................................................................................................... 20
NATIVE JACK FILES ................................................................................................................................................. 20
Environment ....................................................................................................................................................... 20
Figures ............................................................................................................................................................... 22
Segments ............................................................................................................................................................ 22
Manipulations .................................................................................................................................................... 23
File Archiving ................................................................................................................................................................. 23

IMPORT .................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Import Formats .................................................................................................................................................. 24
Import Formats for Texture Mapping & Visualization ...................................................................................... 25
Import Options ................................................................................................................................................... 25
JT Features ........................................................................................................................................................ 25
Benefits: .......................................................................................................................................................................... 25

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Limitations: ..................................................................................................................................................................... 26
JT Export ........................................................................................................................................................................ 26

TRANSLATE SEGMENT FROM JT .............................................................................................................................. 27


RE-ROOT GEOMETRY CENTER ................................................................................................................................. 28
CENTER FIGURE ROOT DIALOG ............................................................................................................................... 28
BATCH TRANSLATE FILES ....................................................................................................................................... 29
CAD EXPORT .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
VRML Export ..................................................................................................................................................... 29
IGES Export ....................................................................................................................................................... 31
CAPTURING IMAGES ................................................................................................................................................ 31
Screen Capture ................................................................................................................................................... 32
Rendering ........................................................................................................................................................... 33
External Applications ......................................................................................................................................... 33
CHAPTER 2 TUTORIAL: FILE MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................ 34
Exercise: Loading an Environment file .............................................................................................................. 34
Exercise: Saving Figures and Segments ............................................................................................................ 35
Exercise: IGES Import and Export .................................................................................................................... 38
Exercise: Jacks Image Capture ........................................................................................................................ 39
Exercise: Alternate Screen Capture Methods .................................................................................................... 39
CHAPTER 3: EDITING THE JACK ENVIRONMENT ...................................................................................... 40
UNDO ...................................................................................................................................................................... 40
DELETE SCENE ........................................................................................................................................................ 40
SCALE ...................................................................................................................................................................... 40
MATERIALS ............................................................................................................................................................. 41
Color: ................................................................................................................................................................. 41
TEXTURES ............................................................................................................................................................... 43
KEY BINDINGS ......................................................................................................................................................... 43
Predefined Shortcuts .......................................................................................................................................... 43
Custom Shortcuts ............................................................................................................................................... 44
SYSTEM DEFAULTS .................................................................................................................................................. 44
CHAPTER 3 TUTORIAL: EDITING THE JACK ENVIRONMENT ..................................................................................... 46
Exercise: Figure Scaling .................................................................................................................................... 46
Exercise: Scaling the Environment .................................................................................................................... 47
Exercise: Color Parameters ............................................................................................................................... 48
Exercise: Texture mapping ................................................................................................................................ 48
Exercise: Hot Keys (Shortcuts) .......................................................................................................................... 49
Exercise: Customizing the workspace ................................................................................................................ 51
CHAPTER 4: CHANGING YOUR VIEW OF JACK ........................................................................................... 51
CENTER ALL ............................................................................................................................................................ 51
ZOOM TO ................................................................................................................................................................. 51
MAKE ALL FIGURES VISIBLE ................................................................................................................................... 52
TOGGLE SEGMENT VISIBILITY ................................................................................................................................. 52
SHADE SCENE .......................................................................................................................................................... 52
WIREFRAME SCENE ................................................................................................................................................. 52
FIGURE PROJECTIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 52
TEXTURES ON/OFF .................................................................................................................................................. 53
VIEW CONTROL ....................................................................................................................................................... 53
Camera Position and Orientation ...................................................................................................................... 54
Camera Field of View ........................................................................................................................................ 54
Snapping and Attaching View ............................................................................................................................ 55
NAMED VIEWS......................................................................................................................................................... 56
WINDOW PARAMETERS ........................................................................................................................................... 56
Create Windows ................................................................................................................................................. 56
Window Sets ....................................................................................................................................................... 57

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Current Windows ............................................................................................................................................... 57


STEREO PROPERTIES ................................................................................................................................................ 57
OBJECT HIERARCHY ................................................................................................................................................ 59
TOGGLE LOG WINDOWS .......................................................................................................................................... 60
TOOLBARS ............................................................................................................................................................... 60
CHAPTER 4 TUTORIAL: CHANGING YOUR VIEW OF JACK ........................................................................................ 61
Exercise: Visibility ............................................................................................................................................. 61
Exercise: Shading Options ................................................................................................................................. 62
Exercise: Advanced View Control...................................................................................................................... 62
Exercise: Window Parameters ........................................................................................................................... 63
Exercise: Manipulating objects in the Object Hierarchy ................................................................................... 64
CHAPTER 5: WORKING WITH HUMANS ......................................................................................................... 66
HUMAN FIGURE TYPES ............................................................................................................................................ 66
HUMAN HANDS ....................................................................................................................................................... 68
HUMAN SCALING (ANTHROPOMETRY) .................................................................................................................... 68
Figure Scaling .................................................................................................................................................... 70
HUMAN COPY .......................................................................................................................................................... 75
PROPERTIES ............................................................................................................................................................. 77
Skeleton .............................................................................................................................................................. 78
HUMAN BEHAVIORS ................................................................................................................................................ 78
HUMAN CONTROL ................................................................................................................................................... 79
Auto-Grasp ........................................................................................................................................................ 80
Braced Posturing ............................................................................................................................................... 80
Tabs on the Human Control Panel ..................................................................................................................... 81
Reach & Grasp................................................................................................................................................... 81
Prediction method .............................................................................................................................................. 81
Lock .................................................................................................................................................................... 81
Bracing ............................................................................................................................................................... 82
Foot Placement Zone ......................................................................................................................................... 82
Vision Targets .................................................................................................................................................... 82
Grasp.................................................................................................................................................................. 82
Loads & Weights ................................................................................................................................................ 83
Force Distribution Strategy ............................................................................................................................... 83
Add Weight/Add Load ........................................................................................................................................ 83
Show Forces ....................................................................................................................................................... 83
Adjust Joint ........................................................................................................................................................ 83
Predefined Postures ........................................................................................................................................... 84
Interpolating Hand Postures .............................................................................................................................. 84
Save Posture....................................................................................................................................................... 84
Shortcuts and Helpful Hints for the Human Control Panel ............................................................................... 85
Common Icons on the Control Panel ................................................................................................................. 85
Undo Last Step ................................................................................................................................................... 85
Dock Dialog ....................................................................................................................................................... 85
Shortcut to Default Standing and Default Sitting Postures ................................................................................ 85
EYE VIEW ................................................................................................................................................................ 86
VIEW CONES............................................................................................................................................................ 87
CHAPTER 5 TUTORIAL: WORKING WITH HUMANS ................................................................................................... 88
Exercise: Create a Human ................................................................................................................................. 88
Exercise: Human Scaling ................................................................................................................................... 88
Exercise: Human Postures ................................................................................................................................. 90
Exercise: Skeletal Structure ............................................................................................................................... 92
Exercise: Human Posturing ............................................................................................................................... 93
Exercise: Adjust Joint ........................................................................................................................................ 98
Exercise: View Analysis ..................................................................................................................................... 99
Exercise: View Cones....................................................................................................................................... 100

CHAPTER 6: CREATING & DISPLAYING OBJECTS.................................................................................... 102


CREATE ................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Site ................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Joint ................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Node ................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Face ................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Light ................................................................................................................................................................. 102
CAD Objects .................................................................................................................................................... 104
Rectangular Solid ............................................................................................................................................. 104
Figure from Library ......................................................................................................................................... 105
Factory Equipment Library ........................................................................................................................................... 105

MODIFY GEOMETRY .............................................................................................................................................. 106


Editing Segment Geometry ............................................................................................................................... 106
Merging Segment Geometry ............................................................................................................................. 107
Splitting Segment Geometry ............................................................................................................................. 107
Fix Segment Orientation .................................................................................................................................. 107
Reroot Figure ................................................................................................................................................................ 107
Visible ........................................................................................................................................................................... 108
Shaded/ Wireframe/ Transparent .................................................................................................................................. 108
Smooth Shading ............................................................................................................................................................ 108
Trace ............................................................................................................................................................................. 109
Figure Ghosts ................................................................................................................................................................ 110

CHAPTER 6 TUTORIAL: CREATING AND DISPLAYING OBJECTS .............................................................................. 111


Exercise: Creating a Site ................................................................................................................................. 111
Exercise: Create Joint ...................................................................................................................................... 112
Exercise: Lighting ............................................................................................................................................ 114
Exercise: Modify Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 115
Exercise: Re-rooting an Object ........................................................................................................................ 115
Exercise: Object Library .................................................................................................................................. 117
Exercise: Visibility ........................................................................................................................................... 117
Exercise: Shaded, Wireframe, and Transparent .............................................................................................. 117
Exercise: Shading Options ............................................................................................................................... 117
Exercise: Trace segment .................................................................................................................................. 118
Exercise: Create Ghost .................................................................................................................................... 119
CHAPTER 7: WORKING WITH OBJECTS ...................................................................................................... 121
Attachments .................................................................................................................................................................. 121

PROPERTIES ........................................................................................................................................................... 122


Figure Properties ............................................................................................................................................. 122
Segment Properties .......................................................................................................................................... 123
Site Properties .................................................................................................................................................. 124
Joint Properties ................................................................................................................................................ 125
Face Properties ................................................................................................................................................ 126
Reflection ...................................................................................................................................................................... 127

Edge Properties................................................................................................................................................ 128


Node Properties ............................................................................................................................................... 129
ADJUST JOINT ........................................................................................................................................................ 129
MOTORS ON/OFF ................................................................................................................................................... 130
Joint Motors .................................................................................................................................................................. 130

INTERACTIVE REACH ............................................................................................................................................. 131


PATHS .................................................................................................................................................................... 131
CHAPTER 7 TUTORIAL: WORKING WITH OBJECTS ................................................................................................. 132
Exercise: Figure Properties ............................................................................................................................. 132
Exercise: Segment Properties .......................................................................................................................... 132
Exercise: Face Properties ................................................................................................................................ 133
Exercise: Adjusting a Joint .............................................................................................................................. 133

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Exercise: Joints and Motors............................................................................................................................. 134


Exercise: Interactive Reach ............................................................................................................................. 136
Exercise: Creating & Editing a Path ............................................................................................................... 137
CHAPTER 8: MEASURING & CHECKING UTILITIES: ................................................................................ 139
COLLISION DETECTION .......................................................................................................................................... 139
CONSTRAINT.......................................................................................................................................................... 140
Type of Goal ................................................................................................................................................................. 142
Goal .............................................................................................................................................................................. 142
Set Transform Location ................................................................................................................................................ 142
End Effector Type ......................................................................................................................................................... 142
End Eff. Seg/Node/Site ................................................................................................................................................. 143
Starting Joint ................................................................................................................................................................. 143
Rooting Constraint ........................................................................................................................................................ 143
Orientational Relationship ............................................................................................................................................ 143
Positional Relationship ................................................................................................................................................. 144
Orientation <---->Position Weight ................................................................................................................................ 144
Relative Constraint Weight ........................................................................................................................................... 144

SIMULATION UPDATES .......................................................................................................................................... 144


MEASURE DISTANCE ............................................................................................................................................. 145
Scalar ............................................................................................................................................................... 145
ADVANCED RULERS .............................................................................................................................................. 145
RULERS ................................................................................................................................................................. 146
MINIMAL DISTANCE .............................................................................................................................................. 147
LOGGING ............................................................................................................................................................... 148
SYSTEM GEOMETRY INFO ...................................................................................................................................... 148
REACH ZONES ....................................................................................................................................................... 148
Advanced Reach Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 148
CHAPTER 8: MEASURING, CHECKING UTILITIES, AND ANALYZING JACK .............................................................. 150
Exercise: Collision detection ........................................................................................................................... 150
Exercise: Constraints ....................................................................................................................................... 152
Exercise: Scalar Measure ................................................................................................................................ 153
Exercise: Create Ruler ..................................................................................................................................... 154
Exercise: Minimal Distance ............................................................................................................................. 155
Exercise: Maximum Reach Analysis ................................................................................................................ 155
CHAPTER 9: ANIMATION SYSTEM MODULE .............................................................................................. 158
ANIMATION WINDOW ............................................................................................................................................ 159
Menu ................................................................................................................................................................ 159
Animation Window Icons ................................................................................................................................. 159
Timeline............................................................................................................................................................ 160
MOTION BASICS .................................................................................................................................................... 161
Generate ........................................................................................................................................................... 161
Set Frame 0 ...................................................................................................................................................... 162
Figure Motions................................................................................................................................................. 164
Joint Motions ................................................................................................................................................... 164
Timed Attachments ........................................................................................................................................... 164
Constraints ....................................................................................................................................................... 165
Path Motions .................................................................................................................................................... 165
Human Motions ................................................................................................................................................ 166
Timed Behaviors .............................................................................................................................................. 166
Camera Motions ............................................................................................................................................... 166
CHANNELSETS ....................................................................................................................................................... 166
Creating Channelsets ....................................................................................................................................... 166
Replaying Channelset Motions......................................................................................................................... 167
Channelset Editor ............................................................................................................................................ 168
MOVIE EXPORT ..................................................................................................................................................... 168

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Resolution ........................................................................................................................................................ 169


Animation Options ........................................................................................................................................... 169
Output Options ................................................................................................................................................. 169
Video Compression .......................................................................................................................................... 170
ANIMATION TIPS ................................................................................................................................................... 170
Constraint Vs Joint Motions: ........................................................................................................................... 170
Generation: ...................................................................................................................................................... 171
Handprints and Footprints: ............................................................................................................................. 171
_Motcs File: ..................................................................................................................................................... 171
Motion Times (Motions not being generated): ................................................................................................. 171
Pose Figure Vs Joint Motion: .......................................................................................................................... 171
Quickstart: ....................................................................................................................................................... 171
CHAPTER 9 TUTORIAL: ANIMATION SYSTEM MODULE .......................................................................................... 173
Exercise: Animation Window ........................................................................................................................... 173
Exercise: Basic Animation ............................................................................................................................... 174
Exercise: Group manipulation ......................................................................................................................... 175
Exercise: Human Linear Walk ......................................................................................................................... 175
Exercise: Human Pose ..................................................................................................................................... 176
Exercise: Saving the Animation ....................................................................................................................... 177
Exercise: Human Path Walk ............................................................................................................................ 178
Exercise: Human Motions ................................................................................................................................ 182
Exercise: Joint Motions, Interactive Reach and Timed Attachments ............................................................... 184
Exercise: Timed Control .................................................................................................................................. 188
CHAPTER 10: OTHER MODULES ..................................................................................................................... 190
TASK SIMULATION BUILDER (TSB)....................................................................................................................... 190
MOTION CAPTURE ................................................................................................................................................. 190
Third Party Communication ............................................................................................................................ 191
PLUG-INS ............................................................................................................................................................... 192
CPort ................................................................................................................................................................ 192
CableGenerator ............................................................................................................................................... 192
CameraTracking .............................................................................................................................................. 193
Disembodied Hand Module.............................................................................................................................. 193
ElevationTransition .......................................................................................................................................... 193
GridGenerator ................................................................................................................................................. 194
HumanMaterials .............................................................................................................................................. 194
JackCollaboration ............................................................................................................................................ 195
Kinect ............................................................................................................................................................... 195
PrintToJack ...................................................................................................................................................... 196
PrincipleComponentManikins.......................................................................................................................... 196
Sample .............................................................................................................................................................. 196
Sweeps .............................................................................................................................................................. 196
SyncSwimming ................................................................................................................................................. 196
TATReporter .................................................................................................................................................... 197
APPENDIX A: SYSTEM DEFAULTS .................................................................................................................. 199
DIRECT MODEL UPGRADE TO V 7.3 (FOR JACK V7.0) ............................................................................................ 199
COLOR: .................................................................................................................................................................. 200
GRAPHICS: ............................................................................................................................................................. 201
SOLVER: ................................................................................................................................................................ 201
UI: ......................................................................................................................................................................... 202
UNITS: ................................................................................................................................................................... 203
VIEWERS: .............................................................................................................................................................. 204
APPENDIX B: SNAP DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................... 206
CURSOR POINT: ..................................................................................................................................................... 206

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SITE: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 206


SITE POSITION: ....................................................................................................................................................... 206
SITE ORIENTATION: ................................................................................................................................................ 206
NODE POSITIONS: ................................................................................................................................................... 206
EDGE LINE: ............................................................................................................................................................ 206
EDGE POSITION: .................................................................................................................................................... 206
EDGE ORIENTATION: .............................................................................................................................................. 207
FACE POSITION: ..................................................................................................................................................... 207
FACE CENTER: ....................................................................................................................................................... 207
FACE PLANE:.......................................................................................................................................................... 207
FACE ORIENTATION: .............................................................................................................................................. 207
SQUARE ORIENTATION: .......................................................................................................................................... 207
GROUND PLANE: ................................................................................................................................................... 207
APPENDIX C: ADDITIONAL JACK RESOURCES ......................................................................................... 208
SIEMENS PLM WEBSITE FOR JACK ........................................................................................................................ 208
JACK USER COMMUNITY ....................................................................................................................................... 208
SUPPORT AND FEEDBACK ...................................................................................................................................... 208
APPENDIX D: .JK FILE DEFINITIONS (ADVANCED): ................................................................................. 209
.jk4.install: ....................................................................................................................................................... 209
.jkrc: ................................................................................................................................................................. 209
.jk.log: .............................................................................................................................................................. 209
.jk.views: .......................................................................................................................................................... 209
.jk.log.tcl: ......................................................................................................................................................... 209
.jk.log.tcl~: ....................................................................................................................................................... 209
.jk.humans.simple: .......................................................................................................................................... 209
.jk.humans.complex: ....................................................................................................................................... 209
jack801-win64.bat / jack801-win32.bat: ......................................................................................................... 210
APPENDIX E: EXTENDING JACK THROUGH SCRIPTING ........................................................................ 211
BASIC SCRIPTING ................................................................................................................................................... 211
Details on language versions ........................................................................................................................... 211
SCRIPTING LANGUAGE RESOURCES:...................................................................................................................... 211
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................................. 212
INDEX ...................................................................................................................................................................... 221

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Introduction
Because this manual cannot begin to cover all of the features of Jack, a
brief overview of Jacks capabilities and potential applications is also
provided. This is intended to give you the big picture and allow you to
begin considering ways in which you can effectively apply Jack in your job,
even before you undertake the training.
Jack is a complete system for generating 3D environments or virtual
worlds and interacting with them in a powerful graphical environment.
Some of the areas where Jack excels are:
Creating and visualizing digital mock-ups of designs: Jack
gives you all of the advanced graphical tools for creating concept
models or importing design data to the virtual world. Design changes
in Jacks world are much less costly and time consuming than in
ours.
Analyzing human factors in designs: Occupant or operator reach,
fit, comfort, and vision are all important considerations in product
designs. It is imperative to products are designed with consideration
of the people that will use them!
Studying humans in the simulated workplace: Jack can
tirelessly perform operations in factories or offices to allow you to
design the most safe, efficient, and productive workplaces possible.
Evaluating maintenance operations: The maintenance phase of
the lifecycle can be associated with considerable cost for many large
systems. Therefore, it is critical to consider the safety and task
feasibility for maintenance and repair personnel. Jack gives you the
tools to evaluate maintenance operations even in the earliest product
design stages.
Training: Your design simulations can serve double duty: training
operators, maintenance or military personnel long before products or
facilities are even constructed. This is done without the danger and
lost productivity of real life training.
Research: Jacks is a detailed link segment model with biologically
accurate motion prediction and joint kinematics. Almost endless data
can be retrieved from Jack. The Jack Toolkit and open API is an
ideal location to tap into the framework of Jack or plug in your custom
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Things we havent even considered yet Jack provides the tools


you need to model complex systems, to study their motions, and to
simulate how humans will work with them. Our users are constantly
finding new, unique applications for Jack, and we hope you will also!
(Of course, this training is the first step)
Unlike many 3D design and visualization systems, Jack works natively
with articulated figures. In simple terms, Jacks world is full of moving
objects, just like in real life. Jack provides a very powerful system for
modeling articulated figures. Of course, one of the most demanding
applications in this area is the human body! The focus in the development
of Jack has been centered on creating the most accurate human body
model available in any system.
Jacks greatest strength is in being able to populate the virtual world with
simulated humans that have proper biomechanical, anthropometric, and
ergonomic characteristics. Jack humans look and act like real humans.
Jack humans understand balance, walking, and lifting. They have
strength and can tell you if a task exceeds their limits. And if the action
you define does exceed the limits, Jack can calculate a action that wont!
You can model males and females of any stature, based upon validated
anthropometric databases. Jack humans have the same joint limits (range
of motion) as a typical human in the real world does.
This sort of modeling, simulation, and analysis requires a powerful
graphical viewing environment, an easy to use interface, and a complete
set of command functions. Jack provides all of this.
Jack gives you:
A System for modeling ANY articulated figure: a full hierarchical
database, a complete joint library, active constraints, collision
detection, real time kinematics and dynamic simulation.
Human Bodies: anthropometric scaling based on a database or your
measurements; high fidelity biomechanics with complex joints, and a
fully articulated hand and spine model; automatic grasping to part
contours with precision or power grasps and a full hand shape library,
path walking locomotion, head-eye coordination, and balance
behaviors.
Real-time viewing environment: interactive viewing, multiple
windows, lights and cameras, textures, and mirrors (real time!),

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Complete animation and task simulation systems: goal based


animation, and task based simulation (walk, get, put), with automated
frame-by-frame production of movie files.

Powerful extensions: macro language, customizable menus, even


embedded Lisp, Python, and Tcl/TK programming systems.
Full VR system: complete, immersive capabilities; supports stereo
glasses, head mounted displays (HMDs), data gloves, and full body
motion tracking.
What are the Jack Products?
Classic Jack
Classic Jack is the stand alone offering from Siemens PLM Software for
Human Factors and Ergonomic Analysis. Classic Jack has several add-on
modules which will be covered in this paragraph and have separate
training that is available. The first, 3D Body Scan can be used to create
humans using existing body scans (such as the SAE CAESAR Scans).
The second module, the Occupant Packaging Toolkit (OPT) can be used
to maximize vehicle design for the occupant or user. The third is the Task
Analysis Toolkit (TAT), which is used in the manufacturing communities to
design better workplaces and maximize the safety of workers. Finally, the
MoCap module, which adds the ability to connect to a wide variety of
virtual reality hardware for immersive studies. Both the OPT and TAT
have separate training manuals which explain the capabilities of the
modules in greater detail. These modules can be obtained by contacting
your Siemens PLM representative for an additional license (See Appendix
E: Additional Jack Resources).
Jack can also be extended through a powerful scripting interface.
Teamcenter Visualization Jack (TcVis Jack)
VisJack is the Jack human model inside of VisMockup. It offers many of
the same capabilities as Classic Jack. Just like Classic Jack, VisJack
enables you to:

Insert digital men and women, and scale them by stature and weight
Define behaviors that condition how the digital humans react when
postured
Posture digital humans by manipulating their joints
Evaluate what digital humans can see from their point of view or
through the display of view cones
Evaluate the reach capability of digital humans
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Utilizing the functionality of Teamcenters advanced collaboration,


conferencing, and visualization software, the VisMockup prototypes can
be quickly and easily evaluated by a design team without the need for
each individual to have access to, and knowledge of Classic Jack.
NX Human
Based on the same Jack technology, NX Human Modeling helps
enterprises across industries improve the ergonomics of product designs
and associated workplace tasks during the design phase. The software
enables the positioning of varying sizes of digital humans directly within
the virtual design environment. By incorporating digital human modeling
capabilities within the NX solution, designers can easily factor in
ergonomic specifications from the very beginning in the design process.
In addition, users can take advantage of design in context to conduct
product validation within the integrated environment for a quicker, more
efficient and seamless product development workflow.
The embedded human simulation functionality extends the validation
process beyond simple form, fit and function into the science of
ergonomics. The ability to evaluate ergonomic considerations in a time
effective manner leads to superior quality products that optimally
accommodate users.
Process Simulate Human
Part of the Tecnomatix assembly planning solution that includes a broad
range of applications to optimize assembly sequences; coordinate
operation timing and kinematics; verify line performance, including
throughput and resource utilization; perform line balancing and analyze
production costs. Process Simulate (PS) Human allows users to verify the
design of a workstation, ensuring that product parts can be reached,
assembled and maintained. PS Human provides powerful capabilities to
analyze and optimize the ergonomics of the human operation, thus
ensuring an ergonomically safe process according to industry standards.
PS Human also incorporates Motion Capture and Virtual Reality solutions,
allowing the user to synch with their motion tracking devices. Using the
various human simulation options within PS, the user can perform realistic
simulation of the human tasks and optimize process cycle times according
to industry standard timing evaluation methods. The result is process plan
containing a full description of how a product is assembled, manufactured,
tested and packaged. This plan becomes the basis for collaboration
among planning teams, plants, suppliers and contractors.

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Whats new in Jack 8.2?


Jack v8.2 is a full release of the Jack product. This is the first of a series of
planned pre-v9.0 releases. With the evolution of our Agile development
process, we expect to release more frequently, and introduce functionality
in a stepwise manner for your evaluation. The aim is to use your feedback
to focus on the highest priority needs, and provide you with developments
that enhance your workflows faster than previously possible.
Jack v8.2 contains improvements to the Task Simulation Builder,
introduces new capability for human performance analysis, and enhances
several motion capture features. Specifically:
TSB task editing has been enhanced. Now during task authoring
and editing, you can step forward and backward through the task
wizard to access and modify all details.
Within the Task Analysis Toolkit (TAT), the ForceSolver has been
enhanced to allow the workday duration to be taken into account
when solving for the maximum exertion capability.
Within the MotionCapture Toolkit, there is now support for
disembodied hand tracking as well as several Cyberglove driver
enhancements.

Additional detail about these and other enhancements can be found in


the 8.2 Release Notes, which are accessible from the main menu in Jack:
Help-> Release Notes
How do I use this Manual?
The Jack User Manual is intended to be used as both a teaching tool and
a reference document for current users. The manual contains detailed
background information on each subject being discussed, references to
additional publications, and step-by-step instructions for completing the
tutorials. The tutorials will be located at the conclusion of each chapter,
and will have the user follow a set of instructions for completing the tasks
described in the chapter.
What is the Course Objective?
The Jack Introductory Training Course (Jack 101) introduces users to
the basics of using Jack, the Jack environment, the Jack software
architecture, and specific human modeling techniques.
Upon completing the tutorials in the user manual, users should be able to
perform basic visual simulation and analysis, create and manipulate
human figures, perform basic human factors analyses, create articulated
models of general model geometry; perform basic customization of Jack

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for application specific development, and output results in graphical or


video formats.
Who is the Audience?
Beginning Jack users; some experience with graphical software tools is
desirable; no programming experience is necessary; basic familiarity with
human factors analysis, biomechanics, ergonomics, design, and computer
graphics is helpful.
What are the System Requirements?
Jack 8.2 is available as a 64 bit application that runs on 64 bit Windows
workstations. A minimum reasonable system requirement is shown in the
configuration table below. However, configuration requirements may
increase if higher performance is desired. For example, if you will be
working with large geometry sets or using motion capture, a faster
machine with more memory will likely be required.
Version 8.2 has an updated DirectModel rendering engine that supports
JT file versions through v10. This new version of DirectModel is designed
to work with graphics cards using OpenGL 3.0 or higher. Certain features,
such as reflections (mirrors), may not work on older graphics cards.

Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7


Minimum

Recommended

Processor

1GHz

2GHz

Memory

2GB

4GB

Free disk

400 Mb

600 Mb

Graphics:
OpenGL
Support
Maximum
Screen
Resolution

3.0

3.0 or higher

1280x1024

1920x1200

Jack 8.2 minimum recommended configuration

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Chapter 1: Jacks Interface


When you start Jack, you are presented with the graphical user
interface. The default interface includes the GRAPHICS WINDOW (S)
where objects are rendered and a CONTROL BAR that contains
standard menus and icons. In addition, Jack has an OBJECT
HIERARCHY where a listing of the environment is displayed, SESSION
LOG, and several scripting consoles.

Jack Startup
All of Jacks windows are completely independent and can be
moved to suit your preferences. The windows, menus, and toolbars
used in Jack conform to standard Windows behaviors and methods
of manipulation. Jack also contains several non-standard functions
for convenience.
G
r
a

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Control Bar
The CONTROL BAR is divided into four areas: the MENUS, the ICON
TOOLBAR, the MESSAGE AREA, and the MOVE CONTROLLER. It
provides access to almost all Jack functions via menus and
graphical icons. The figure below illustrates the main areas of the
CONTROL BAR.
Move Controller
Menus

Icon Toolbar
Message Area
Control Bar
Menus
The MENU LINE provides the starting point for Jacks command
structure. Menus are in standard windows format and can be
accessed with a single click of the Left Mouse Button <LMB>. File,
Edit, View as well as Jack specific issues involving Human, Object,
Utilities, and Analysis are included. In addition, Jack provides a
module system, which allows additional capabilities to be added to
the software at run-time. A number of special purpose modules are
available for Jack or you can easily create your own modules.

Menu Bar

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Icon Toolbar
The TOOL BAR icons give you quick access to commonly used
functions.
Open File

Import File

Save Current Scene

Toggle Log Window

View and Center


Objects

Zoom To

Manage Named Views

Toggle Object
Hierarchy

Move Figure

Adjust Joint

Open Advanced Rulers

Create Male Manikin

Create Female
Manikin

Scale Human

Open Human Control


Panel
Task Simulation Builder

Copy Human Attributes


Task Animation
Window

Object Level Selector


Jacks Toolbar Icons
All above icons perform an immediate action or pull up the
appropriate dialog box except the OBJECT SELECTOR. This function
effects subsequent actions in the Graphics Window and will be
covered later in this manual.
Note: It is always good practice to verify that the expected
object type is displayed in the OBJECT SELECTOR icon
window before attempting any object manipulation.
Object Selector
The OBJECT SELECTOR works in conjunction with the GRAPHICS
WINDOW . The current object type determines which CONTEXT
SENSITIVE MENU is displayed when you <RMB> on the object or the
Object type in a Pick mode.
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You can select any of Jacks basic object types to influence


CONTEXT SENSITIVE MENU: Figure, Segment, Site, or Joint (These
will be defined in Chapter 2). You can select through the OBJECT
SELECTORS DROP-DOWN LIST or scroll through the basic object
types by pressing the <MMB> in the GRAPHICS W INDOW . You can
also access Window Parameters though context Sensitive Menus
by Right Clicking away from objects in the GRAPHICS W INDOW .
Pick Mode searches for specific object types in the GRAPHICS
WINDOW . In this case, the object type is automatically changed
when you press the corresponding hand selector icon in Jacks
Dialog boxes. In addition to Jacks Basic Object Types, you can
select Faces, Edges, and Nodes.
Message Area
The MESSAGE AREA provides you with feedback on operations and
tool tips as you interact with Jack. For example, when moving the
mouse pointer over the TOOLBAR icons, you will see the description
of each icons function. When moving the mouse cursor in the
GRAPHICS W INDOW , the MESSAGE AREA will display the name of the
Object currently under the mouse pointer. When reading data
files, the MESSAGE AREA will give you feedback on the progress of
the operation.
NOTE: Watch the MESSAGE AREA for useful information in many
common interactions.

Message Area
Move Controller
The MOVE CONTROLLER contains controls for moving all object types
in the Jack environment. Since this is a major part of working with
Jack, it is constantly in view and easily accessible.

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Use the Hand Selector to select the object to move. Jack utilizes a
Cartesian coordinate system, simply a triad of X, Y, and Z axes in
space, to define position and orientation. You can enter the
coordinates in the MOVE CONTROLLER or interactively move objects
using the mouse.

Move Controller
You can move a figure along the x or z-axis by holding down the
left mouse button <LMB> or right mouse button <RMB>,
respectively. To move the figure up (along the y axis) use the
middle mouse button <MMB>. A large red arrow indicates the
selected direction of movement. You can also rotate a figure
around any axis by holding down the <Shift> key and <LMB>,
<MMB> or <RMB>. The 3D Reference (XYZ) can be relative to a
global reference or a local reference specific to an object. However,
the coordinates displayed in the MOVE CONTROLLER are always
global coordinates.

SHIFT
SHIFT
SHIFT

LMB
MMB
RMB
LMB
MMB
RMB

Translate along the x-axis


Translate along the y-axis
Translate along the z-axis
Rotate about the x-axis
Rotate about the y-axis
Rotate about the z-axis

Commands for moving objects with the mouse

Note: Simultaneously holding down two of the mouse buttons


allows you to move objects in the plane spanned by the two
corresponding axes.
Move - By
This feature allows any figure to be moved based on an arbitrary
reference point. Jack already had the ability to apply "snap" to a
human figure's H-Point; this feature makes it possible to snap, or

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indeed apply any other move, to any figure, based on any existing
Site or Node.

JT figures do not have native Jack geometry, and in particular, no


Nodes. For these figures, the "Move By Node" is not available.
However, "Move by Site" presents an alternate method of moving
these figures when the root site is defined at the scene's global
origin rather than local to the figure's geometry. Create a site on the
object's geometry by using the "snap-to-cursor" move command to
set the site location. Now one can move a JT figure by a site on the
geometry which makes transformation adjustment more intuitive.
For human Figures, a Move By Site other than the root may
contradict some behaviors or constraints. For example, requiring
that an Arm "hold relative to object" and then trying to move the
human by its shoulder! Be aware that some combinations may
cause the human figure to "collapse" under the contradictory
demands. It is usually best to only move a human when its Balance
behavior is "release".
Global vs. Local Transformations
Movement operations described so far operate along the global
coordinate axis. It is sometimes convenient to translate or rotate
along an axis associated with the figure itself. Global and Local
Transformations provide a method to interactively position an object
relative to the global environment or its current orientation.

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Global Transformation

Local Transformation
Snap to Geometry
Direct manipulation is well suited for global or gross movements but
it can be difficult to adjust things relative to other objects. The SNAP
TO options provides a powerful way to precisely position objects
relative to each other. They are available anytime you are using the
MOVE CONTROLLER. The different snap to options are described
below and more detailed definitions can be found in the Appendix.
Cursor Point
Site
Site Position
Site Orientation
Node Positions

Cursor Position Only


Site Position and Orientation
Site Position Only
Site Orientation Only
Node Position
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Edge Line
Edge Position
Edge Orientation
Face Position
Face Center
Face Plane
Face Orientation
Square Orientation
Ground Plane
H-point to Site

SIEMENS PLM SOFTWARE


Closest Point to an edge line
Closest Point to an edge
Align to an edges orientation
Closest Point within a face
Center of a face
Closest point on a face plane
Align to a face orientation
Align to the global reference
Move so the lowest node is at y=0
Move the humans H-point to a site
Snap Command Definitions

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Graphics Window
The GRAPHICS W INDOW contains the 3D scene. You can have
multiple GRAPHICS WINDOWS with different camera views or
attachments in each and the GRAPHICS W INDOW can be resized at
any time. The computation, graphics, user interface, and the total
processing rates are displayed in the upper right hand corner.
Additional information describing the overall efficiency of the scene
is also presented here.

Graphics Window

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Change View
Changing the view is a very basic operation in Jack. A view change
can be done at any time just by holding down the <Ctrl> key.
Whenever the <Ctrl> key is depressed mouse movement
manipulates the camera location. Releasing the <Ctrl> key returns
operation to whatever you were doing before.

View Coordinate Reference


A yellow cross hair or coordinate frame will appear in the window
when you change view. This represents the focus point or View
Reference of the camera. Notice that as you move the mouse with
the <LMB> pressed the camera rotates about the center focus
point. The focus point stays fixed relative to the geometry as you do
this. Notice the difference between side-to-side mouse movement
and up/down mouse movement.
Mouse movement with the <MMB> pressed translates the camera.
The focus point moves relative to the geometry during the
translation. Again, notice the difference between side-to-side
movement of the mouse and up/down movement. Finally, the
<RMB> zooms the camera in and out on the focus point. The only
functional movement with the mouse when zooming is up/down.
Depressing the <Ctrl> and <Shift> keys simultaneously
manipulates the scene by moving the View Reference. Notice that
now as you move the mouse with the <LMB> pressed the
geometry in the scene rotates around the camera. Pressing the
<MMB> translates the focus point relative to the camera. The
geometry moves relative to the focus point. Notice that the end
result is the same as when only the <Ctrl> key was depressed.

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Finally, the <RMB> pushes or pulls the focus point away from or
towards the camera. The only functional movement with the mouse
when pushing or pulling the focus point is up/down.
Command
CTRL
CTRL
CTRL
CTRL + SHIFT
CTRL + SHIFT
CTRL + SHIFT

LMB
MMB
RMB
LMB
MMB
RMB

Result
Rotate the camera
Pan
Zoom
Rotate the View Reference
Pan
Push/Pull the View Reference

Commands for changing view with the mouse

Note: A great mnemonic device is to remember:


Ctrl = Camera
Shift = Spin Figure
Context Sensitive Menus
Context sensitive menus allow you to easily access menu options
that are specific to a certain type of entity (human figures, nonhuman figures, segments, joints, sites, nodes). The <RMB>
provides rapid access to these context sensitive menus. The
OBJECT SELECTOR ICON (on the Toolbar) controls the type of entity
that will be selected and which menu options will appear when you
press the <RMB>. The OBJECT SELECTOR will be covered in more
detail in subsequent chapters.

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Context Sensitive Menus


The Window pop-up menu that appears provides access to basic
view and window commands. The Window pop-up menu is
available anytime you hold down the <RMB> over an area of the
window where there is no geometry, no matter what the OBJECT
SELECTOR ICON is set to. Context sensitive menus differ for different
objects, as they will display only the options relevant to that object.

Picking with the Middle Mouse Button


When objects (figures, segments, sites, joints etc) are overlapping,
close together or obscured by other geometry it can be difficult to
indicate unambiguously which one you wish to select. Sometimes
simply manipulating the view can help. At other times, an
alternative method of resolving the ambiguity is needed.
In Jack the <MMB> provides a way to resolve this ambiguity during
a pick. If multiple selections surround the pick position, a SELECT
ENTITY DIALOG will appear that contains a list of these selections.

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Select Entity
Space Bar Completion
If you know the name of a figure, segment, site or joint you are
trying to pick it can be easier to just type the name rather than
trying to pick it with the mouse. SPACE BAR NAME COMPLETION
makes it even easier. This feature is available in most text entry
boxes.

Space bar completion


Note: Names are case sensitive.

International Menus
Jack allows users to customize the menus. For more information on
available menus or customizing your own, please contact
SIEMENS PLM SOFTWARE.

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Chapter 1 Tutorial: Jacks Interface


This exercise is an introduction to the basic workings of Jacks
Control Bar and Graphics Window. You will execute basic
commands using the Icon Toolbar, manipulate objects using the
Move Controller, and learn how to navigate in the Jack scene. You
will also learn shortcuts that will help you work quickly in the Jack
environment.
Note: Training files are provided with your Jack installation.
To locate these, browse to where you have installed Jack. In
the \Siemens\Jack_8.2\docs folder you will find a zip file
called Jack_Training_Files.zip. Once you unzip this folder,
you will be able to load each training environment through the
Open option in Jack.
Exercise: Control Bar Basics
Open the file Chapter1.env FILE>OPEN
Create a human figure using the Medium Male Icon or Medium Female
Icon
View the options available under the various Menus
Move the cursor over the human figure.

Note: The message window content shows the name of the


human figure the mouse is positioned over.
Exercise: Object Selector
With the OBJECT SELECTOR set to Figure, Right Click on a human
Hit Esc

Note: The Context Sensitive Menu contains Figure options.


Hit the MMB once in the GRAPHICS W INDOW
Right Click on a human again
Hit Esc

Note: The Context Sensitive Menu now contains Segment


options.
Hit the MMB several times in the GRAPHICS W INDOW
Left Click on the OBJECT SELECTOR

Note: The OBJECT SELECTOR only scrolls through Figure,


Segment, Joint, and Site when you use the MMB.

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Set the OBJECT SELECTOR to Figure again

Exercise: Using the Mover Dialog


Select the Hand Selector icon in the MOVE CONTROLLER to initiate a move
command.
Use the LMB to select a crate in the GRAPHICS W INDOW.
Interactively move Crate1 with the Mouse buttons. When you are finished hit
ESC.
Type in Crate0 and hit enter to initiate another move. Use the Text Entry
Box in the MOVE CONTROLLER.
Move another crate.
Move all the small crates until they are placed onto the racks in the scene.
Your completed scene should look something like this.

Hint: Use the MESSAGE W INDOW to find the name of another figure.
Type in new coordinates. Use the Text Entry boxes in the MOVE
CONTROLLER. When you are finished hit ESC.
Use the EDIT>UNDO Menu command.

Note: The object returns to its last position.


Exercise: Snap to
Move a human up.
In the MOVER DIALOG, select Ground Plane from the Snap Drop Down List

Note: The human figure moves so that the lowest node is at y


= 0.

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Snapping to the Ground Plane


In the MOVER DIALOG, select Node Pos from the Snap Drop Down List
Select a node on the crate

Note: The human figure moves to that node position.


In the MOVER DIALOG, select Site from the Snap Drop Down List
Select a site on the cube

Note: The human figure changes position and orientation. Try


other snap features.
Exercise: Global vs Local
Start moving a large crate.
Hold down the LMB and translate the large crate along the x-axis.

Note: The x-axis that the box translates along is the x-axis of
the world.
Rotate the large crate about the y-axis. Approximately 45 degrees
Click on the local option in the MOVE CONTROL.
Hold down the LMB button and move the mouse to translate the large crate
along the x-axis.

This time, the box translates along its own x-axis.


Note: The local transform is interactive only. The values in the
MOVE CONTROLLER are still relative to the global environment.
Experiment with local translations along other axes using the other mouse
buttons

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Local transform
Hit the Space Bar once to toggle back to moving along the global coordinate
axes
Hold down the LMB to see the result
Hit the Space Bar to toggle back to moving along the local coordinate axes

Exercise: Navigating the Jack Scene


Press and hold the CTRL key

Note: This Hot key initiates a Change View command. While


the CTRL key is pressed a yellow cross hair appears in the
window. This is your VIEW REFERENCE or focal point.
Use the Mouse buttons to navigate (Rotate, Pan and Zoom) the Jack scene.
Move the Jacks palm to the VIEW REFERENCE. Notice that the camera now
rotates around Jacks palm.
Practice moving the VIEW REFERENCE to other objects

Make sure you try all the combinations of Mouse Buttons as well as
the Shift Key.
Exercise: Context Sensitive menus
Create a human figure
Right Click RMB on the human figure.

Examine the menu selections available.


Note: The Move Command is also available in these menus.

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Right Click RMB in an open area in the Graphics Window. (Not on a figure)

Note: A menu appears in the GRAPHICS WINDOW with different


menu options. Try selecting other objects in the Jack scene
and note the menu selections.
Right Click RMB on the human Figure again.
Select the Snap View from the context sensitive menu.

Note: Notice the movement of the VIEW REFERENCE. Try


snapping the view to other objects in the environment.
Next, Right Click RMB on the Human to access the Move command through
the context sensitive menu
Manipulate the figure. When you are through hit ESC.

Exercise: Picking with the MMB


Zoom the view onto the left hand of your human
Open the SITE PROPERTIES DIALOG from OBJECT > PROPERTIES > SITE
PROPERTIES
Next, select a site on the palm using the MMB.

You may have to adjust the view over two sites.


When the SELECT ENTITY DIALOG appears, scroll through the selections and
note the highlighting in the graphics window.
With the select entity dialog still up use the MMB on the hand again
A new list should be generated

Select Entity for Sites

Exercise: Space bar completion


Create another human and open Crate.fig
Open the FIGURE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT->PROPERTIES menu

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Rather than picking a figure with the mouse, click in the Figure Name Entry
Box.
Type the letter C

Note: Figure names are case sensitive.


Hit the space bar

The space bar completes the name as much as possible.


Hit the Tab or Enter to accept crate
Clear the figure name in the PROPERTY DIALOG by highlighting with mouse
and hitting the backspace
Type the letter h and hit the space bar

The space bar completion will fill in human and beep. The beep
indicates that the name could not be completely resolved.
Note: File names are also case sensitive.

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Chapter 2: File Management


Native Jack Files
Jack provides a powerful hierarchical modeling capability that
allows you to import or build articulated figures. The hierarchy is a
familiar inverted tree structure, with individual objects having parent
and child relationships. This is a very effective way to define even
complex systems of interconnected parts - such as the human
body. The diagram below illustrates the hierarchy graphically:

Jack Modeling Hierarchy


Environment
(Command: FileSaveScene)
At the highest level, systems are defined as scenes or environment
structures. The environment is a collection of figures. Each figure
consists of one or more segments. Segments in a figure are
connected to each other by joints. In other words, a figure is an
assembly of segments.
More importantly, the environment contains information required to
regenerate a particular scene (for example: relative locations
between figures, joint positions, size, and other constraints). These
files have the extension .env.
.env files contain:
References to Figure Files (.fig) and Segment Files (.pss)
- Figure and Segment Files can also be embedded in the
.env file
Relative Locations of the Figures
Joint Angles/Positions
Geometry Scaling

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Constraints and Attachment Information

.env files are also stored as ASCII text and can be opened/edited in
a text editor. Environment files can reference the .fig and .pss files.
This allows the user to reference one .fig or .pss file multiple times
in the same environment file or in multiple environment files. This
can help reduce the overall size of files associated with a given
project. This is also useful if a figure is modified. If you would like to
have that modified figure in every environment file in which it is
referenced, replacing the old .fig file with the new .fig file will
automatically make the changes to the files that reference that .fig
file. This is also applicable to .pss files referenced in an .env file.
If changes are made to the figure that occur more than once in an
environment or a figure that is used in multiple environments, you
will need to save the .fig file when prompted. If you do not save
changes to the figure, the .fig file will be written to the .env file.
Therefore, if you dont save the figure, the .fig file will be embedded
in the .env file. Other .env files cannot reference .fig files that are
embedded in an .env file. To create a .fig file from a figure
embedded in an .env file, simply open the .env file and save the
figure. If you resave the environment, the .fig file will be referenced
in the .env file. The .fig file will no longer be embedded in the .env
file.
It is a good idea to save the .fig file after you make any changes or
before saving the .env file. This is only necessary if you modify the
figure. If you have already saved changes to a .fig file, you will not
be prompted to save the figure when you save the .env file. Note if
you change visibility this will flag Jack to prompt you to save the .fig
file when you save the .env file. If you say yes, the visibility
changes will be written to the .fig file. If you say no, the visibility
changes will be written to the .env file.
It is important to understand what is not saved in an environment
file. Reflections, view cones, skeletons, traces, ghosts, projections,
and support glyphs are not saved with the .env file.
Note: An Environment File (.env) includes all the information
required to recreate a scene. It contains information defining
relative locations between figures, joint positions, size, and
other constraints.

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Figures
(Command: FileSaveFigures)
Figures are a collection of one or more segments, as well as any
associated sites, colors, and joints. This data is stored in a Figure
(.fig) file. Figure files contain references to segment files (.pss),
sites, material properties, and joint connections.
.fig files are also stored as ASCII text and can be opened/edited in
a text editor. Figure files can reference the .pss files. This allows
the user to reference one .pss file multiple times in the same figure
file or in multiple figure files. This can help reduce the overall size of
files associated with a given project. This is also useful if the
geometry is modified. If you would like to have that geometry
modified in every figure file in which it is referenced, replacing the
old .pss file with the new .pss file will automatically make the
changes to the files that reference that .pss file.
If changes are made to the geometry, you will need to save the .pss
file when prompted. If you do not save changes to the .pss file,
Jack will use the last saved version of the .pss file. Therefore, if you
dont save the .pss file you will lose any of the changes you have
made to the geometry.
It is a good idea to save the .pss file after you make any changes to
the geometry. This is only necessary if you modify the geometry.
This includes merging or splitting segments. The addition of sites,
joints, and changes in material properties are saved to the .fig file
so there is no need to save the .pss file if you make any of these
changes.
Note: A Figure File (.fig) includes information about which
segments make up the figure, sites, colors, and joints
connections. (Joint connections and limits are retained when a
figure file is saved. Joint angles information is not contained
in a figure file.) Select the Include attributes check box to save
attribute information (for example, color selections)
Segments
(Command: FileSavePsurf)
Segments make up the lowest level of the hierarchy. They consist
of tessellated geometry data that makes up an object. This data is
stored as ASCII text in a Psurf (polygon surface) file that can be
opened with any text editor. This format is consequently easy to
view and edit. These files have the extension .pss. Two sample

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Psurf files are shown below in order to illustrate how segments are
constructed.
Note: Remember the properties of the different file types.
A Psurf (.pss) file, also referred to as a segment file, only
contains information defining a segment's geometry.
A Figure File (.fig) includes information about which segments
make up the figure, sites, colors, and joints connections.
(Joint connections and limits are retained when a figure file is
saved. Joint angles information is not contained in a figure
file)
An Environment File (.env) includes all the information
required to recreate a scene. It contains information defining
relative locations between figures, joint positions, size, and
other constraints.
Manipulations
(Command: FileSaveManipulations)
A scene or figure whose positions you want to use again later may
be saved as an .env file. Select the Include Camera check box to
save the coordinates of the current camera viewpoint coordinates.
Manipulations save the figure positions and joint angles. When
loaded they allow you to reposition your loaded figures.
File Archiving
(Command: FileArchiveSave File to Archive)
The save file to archive feature allows users to a) save a file to a
specified directory, b) save as one zip file, or c) both. Archive files
are written out compressed, generally resulting in much smaller file
sizes, especially when using psurf-only geometry.
Note: When saving your data to a directory, it is recommended that
a new folder is created, to avoid overwriting data in a previously
existing folder.

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Save File to Archive Dialog


Import
(Command: FileImport)
Jack is intended to be used with other design and analysis software
packages. Thus, geometry import and export capabilities are
necessary to allow the transfer of data to and from Jack. Typically,
you will bring geometry data for the scene to Jack from external
sources, perform your analysis, then export geometry to
downstream processes for further use.
Objects can be imported from CAD programs, opened from object
libraries, or even created from basic CAD figures from within Jack.
Import Formats
Jack can directly open Vis (.jt) files and can import Vis (.jt), VRML
2.0 (.wrl), IGES(.igs, .iges), stereolithography (.stl), inventor (.iv),
and optimizer (.csb) files directly. Command line translators are
also available for these formats. In this chapter we will translate
files from several of these formats. Translation can be
accomplished from both the command line and directly from within
the program.

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Format
Vis / DirectModel
VRML 1.0 / 2.0
IGES 5.3
Stereolithography
Optimizer 1.1
Deneb IGRIP 1.2 parts

File Extension
(.jt)
(.wrl)
(.igs)
(.stl)
(.csb)
(.igp, *)

Import Formats for Texture Mapping & Visualization


Jack has the capability to use all of the above translators, and each
has its own benefits and limitations. This section discusses the
most commonly used translators and their features. Vis (.jt) files
when opened directly will support textures, however when .jt files
are imported into a scene the textures will be lost. VRML 2.0 is the
only file format that will support textures when imported. The IGES
5.3 file format will import wireframe data.
Import Options
Several optimization and CAD options are available when importing
data through the FILEIMPORT menu. In addition, basic scaling for
certain file types is available and the object type output by the
translator can be changed. You can control what type of file is
output using the Jack Type option.
Jack type
Psurf
Figure
Environment

Output
1 pss file
1 fig file and corresponding pss files
1 env file and corresponding pss files

Note: JT files can also be directly opened within the Jack


environment. No node-based operations, such as Snap To face
or node, are available for directly opened JT files.
Functionality that allows the user to snap to a cursor point has
been added to facilitate working with directly opened JT files.
JT Features
Jack Version supports JT file versions through v10.
Benefits:
Direct Load: Improves load time by factor of 10 in many cases;
Increases geometry handling capabilities including frame rate
and size of files that can be loaded.
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Geometry should come in as it would in VMU (Appearance of JT


geometry is much better that of same geometry imported using
another format).
Swapping: This will enable users to access all the functionality
not available with JT. The context menu can be used to access
this functionality. Turns visibility of JT segment off and replaces
with psurf. Note that textures will not be maintained.
Environment files referencing JT can be loaded into Jack and
VMU.

Limitations:
Joints within a JT figure: Segments within a JT figure can be
jointed, however, joints cannot be created between a JT figure
and another figure (native Jack or JT geometry). Attachments
can be used to create the same type of behavior.
Access to nodes, faces, and edges (includes no geometry
editing capabilities): Several features have been added in Jack
to help compensate for this.
- Zoom to: Allows users to zoom into any geometry in the
scene (including JT).The first piece of geometry in line with
the cursor will be selected
- Snap to Cursor Point: Same behavior as above but works
with move dialog.
Collision detection is not supported with JT geometry: Use psurf
swap to perform collision detection
Joints created within a JT figure will not be maintained in VMU
environment
A single part of a .jt assembly cannot be loaded individually
Segment highlighting may not work on all files
Adjust Displacement: Can be used to move segments without
creating a joint.
JT Export
Figures and scenes can be exports as JT. This option can be found
under File -> Export -> JT.
Single Figure will export a selected figure as a single part.
Scene export will export all relevant figures in a scene as several
parts of a monolithic .jt file

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Notes:
-In v8.2, JT Export does not support materials (colors). Exported
objects and figures will appear gray
-Texture mapping is not supported (ie, the psurf will export but
without any texture)
-Export is NOT supported for: 6.0/6.1 smoothskin human figures, or
JT figures
Translate Segment from JT
(Command: EditTranslate Segment from JT)
In order to translate a single part/segment of a JT file, select
Translate segment from JT either on the segment context
sensitive menu or from the Edit menu. This option is also available
from your segment context sensitive menu which is discussed in
the next chapter. The original JT part will still exist but the visibility
will be turned off. The translated part will constitute a separate
figure, but is attached to the jt figure.

Functionality

Psurfs

JT

Translate to Native Jack

Display Assembly Hierarchy

Display Settings

View Snap

Snap to Sites

Snap to Vertices

Collision Detection

Add Sites

Reroot Figure or Assembly

Rejoint Segments or Parts

Move Figure or Assembly by Site

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Move Figure or Assembly by Vertex

Attach Figure To

Joint Psurf Segment to Figure or Assembly

Joint Figures or Assemblies Together

Edit Materials

Texture Map

Only in TcVis

Edit Geometry

Create in Jack

Trace, Ghost, or Create Swept Volume

Export to VRML or IGES

Re-root Geometry Center


Sometimes geometry is loaded into Jack in an undesirable location,
or with a root site that is offset from the geometry center. To help
alleviate some of the problems associated with unwanted JT
loading parameters, the default method of JT loading has been
updated so the geometry center is re-rooted upon load. That is,
when a JT file is loaded, a new root site called "root_override" is
created and placed at the center of the figure's bounding box.
This feature is particularly useful for JT geometry that is defined far
from the origin. After centering the root the geometry can be
moved/snapped to the desired location, rotated around its axes
using the arrow keys, etc. This also makes it much easier to use
these objects in TSB.
This option is enabled by default. To disable, go to Edit-> System
Defaults-> JT Options and uncheck Re-root to Geometry Center.
This feature does not apply to JT files loaded as part of an
environment file, by design, to avoid disrupting entities in the scene
(constraints, etc.). The "Center Figure Root" tool (described below)
should be used for existing environments.
Center Figure Root Dialog
This tool was designed to assist users in rerooting a geometry
center, in scenarios where the default JT load option (described
above) does not apply. For example, imported (rather than directly
loaded) JT data, as well as JTs loaded as part of an environment or
TSB (.tsf) file can be rerooted using this option. Non-JT data, such
as psurfs can also be rerooted.
This option is available via the main menu (Object > Center Figure
Root), or by right clicking on a piece of geometry in the Jack scene
or Object Hierarchy.
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Usage Details:
-The "root_override" site will be deleted if Undo is used after the
command.
-If the command is invoked multiple times the "root_override" site
will be moved - additional sites will not be added
Batch Translate Files
(Command: FileBatch Translate Files)
This command allows you to translate multiple files of the same
format into Jack native (.pss) files. The translated files will be saved
to the default home directory.
CAD Export
(Command: FileExport)
VRML or IGES output of a Jack scene is an option for generating 3D version of you scene that you can share with others that dont
have access to the Jack software. Jack can export individual
figures or the entire Jack Scene.
Please note, the IGES and VRML translators are now considered to
be legacy. While these are outdated, we have chosen to keep
them available in order to support existing workflows. Please note
that these translators are provided as is: we are no longer able to
provide any updates to them.
It is recommended that JT
import/open and JT export be used to manage your data.
VRML Export
(Command: FileExportVRML 1.0)

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Jack exports VRML 1.0. In both cases the segment definitions are
preserved in the VRML format. Assembly information, however, is
not saved.

VRML Export Dialog

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IGES Export
(Command: FileExportIGES 5.3)
Jack also exports IGES 5.3. IGES export includes the option to
save polygonal data as Bound Plane or Trim NURBS data.
Selecting the preserve hierarchy option will maintain segment
definitions (parts).

IGES Export Dialog


Capturing Images
(Command: FileScreen Capture)
Much of a designer or engineers job when using Jack is centered
upon presenting analysis results for use in reports, design reviews,
company intranets, documentation, and even marketing. This
chapter will cover tools for creating high quality images, movies,
reports, and presentations using Jack.

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Screen Capture
Screen images can be generated easily and imported into other
applications. They can be included in documents, presentation, emailed to colleagues and even placed on web sites.

Image Dialog
Screen Capture
Notice that you have the choice of several different file types to
save the image as. The options are slightly different for the
Windows and UNIX versions of the software. It is important to
specify the proper extension for the file type you select.

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Rendering
Selecting the Rendered check box generates a multi-pass rendered
image of the window. This will smooth jagged edges (anti-alias) in
the window image. Rendered images will take longer to create
because of the drawing process.
External Applications
There are cases where you may want to capture screen images
interactively, including areas outside of the GRAPHICS WINDOW . You
may want to capture the entire screen, including Jacks graphics,
message, and command window or you may want to capture an
image as you do something in Jack (e.g., to show the adjust joint or
move glyphs during a manipulation).
Platform
Windows
Windows
SGI

Command
PrtScr
Alt + PrtScr
type snapshot in shell

Result
Captures the entire screen
Captures active window
Starts SGI screen capture
utility

Note: NVidia graphics cards may also demonstrate problems


generating antialiased screen capture images - the resulting output
images will not have antialiasing applied. This can be corrected by
going in to the advanced graphics settings of the driver and setting
"Buffer Flipping Mode" to "Use block transfer". Be sure to quit Jack
and restart after making this change. This is a persistent setting
and will only need to be done once.

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Chapter 2 Tutorial: File Management


This tutorial will introduce you to the Psurf, Figure, and
Environment Files. You will also learn how to open files, import and
export geometry, and how to capture images in Jack.

Exercise: Loading an Environment file


Delete the Scene from EDIT>DELETE SCENE

Note: This command will delete all objects in your graphics


window.
Select the File Open icon

Note: The OPEN FILE DIALOG is a standard Windows format.

Open File Dialog


Select the file Chapter2.env from the Training folder and hit the Open
button.

This command will close the OPEN FILE DIALOG and load a
previously saved environment into your graphics window. Your
graphics window should look similar to the following.

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Chapter_2.env
Move the cursor over the human figure and the boxes (do not select
anything).

Note: The message window content changes when positioned


over the cubes or the human figure.
Exercise: Saving Figures and Segments
Open barrel.fig (this is a figure file)
Save the segment barrel FILE>SAVE>PSURF. Select Save Segment
PSURFS.
Select the barrel as the segment you are saving and select OK.
Name the barrel segment newbarrel.pss
Open newbarrel.pss. OPEN>FIGURE>NEWBARREL.PSS

Note: The barrel.fig file saved material colors. Figures save


scale and color; segments (or PSURFS) do not save color.
Add more barrels to your scene, and stack them in a corner.
Save your changes by saving the scene/environment (Name your scene
MYChapter 2.env) FILE>SAVE>SCENE.
Exercise: JT Open and JT Import
Delete the scene EDIT->DELETE SCENE and select the FILE->OPEN option
Choose the file Jack_Cell4.jt from the folder. .

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Select Open
Notice the JT file of a workcell comes in rotated about Jacks grid.

Jack_Cell3.jt when OPENED


Move the entire JT Figure by selecting the move controller and rotating the
figure -90,0,90.

Note: Many files coming from CAD systems will need to be


translated (or moved) by rotating them if you wish to have the
file align to Jacks grid. That is because in Jack Y=Up and in
CAD Z=Up.
Open the OBJECT HIERARCHY

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Object Hierarchy Assembly Tab after IMPORTING a JT File


Expand the figure and segment lists. Notice that the ASSEMBLY tab
expands to show you the original assembly of the JT figure. This is only
available when you open a JT directly.
Now lets IMPORT the same JT file (Jack_Cell4.jt)
Delete the scene to start with a clean slate EDIT->DELETE SCENE and
select FILE->IMPORT
Select the file Jack_Cell4.jt
Select TRANSLATE
The file is now being translated. Once it has completed you should see the
word SUCCESS. Hit CLOSE on the Import Log Window.
Now lets review the Object Hierarchy again. This time you should not see
any files in the Assembly Tab. However if you expand the figure Jack_Cell4
in the Flat Tab you should see all the segments of the file.

Object Hierarchy Flat Tab after Opening a JT File


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What is the difference between JT IMPORT and OPEN? JT IMPORT


translates all the parts of the assembly to Jack figures and segments. JT
OPEN keeps the files as JT within Jack.

Exercise: IGES Import and Export


First we will open the file MYChapter2.env, then we will import and
export iges files.
Delete your scene EDIT->DELETE SCENE
Select the menu option FILE->OPEN and choose MYChapter2.env. If you did
not save a MYChapter2.env, you can use the file in the folder with the name
Chapter3.env.
Select the menu option FILE->IMPORT, then select IGES from the filter pulldown.
Choose the file iges_solid.iges from the Folder Files for Import Export
Select TRANSLATE
Select CLOSE on the Import Log Window once you see the import was a
SUCESS
You should see a small part in the center of the grid. You have now imported
an iges file. You may need to move your human to see the part.
Select the menu option FILE->EXPORT->IGES 5.3
Notice you have the option of exporting a single figure or the entire scene.
Select Single Figure
Select the hand and choose a barrel in your scene and hit OK.
Name the barrel and hit SAVE
You have now exported an Iges version of the barrel.

Exporting a Single Figure to IGES


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Exercise: Jacks Image Capture


Use MYChapter2.env for this section. If you already have it open you can
proceed to the next step. If you do not have a file named MYChapter2.env
then you can use Chapter3.env.
Select the menu option FILE->SCREEN CAPTURE
Notice you have the option of capturing any Jack window.
Choose the TJ Window if it is not already selected.
Click Ok. You should now see the Save As menu come up.

Name your new screen capture file (it will be .jpeg file format)

Hit the Save button. You have now created an image file.

Exercise: Alternate Screen Capture Methods


(NT) To copy an image of the entire screen, press the PRINT SCREEN key

(NT) To copy an image of the Window that is currently active, press


Alt+PRINT SCREEN

(NT) Paste this image in a document in applications such as Word, Power


Point or Paint using the Paste option on the Edit menu

(SGI) Type snapshot at the Unix shell prompt.

You will see the snapshot control button appear over the Jack
window.
(SGI) Move the mouse over the snapshot button; press and hold the Ctrl key
the cursor should change to the image of a camera.
(SGI) Click and drag the rubber band box over the screen area you want to
capture.

You should see the red bounding box for snapshot.


(SGI) Move the mouse cursor to the snapshot button, and click the right
mouse button. You should see the snapshot menu.
(SGI) Select the Save as snap.rgb option. The file will be placed in the
directory where you launched Jack.
(SGI) Quit snapshot by moving the mouse over the snapshot button and
selecting the exit option from the menu.

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Chapter 3: Editing the Jack Environment


The Jack environment can be edited using commands such as
undo, delete, and scale. You can also edit materials in the
environment, add textures to figures in the environment, or
customize your environment by changing background colors.
Undo
(Command: EditUndo)
Use this command to undo the last completed command. Multiple
invocations of the undo function will step backwards through the
command history.
Delete Scene
(Command: EditDelete Scene)
Use this command to clear the Jack window of all objects in the
environment.
Scale
(Command: EditScaleScene/Figure/Segment)
Jack allows you to scale segments, figures and the whole
environment. Notice that the SCALE FIGURE DIALOG allows for both
uniform scaling in all directions and non-uniform scaling where
each axis is scaled by a different amount.

Scale Figure Dialog


Note: When scaling the whole environment, human figures will
not be scaled. Human figures are scaled in a separate dialog
using anthropometry.

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You also have the option of scaling interactively the change will
take place immediately or waiting for the Apply button to be
picked to have the scaling take place. The scale factor when you
scale interactively is always relative to the size of the figure or
segment when it is selected. The size indicated by a scale factor of
1.0 does not change.
Another option is scaling relative to the global or local axis. This
effect is noticed when the object is rotated. When scaling relative to
the global axis the object may appear to distort.
Note: Global scaling is not saved in Jacks .env or .fig format. To
recreate this effect the effected segment must be saved globally as
a psurf.

Materials
(Command: EditMaterials)
One of the most basic display parameters in jack involves color. In
Jack, the appearance of objects in the environment depends on the
material properties of the surface as well as the parameters of the
light sources in the scene.
Color:
Predefined or user defined colors can be used when creating
materials. These are three component RGB color definitions that
are used to define the ambient and diffuse parameters in a specific
ratio. The parameters of the surface materials are:
Ambient:
The color of the surface when not illuminated by a light sources.
Diffuse:
The color of the surface when illuminated by white light.
Specular:
The color of the specular highlights of the object.
Glossiness:
An integer exponent describing the specular scattering of the
surface. The lighting model simulates specular highlights using the
cosine of the angle between the viewing direction and the reflected
light ray, raised to the glossiness exponent. If this exponent is large
(approximately 50), the specular highlights are small and focused. If
the exponent is small the highlights are broad.
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In most cases, objects will be assigned a material color from the


CAD system; however, Jack will randomly assign colors if one is not
provided.

Material Properties Dialog

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Note: Material names are associated with the default color the
object was assigned when it was loaded. Changing the color
will not change the material name.
Textures
(Command: EditTextures)
Texture maps are a useful way to add interesting detail and realism
to your scene without adding a lot of extra geometry. Jack uses the
concept of a texture plane to determine how to map the image file
onto the surface or surfaces you select. The relative position and
orientation of the plane and the texture faces determine how the
image will be projected.

Texture mapped Monitor


Textures can also be applied to human figures (Segmented figures
only). However, it is important to note that after a texture has been
applied to the human, this must be persisted through the use of File
Archiving. If an environment file (.env) is saved with a textured
human, and reopened in a subsequent session, the texture
information will be lost. This has to do with the mechanism used to
save human psurf data in .env files. Thus, ), if you wish to reuse a
textured human at a later time, the session must be saved/captured
by creating an Archive file (File-> Archive->Save to Archive.
Key Bindings
(Command: EditKey Bindings)
Predefined Shortcuts
As with many software packages, menus in Jack can be accessed
using the <Alt> or <Ctrl> key plus the underlined letter in the menu
name as an alternative to picking the menu item with the mouse.

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Jack predefines two such key combinations: <Ctrl-e> and <Ctrl-v>.


The <Ctrl-e> combination invokes the Adjust Joint Dialog while
the <Ctrl-v> combination invokes the Change View Dialog.
Custom Shortcuts
In Jack, custom key bindings, or hot keys, can be created for any
menu option and for any Tcl script (more about Tcl in later
chapters) to allow quick selection without using a mouse. Any hot
keys that you define are remembered until you change them.

Key Bindings
System Defaults
(Command: EditSystem Defaults)
Jack allows you to customize many features within the working
environment. The SYSTEM DEFAULTS DIALOG contains settings and
controls for the graphics window and the system. Any changes that
are made to the System Defaults will remain in effect until the
Factory Defaults are restored.
This dialog has several tabbed pages that define the current
system defaults for various components of Jack. To display a page,
click its tab. To modify any system default, select the appropriate
page, make desired changes, and then click the Apply button to
save all changes on all pages. If you dismiss the dialog without
applying the changes, you lose all changes since opening the
dialog or the last time you clicked Apply. The pages available from
the System Defaults dialog are (see Appendix for more details):
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Color: Defines colors used in the Jack environment. Among


objects with colors defined on this page are: background, grid,
site, node, and rotation wheel.
Graphics: Specifies how objects appear in the Graphics
Window.
Solver: Defines parameters used to control the 3D geometry
solver used by Jack.
UI: Determine how the user interface (UI) handles warnings
from library files, whether dialogs always remain on top of the
Graphics Window, and how many files to retain in the most
recent file list (on the File menu).
Units: Selects units of measure preference (English vs. metric)
and magnitude (e.g., mm, cm, m). Also specifies increment
(e.g., .5, 1, 2, ...) in units selected. You can specify units for
angle, density, distance, force, mass, torque, and volume.
Viewers: Select and define parameters used by the Graphics
Window viewers. (To improve performance adjust the screen
size culling and fixed frame rates)
Jt Options: Allows jt parts to be rotated when opening.

System Defaults Dialog

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Chapter 3 Tutorial: Editing the Jack Environment


This tutorial with allow you to customize your work environment by
changing materials and colors of geometry and your workspace.
The features overviewed in this tutorial will allow you to create
realistic looking environments.
Exercise: Figure Scaling
Delete your current scene by choosing EDIT->DELETE SCENE
Open the file Chapter3.env
Lets change the size of one of the barrels.
Choose scale from EDIT->SCALE->FIGURE Notice you have the option of
scaling the whole scene, a figure, or a segment.
Using the hand selector, select the barrel as the figure you would like to
scale.
Select the local scaling option.
Use the arrows to adjust the size up and down. You can scale by all axes or
individual axes.

Note: The entire figure changes size interactively when you


have the Update Interactively box checked.
Dismiss the SCALE DIALOG
Rotate the barrel approximately 30 degrees about the Z-axis
Open the FIGURE SCALE DIALOG again
Pick the barrel again
Select the global option instead of the local option.
Scale the X and Z axes by 5

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Note: The barrel becomes distorted because it is scaling the


object along the global axis.

Distorted Barrel
Scale the X and Z axes back to 1
Select the local option
Scale the X and Z axes by 3

Note: The figure is not distorted this time because the figure is
scaled along its local coordinate system.
Exercise: Scaling the Environment
Create a human
Select Edit---Scale---Scene

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Type in 1 for X, 10 for Y, and 1 for Z and hit apply

Note: An information dialog will appear which states humans


are not scaled in the scene.
Hit OK.

Note: Scaling the Environment scales everything globally.


Type in 10 for X, 1 for Y, and 10 for Z and hit apply

Note: Now everything has been scaled up except humans


along every axis.
Exercise: Color Parameters
Delete the scene and re-open Chapter3.env.
Lets change the color of the barrels.
Open the EDIT->MATERIALS->MATERIAL PROPERTIES menu
Select one of the faces on a barrel.
Select a predefined color or create your own by adjusting the ambient,
diffuse, and specular options.
Hit APPLY.
You have now changed the color of the barrel to your new color.
Use these same steps to change Jacks shirt and pant colors.

Exercise: Texture mapping


Now we are going to apply a texture to the top of the table you see in your
scene. Move your view over to the table.
Select the EDIT->TEXTURES->CREATE TEXTURE OBJECT menu option
Select plane for the object type and hit the Create button. This will create the
texture plane to project the image through.

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Move the texture plane in front of your table top and align it with the top face
of the table using the Align to Face pick button. Note: You can move the
texture plane just like any other figure in the scene.
Select the texture file using the Browse button. Look in the Textures Folder,
and select a texture.
Hit the Apply button
Notice that the texture plan now displays the image file you selected. The
texture mapping dialogue box has automatically switched to the second tab.
Position the camera, the table, and the texture face so that when you look
through the texture plane at the cube the image in the texture plane falls
where you want it to be on the table.
Select the top two faces of the table as the faces you want texture mapped
as the target
Click the Tile Texture button off
Hit Apply
Move the texture plane out of the way so you can see the cube (you can
delete the texture plane if you want)
You should now see the texture on the table top.

Texture mapped tale top and texture plane in move mode

Exercise: Hot Keys (Shortcuts)


Select the EDIT->KEY BINDINGS menu option
Click on the <Control-Key-e> and then Edit button

Note: Ctrl+e is bound to the


change the binding if you wish.

ADJUST JOINT DIALOG.

You can

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Enter a p in the Key Stroke text box, and pick the Control option
Select menu pick for the type of thing to bind.
Expand the human menu by clicking on the box next to the word Human.
Select the Properties option
Click on the Bind button to add to list of key bindings. Hit Apply to actually
have the key binding take affect
Dismiss the KEY BINDING DIALOG
Type Ctrl+p. The HUMAN PROPERTIES DIALOG should be on the screen.
Note: Key bindings will still be set next time you use Jack. You dont have
to reset the shortcuts every time you use Jack.
Open the KEY BINDINGS DIALOG again
Click on the <Control-Key-p> in the list of key bindings
Click on the Edit button

Notice that this shows what is currently bound to the Ctrl+p. You
can change the binding if you wish.

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Exercise: Customizing the workspace


Open the SYSTEM DEFAULTS DIALOG from EDIT>SYSTEM DEFAULTS
Change the Background color under the COLOR TAB
Change the units displayed under the UNITS TAB

Note: Jack allows you to customize many features within the


working environment. Try changing other values in the
SYSTEMS DEFAULTS DIALOG and note the changes.

System Defaults Dialog: Color and Units Tabs

Chapter 4: Changing Your View of Jack


This section includes information on changing the visibility of
figures, creating new window sets, and the state of figures
(wireframe, transparent, etc). It also discussed options for viewing
the environment.
Center All
(Command: ViewCenter all)
This feature will reposition the entire scene in the center of the
workspace.
Zoom To
(Command: ViewZoom To)
Zooms into the point selected on the screen.

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Make All Figures Visible


(Command: ViewMake All Figures Visible)
This command will unhide all objects previously made invisible.
This is a global command that will turn every figure and segment on
in the Jack scene.
Toggle Segment Visibility
(Command: ViewToggle Segment Visibility)
This command will reverse the visibility of all objects in the
environment.
This will globally toggle the visibility of every segment in the Jack
scene.

Before and After Toggle Segment Visibility


Shade Scene
(Command: ViewShade Scene)
This command will convert wireframe objects to shaded objects.
Wireframe Scene
(Command: ViewWireframe Scene)
This command will convert shaded objects to wireframe.
Figure Projections
(Command: ViewFigure Projections)
Note Jack also provides a method of creating orthographic views
within the Perspective windows. These PROJECTIONS are viewed on
planes defined by the edges of the ground plane. Projections are
very useful for helping to position objects in three dimensions.
Projections are more compact than opening multiple windows and
can save having to continually adjust the view to make sure that
two objects are properly positioned.

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Human Figure Projections


Textures On/Off
(Command: ViewTextures On/Off)
This command will toggle the display of texture maps on and off.
View Control
(Command: ViewView Control)
Most of the time you will control the view simply by holding down
the <Ctrl> key. However, additional options for manipulating the
view are accessible from the VIEW CONTROL DIALOG. The VIEW
CONTROL DIALOG allows you to set the position of the camera.

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View Control Dialog


This dialog gives you options for changing or setting specific view
parameters for Jack GRAPHICS W INDOWS. You can use the
icon
to select specific GRAPHICS W INDOWS.
Camera Position and Orientation
(Command: ViewView Control)
The camera position in the GRAPHICS W INDOW is defined in terms of
a global vector. You can edit the XYZ Translational and
Orientational aspects of this vector in the Text Entry boxes.
Camera Field of View
(Command: ViewView Control)
Jack defines the view in the GRAPHICS W INDOW using a Field of
View Angle. This angle measures the vertical and horizontal
dimensions of the viewing frustum. You can change the field of
view by editing the appropriate entry box.

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Field of View set to 40x40 degrees and 100x100 degrees


Note: Do not use the Field of View as a means of zooming in
and out on objects. With extreme angles the View command
can become difficult to manipulate. Also, lowering the Field of
View will not create a 2D-window effect. Jack has 2D-windows
for this purpose. These will be covered later.
Snapping and Attaching View
(Command: ViewView Control)
Snapping the view is a convenient way to explicitly control where
the focal point of the camera is relative to objects in the scene. The
snap function is the same command available in an Objects
Context Sensitive Menu.
Attaching a camera allows you to connect the camera to a
particular object in the scene. The camera will keep the same
relative position to an object as it is moved in the environment.
When the view is attached to a site the view is always oriented to
look down the local (Z ) axis of the site.
Attaching a camera view is very useful for creating views from the
humans eyes. Sites with the z-axis pointing into the head (and
thus the z pointing out) already exist on the head (between the
eyes) and on each eyeball. We will learn more about this in the next
chapter.

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Named Views
(Command: ViewNamed Views)
Frequently used views can also be saved allowing you to easily
position the camera in a specific location. This camera location can
then be used in this environment, as well as in other environments
you may be working with. This is a useful tool for capturing images
for presentation material.

Named Views Window


Window Parameters
Manipulating views in Jack is key to effective interactive use and,
ultimately, your productivity. This section covers some advanced
viewing and window management operations that allow you
customize how you see your scene in Jack. Perspective and
orthogonal views are available in the create windows option. The
user can display both perspective and orthogonal views can be
displayed simultaneously, or two perspective or orthogonal views
simultaneously..
Create Windows
(Command: ViewCreate Windows)

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Since much of the work you do in Jack involves interactive


feedback in the GRAPHICS W INDOW , Jack provides the ability to
create and look at multiple views.
Window Sets
(Command: ViewWindow Sets)
This command will arrange the display of the Jack environment into
the specified window arrangements: Full Screen (the default view),
Four Panels, Two Panels/Vertical, Two+One/Vertical, and
Two+One/Horizontal.

4 Panel Layout - 1 Perspective 3 Orthogonal


Note: In 2D windows the view cannot be rotated. Pan and
zoom are the only controls that can be used to change the
view.

Current Windows
(Command: ViewCurrent Windows)
This command allows you to select which window in the set to
display as the current (working) window.
Stereo Properties
(Command: ViewStereo Properties)
You can immerse yourself into Jacks world with the latest in virtual
reality techniques, including stereo glasses, boom- or helmetmounted displays (HMDs), CyberGlove, and full-body motion

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tracking. This command allows the user to set up the stereo


viewing window parameters.

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Object Hierarchy
(Command: ViewObject Hierarchy)
The OBJECT HIERARCHY provides an alternative view of your scene
that clearly shows the relationship between different figures and
their component parts. It can be expanded or collapsed to help view
the current scenes underlying structure.
It initially contains a listing of all Figures in the current environment.
These individual Figures can be expanded to display their
segments and joints. Individual segments can be expanded to
access their sites. Finally, individual joints can be expanded to
display the connection segment-site combinations.

Object Hierarchy Window


The OBJECT HIERARCHY can be used to select specific objects as
well as access context sensitive menus <RMB>. This is a useful
feature when you know the name of the object you wish to
manipulate but do not know its location in the environment.

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Process Simulate.lnk

Object Hierarchy
Toggle Log Windows
(Command: ViewToggle Log Window)
This command will toggle the display of the Jack log file.
Toolbars
(Command: ViewToolbars)
This command allows the user to customize the display of the Icon
Toolbar.

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Chapter 4 Tutorial: Changing Your View of Jack


This tutorial with allow you to move around in the Jack scene and
set the environment up to allow for optimum visibility of key areas of
interest using multiple viewing windows. Within this tutorial you will
also work with changing textures and visibility of objects in the
scene.
Exercise: Visibility
Delete the scene
Open the file Chapter4.env from the training folder
Right Click on a crate and select DISPLAY > VISIBLE
From the Object Hierarchy, turn the crate back on (make it visible) by right
clicking on the crate and then choosing DISPLAY > VISIBLE
Change the Object selector to segment
Turn off the segment human.bottom_head
Turn off the segment human.lower_torso
Turn off the segment human.right_upper_leg
Turn off the segment barrel.barrel, and table.table

Segment Visibility
Toggle the segment visibility from VIEW > TOGGLE SEGMENT VISIBILITY

This toggles visibility for all segments. Note the results in the
graphics window.
Turn off the segment human.bottom_head
Toggle segment visibility again

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Note: The head is now visible with the other scene.


Make everything visible from VIEW > MAKE ALL VISIBLE

Note: MAKE ALL VISIBLE will make the whole scene visible.
Exercise: Shading Options
Delete the scene and open Chapter4.env again.
Now lets change the shading options of the entire scene.
Select the menu option VIEW->W IREFRAME SCENE
You should now see the entire scene as wireframe.
To get back to shaded mode, select VIEW->SHADED SCENE

Wireframe Scene
Exercise: Advanced View Control
Next, open the VIEW CONTROL DIALOG

Note: The graphics Window is currently TJ_Window.


Rotate and change the view

Note: While the Move Button in the VIEW CONTROL DIALOG is


selected you do not need to hold down CTRL.
Click on the Move button to turn off the interactive move.
Change the vertical field of view to 60

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Note: This changes the window perspective. As the field of


view increases the area seen by the camera increases.
Change the horizontal field of view to 90

The horizontal and vertical fields of view can be changed


independently.
Change the vertical field of view to 40
Change the horizontal field of view to 60
From the VIEW CONTROLS Snap Drop Down Dialog select node
Select a node on a human

Note: The view reference moves to the node. This command is


similar to Snap View.

Snapping the view to a node


Now lets attach the view to a node. Choose a node on the human head.
Notice the view in the TJ Window has changed to the view from the node on
the human head.
To detach the view from the node on the human head, select Detach.

Exercise: Window Parameters


This exercise will introduce you to different window and viewing
options within Jack. You will create new windows and edit
perspective views.
Using the LMB shrink the TJ_W INDOW to about half the original size.
Select the menu option VIEW->CREATE W INDOWS->NEW WINDOW and note the
different types

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Create a new perspective window

A new window should appear on the desktop


Pick a Window and use CTRL to change view. Notice the different
perspective.
Use the RMB to bring up the Window Context Sensitive Menus and delete
TJ_VIEW_2
Create a non perspective window (X, Y or Z)
Finally, select one of the preformatted layouts such as VIEW: W INDOW SETS:
FOUR PANELS

Exercise: Manipulating objects in the Object Hierarchy


This exercise is an introduction to the basic workings of the Object
Hierarchy.
Delete the scene
Create a human figure
Open the Object Hierarchy
You should see a list of all the objects in the scene.
Right click on the human in the object hierarchy.

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Context Sensitive Menu on the Human

Note: The context sensitive menus from the GRAPHICS WINDOW


are duplicated in the OBJECT HIERARCHY.
Select the hand selector from the MOVE FIGURE DIALOG
Pick the human from the OBJECT HIERARCHY
Move the human. Hit ESC when finished.
You can also access other functions by expanding the figure.
Click on the plus sign (+) to expand the human figure. You will see the
options segments and joints.
Click on the plus sign (+) for joints. The hierarchy will show all of the joints in
the human figure.

The Plus and Minus Signs Expand the Figures


Scroll down to an elbow joint
Access the ADJUST JOINT DIALOG for the elbow using the OBJECT HIERARCHY

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Chapter 5: Working with Humans


The Jack human figure is built upon the basic modeling elements
you have learned in previous sections. However, Jacks human
models are much more complex than anything youve dealt with up
to this point. Jacks human model consists of 71 segments, 69
joints (many of which are multi-axis and multiple degree of freedom
joint complexes), and 135 degrees of freedom! On top of that,
behaviors and constraints are at work in human figures, controlling
realistic human responses automatically. Although this chapter is
only an introduction to Jacks human figure, it is probably the most
important in this course.

Jack and Jill Figures


Human Figure Types
The latest Jack and Jill figures are constructed of meshes that
deform as the figure moves, much like our own skin. There are two
variants of the figure; Base male and female figures clothed in
form-fitting outfits that are well suited for detailed accommodation
studies, and Clothed figures, that feature typical work attire
including shoes, pants, and shirts.
When an accurate fit or clearance study is the objective, it is
recommended that the Base figures are used. The anatomical
landmarks used to scale the figure sit on the surface of the Base

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figure, so it accurately reflects the desired anthropometric


dimensions. The clothing on the clothed figures has been modeled
to reflect a representative offset from the base figures skin surface.

The figures can be scaled to represent the breadth of populations


included in the scaling options, and can also be modified to reflect
different body shapes.

The clothed figures have been set as the default figures and can be
accessed by clicking on the Create default male/female icons along
the toolbar:
The base figures can be found in the Human Library: Human->
Create -> Human from Library

v6.0 Figures
With the Jack v6.0 release, figures with deformable surface mesh
construction were introduced. These figures were the first
generation of this technology and remain available to support
legacy studies. However, it is not recommended that these figures
be used for new studies, as the visual look and anthropometric
scaling fidelity of the latest figures surpass these early ones.
Segmented Figures
The segmented figures represent the original Jack figure type.
These humans are built of non-deforming geometry to represent
each segment. The segmented figures can be used for Advanced
Scaling, where the user has additional control over individual
segment dimensions.
For any figure type, if you wish to change the skin, hair or clothing
colors on your figures, this can be done by right clicking on the
human in the Jack scene, selecting Properties and going to the
Materials tab. Chose the material you would like to change from

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the list (ie. Pants), and click on Properties to bring up the color
palette.

Human Hands
Disembodied Hands
(Command: Object -> Create -> Figure from Library)
At times it may be expedient to only work with individual
disembodied hands as compared to posturing the entire body.
Therefore, disembodied hands have been introduced that can be
loaded from the Figure Library.

These hands are have the same anthropometry detail as are found
on the new figure, and the new hand shape dialogs can be used to
posture them.
Note that the anthropometry of these disembodied hands currently
cannot be changed

Human Scaling (Anthropometry)


One of Jacks most powerful features is the ability to accurately
scale human figures. This allows you to evaluate designs for a
variety of people sizes without requiring prototypes and test
subjects.

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5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile Statures


Anthropometry in Jack is particularly useful because of Jacks
ability to quickly modify body dimensions on the fly. That is, you
can build an environment, create the human figure and define the
environmental constraints (such as keep your foot on the brake
pedal), and then modify the human figures measurements. You
dont have to re-do your analysis for each different scale! This
makes performing studies with wide coverage of population
percentiles very straightforward.

The Anthropometric Databases found in Jack are:


a) ANSUR (Army Natick Survey User Requirements) 1988
anthropometric database.
b) NHANES: anthropometric data from the National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (1990)
c) CDN_LF_97: anthropometric data from the Canadian Land
Forces (1997)
d) NA_Auto: anthropometric data representing the North American
automotive working population.
e) CHINESE: anthropometric data representing Chinese adults
aged 18-60 (males) and 18-55 (females). Based on the
following report [GB 10000-88], 1989.
f) Asian Indian Anthropometric Database: Indian Anthropometric
Dimensions For Ergonomic Design Practice, Ahmedabad,
National Institute of Design - 1997
g) German Anthropometric Database: DIN 33402: German
Industry Standard, March 2008
h) Japanese:

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a. International Standard: ISO7250-1 (2008). Basic human


body measurements for technological design, Part 1:
Body measurement definitions and landmarks.
b. Technical Report: ISO/TR 7250-2 (2010). Basic human
body measurements for technological design, Part 2:
Statistical summaries of body measurements from
individual ISO populations.
i) Korean
a. International Standard: ISO7250-1 (2008). Basic human
body measurements for technological design, Part 1:
Body measurement definitions and landmarks.
b. Technical Report: ISO/TR 7250-2 (2010). Basic human
body measurements for technological design, Part 2:
Statistical summaries of body measurements from
individual ISO populations.
j) Child Figures: Child Data: Snyder et al., Physical Characteristics
of Children. Consumer Product and Safety Commission, 1975
(UM-HSRI-BI-75-5).
Figure Scaling
The latest anthropometric scaling gives you control over not only
the stature and weight, but also the shape of the figure. Specifically
you will notice a Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) slider on the scaling
dialog. This slider allows you to modify the body weight distribution
of your figure.

The scaling dialog can be seen below:

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WHR Slider

To measure Waist to Hip Ratio, it is generally suggested that you


measure waist circumference at the smallest part of the waist, and
hip circumference at the largest part of the hips, over the buttocks.
These values are then divided to produce a Waist to Hip Ratio.
However, in cases where individuals have large midsections or
bellies, the waist circumference should be measured around the
largest part of the belly.
Sample Calculation:
Waist Circumference: 33 inches
Hip Circumference: 47 inches

33/47 = 0.70

Notes about scaling:

The Waist to Hip Ratio slider is only available for the latest
figures. All legacy figures will continue to scale using the
previous scaling methods. This is to ensure that workflows
which rely on older figures (and scaling) are not disrupted.
If you are using a machine with low memory, try checking
the Conserve memory during anthropometric scaling
check box in System Defaults->UI dialog. This will reduce
the memory foot print of scaling operations.

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Create
(Command: HumanCreate)

Create Male and Female Icons


Basic
(Command: HumanCreateCustom)
This brings up the Build Human dialog, which allows the user to
create custom humans. From the default Build Human panel the
user can create male or female figures of a specified height and
weight as well as child sized figures corresponding to a specified
age. You can also select which anthropometric database you
would like to use to scale your figure.

Human Scaling Icon


The basic HUMAN SCALING PANEL lets you create manikins based on
custom or percentile values for height and weight. Statistical
algorithms are used to size the other human dimensions and create
the human manikin.

Basic Human Scaling Dialog for segmented (left) and smooth


skin (right) figures

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Advanced
(Command: HumanCreateCustomAdvanced Scaling)
The Advanced Scaling Panel allows for additional control over the
segmented human dimensions by letting the user specify a number
of anthropometric measurements for the human.
When using the segmented figures, Jack also allows you to model
humans of any dimension, not just 5th and 95th models. The
advanced HUMAN SCALING PANEL lets you create manikins using
specific anthropometric dimensions.
Jacks Anthropometric Dimensions
Stature
Foot Breadth
Abdominal Depth
Foot Breadth
Ankle Height
Hip Breadth
Acromion Height
Interpupil Distance
Arm Length
Shoulder Elbow Length
Biacromial Breadth
Sitting Acromial Height
Bideltoid Breadth
Sitting Eye Height
Buttock Knee Length
Seated Height
Elbow Rest Height
Sitting Knee Height
Elbow-Fingertip
Length Thigh Clearance
Foot Length
Thumbtip Reach
Hand Breadth
Head Height
Hand Length
Head Length
Head Breadth

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Advanced Scaling Dialog


(For use with segmented figures only)
Beyond creating and scaling manikins, the panel serves the
function of measuring manikins. When a human figure is selected
all of the measures for that human will be displayed on the panel.
Note: To scale for multiple dimensions with a predefined
stature and weight, start with simple scaling and scale for
stature and weight first. Then use the advanced scaling
dialogue to specify other dimensions.

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Human Copy
(Command: Human Copy or RMB on Figure Copy)
Often it is desirable to quickly copy postural, anthropometric or task
specific parameters from one human figure to another. For
example, you may want to test different sized individuals reaching
to the same location. The Human Copy functionality addresses
these needs.

The Copy Dialog


The Source and Target fields allow you to select the participating
humans in the scene.
If the Copy posture checkbox is selected, a number of associated
options will become available. Either the Joint Angle-based or Goalbased approaches can be used.

Joint Angle based

With this approach, joint posture values are copied


from the Source to the Target human.

The Target human will be constrained to keep the


anchor site at the current location and orientation.
However, if the Copy location checkbox is checked,
the Target figure will be moved by the anchor site to
the same site on the Source Figure.

Goal based

With this approach, specific attention is paid to the


location of the hands, feet and gaze. This mode is
useful for Source and Target figures that have
different anthropometric dimensions. The functionality
copies the Joint Angles from the Source to the Target
figures, and then attempts to move the hand and feet
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locations to match those of the Source figure. It also
attempts to have the Target figure gaze in the same
general area as the Source figure.

Note that this option always assumes that the location


of the Source and Target figures is the same.

Copy anthropometric properties

This option will copy the anthropometric dimensions from the


Source to the Target figure

Note that this option is not available if the Source and Target
Figures are of different genders.

Copy Loads and Weights

If Loads and Weights are defined on the Source human, then


this option will become available, and will allow you to copy
these definitions to the Target figure.

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Caution should be exercised when Copying between different


generation human figures. It is generally not recommended to use
the Anthropometric Human Copy feature between figure versions.
However, if you do try to copy anthropometry between figure
versions, the following copy rules will be applied:

Copy Source

Copy Target

Anthropometric dimensions
to be copied between figures

v70-base/clothed

v70-base/clothed

all

v6x-default/segmented

v70-base/clothed

link lengths

v6x-default/segmented

v6xdefault/segmented

all

v70-base/clothed

v6x-default

not supported

v70-base/clothed

v6x-segmented

link lengths

Properties
(Command: HumanProperties)
In Jack, human figures are like other types of figures, except they
have pre-defined sites, segments, joints, and constraints. There are
also special ways of manipulating them and describing their motion
(see Human Control dialog). Properties in this dialogue that are
common to all figures will be further discussed in the next chapter.

Figure Properties Dialog

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Skeleton
(Command: Human PropertiesDisplay Tab)
Figures with joints have an underlying linkage structure that can be
displayed. Specifically, the joint locations and the segment structure
between these joints are displayed.

Human Skeletal View


Note: Making the human figure transparent or wireframe will
allow you to view the skeleton more clearly.
Human Behaviors
(Command: HumanBehaviors)
This dialog can be used to define specific behaviors for your human
figure. For example, balance control can be set using this dialog,
along with hand, foot and gaze control. Note, that the majority of
commonly used behaviors can also be accessed and set using the
Human Control Panel (described below).

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Human Behaviors
Human Control
(Command: HumanHuman Control)
The Human Control Panel was completely updated for v8.0. To
support rapid and easy figure posturing, various dialogs used to
control the figure were consolidated into one common user
interface. This includes the old Human Control Panel, human
behaviors, adjust joint, all hand posturing dialogs, posture libraries,
force-based posture prediction as well as the loads and weights
dialog.
The Human Control Panel can be launched from the main toolbar,
by clicking on
. It is also available if you right-click on the
human in your scene and choose Control from the context menu.

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Human Control Panel


In the Human Control Panel, you will find 2 new posturing features:
Auto-Grasp
This feature offers the easiest way to automatically generate a
realistic reach and grasp posture for the human! From the Human
Control Panel, click on Jills left or right hand and select Grasp
Segment or Grasp Figure. From there, click on an object in the
scene where you want your human to grasp. You will see the
human automatically reach to the object and wrap his/her hands
around the point you specified. Collision detection is used to define
the grasp posture. You can also click on Adjust Grasp to fine tune
the resulting posture.
Braced Posturing
Braced posturing provides for rapid figure posturing in common braced
task conditions, along with the ability to predict the associated forces.
Recent research reveals that in addition to posture changes, force exertion

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direction is changed when bracing conditions are a factor, and can include
substantial off-axis components that impact biomechanical loading. The
braced posture prediction is based on these research findings and
computes feet location, body posture and forces.
From the Human Control Panel, load and position one or both of the hand
and thigh surfaces, then chose a point in the scene for the figure to
reach/grasp with the free hand(s). The bracing surfaces will be considered
during posture prediction. Furthermore, Jack will look to see what hand
loads (if any) are on the figure and will apply the appropriate bracing
forces, as well as update the task hand force according to the research
observations. Braced posturing allows you to predict more realistic
postures in scenarios where bracing is possible. In addition, braced
posturing impacts your ergonomic analyses, providing a more realistic
representation of the forces acting on the human.
Tabs on the Human Control Panel
Each tab on the control panel contains a collection of useful options
for posturing and controlling the human figure. In addition to these,
you can click on the image of Jill, to access a menu of posturing
options for each body part. For example, you can lock/release
body parts from this menu as well as access the manipulate and
grasp commands for the hands.

Reach & Grasp


Prediction method Allows you to specify if youre posturing the
figure for a standing or a seated application.
Lock allows you to choose which body parts to lock. When
locked, this body area will not change as other postural
adjustments are made.
A shortcut to lock each body area is available on the Jill image, by
holding down the Crtl. key and clicking on a body part.

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When Allow Yaw is clicked for the Hand Lock option, this will hold
the location of the hand, while allowing ulnar/radial deviation.
Bracing using the hand and/ or thigh brace glyphs, you can
specify if there are surfaces in your scene that Jack/Jill can lean on.
These will be considered when predicting the overall figure posture
AND will update both the task hand forces as well as apply bracing
forces. The functionality is based on research conducted at the
University of Michigan (www.humosim.org).
When you click on Add Hand Brace / Add Thigh Brace, a glyph will
load into the scene. Move the glyph to a location where the human
can rest their hand/thighs. For example, if working at a table, the
human may be able to rest their thighs against the edge of the
table, and their hand along the surface of the table. Once the
glyphs are positioned, you can manually manipulate the exertion
hand(s) or choose to grasp an object, and the posture prediction
will use these bracing surfaces to predict a realistic posture.
If Allow force updates from bracing is checked, braced and task
hand forces will be updated and applied to the figure. If unchecked,
there will be no change to any loads & weights on the human.
If Display initial hand force(s) is checked, a magenta colored force
arrow will appear in the scene to visualize the magnitude and
direction that was originally entered prior to a bracing scenario
solve.
Foot Placement Zone when loaded, a red zone (plane) will
appear in your scene. The zone will be used as a barrier for
Jack/Jills feet during posture prediction. You can scale the zone to
represent boundaries for where your human can place their feet.
Vision Targets This allows you to select where you want your
human to look when postured. You can choose a site on an object
(Follow Site) and as that object is moved, the humans gaze will
follow.
Grasp From the Jill image, you can right click on a hand to
access the Grasp Figure and Grasp Segment commands. These
allow you to pick anywhere in your scene and the human will
automatically reach to this location and grasp the figure/segment
(using collision detection).
If Precision Grasp is checked, the hand will close around the
selected object using this grasp type.

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Adjust allows you to make real time adjustments to the reach


and grasp posture.

Loads & Weights


This dialog includes the same functionality as past releases but is
now easier to access from the Human Control Panel.
Force Distribution Strategy allows you to correctly set the
standing posture/strategy of your figure, so that loads are properly
estimated and transferred to the Human Performance Tools (TAT)
Add Weight/Add Load can be used to assign a force to the human.
You will notice a shortcut for adding a load to the palmcenter sites.
If you click on Add Load or Add Weight, in the editor dialog, a drop
down list is available, including the commonly used palmcenter
sites.

Show Forces can be used to turn on the display of joint forces.


Click on Add Joint, and select a joint on the human. This will
display the forces in the scene and add the joint name to your list.
Adjust Joint
From this tab you can manually adjust individual joint angles on the
human. Access to the various body regions can be found in the
Body Part drop down list or by clicking on a body part on the image
of Jill.

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Note: Access to the adjust joint feature will grey out for a body
region if other behaviors are set that prohibit a change in joint
angle. For example, if the hands are locked, you cannot adjust the
shoulder joint.
Predefined Postures
A library of full body postures as well as hand postures can be
accessed from this tab. You will also find images of each posture
for easy visualization.
Interpolating Hand Postures From the Hand Posture list, you can
Right click on a posture and select Start. Then you can click on
another posture, and select End. This will enable the Interpolate
slider which allows you to choose a posture somewhere between
the two selections.

Save Posture at any time, you can click on save posture at the
bottom of the Human Control Panel. This will bring up a Save
dialog, where you can choose to save the whole body, or a hand
posture.

When saved, a snapshot of your TJ window will be taken and


added to the appropriate posture library (full body vs hand) along
with the name you entered for your new posture.

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New postures will be stored in your library until you choose to


delete them via the Remove Posture (or Remove Hand Posture)
option.
Shortcuts and Helpful Hints for the Human Control Panel
Common Icons on the Control Panel
An Achor symbolizes that a behavior is set for the given body part.
For example, it may denote that the Left hand is set to mirror the
Right hand.

A Lock symbolizes that the body part is locked and will not change
unless set to Unlock.

Undo Last Step- if you make a mistake while posturing your figure,
clicking Undo Last Step will send you back to the previous state.
Dock Dialog (bottom right on Control Panel) when checked, this
automatically positions your Control Panel and TJ window beside
one another. You will still have the freedom to move your dialogs,
but the benefit is that the windows are conveniently arranged for
you, without any extra button clicks.
Shortcut to Default Standing and Default Sitting Postures If you
right click on a human in your scene, you will find the Default
Standing/Sitting postures available on the context menu. This
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allows you to quickly reset your figure posture without searching


through the traditional posture library.

Eye View
(Command: HumanEye View)
The EYE VIEW DIALOG can be used to create a first person view from
your human figures. This lets you see what your human is seeing.
You can choose to create the eye view in your existing window
(TJ_Window) or create a new window. Eye views can be created
with the Head Forward, for Both Eyes, or for the Left or Right Eye
Only.

Eye View Dialog


Notice that you can control which window has its view attached to
the human. The option to create new eye windows is also available
from the <RMB> context sensitive menus for the human figure.
Note: Control of the eye view window is through movement of
the head.

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Between Eye View Window


View Cones
(Command: HumanView Cones)
View cones are a graphical extension of the Eye View Window.
These cones emanate from the eyes of a manikin and demonstrate
what the figure can potentially see. View cones are actually
transparent cones that represent a particular visual angle from the
manikins eyes. The default setting of 40 is taken from several
standards that define the ideal visual angle in which to position key
objects.

View Cones

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Chapter 5 Tutorial: Working with Humans


In this tutorial you will learn how to create, position, and manipulate
the human in Jack. In addition to basic human manipulation you will
learn how to create view cones, change hand shapes, and grasp
objects. Finally, you will also learn techniques to make working with
humans simple!
Exercise: Create a Human
Delete the scene
Open the file Chapter_5.env
Add a default male figure and move the figure to one side
Add a default female figure and move this figure to one side

Exercise: Human Scaling


This exercise will introduce you to scaling manikins and basic
anthropometry in Jack. You will create and edit the size of the Jack
manikin using basic and advanced scaling.
Visually note the difference in stature.
Right click on one of your male humans
Choose the scale option
The scale dialogue will open
Choose the option Percentile for both Height and Weight and select 95
percentile male

th

You can also select an Anchor site (Heel, Eye Level, Hpoint) which will
dictate where the figure should begin scaling from.
Hit Scale Existing

Scaling dialogue for segmented figure

Scaling dialogue for segmented figure

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Human Basic Scaling Panel


You should see your male update in stature and weight to a 95 percentile
male
th

Leave the scale dialogue open


Choose Custom for Height and Weight
Specify a Height and Weight
Hit Scale Existing
The human will scale to your desired custom height and weight

Scaled figures
Right click on the segmented human in your scene
Choose the scale option
Choose the Advanced Scaling Button on the bottom of the menu
You should see that you are able to change the dimensions of specific body
measurements
Adjust the Arm Length dimension of one of your humans
Once you have completed changing the size of your human from the
advanced scaling panel, lets save the new humans dimensions.
In the Save As field, name your human Fred (or any preferred name)
Select Add to Menu
Select Dismiss
Open the menu Human->Create Human you should now see Fred as one of
the options

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Figure that has been advanced scaled and saved


Exercise: Human Postures
Right click on Jill and select Control to launch the Human Control Panel.

.
Select the Predefined Postures tab.
Scroll through the Full Body Postures list and click on Point. You may be
warned that some body parts are locked. Click Yes to proceed.
In the Hand Posture area, select the Left side and scroll through the list to
find Fist.
Right click on Fist and select Start Posture.
Scroll to find Neutral. Right Click on Neutral and select End Posture.
Adjust the Interpolate slider to adjust Jills hand posture.

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Click on Save Posture.


Select Full Body
Fill in a Posture Name as CustomPoint
Click Save
Scroll to the top of the Full Body Posture list to find the newly added posture.

Click Remove Posture


Highlight CustomPoint and click Remove Sel.
Dismiss from this menu

Use the RMB on the human and select Default Standing Posture.
Use the RMB on the human and select Postures.
Select stand_overhead posture for the human from list.
Choose other postures to see what they look like.

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Context Sensitive Posture Menu


Exercise: Skeletal Structure
Using the segmented Jack figure, make the human transparent by right
clicking on the human and selecting the Display Transparent option
Note: this option will only work for the segmented figures. If you wish to
use the smoothskin figure, select Wireframe as opposed to Transparent
Right Click on the human again to select the Display Skeleton Option; You
should now see the skeleton under the transparent skin of the human
Turn off the skeleton by right clicking on the human again and selecting
Display Skeleton
Make the human shaded by right clicking on the human and choosing the
Display Shaded option

Viewing the human skeleton

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Note: The menus for display can also be found in the Human
Properties Display Tab.
Exercise: Human Posturing
This exercise will introduce you to the features in the Human
Control Panel, including the latest methods of whole body posture
prediction and auto-grasping. Jack allows you to identify surfaces
in your scene for the human to brace or lean against. These
surfaces will be considered when a posture is generated. In
addition, Jack will also look to any loads applied to the hands and
predict a posture that reflects the required exertion level. The
posturing options in the Human Control Panel offer a repeatable
way to quickly generate real-world postures for your figures. The
posture prediction algorithms within the Human Control Panel are
influenced by the collection of work from the University of
Michigans Humosim laboratory.
Load a new default female figure.
Move Jill in front of the shelf

Open the HUMAN CONTROL PANEL. This can be done by;


Selecting HUMAN-> CONTROL
Selecting control from the humans RMB pull down menu
Selecting the human control icon.
Click on the right hand and select manipulate.
Use your mouse buttons to drag the hand to the side of the box. Press Esc.
when done.
From the Control Panel, click on the left hand and select Grasp Figure.

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Now click on the edge of the box.

From the Control Panel, for the Left Hand, click Adjust Grasp.
Using your mouse buttons, move the hand on the box to create a realistic,
collision free posture. (You will see the grasp update automatically as you
move the hand to different locations on the box.

Click Esc. when done.

To demonstrate the bracing functionality, well now make some


scene adjustments.
Right click on a box from the shelf and select Move.
From the Jack toolbar, make sure Snap mode is set to Cursor Point, and
click on the picker

Put your mouse cursor in the middle of the tabletop table top and click the
LMB. This will snap the box to the tabletop.

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Press Esc. when done.


Right click on Jill and select Default Standing Posture.
Right click on Jill and select Move. Use your mouse to move Jill in front of
the table, facing the box.
Press Esc. when done.

From the Human Control Panel, make sure the Prediction method is set to
Standing.
In the Bracing section of the Control Panel, Click to Add Hand Brace (left
hand).
A glyph will load into the scene in Snap mode. Click a spot on the table, to
the left of the box, to position the hand brace. This is the spot you think a
person would lean on when reaching to the box.
Click Add Thigh Brace. This will load a thigh brace glyph into the scene in
Move mode. Use your mouse buttons to adjust the glyph so it is on the edge
of the table in front of Jill.

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From the Control Panel, Foot Placement Zone section, click Add.
Next to Length type 40 and hit Enter on your keyboard.
Right click on the red foot zone in your scene and select Move.
Use your mouse buttons to move the foot zone so it is no longer under the
table (it should align with the edge of the table).

In the Control Panel, select Right Hand for the Vision Target.
Next you will assign a load to Jills hand, to represent her pulling the box towards her.
Note: forces in jack are always entered as reaction forces.
Switch to the Loads & Weights tab of the Control Panel.
Click Add Load.
In the Load Editor dialog, select the Right Palm Center from the drop down
menu.

In the Load Editor dialog, enter 75 for Magnitude.


In the Load Editor dialog, enter X=1 / Y=0 / Z=0.

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Click Apply (you should see the new load appear in the list of the Loads &
Weights tab)
Return to the Reach & Grasp tab of the Control Panel.
From the human image in the Control Panel, click on the Right hand and
select Grasp Figure.
From the Jack scene, click on the far edge of the box.

From the Control Panel, Grasp section, click Adjust Grasp for the right
hand.
Use your mouse buttons to tweak the grasp on the box. The hand posture
will continue to update automatically as you adjust Jills hand position.
Click Esc. when done.
From the Control Panel, Bracing section, click display initial hand force(s).
A magenta arrow will appear in the scene, which represents the direction and
magnitude of the hand force exertion you entered in a previous step.
Go to the Loads & Weights tab of the Control Panel.
Click on Show All to display the bracing forces applied for your posture
scenario.

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Notes:
1. When a person braces against a surface, they often exert a
force on that surface. These forces change the biomechanics
of the posture scenario. In order to most realistically represent
your scenario, braced forces are applied to the human, and
can be reviewed in the Loads & Weights tab. If you are using
the Human Performance tools, these loads will be considered,
thus offering a more realistic assessment of the human
demands.
2. It has been observed (Humosim, University of Michigan) that
when surfaces are available to brace on, the direction and
magnitude of the original task hand force is often different
from what the person was originally asked to perform. When
bracing surfaces are used for posture prediction in Jack, the
original hand force data is displayed in magenta in the scene
and the resulting predicted forces are shown in blue.
3. Even if bracing surfaces are using during human posturing,
any forces applied to the palmcenter sites will be considered,
offering the most realistic representation of the posture, given
the required force exertion.
Click Dismiss to close the Control Panel. You will notice that all posturing
glyphs from your scene are removed when the dialog is closed.

Exercise: Adjust Joint


Another way to move the human is to adjust single joints.
Load a default male to the scene.
Open the Human Control Panel.
Hold the Crtl. button + click on the Left Hand on the image of Jill in the
Control Panel. (This combination of clicks toggles the lock option for the
various body parts.
Hold Crtl. + Right Hand to unlock the right hand.
Go to the Adjust Joint tab of the Control Panel.
From the Body Part list, select Elbow.
Select Left.

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Adjust the Flexion/Extension slider to change the elbow angle.

Click Keep Symmetric and adjust the slider again.

Click Dismiss to close the Control Panel.

Exercise: View Analysis


Move your human so that they are facing the toolbox. (See Image Below)

Position Human for Eye View


Use Human->Eye View command to access the Eye View Dialog.
Open a head forward view window.

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Between Eye View of Toolbox


Place the window in a convenient location on your screen. Tip: you may need
to resize your TJ Window in order to view both windows concurrently
Use the Eye View Dialog to create a left eye view window and manipulate the
eyes without moving the head.

Note: The eye view can help you identify any obstructions in
the design.

Exercise: View Cones


Open the View Cones Dialog using the HUMAN->VIEW CONES menu option.
Click on the Display View Cones button and Hit Apply.
Move the head around some more to get a feel for the view cones.
Change the length of the View cone and hit Apply
Toggle the Display View Cones button off in the VIEW CONES DIALOG and hit
Apply to turn off the view cones.

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View Cones Displayed

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Chapter 6: Creating & Displaying Objects


Jack uses a simple polygonal geometry format to represent objects
in the scene. All objects are represented by surface geometry
composed of flat (usually triangular) faces. Faces are defined by
connecting three or more nodes together. Nodes are simply points
in space (specified by a X, Y, Z location). The line connecting two
nodes on a face is called an edge.
Note that Jack does not require complex mathematical
representations of surfaces or solids. This simplifies geometry
translation to Jack.
Create
(Command: ObjectCreate)
The object create command will allow you to create sites, joints,
nodes, faces, etc.
Site
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Site)
This dialog lets you specify the location of a site with respect to its
segment.
Joint
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Joint)
With this dialog, the user selects two segments or sites one fixed
and the other moving to create a joint between them.
Node
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Node)
This dialog allows the user to create, move, or delete a node.
Face
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Face)
This dialog allows the user to move, create, delete, reverse, or fix a
face.
Light
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Light)
Much of a designer or engineers job when using Jack is centered
upon presenting analysis results for use in reports, design reviews,
company intranets, documentation, and even marketing. Jack
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provides a number of options to control what is displayed in the


environment. These options are more than just nice visual effects.
Making objects transparent or invisible is useful for clearing the
view and highlighting objects of interest.

Create Light
Jack provides a flexible lighting and display model. It allows you to
set object colors, rendering and display modes, modify light colors,
move lights, map textures to objects, and even animate lights,
colors and scaling for interesting visual effects.
You can create lights of various colors and intensities using the
LIGHT PROPERTY DIALOG. You can move the light icon around the
environment as you would any other object.
Note: Lights in Jack are actually point sources and therefore
have no direction.

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Light Source and sphere


CAD Objects
(Command: OBJECTCREATECAD OBJECT)
You can create basic CAD primitives in Jack. Use the CREATE CAD
OBJECT to create general objects such as; sphere, ellipsoid, cone,
cylinder, hollow cylinder, toroid, and gear.

Create Cad Object Dialog


Rectangular Solid
(Command: OBJECTCREATERECTANGULAR SOLID)
Use the CREATE RECTANGULAR SOLID for basic cube shapes.

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Figure from Library


(Command: OBJECTCREATEFIGURE FROM LIBRARY)

Miscellaneous Jack Library Objects


The OBJECT LIBRARY is a useful way to keep often used files easily
accessible. You can use the OBJECT LIBRARY to start to build up a
library of objects that you use often. In addition, many useful
objects are contained in the OBJECT LIBRARY by default. These
include objects that are part of the basic Jack distribution.
Factory Equipment Library
The Object Library includes a variety of factory equipment for use in
mocking up factories and factory workcells.
To load any of these into the scene execute Object->Create>Figure from Library... to bring up the Load Library File Dialog. The
factory equipment files can be listed by clicking on Factory
Equipment in the list of libraries.
Types of equipment include:

A sheet metal bender


A control computer
Conveyor belts
Elevators
A fixture

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A motor
A wooden pallet
A roller table
Roller surfaces

Some of the factory equipment has articulation for use in


simulation. Joints for use in workcell tasks have names that are all
in upper-case. Joints for adjustment such as height adjustment
have names that begin with a capital letter and have the remaining
characters lower-case. Dummy joints for just connecting parts are
named all in lower-case letters.

Factory Library Dialog


Modify Geometry
(Command: ObjectModify Geometry)
Editing Segment Geometry
(Command: ObjectModify GeometryEdit Psurf)
You can also edit the geometry of any segment to create even
more complex objects. This is accomplished with the EDIT PSURF

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DIALOG. You have the option to edit or create new nodes, edges,
and faces.
Note: These changes are not saved in Jacks .env or .fig
formats. The segment must be saved as a psurf.

Psurf Editor Dialog


Merging Segment Geometry
(Command: ObjectModify GeometryMerge Segment
Geometry)
You can also merge the geometry of any segment to another
segment within the merge segment geometry dialogue.
Splitting Segment Geometry
(Command: ObjectModify GeometrySplit Segment Geometry)
You can also split the geometry of any segment from another
segment within the split segment geometry dialogue.
Fix Segment Orientation
(Command: ObjectModify GeometryFix Segment Orientation)
You can also fix the segment orientation of a segment to any node,
edge or face in the environment.
Reroot Figure
(Command: ObjectPropertiesFigure PropertiesConstruction
Tab)
The root site is the point that the figure is moved from. Every
segment has at least one site. The site located at the figure origin
(or local 0, 0, 0) point on the geometry and labeled as base, is
automatically created. The base site is used as the default root, or
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local reference, for the figure. If more than one site exists on a
figure, this local reference can be changed.
Visible
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
A basic function in Jack is the ability to turn specific objects On or
Off. This disables the display of the object so that it is invisible.
This is different from actually deleting the object in that all
behaviors associated with this object still exist only the rendering
is disabled. In large environments, turning objects that are not
being used off will help improve processing time.
Shaded/ Wireframe/ Transparent
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
Jack also allows you to control the drawing method for these
objects. Wireframe mode draws edges between the nodes that
create a face. Shaded mode fills in all faces making up individual
segments. Transparency mode shades the object but objects
behind it can still be seen.

Wireframe, transparent and shaded display settings


Smooth Shading
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
In addition, you can choose how to render an objects faces Smooth or Flat. Smooth shading uses a shading algorithm for the
rendering that calculates different normals based on the normals of

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adjacent faces. The actual location of nodes and faces does not
change.
Flat shading takes less computation time, so permits faster
rendering. Smooth shading provides a more realistic looking
segment, but may result in slower animations and system response
to segment movements.
Note: The smooth and flat shading options control how the
object is rendered.

Flat and Smooth shading

Trace
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
Another convenient analysis tool is a trace of where an object has
been during a motion. A trace is a graphical trail that objects leave
behind as they move through the scene. Jack provides for the
capability of tracing sites, and segments.
Note: A trace captures an objects position at specific
intervals. A trace does not represent the actual path of an
object.

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Trace on a Tool Segment During Removal


Figure Ghosts
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
Ghost figures are images of figures in specific postures. The ghost
will look exactly like the original figure except it will all be one color.
Ghosts cannot be saved, moved, or manipulated. They serve only
to mark a posture temporarily for future use.
Note: Smoothskin figures cannot be ghosted.

Figure Ghost

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Chapter 6 Tutorial: Creating and Displaying Objects


In this tutorial you will learn how to create and modify objects within
the Jack scene. Objects can be imported from other programs,
created within Jack or opened from object libraries. You will also
learn how to change the visibility of your objects.
Exercise: Creating a Site
Delete your current scene by choosing EDIT->DELETE SCENE
Open the file Chapter6.env

We will now create a new site on the figure (we will use a barrel).
Move your view over to one of the barrels in the scene.
Open the SITE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>CREATE>CREATE SITE
menu.
In the Segment Entry select the barrel as the segment.
You will then be sent into MOVE for the new site. Notice that your move
button in the upper toolbar is red.

Move Highlighted for the New Site


Move the new site by using the MOVE CONTROLLER and snapping it to a
NODE of the top of the barrel.
Hit escape when you are finished moving the site, and then hit
CREATE.
There is now a new site on the top of the barrel.

New Site on the Top of the Barrel

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In order to verify that you have a new site, lets display the sites of the
barrel.
Dismiss out of the Create Site Window.
Right mouse click on the barrel.
Choose DISPLAY>TURN SITES ON
You should now see the new site on the top of the barrel.
In order to turn the sites off right mouse click on the barrel and choose
DISPLAY>TURN SITES OFF.

Note: A site is referenced from a segment NOT a figure.


Exercise: Create Joint
You will notice that the Chapter6.env file you have open in your
scene has a crane near the top of the facility. We are now going to
create Joints in the crane so that we can move the segments.
Select the OBJECT->CREATE ->CREATE JOINT menu option
The option Create Between Segments should be selected
Pick the Crane.Crane_base as the fixed segment
Pick the Crane.Crane_mid as the moving segment
You will then be in MOVE mode for the Joint Center (look in the
toolbar).If you are not in MOVE mode for the Joint Center, then Hit SET
LOCATION in the Create Joint Window.
Lets move the Joint Center. You should see it in the center of the screen.
Using the Snap to Site Move command, snap the Joint Center to the Site
Crane.Crane_mid.center_of_mass
Hit Escape once you have the Joint Center where you want it
Lets make the Middle of the Crane move along the X-Axis
Choose T(x) as the DOF (Degree of Freedom)
Input -5000(mm) as the Lower Limit
Input 1000(mm) as the Upper Limit
Hit Create

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Joint Dialogue for Crane


You have now created a joint between the Crane Middle and the Crane Base.
Lets adjust the joint to verify it has been created.
Choose the Adjust Joint Icon from the Toolbar
Select the Crane (both the Middle and Base should highlight in Yellow)
Adjust the Joint by using the Left Mouse Button to click and drag

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Exercise: Lighting
Select the OBJECT->CREATE ->CREATE LIGHT menu option
Set the color of the light to white
Hit Create
Move the light in your scene. It is a figure that you can move like any other
figure

Note: Rotating the light icon will not have an effect. Lights are
actually points source and thus dont have direction.
Increase the intensity of the light
Hit Apply
Select a different color for the light
Hit Apply
Click the visible option off

This simply turns off the display of the icon. The lighting effects are
unchanged.
Hit Apply
Click the visible option on
Hit Apply

2 Lights in the Scene


Select the OBJECT->CREATE->CREATE LIGHT menu option and create a 2
light. Give it a different color and intensity from the first. Move it into a
position where it also shines on the ball.

nd

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Use the RMB to the figure context sensitive menu for one of the light figures.
Select the delete option

Exercise: Modify Geometry


This exercise will introduce you to editing geometry. You will use an
object from the library and change its shape in Jack.
Select the menu option OBJECT->CREATE->FIGURE FROM LIBRARY
In the OBJECT LIBRARY DIALOG, choose the file cube.pss from the Primitives
Library
Hit the Load button
You should now see a large cube at 0,0,0
Select the menu option OBJECT->MODIFY GEOMETRY->EDIT PSURF
Set the Entity Type to NODE
Select the MOVE option
Pick a NODE on the cube you just loaded in
You will then be in MOVE mode for the NODE you just selected
MOVE the node. Notice that the faces also move (or stretch)

Moving a Node
Now lets modify a face on the cube
Set the Entity Type to FACE
Select the MOVE option
Pick a FACE on the cube
Move the FACE
Hit Dismiss to close the Modify Geometry Menu

Exercise: Re-rooting an Object


First delete the cube you modified in the last exercise.
Make sure you are in Figure Mode
Right mouse click on the cube
Hit Delete

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Select the move controller (from the top toolbar or by right clicking on the
object and selecting move) and move one of your barrels. Notice the barrel
moves from a root site that is located at the center of the barrels base.
Open the Figure Properties Dialog from OBJECT>PROPERTIES>FIGURE
PROPERTIES
Select the construction tab.
Using the selector choose one of the barrels in the scene.

Figure Properties Dialogue for Barrel


Notice the Root Site says barrel.Barrel.base. This is the root site of the
barrel.
Lets change the root site to the center of mass.

Note: All objects have an existing site at the center of mass.


Select the arrow under the Sites section of the figure properties dialogue
from
the
barrel.
You
should
see
two
sites.
Select
barrel.Barrel.centerofmass and select Set Root.
Hit APPLY
You should now see the root site in the construction tab has been updated to
barrel.Barrel.centerofmass
Move the barrel.
The barrel is now moving from the center of mass. You changed the
root site from the center of the base to the center of mass.

Note: The objects original root was at the center of the base.
By changing the root site the object now moves about the new
root site.

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Exercise: Object Library


This exercise will introduce you to Jacks Object Library.
Select the menu option OBJECT->CREATE->FIGURE FROM LIBRARY
In the OBJECT LIBRARY DIALOG, type cube.pss in the entry box
Hit the Load button
Highlight the tools library and note the contents in the list
Add other objects to your scene

The next several exercises will take you through some of the
display options for geometry in Jack.
Exercise: Visibility
You can turn objects on and off in the scene.
Use the RMB on the Human and choose DISPLAY->VISIBLE

You should see the human turn off.


In order to turn the human back ON, go into the OBJECT HIERARCHY
Right Mouse Click (RMB) on the human you turned OFF
The same Context Sensitive Menu comes up as you saw in the TJ window
Choose DISPLAY->VISIBLE .
You should see your human in the TJ window.

Exercise: Shaded, Wireframe, and Transparent


You can change the way an object appears in the scene
Move over to one of the barrels in the scene
Use the RMB on the barrel and choose DISPLAY->W IREFRAME
Use the RMB on the barrel and choose DISPLAY->TRANSPARENT
Use the RMB on the barrel and choose DISPLAY->SHADED

Exercise: Shading Options


Use the MMB to switch the OBJECT SELECTOR to segment mode
Use the RMB context sensitive menu to select the option DISPLAY->FLAT.
Notice the segment display does not change. The default shading is flat.
Next, open the SEGMENT PROPERTY DIALOG for the barrel.
On the display page choose the smooth for the shading mode. Hit Apply.
Again notice the display change.
Notice you can change the display from smooth to flat from either the context
sensitive menus or from the segment properties dialogue.

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Barrel with Smooth Shading and Barrel with Flat Shading

Exercise: Trace segment


Load a segmented figure from Human-> Create -> Human From Library.
Select v6.1 Segmented Female.
Move your segmentedhuman at the table with tools
Open the SEGMENT PROPERTY DIALOG for the right upper arm by right mouse
clicking on the upper arm and choosing Properties (make sure you are in
Segment Mode)
Go to the display page in the SEGMENT PROPERTY DIALOG and select the
trace option
Hit Apply
Repeat for the lower arm and the palm segments
Move the arm
The path of all three segments is traced out

Click on the trace option and the delete trace button to delete each
of the traces.
Note: You may have to use the OBJECT HIERARCHY to pick the
segments if they get hidden behind the tracings.
Close the SEGMENT PROPERTY DIALOG

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Moving arm with trace palm segment


Exercise: Create Ghost
Creating a ghost allows you to view your human as a ghost frozen
in time. You cannot move a ghost, or change the posture of a
ghost.
Posture the segmented human within your scene
Open the HUMAN FIGURE PROPERTY DIALOG by right mouse clicking on the
human and choosing PROPERTIES
Go the display tab in the HUMAN FIGURE PROPERTY DIALOG and select the
option create ghost
Hit Apply
Move the human and re-posture him
Click on the create ghost option again
Hit Apply
Repeat
Click on the option delete all ghosts and hit Apply to get rid of the ghosts

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Human figure ghosts

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Chapter 7: Working with Objects


In this chapter advanced interaction with objects will be covered. All
of the object properties dialogues are covered as well as creation of
joints, attachments and paths.
Attachments
(Command: ObjectPropertiesDisplay Tab)
Attachments allow you to connect one figure to another figure
within an environment by defining a given offset between the bases
of the two figures. It is a convenient way to attach objects without
combining them into one assembly. It is important to note that this
is a one way attachment in which the parent figure controls
movement for both figures. The child figure can still be moved
independently.
This tab defines what figure this human/object is attached to and if
any figures are attached to this human. If the human is not attached
to any figures, the attach box will say world.base.

Attachment Tab

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Properties
(Command: ObjectProperties)
Each of the different entity types has a property dialog. The
selections are located in the OBJECT MENU under PROPERTIES or in
the context sensitive menus for that object type. Property dialogs
display information about the structure and status of an entity. From
the property dialog you can also create, delete, rename or change
the characteristics of an entity.
These options apply to figures, segments, individual sites and
nodes. Specific display options can be found in the each object
types PROPERTIES DIALOG (<RMB>PROPERTIES).
Figure Properties
(Command: ObjectPropertiesFigure Properties)
The FIGURE PROPERTY DIALOG includes many options available for
specific figures as well as access to lower level property dialogs
associated with the figure.

Display Properties for a figure

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Segment Properties
(Command: ObjectPropertiesSegment Properties)
The SEGMENT PROPERTIES DIALOG is available for any object in the
Jack environment. You can view construction information and
display options from this dialog.

Segment Properties Dialog

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Site Properties
(Command: ObjectPropertiesSite Properties)
Jack uses the concept of Sites to define specific coordinate
locations in 3D space. More specifically, Sites are triad axes that
define position and orientation relative to a segments local
coordinate frame. They are the mechanism that allows you to
specify constraint goals, joint centers, or even measurement points.
Each segment also contains what is termed a Root Site. In a figure
file, this site can be named anything; however, it is normally called
base. It is the point from which the object is constructed and
represents the segments local coordinate (0,0,0). The root site will
never change locations relative to the segment. However, as the
segment is moved around, the site will have varying global
coordinates to reflect its position in the world.
You can view information regarding a particular site or create a new
site through the SITE PROPERTIES DIALOG.

Site Properties Dialog

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Joint Properties
(COMMAND: ObjectPropertiesJoint Properties)
Articulated figures are created in Jack using Joints. Joints allow
you to define the type of articulation between two segments by
specifying the type of DEGREES OF FREEDOM (DOF) and the origin of
this articulation. You can view, create, and edit joint information
through the JOINT PROPERTY DIALOG.
When you create a joint, you must define the connection point. You
have a choice of defining this point with the create joint between
segments or the create joint between sites option.

Joint Properties Dialog


With the create joint between segments option a new site is
automatically created for each of the two segments. The Set
Location button lets you set the location of these two sites. With
the create joint between sites option existing sites are used to
connect the segments. In this case, the moveable segment will be
repositioned to bring the two sites into the correct relative position.

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Face Properties
(Command: ObjectPropertiesFace Properties)
The next important piece of geometry in Jack is the face. The list
of vertices or nodes is used to define polygonal faces. The
FACE PROPERTIES DIALOG contains construction information for a
particular face. It displays the material assigned to the face, the list
of nodes that form the face, the local and global coordinates of the
face center and the face normal.

Face Properties Dialog


Within the face properties dialog is the option to make a face
reflective. By checking the reflective box a face will reflect other
figures in the environment. It is important to note that reflections will
not be saved with the environment (.env) file

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Reflection
(Command: ObjectPropertiesFace Properties)
Reflection Maps can be created for any polygonal surface or face in
Jack. They can be use in Jack to analyze planar mirrors. It is
important to note the quality of the reflected image is determined by
the quality of the graphics card. You can create a reflection map by
turning on an objects projections under the Object Properties
dialogue.
Note: Light does not reflect so the location of the light source
is an important consideration when reflections are used.

Reflective Face

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Edge Properties
(Command: ObjectPropertiesEdge properties)
The edge in Jack is the connection between two nodes within a
face. Edges determine the look of an object when it is displayed
wireframe. The EDGE PROPERTIES DIALOG contains construction
information for a particular edge. It indicates which faces are on
either side of the edge and which nodes are at either end.

Edge Properties Dialog

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Node Properties
(COMMAND: ObjectPropertiesNode Properties)
The lowest level of geometry is the node. Nodes define specific
coordinates in 3D space used to define faces and edges. In a Psurf
(.pss) file they are the first list of numbers. The NODE PROPERTIES
DIALOG contains construction information for particular vertices. It
displays the local and global coordinates for the node as well as the
edges and faces the node contributes to.

Adjust Joint
(Command: ObjectAdjust Joint)
A joint can be manipulated using the ADJUST JOINT DIALOG. When
you are in the adjust joint command you can move the slider bar,
enter a numerical value, or dynamically adjust the joint with the
mouse in the graphics window. The joint order determines the
corresponding mouse button. First in the list is the <LMB>, second
in the list is <MMB>, third in the list is the <RMB> etc.
When you dynamically adjust the joint with the mouse, an
adjustment arrow or rotation wheel will appear that specifies the
current adjustment type and direction. The arrow indicates a
translation and the rotation wheel indicates an orientation
adjustment. In addition, the rotation wheel will appear with sections
of red and green. The green section defines the range through
which the joint can be rotated.

Adjust Joint Dialog

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Note: When degrees of freedom (dof) are created for a joint, the
order in which they are created determines the corresponding
mouse button. First in the list is the <LMB>, second in the list is
<MMB>, third in the list is the <RMB> etc.

Motors On/Off
(Command: ObjectMotors On/Off)
This allows you to turn on or off all motors in the scene.

Create Motor Tab


A separate motor can be made for each Degree of Freedom in a
joint by highlighting the available DOF in the list. Adjusting the
frames per cycle rate can control the speed for each motor and the
reciprocal or constant radio buttons will effect the motors direction..
Joint Motors
(Command: ObjectCreateCreate Joint)
Motors are an alternative way to add motion to an environment
without using the animation system. The motor continuously
exercises a joint through its entire range of motion and does not
require any interactive manipulation except to start and stop it.

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Interactive Reach
(Command: ObjectInteractive Reach)
An Interactive reach is similar to an ordinary constraint, except that
there is no fixed goal. The goal is a global transform which you
manipulate interactively. Also, the relationship type is automatically
set to point-to-point. Interactive Reach can be applied to any jointed
figure and to manipulate any kinematic chain within a human figure.
This dialog lets you select a site or node on a segment of a figure
as the point that you want to move into position. You also define a
starting joint for the figure's motion (similar to those discussed in
the constraints section of this chapter). Jack will use its inverse
kinematics to determine the figure position as you move the end
site or node.
Paths
(Command: ObjectPaths)
Use this dialog to either create or edit a path in the Graphics
Window to be used with the animation system.
Paths can be used to have an object follow along, or to have a
human walk along during a simulation. This will be covered more in
the Animation System Chapter.

Path

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Chapter 7 Tutorial: Working with Objects


In this tutorial you will learn how to work with objects. You will learn
how to adjust joints of objects, create motors, and paths. You will
also learn how to work within the properties menus for each of the
types of objects.
Delete your current scene by choosing EDIT->DELETE SCENE
Open the file Chapter7.env

Exercise: Figure Properties


This exercise introduces you to the .fig file properties menu.
Open the FIGURE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>PROPERTIES>FIGURE
PROPERTIES menu and select the barrel. Review the properties dialogue box.
Choose the different tabs to review the available information on the face.
Click on the Sites Button on the Construction Tab
The list shows the predefined sites, and any new sites you created earlier, on the
figure.
Click on the Segments Button on the Construction Tab
This list shows the segments of the figure barrel.fig.
Dismiss the Figure Properties Dialogue Window

Exercise: Segment Properties


This exercise introduces you to the segment or Psurf.
Open the SEGMENT PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>PROPERTIES
>SEGMENT PROPERTIES menu and select the barrel in the GRAPHICS W INDOW

Note: The naming


Figure.Segment

convention

in

the

entry

box

is

Open the NODE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>PROPERTIES >NODE


PROPERTIES menu and select a node on the barrel.

Note: The naming convention


Figure.Segment.Node#

in

the

entry

box

is

Open the EDGE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>PROPERTIES>EDGE


PROPERTIES menu and select an edge on the barrel. Review the properties
dialogue box. Choose the different tabs to review the available information on
the edge.

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Note: Remember the properties of the different file types.


A Psurf (pss) only contains information defining a segment's
geometry.
A Figure File (fig) includes information about which segments
make up the figure, sites, colors, and joints connections.
(Joint connections and limits are retained when a figure file is
saved. Joint angles information is not contained in a figure
file)

Exercise: Face Properties


Load a cube into your environment
OBJECT>CREATE>FIGURE FROM LIBRARY

from

the

object

library

Open the FACE PROPERTIES DIALOG from the OBJECT>PROPERTIES>FACE


PROPERTIES menu and select a face on the cube. Review the properties
dialogue box. Choose the different tabs to review the information on the face.
Move to the Display Tab in the Properties Dialogue
Check the Box Reflective
You should now see a reflection on the face of the cube.
Dismiss the PROPERTY DIALOGS when you are finished

Reflective Face
Exercise: Adjusting a Joint
In this section you will learn how to adjust single joints of a figure.
Move your view over to the Robot in the scene
Open the ADJUST JOINT DIALOG from OBJECT>ADJUST JOINT menu

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Select Robot_Jack5.JO from the GRAPHICS W INDOW

Note: Each DOF has its own slider with an upper limit, a lower
limit, and a text entry box.
Adjust the joint by moving the Slider Bar.

Note: The Entry Box value changes as the slider is moved.


Type in a value in the Entry box. Hit <Enter> when finished.
Now try this with other joints on the robot.

Hit ESC to complete the command and dismiss the dialog.


Finally, move over to one of the humans in your scene.
Open the ADJUST JOINT DIALOG and select the manikins Left Elbow
Adjust the joint by moving the slider bar.
Joints can be adjusted on objects and humans.

Exercise: Joints and Motors


In this section you will learn how to create joint motors.
Open the JOINT PROPERTIES DIALOG
PROPERTIES

OBJECT: PROPERTIES:

JOINT

Select the joint Robot_Jack5.J2


Move to the Motors Tab in the Joint Properties Dialogue
Choose R(x) in as the Degree of Freedom (this is the rotation of the motor
we are creating)

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Robot Motor Properties


Choose Create Motor
Currently Active should be checked
30 Frames Per Second should be input
Reciprocal Should be checked
Hit Apply
The motor should be adjusting the joint.
Change the Motor Properties to Constant
Hit Apply
Notice the change in the way the joint is adjusting
Uncheck the Box Currently Active
Hit Apply
The motor should stop.
Dismiss the Joint Properties Dialogue Window.

Note: The human manikin is also a jointed figure!!

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Exercise: Interactive Reach


In this section you will learn how to adjust multiple joints within a
figure. You will again be using the Robot in your scene
Open the INTERACTIVE REACH DIALOG from OBJECT>INTERACTIVE REACH

Interactive Reach Dialog


Select Robot_Jack5.seg4.seg4 as the End Effector Site
Select Robot_Jack5.J3 as the Starting Joint
You will now be in MOVE mode for the end effector of the Robot

Interactive Reach Moving End Effector

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Move the end effector of the Robot using your Mouse Buttons
Rotate the end effector.

Note: Interactive Reach allows you to adjust multiple joints at


once.
Exercise: Creating & Editing a Path
In this section you will learn how to create a path. In a later Chapter
you will learn how to use paths with humans and objects.
Try to create your path on the floor of the facility so we can use it to
have the human walk the path in a later Chapter.
Open the CREATE PATH DIALOGUE from OBJECT>CREATE>PATH>CREATE PATH
You will notice a site has been created in your scene at 0,0,0
Hit the Add After option in the Path Dialogue Window
st

Another site has been created on top of your 1 site


Using your MOVE CONTROLLER Move the site away from the 1

st

Hit the Add After option once you have your second point where you want it.
Continue to move and add sites on the path until you have a path on the floor
of your facility
Dismiss out of the Path Dialogue

Creating a Path on the Facility Floor

You can also edit the points of the path if you need to move one
after you have created it.

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Open the CREATE PATH DIALOGUE from OBJECT>CREATE>PATH>EDIT PATH


Choose the path you would like to Edit (Tip: you may need to choose the
path from the OBJECT HIERARCHY)
Choose the site on the path that you would like to change
Using your MOVE CONTROLLER Move the site to its new location
Notice the path change as you change the new site.
Hit Apply
Dismiss out of the Path Dialogue Window

Note: Paths are a figure in your scene. You and use Context
Sensitive Menus to edit and change the visibility of the path.

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Chapter 8: Measuring & Checking Utilities:


In general, measurement provides a way to begin to move beyond
subjective analyses to very precise and objective ones. For this
reason, Jack provides several measurement methods. Some allow
for exact measurements between objects or sites. Others provide
ways to monitor distances between objects.

Using Rulers to Measure

Collision Detection
(Command: UtilitiesCollision Detection)
Collision Detection is an analysis tool which aids in identifying the
proximity of objects/humans to one another. This tool allows you to
define multiple collision sets and it provides feedback as to whether
collisions have occurred. Collisions can be checked between
combinations of humans, JT objects and native Jack geometry.
For step-by-step details on how to use Collision Detection, click on
the Usage in the bottom right corner of the dialog.

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Constraint
(Command: UtilitiesConstraints)
Constraints specify conditions between figures that the simulation
system must try to reach. In other words, constraints are desired
relationships that are met as closely as possible. These
relationships can be described in terms of Position, Orientation, or
both. Jack uses inverse kinematics to manipulate multiple joints in
a figure to satisfy the constraints as closely as possible. As with
Joints you can view or edit constraint information through the
CONSTRAINT PROPERTY DIALOG. Since this is associated with
environments rather than objects this function is accessed from the
UTILITIES MENU under CONSTRAINT (UtilitiesConstraintConstraint
Properties).

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Constraint Dialog

A constraint is a desired geometric relationship. It also refers to all


information that collectively defines that relationship. Jack solves
constraints using an inverse kinematics algorithm, which means
that the appropriate joints of articulated figures are positioned so
that the desired relationships are acquired. Jack allows you to
create multiple constraints of various types.
The constraints dialogue should be used to create a constraint that
defines a valid motion. When creating a constraint, an objective
type, a goal, end effectors, and a set of joints to which the
constraint applies. Descriptions of these items are as follows:

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Type of Goal
Closest Node: Use this type of goal to pick a segment as the
goal. This constraint applies to the closest node on the
segment.
Face: Use this type of goal to select a face goal. When you
select a face goal, the end effectors is directed toward any
point on the face.
Hold: Use this type of goal to specify that the end effectors
should remain in its current location. The position and
orientation of the goal is taken from the current location of
the end effectors when you create the constraint.
Node: Use this type of goal to specify a point that is on a
site.
Relative Transform: Use this type of goal to specify a point in
space relative to a segment goal and then click the Set
Transform Location button to set the location relative to the
goal.
Site: Use this type of goal to specify a point that is on a site.
Transform: Use this type of goal to specify a point in space.
When you select this type, there is no goal edit field. Click
the set transform button to set the location.
Goal
This edit field and its associated pick button exist to select the end
effector based on the type of goal. For hold and transform goals,
this edit field isnt visible.
Set Transform Location
This push button is only available for Relative transform and
Transform goal types. Click this button to set the graphics window
using normal mouse controls.
End Effector Type
Use this option menu to select one of the following as the end
effector:
Closest Node: Use this type of goal to pick a segment as the
end effector. The constraint applies to the closest node on
the segment.
Node: Use this type of goal to specify a point end effector
that is a node.
Site: Use this type of goal to specify a point end effector that
is a site.

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End Eff. Seg/Node/Site


Depending on the Type of End Effector option you select, this edit
field and its associated pick button let you select a segment, site, or
node on a figure (for example, human.left_palmcenter).
Starting Joint
After selecting an end effector site, select a starting joint for the
figure's motion (for example, human.waist). This field is available if
you select the Rooting Constraint check box.
Rooting Constraint
Select this check box to create a rooting constraint for the figure.
This connects one figure to another. Moving a figure with a rooting
constraint creates a temporary constraint between the figures root
and the transform created by moving.
Orientational Relationship
Use this option menu to select the desired relationship between the
orientation of the goal and the orientation of the end effector. The
available relationships are:
Aim: the relative position of the goal and end effector define
the aiming direction, so the position of the goal influences
the orientation of the end effector. The orientation of the goal
is ignored. Positional Relationship is unavailable for this
orientation type, so the end effector is free to move in space
in any way so that it can achieve proper orientation.
Selecting this option displays an Aim Vector edit field for you
to specify a vector that is local to the coordinate frame of the
end effector. The constraint attempts to position the end
effector so that this vector is aimed at the goal.
Align_direction: the goal and end effector must be aligned in
the same direction. Selecting this option displays a two
additional edit fields, End Effector Vector and Goal Vector
that let you define vectors in the local coordinate frame of
the end effector and goal, respectively. The constraint
attempts to align these two vectors in space.
Align_frame: attempts to align the orientation of the end
effector with the orientation of the goal. The X, Y, Z axes of
the end effector will be aligned with the X, Y, Z axes of the
goal.
Planar_direction: the goal and end effector must be aligned
in the same planar direction. Selecting this option displays a
two additional edit fields, End Effector Vector and Goal
Vector that let you define vectors in the local coordinate
frame of the end effector and goal, respectively. The
constraint attempts to align these two vectors in space.
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View: similar to aim with the additional restriction against
twist along the aiming direction. Positional Relationship is
unavailable for this orientation type.
None: there is no orientation relationship between the goal
and end effector.

Positional Relationship
Use this option menu to select the desired relationship between the
position of the goal and the position of the end effector. The
available relationships are:
limit_spring: used to push away from a joint limit.
point_to_line: position the end effector along a line.
point_to_plane: position the end effector along the plane of
the goal. Selecting this option displays a Plane Normal
Vector edit field. The normal vector you enter is local to the
coordinate frame of the goal. The plane is assumed to pass
through the origin of the goal.
point_to_point: position the end effector at the point of the
goal.
rest_angle: used to pull towards a rest angle.
none: there is no positional relationship between the goal
and end effector.
Orientation <---->Position Weight
Use this slider bar to change the weighting used to optimize the
figure's position. Zero represents fixed orientation; 1.0 represents
full weighting given to the figure's position.
Relative Constraint Weight
Use Current Orientation Offset: Select this check box to use
the current orientation of the goal and end effector to define
an orientation offset.
Use Current Position Offset: Select this check box to use the
current position of the goal and end effector to define an
position offset.
Active: Select this check box to make this constraint active.

Simulation Updates
(Command: UtilitiesSimulation Updates)
SIMULATION UPDATES turns off the simulation engine and frame
updates, so that constraints, motors, and anything else that
updates over time is stopped. Direct manipulation, like adjusting
joints, still functions normally. Probably the most common use is
with motion tracking, where it allows users to modify the scene
without constraints constantly moving things around. Its a quick
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way to change attachments and other qualities on constrained or


motorized figures without having to turn off constraints individually
or delete all of the motors.

Measure Distance
(Command: UtilitiesMeasure Distance)
Scalar
MEASURE DISTANCE is a convenient way to obtain static dimensions
between two points in space. This command lets you position to
endpoints in a line and then calculates the scalar distance, XYZ
component vector distances, and the XYZ rotational differences.

Measure Distance Dialog

Advanced Rulers
The Advanced Ruler tool was introduced in v7.1.
Taking measurements in the Jack scene is commonly used to help
arrange geometry, as well as when assessing and communicating
issues such as hand clearance and reaching. The Advanced Ruler
tool allows you to quickly create and customize rulers within your
scene. You can select from various line styles and thicknesses as
well as visibility options. The rulers can be saved with your
environments and captured in images to help communicate
dimensioning concerns with others.
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The Advanced Ruler tool can be found in the Utilities menu ->
Advanced Rulers -> Create/Edit.
You can also find a list of all the rulers you have created or saved
with your scene in the Utilities menu -> Advanced Rulers - >
Current Rulers
A full description of how to use this utility can be found by clicking
on the Usage button in the Advanced Ruler dialog.

Rulers
(Command: UtilitiesRulers)
A ruler allows you to dynamically display the distance between two
segments or sites continuously, even when the objects have been
moved. The endpoints for this ruler are attached to a segment and
can be offset to a particular point in space relative to that segment.

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Create Ruler Dialog

Rulers are drawn as white and red lines between points. These
ruler ticks change color every 10 units by default, however, the
tick distance as well as the display units can be changed. The
current distance is always displayed at the center of this line.

Ruler Between two cubes

Minimal Distance
(Command: UtilitiesMinimal Distance)
Use this dialog to determine the minimum distance between two
convex segments in the Graphics Window. The dialog displays the
scalar distance and the vector between the two closest nodes on
the segments. The computations are based on the Gilbert, Johnson
and Keerthi algorithm, which computes the vector (Distance Vector)
between the closest nodes of two segments and the module of this
vector.

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Minimum Distance Dialog

Logging
(Command: UtilitiesLogging)
Jack maintains a log of all operations it performs. This is useful for
generating macros by capturing interactive commands and creating
Tcl script files. Use this dialog to select a log file; start or stop the
log file; edit the current log file; and select what appears in the log
file. The default log file name is .jk_log.tcl and it is stored in the
users settings file directory (e.g. $HOME/jack_4.1).

System Geometry Info


(Command: UtilitiesSystem Geometry Info)
This option displays information related to the number of Jack
objects present in the current environment.

Reach Zones
(Command: AnalysisReach Zones)
Advanced Reach Analysis
The Advanced Reach Zone tool is part of the standard Jack
functionality. It helps you generate zones that depict the areas of
maximum and comfortable reach for your figures. With this tool, you
can generate:

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Joint-driven maximum reach zones depicting full movement of


both shoulders and the waist.

Constraint-driven maximum reach zones factoring in such


constraints as seat belts, steering wheel hand positions, head
locations and more.

Comfortable reach zones for the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip,


knee and ankle joints based on the industry's most recognized
sources of comfort data.

Sample Reach Zones

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Chapter 8: Measuring, Checking Utilities, and Analyzing Jack


In this tutorial you will learn how to check for collisions and work
with constraints between objects within the Jack scene. In general,
measurement provides a way to begin to move beyond subjective
analyses to very precise and objective ones. You will become
familiar with measuring using rulers and distance commands.
Delete your current scene by choosing EDIT->DELETE SCENE
Open the file Chapter8.env

Exercise: Collision detection


In this section you will learn how to use Jack to evaluate collision
detection between figures or segments.
Lets start by using collision detection on a figure and a segment (the human
squatting to lift a crate off the shelf).
Move your view to the Jack figure near the shelf.
Select the menu option UTILITIES->COLLISION DETECTION
Choose the continuous option for the collision mode and highlight for the
display type

The display type, Highlight will cause the segments in collision to


be highlighted.
Choose Modified M & W for the detection algorithm
Select Add
This will add figures or segments to check collision detection with.
Choose CHECK with Segment
Select the human palm as the segment to check
Choose WITH Figure
Select the Crate as the Figure to check With
Hit Apply
Move the Human Hand using the CONTROL PANEL until it collides with the
Crate
You should see the palm and the crate highlight in yellow.

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Collision Detection
Click on the button Flash List

All the segments that are in the collision list will flash in the
GRAPHICS W INDOW . Also notice the collision list status section
shows you how many items are being checked for collision.
Click on the button Inspect List

This will bring up a COLLISION LIST DIALOG. On the left hand side is a
list of all segments in the collision list.
Click on one of the segments listed on the left hand side

The list on the right hand side of the COLLISION LIST DIALOG, lists all
the segments that are paired with the segment highlighted in the
left hand box.

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Collision Detection Inspect List

Now lets remove these two objects from collision detection.


Change the ADD button from being selected
selected

to the REMOVE button

Choose CHECK with Segment


Select the human palm as the segment to check
Choose WITH Figure
Select the Crate as the Figure to check With
Hit Apply
The crate and palm should return to their original colors.
Dismiss the COLLISION LIST DIALOG

Note: The number of segment pairs in the collision list is


reported on the dialog in the box labeled Collision List Status.
The number of segment pairs in the collision list is updated
once you hit Apply.

Exercise: Constraints
Load in the file smallcube.pss
OBJECT>CREATE>FIGURE FROM LIBRARY

from

Load
in
the
file
chain.fig
from
OBJECT>CREATE>FIGURE FROM LIBRARY

the
the

OBJECT
OBJECT

LIBRARY
LIBRARY

Open the CREATE CONSTRAINT DIALOG from UTILITIES>CONSTRAINT>CREATE


CONSTRAINT
Move the chain and small cube in the scene so they are not loaded on top of
one another
Select a site on the cube as the Goal Site
Select chain.arm2.top as the End Effector Site
Select chain.basejoint0 as the Starting Joint
For the Orientational Relationship Drop Down Box select None

Note: The Orientation Position Weight Slider is automatically


set to 1.0
Check the Active Box and hit the Create Button

A constraint has now been created between the bow and the chain.
Move the box
Hit Begin Move in the Interactive Reach and manipulate the goal

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Note: The two constraints can work across the same joint
structure.

Active Constraint Between the Chain and the Cube

Exercise: Scalar Measure


Move your view over to the Jack human working at the Computer Station on
the Mezzanine
Select the menu option UTILITIES->MEASURE DISTANCE
Click on the button labeled Position Point 1
Use the snap to options on the MOVE CONTROLLER to position the
measurement point on a node at the base of the desk
Click on the button labeled Position Point 2
Use the snap to options to position the second measurement point on a
node on the top of the desk.

Note: The linear distance, the translation and rotation that


define the relative transformation between the two sites that
you select are displayed in the dialog

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Scalar Measure
Click on the Position Point 1 button and select a different location for the
end point

Note: The information displayed is updated to reflect this new


point.
Dismiss the MEASURE DISTANCE DIALOG

Exercise: Create Ruler


Select the menu option UTILITIES->RULERS
Pick a site on the humans face to create the ruler from
Pick a site on the computer screen to create the ruler to
Click on the offset button and snap the ruler end points to nodes or faces on
the figures

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Ruler Dialogue Window

Note: You can use all the tools you normally would use to
locate sites or objects relative to other objects to place the end
point of the ruler. The point you choose will determine which
segment the ruler end points move with.
Hit Create
Move one of the figures

Notice that the ruler dimensions change as the distance between


the two endpoints changes.
Move the other figure
Hit the Delete button to remove the ruler completely

Multiple Rulers in a Scene


Exercise: Minimal Distance
Select the menu option UTILITIES->MINIMUM DISTANCE
Pick a segment on the table
Pick a segment on the computer
Hit Compute
You will see the minimum distance between these two segments

Exercise: Maximum Reach Analysis


Move over to the Jack human standing in front of the table with tools
Select the menu option ANALYSIS: REACH ZONES
Select the option Joint Angle Driven From Shoulder
Select the Human figure you wish to analyze

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Select a site on the right palm as the Traced Site


Hit the Generate button
A reach zone is a figure in your scene. You can change the display or move the
reach zone.

Transparent Reach Zone


Right mouse click on the reach zone and choose DISPLAY->TRANSPARENT
Now create another reach zone using Joint Angle Driven From Waist
Set the Waist Flex Angle to 85 degrees
Set the Waist Lateral Angle to 40 degrees
Hit the Generate button
Dismiss out of the Reach Analysis Dialogue Window

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Reach Zone Driven From Waist Dialogue Window

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Chapter 9: Animation System Module


(Command: ModulesAnimation System)
Up until now, you have been primarily working with Jacks
interactive tools to create scenes, manipulate the figure and
evaluate aspects of your simulation environment. However, Jack
also provides another powerful capability: 3D motion definition,
scripting, and playback.
While Jack offers a powerful (yet easy to use) animation tool, a
person using Jack needs to realize that animation is a very time
consuming endeavor and patience is required to do involved
projects.
This chapter covers what is typically referred to as Jacks
traditional animation system. In recent years we have also
introduced a tool called the Task Simulation Builder (TSB), which
moves away from the traditional key framing approach to human
simulation, and allows you to command the human figures using
high level task descriptions (ex. Get nails / Use hammer). These
get translated behind the scenes into the appropriate human
motions. For more information on TSB, go to Help-> TSB Manual.

3D Motion

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Animation Window
The Animation Window contains all the functions necessary to
create and playback motions in Jack. It consists of a menu, toolbar,
and timeline.

Jacks Animation Window


Menu
The menus in the Animation window contain all of the commands
available to create a simulation in Jack. They are organized into
basic File and Control operations, Motion Primitives, and
Timeline Options.

Animation Window Menus


Animation Window Icons
(Command: Animation System Control)
The Animation Icons provide quick access to common Animation
functions.
This function generates the frames for playback.
This function must be used to view any edited or
newly created motions.
This icon stops generation of frames.

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This sets the initial frame for the animation. The
file contains all the objects that will be animated
and also indicates their starting postures and
positions.
Rewind to Start
Step backward one frame
Stop Playback
Playback a generated animation.
Step forward one frame
Fast Forward to end.
This icon controls the cycle style during playback.
It displays a pop-up menu with the following
selections: forward, backward, loop forward, loop
backward, and swing.
This icon controls the speed of playback. When
the realtime box is checked the animation skip
frames so that playback is displayed in realtime.
You also have the option of changing the realtime
multiplier. This allows you to view double, half, or
any desired speed.

Timeline
The Timeline graphically represents each motion within a time grid.
You can delete, move, resize, and edit these motions using the
<RMB>. You can also interactively move and resize specific
motions by dragging them with the <LMB>. Finally, you can modify
the size of the timeline using the + or - Button at the bottom of the
animation window.

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Example Motion Editing Menu

Mouse cursor

Command
Interactively move motion <LMB>
Interactively resize motion<LMB>
Interactively step through
motions<MMB>

Motion Basics
Motions in the Jack animation system require several basic
parameters: a motion name, a weight, a velocity, a start time, a
duration, and an objective or goal. Notice that a motion initial state
is NOT required. In Jack the initial location is grabbed from the
previous motion. This makes editing Jack motions very easy. There
is only one state per motion that needs to be changed and this
automatically updates subsequent motions. This format does
require a starting position at time zero, however.
Generate
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemControlGenerate)
Jack uses key framing to create motions. The starting frame is
defined from the last position of the previous motion. When a new

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motion is created, you will only need to define the last position of
the previous motion and Jack will figure out how to translate
between the end position or the last motion to the newly defined
position (after the motions have been generated).
Complex tasks typically consist of many motions overlapping each
other. Jack provides the capability to generate these motions
interactively, using all of the power of the realistic human
movement and behavior that is built in to the human figure model.
You dont have to manually generate every joint motion and track
the sequencing - Jack does all the hard work of motion generation
and playback.

Jack Walking
Set Frame 0
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemControlSet Frame 0)
The starting position for all objects in the environment is
automatically specified when the ANIMATION MODULE is first created.
It is possible to change this. It is also necessary to explicitly set the
starting positions when new objects are added to an animation by
setting frame 0 using the icon or by following the path above.

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Create Figure Motion Dialog

Motion Name: Each motion will have its own unique name.
Weight: Each motion describes movement of a part of a figure
through a kinematic constraint. Consequently, it is possible to have
two motions affect the same part at the same time. The weight
function describes the constraints strength over an object relative
to another constraint.
Velocity: Each motion in the Animation Window has a predefined
velocity profile described through a kinematic constraint. The speed
of the end effector along the path between the starting and ending
positions is controlled through the velocity function:
Start: This parameter specifies the starting time for the motion.
Note that the time will be either listed as seconds or frames. There
are 30 frames in a second on the animation timeline.
Duration: This parameter specifies the overall duration for the
motion. Note that the time will be either listed as seconds or
frames. There are 30 frames in a second on the animation timeline.
You do not explicitly set the ending time for a motion; rather, end
time = start time + duration.
Group: Specifies which motion group to add the motion to.
Typically there is only one motion group (named "default"). The
motion group must already exist to be specified in this field. You
can create a motion group by right clicking (<RMB>) on the group
icon and selecting "New" from the menu.
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Figure Motions
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemGeneralFigure)
Figure Motions provide an easy way to translate and rotate a Figure
around the environment. In fact, you use the MOVE CONTROLLER to
reposition the figure. When you are finished, the motion dialog
captures the current location of the figure and uses it as the goal in
the animation.
Note: Figure motions record the position and orientation of the
figure. Joint angles are not recorded.
Joint Motions
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemGeneralJoint)
Joint motions provide a convenient way to specify goal positions for
many joints at once. Specifically it is possible to create a joint
motion that moves one joint in a figure, several joints in a figure, or
all the joints in the figure to specified goal positions.
You can do any interactive manipulation to set the goal location for
the joints. Every joint in the list will be animated by the motion.
Note: The position of every joint in the list at the time the
Create button is hit will be taken as the new goal. Only this
final position is recorded, not the path of the movement.
Timed Attachments
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemGeneralRelationalTimed Attach)
Time attachments let you control the movement of one figure by
attaching it to another.

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Timed Attach
Constraints
(Command: ModulesAnimation
SystemGeneralRelationalConstraints)
Constraints define a constraint for a set duration of time during a
portion of your animation.
Path Motions
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemPathsFigure Path)
Path motions let you attach objects to predefined paths in space.
The site path1.paths.point will move along the path over the time
interval of the path motion. The motion of this site can be used to
control an objects translation and orientation.

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Figure Path Motion

Human Motions
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemHuman)
Human Motions in Jack are just Basic motions using all of the
human manipulations and behaviors available in the Human
Control Panel. Just like Figure Motions, the Human Control Dialog
is used to manipulate the human. The Motion Dialog then saves the
new human position.
Timed Behaviors
(Command:ModulesAnimationSystemHumanTimed Control)
The behavior setting of the human affects what motion results when
you create motions for the human. It is possible to explicitly control
(and change) the human behavior settings during the course of an
animation.
Like timed attachments, timed behaviors are a useful way to control
the motion of one figure through the motion of another figure.
Consequently, you can generate animation of the human using the
motion of other objects. Timed behaviors are also useful for
situations where the most appropriate behavior changes over the
course of the task being animated.
Camera Motions
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemSceneCamera)
Camera motions allow you to change view during an animation.
When you create this motion the camera doesnt move. It is already
at the goal position. By default the initial frame doesnt contain
camera information. As a result, the first camera motion becomes
the initial location for the camera.
Channelsets
Channelset files are a way to save multiple motions or channels
(joint angles and positions for each frame) into one motion.
Channelset files can be read back in and added to your animation.
Creating Channelsets
(Command: ModulesAnimation SystemChannelsetsSave
Channelsets)
A channelset can be created for any time frame and for any figure
in the environment. In addition, a single channelset file can contain
motions for multiple figures.
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Write Channelset Dialog


Replaying Channelset Motions
(Command: ChannelsetChannelset Motion)
To replay a channelset, load the file from either FileOpen or in
the Animation Module ChannelsetLoad Channelset. Next, assign
the figure animations from the channelset to figures in the current
environment.
Notice you can load many channelset files and can select any of
these. Also, the duration option in the dialog is grayed out. Unlike
other motions, a channelsets size is specified in the channelset file.
Otherwise, the motion can be deleted or moved like any other
motion in the timeline.

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Create Channelset Dialog


Channelset Editor
The editor allows individual joint and figure motions saved within a
channelset to be included or excluded. The channelset file can be
loaded into the editor from CHANNELSETLOAD CHANNELSET. The
new channelset can then be saved and used to create a new
animation.
Movie Export
Movies that can be played back outside of Jack are useful for
sharing simulations with others. These are very easy to create with
Jack. The Export Animation dialogue is located under
ModulesAnimation SystemFileExport Animation.

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Movie Export
Jack will generate images for each frame and compile them into an
animation file. Images for this animation can be rendered the same
as individual screen captures. Finally, the screen saver should be
deactivated during the entire export process. Windows or other
activities that interfere with the animation will be recorded into the
subsequent movie. The movie will be automatically saved to your
home directory.
Resolution
The resolution determines how large the movie image is and also
how big the resulting file is. Use the smallest resolution you can get
away with. If you try to resize a movie created at a low resolution to
make it larger you will notice the lack of resolution. The image will
be very coarse.
Animation Options
The start and stop time allows you to crop the beginning and the
end of your timeline. In other words, Jack allows you to select a
portion of an animation to export. The default times in the dialog are
the actual beginning and end frames of your animation.
Output Options
Jacks animation system allows you to output a finished movie in
AVI or MPEG format, environment files (saves object positions) for

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every frame, or individual images of every frame. These image files


can be used with external movie utilities to create complex fades or
merge with existing footage.
Video Compression
When AVI format is selected for video export, you will be prompted
to select a video compressor and quality setting, to optimize the file
size of your video.
It is important to note that the selection and use of codecs for .avi
movies is a function supported/controlled entirely by Microsoft.
Jack cannot edit any of the codecs provided in the selection dialog,
nor can the software control the success of using any particular
codec. Furthermore, the construction of .avi movies can have a
heavy memory footprint. Very long/large videos may not export as
expected.

Compression Dialog
Animation Tips
Constraint Vs Joint Motions:
Joint motions tend to be smoother than constraint motions in
animations. Constraint motions required a considerable amount of
computation for figures with a number of joints and the motions
may therefore be less fluid when constraints are used. It is
recommended that you use the constraints to position the figures
for the motions, but record the joint positions in the motion file.
Constraint based motions do have an advantage over joint based
motions in terms of their ability to react to changes in the scene or
animation. For example, if an arm motion is used to reach a box in
the scene, the animation will automatically change appropriately if
an earlier motion is modified top put the box in a new location. If a
joint motion had been used, the figure would continue to reach for

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the old location of the box, since only the joint displacements (and
not a constraint/behavior goal) are recorded.
Generation:
Disabling the TJ_Window during generation will generate the
motions faster. Simply right click in the TJ_Window and select
Disable.
Handprints and Footprints:
This tool brings in hand and footprints and automatically constrains
a human to them. In some cases, this can be an easier method for
positioning the human within the scene.
_Motcs File:
The _motcs (also referenced in this document under Quickstart) file
is automatically created when you save the _motions file from the
animation panel. This file will open automatically when the
_motions file is loaded. This has two benefits.
1. Generation is not required unless changes are made to the
motions.
2. Packet size is greatly reduced during collaboration. Loading an
_motions file that has an associated _motcs file will
automatically load the motions on all participants and then only
the frame, rather than all the motions, will be collaborated.
Motion Times (Motions not being generated):
Motions, including attachments, need to be at least .03 seconds.
This is equivalent to one frame. Motions less than .03 may or may
not be generated.
Pose Figure Vs Joint Motion:
It is recommended that you use the pose figure to position the
figure for the motions, but record joint motions and the figure
position rather than the pose figure. The pose figure command
contains joint positions and a figure position. Therefore, if you
reposition the figure with the pose, the figure motion and the pose
motion will need to be recorded in parallel. If the pose motion and
the figure motion are recorded in parallel, you will essentially have
two figure motions on the same figure recorded in parallel and Jack
may or may not use the figure motion that you intended.
Quickstart:
Animations can now be loaded and played without requiring users
to generate the motions. This has been integrated into Jack 6.0 and
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will work as long as no changes have been made to the motion


files. In order for quickstart to work, animation files must be
loaded directly from the animation panel. If the motion files are
loaded from the main File>OPEN dialog, the motions will need to
be generated. See _motcs for more information.

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Chapter 9 Tutorial: Animation System Module


This tutorial will guide you through Jacks basic animation features
such as manipulating the human and moving objects. You will also
learn more advanced animation techniques and tips for creating
realistic animations.
Exercise: Animation Window
This exercise will introduce you to the basic features in the
animation window.
Delete the scene and read in the Sphere.pss from the Object Library
(ObjectCreate---Figure from Library---Primitives)
Scale the ball to make it smaller by right clicking on the ball and selecting
Scale
Reduce the scale by all axes to .2
Move the ball away from 0,0,0
Create a human
Open the ANIMATION W INDOW
Examine the available menus.

Note: The timeline is empty.

Scene for Basic Animation

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Exercise: Basic Animation


This exercise will introduce you to some basic animation features.
You will move the sphere and human.
Set Frame Zero in the Animation Window

Set Frame Zero Icon


Create a Figure Motion. In the Animation Window General---Figure
In the FIGURE MOTION DIALOG leave the Weight and Velocity at Constant.
Set the Start time for 0. (The motion will begin at 0 seconds)
Set the Duration for 1 second. (The motion will last for 1 second)
In the FIGURE MOTION DIALOG select the sphere as the Figure and hit Move.

Figure Motion Dialogue


Move the sphere to a new location for the move animation. When finished hit
Create, Apply and dismiss the dialog.

This will create a motion in the Timeline.

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Hit the Generate button

Note: The motion will replay as it generates the frames. The


playback controls can then be used to control the generated
motions.
Hit the Play button.
Move and resize the motions in the timeline by using your mouse button over
the timeline and clicking/dragging the time. When you are finished hit
generate again.
The time should have changed.

Exercise: Group manipulation


This exercise will demonstrate moving an object multiple times.
Create another Figure Motion for the sphere by selecting General---Figure, in
the Animation Window.
Set the start time after the first motion.
Apply a duration of 2 seconds.
When finished hit Create and dismiss the dialog.

This will create a second motion in the Timeline.


Hit the Generate button
You should now see the sphere move two times.

Note: Both motions are resized to the new size of the default
group.
Exercise: Human Linear Walk
This exercise will demonstrate how to have a human perform a
walking motion.
Now we will have our human perform a walk motion.
Rewind the motion to frame 0 using the

icon

Select Human---Linear Walk from the Animation Window


Leave the Weight and Velocity set to constant.
Set the Start Time at 0 seconds.
Set the Duration for 2 seconds.
Choose Forward, Swing Arms for the Mode. (Notice the other Mode Types).

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Choose the Human figure.


Move the Human to a new end location for the walk. (i.e Move the human to
the side).
Hit Apply and Dismiss.
Notice the new figure motion in the animation timeline.

Multiple Motions in the Timeline


Note: Animations contain an objects final destination only.
Generate the Animation

Notice the ball motions and the human motions.


Modify the timing on the motions.
Hit Generate

Exercise: Human Pose


This exercise will demonstrate how to have the human take a
posture motion at the end of the walk created in the last section.
Select Human---Pose from the Animation Window
Leave the weight and velocity set to Constant.
Set the Start Time to be at the end of the Human Linear Walk created in the
last section.
Set the Duration to .5 seconds.

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Select the Human Figure.


Select the Pose Standing Working from the drop down list. (Notice these are
the same saved postures available on the human in the Human Context
Sensitive Menu)

Human Pose Motion


Notice the addition of a Pose to the timeline.
Generate the Animation

Play the Animation.


Check the Realtime Box in the Animation Window. And set it to .5.

Realtime Playback
Hit Play
The animation plays back at half the time.

Exercise: Saving the Animation


This exercise will demonstrate saving an animation file and
replaying saved animations.

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Choose File---Save from the Animation Window


Name the File.
Select Save.
Select Save again.
Notice there are two files saved. The first is the Environment File, and the
second is the Animation File associated with the environment.
Close Jack.
Reopen Jack.
Open the new Environment file you created File---Open.
Open the new Animation file you created (it should be the same name as the
environment file with the addition of _motions in the filename). This
automatically brings up the Animation Window.
Notice the motions are in the animation window.
Playback the animation.

Exercise: Human Path Walk


This exercise will demonstrate the human walking along a defined
path.
Delete your scene (Edit---Delete Scene). This should also clear the
animation window.
Open the File Chapter10.env
Open the File Chapter10_motions.env. (This will bring up the Animation
Window)
Rewind and Play the Animation.
Review the motions in the timeline.
Notice that there are several Motions in the timeline. There are human
walking, posture and Robot Joint Motions. There is also a support motion
and a figure motion.
In the Animation Window, select File---Clear Animation---Yes
The Animation Window should now be empty.
Now you are going to create a path for the human to walk along. The human
needs to walk to the monitor station near the robot.
In the Object Hierarchy, delete the existing Path in the list by Right Clicking
on the Path and Selecting Delete.

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Deleting a Path from the Object Hierarchy


Rewind the Animation Window.
Set Frame 0.
Select Paths---Create Path

Path Point #1
You will see the Path Dialogue open and the first path point has been
created at 0,0,0. Keep the first point at 0,0,0.
Hit Add After to add another point. This point has been created in the same
location as the last point. (See image below for a sample of locations for path
points).

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Move this second path point. Be sure to have all path points created on the
floor (Y=0).
Once you have the second path point where you want it, hit Add After again.
Another point has been created on top of (in the same location) as the last point.
Move this third path point to its desired location.
Keep adding points until you have a path that ends in front of the monitor
station. See image below.

Path Creation
Once you have completed the path, hit Create and then Apply. Finally,
Dismiss the Window.
Now that you have added a path to the scene, you need to reset frame zero.
Hit Set Frame 0.
In the Animation Window, select Human---Path Walk.

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Human Path Walk


Now that you have added a path to the scene, you need to reset frame zero.
Hit Set Frame 0.
In the Animation Window, select Human---Path Walk.
The Path Walk Dialogue will open.

Human Path Dialogue


Leave the weight and velocity set to constant.
Set the Start Time at 0 seconds.
Set the Duration for 2 seconds.
Select the Male Human near the path.
Select the Path.
Tip: You may need to select the path from the Object Hierarchy (or type
in path name into the text entry).

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Hit Create, Apply and Dismiss the window.


Hit Generate.
The human walks the path to the monitor and robot control.

Note: Objects can also follow paths. Paths can be created at


any location in space.

Note: The path is a figure in the Object Hierarchy. This object


can be made invisible for presentation or viewing purposes.
Right click on the path and Select Display Path to turn the path
visible and invisible.
Exercise: Human Motions
This exercise will demonstrate having the human reach out for
controls.
Create a human motion for the human to reach out with the left hand and turn on
the Robot using the control.
In the Animation Window select Human---Arm Motion
Leave the weight and velocity set to constant.
Set the Start Time at 2 Seconds. (The end of the path walk)
Set the Duration at .5 Seconds. Select the Human.
Choose the Right Side (or you can select Left if it is closer to the botton).
Leave the Starting Joint as the Shoulder.
Leave Include Wrist selected.
Hit Adjust.
The human control dialogue opens and you can adjust the human hand to
the desired location. Move the hand to the red control button on the control
box.

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Arm Motion
Once you have completed moving the hand, Hit Create, then Apply and
finally, Dismiss the window.
A new arm motion has been added to the timeline.
Hit Generate.
Create a head motion at the same time as the arm motion.
In the Animation Window select Human---Head
The head motion dialogue window will open.
Leave the weight and velocity set at constant.
Set the Start Time at 2 Seconds (the end of the path walk).
Set the Duration at .5 Seconds (the same as the arm motion).

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Head Motion
Select the human.
Hit Adjust.
The Human Control Dialogue will open.
Move the head to the center of the computer monitor. (Use the Snap To Face
Center feature)
Hit Create.
Dismiss the window.
Hit Generate.
The head and arm motion happen at the same time in the timeline.

Exercise: Joint Motions, Interactive Reach and Timed Attachments


This exercise will demonstrate having a robot move multiple joints
to pick up a box and place it on the conveyor.
You will now finish recreating the animation you reviewed in the previous
exercise.
Using the Adjust Joint Icon in the Jack Toolbar, select some of the joints on
the robot to understand where they are located. Do not adjust the joints.
Notice that there are several joints located in the Robot.
Make sure you are at the end of the Timeline in the Animation Window. You
should see a red line at the end of the timeline.

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End of the Timeline


You will now move the robot to pick up the box on the table.
In the Jack Toolbar select Object---Interactive Reach
Select a site on the end of the robot for the End Effector Site.
Select the base of the robot (Robot_Jack5.J4) as the Starting Joint.
Begin Move.
Move the head of the robot to the cube.
Dismiss the window.

Interactive Reach
Create a Joint Motion to capture this move.
in the Animation Window choose General---Joint Motion
The joint motion dialogue window will appear.

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Joint Motion Dialogue


Leave weight and velocity set to constant.
Set the Start time at 2.5 seconds (The end of the human motions)
Set the duration at 1 second.
Choose the Figure Tab.
Choose the Selector in the Add all Joint from Figure.
Select the Robot as the Figure. (This will add all the joints from the figure to
the new motion).
Hit Create.
Dismiss the window.
Hit Generate.
The robot moves to the cube.
Create a Timed Attachment for the cube to attach to the Robot.
In the Animation Window select General---Relational---Timed Attach

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Set the weight and velocity at Constant


Set the start time to 3.5. (You want the attachment to begin at the end of the
first robot motion)
Set the duration for 3 seconds.
Choose the cube as the Figure
Choose a site on the end of the Robot as the point to Attach to.

Timed Attachment Dialogue


Create another Robot motion to move the cube off the table and to its new
location. Use the Interactive Reach and Joint Motions to create multiple robot
motions.
Once you have the Robot Motions and the Cube Moved to the conveyor, add a
figure motion for the cube to move down the conveyor.
General---Figure
Choose the Cube
Specify a Start time and Duration.
Move the Cube to its new location.
Apply and Dismiss the window.
Generate.

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Exercise: Timed Control


This exercise will demonstrate timed controls on the human.
You will now finish recreating the animation you reviewed in the previous
exercise.
Move the timeline in the Animation Window to 2.5 Seconds (This is at the
beginning of the Robot motions)

Time Line at 2.5 Seconds


In the Animation Window select Human---Timed Control---Head
We will create a timed control telling the head to fixate on the cube during the
remainder of the animation.
The Head Control dialogue will open

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Timed Control Head Dialogue


Leave the weight and velocity set at constant
Set the Start time at 2.5 seconds
Set the Duration to happen until the end of your animation. (If you animation
ends at 9 seconds then the duration would be 9-2.5= 6.5)
Select your Human.
Select Fixate as the Type.
Select a Site as the Goal Type.
Choose a site on the cube for the human to fixate on.
Hit Apply and Dismiss the window.
Hit Generate.
Open an Eye View window for the Human. You should see what the human can
see during the walk and while he is watching the cube.

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Chapter 10: Other Modules


Task Simulation Builder (TSB)
(Command: ModulesTask Simulation Builder)
TSB represents a different way to create high-level, reusable
simulations in Jack. It will allow you to create simulations and
animations much more quickly than the standard Jack animation
system, and the results will be very flexible for use in "what-if"
scenarios involving changing environments, varying human models,
and even different numbers of people involved in a task.
Because simulations are defined at a high level, changes to the
humans or environment are not only reflected as differences in the
details of the motions (such as a different reach location), but in the
timing and content of the results: if an object is moved out of reach,
TSB will automatically insert an obstacle-avoiding walk to get it. If a
small object is replaced with a large object, TSB will switch from a
one-handed to a two-handed grasp.
A detailed TSB Manual can be accessed from:
Help TSB Manual
This manual includes a TSB Tutorial, and it is recommended that all
new TSB Users work through this exercise.
Motion Capture
(Command: ModulesMotion Capture Real-Time)
The Motion Capture (MoCap) Module allows you to capture and
playback motions using Virtual Reality (VR) hardware with Jack
human modeling and simulation software.
The MoCap module is a separately licensed component of
Tecnomatix Jack.
The following VR hardware are supported:

Motionstar by Ascension Technologies, Inc


Flock Of Birds by Ascension Technologies, Inc
Vicon Tracking Systems
MotionAnalyis Inc. Tracking Systems
Cybergloves by Virtual Technologies, Inc
5DT Gloves by Fifth Dimension Technologies, Inc.

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Note: C3D Data playback is also supported


Third Party Communication
As part of the distribution, thorough documentation can be found to
assist our Motion Capture partners who wish to develop an
interface to Jack. While this is not new functionality, the revised
documentation is expected to ease the process of interfacing with
Jack in order to take advantage of our Motion Tracing solution. In
addition to this, a new User Interface has been developed for users
of third party motion capture devices. This interface is also
furnished with Usage documents and follows the standard Jack
User Interface design, to ensure familiarity.
The Third Party Motion Capture Communication Protocol manual
can be found in your Jack distribution in the /Jack/Docs folder.
The Third Party MoCap tracking setup dialog can be found under
Modules- > Motion Capture -> Communication Protocol ->
Tracking Setup.

Third Party Mocap Tracking Setup Dialog


For licensed users, complete MoCap Usage documents are
accessible from:
Help -> MoCap Help

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Plug-ins
(Command: ModulesPlug-ins)
The Add-on Module system is configured via the Plug-In manager
available on the Modules menu. The module system allows you to
add capabilities to Jack selectively as they fit your needs. The ADDON MODULES DIALOG box appears in the figure below. By moving
Modules to the Auto-Load list, they will automatically appear in the
Modules menu each time you start Jack.

Plug-in Dialog
This Dialog box allows you to see all of the currently available
modules as well as add any custom-developed modules to the
menus (using the Browse button).
Modules currently available for Jack include the following:
CPort
This is a tool for socket communication between Jack and other
applications. Jack receives Tcl strings and interprets them. Added
are a number of easy to use script functions to make scripting easy.
CableGenerator
This tool creates cables and cable like figures using joint chains.
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CameraTracking
This allows the camera to be synchronized with either a figure
bounding box center or a site. A constant offset is maintained
between them. It has both dolly mode which maintains a fixed
height, and boom mode, which follows the height of the entity.
Disembodied Hand Module
Often when conducting a clearance study, the focus of an analysis
can be purely on the hand. In these scenarios, posturing the entire
body to get the hand into place can represent unnecessary
overhead. In place of this, the Disembodied Hands Module can be
used to posture a hand only, offering feedback on clearance
requirements more efficiently.

For a full description of this module and a sample use case, click on
the Usage button at the bottom of the modules dialog.
ElevationTransition
The Elevation Transition module allows you to compute and
visualize a trajectory for climbing up and down stairs and ramps.
Using this module you can easily define the layout of your staircase
or ramp, and Jack will automatically compute the steps necessary
to ascend/descend. These footsteps, along with Jack or Jills
motions, can be visualized, edited, and exported to the animation
system for use in creating a simulation.

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To access full documentation for this module, click on the


Usage button from within the modules user interface.

GridGenerator
This is a tool for generating wireframe rectangular and hemispheric
grids. Users have been asking for the ability to move our grid and
for tools to help determine where objects are in the field of view.

Grid Generator
HumanMaterials
Often it is desirable to change the color schemes on human figures
either for visual or identification needs. The HumanMaterials
Module makes this easy by allowing you to select from various predefined figure material color combinations. These schemes can be
previewed and applied to the figure. You can apply these to your
human figure(s), choose to save them as your defaults, or use them
as the starting point for your own custom color
combinations.
Note: This module is designed to work with the v6.0 smooth skin
figures only.

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Default figure shown on Left.


Human Materials used to color figure on Right
JackCollaboration
The Jack Collaboration module facilitates communication between
multiple instances of the Jack application running on separate
machines. The position and joint angles of figures from one Jack
process (server) can be shared with other Jack processes (clients)
in real-time. This can be useful when working with colleagues in
various locations. You can share your working session in real time
while others are directly viewing the motion and positional updates
you are making to the Jack figures.
For more information, click on the Usage button within the Jack
Collaboration dialog
Kinect
An interface has been developed between Jack and the Kinect tool.
This exploratory module can be found in: Modules Plug Ins
Kinect. This modules offer two modes of subject tracking: Scene
Navigation and Human Posturing. Navigation looks at your arm
gestures to maneuver the Jack (or Jill) figure through the scene.
Posturing mode tracks your gross body postures and maps those to
Jack (or Jill). Additional documentation can be accessed from the
Kinect Module User Interface, and we encourage you to review this.

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PrintToJack
This tool generates movable, scalable, modifiable, 3D text from a
text editor in the Jack scene.
PrincipleComponentManikins
This generates boundary manikins which samples of different
extreme anthropometric proportions for testing.
Sample
This is a well commented and documented module that shows how
to use Python and Tcl together to create add-on modules for Jack
Sweeps
This generates geometry for a list of segments for every location
that they were at during a motion. Continuous mode hulls out the
volume for a continuous surface.
SyncSwimming
This tool synchronizes joint angles between two human
figures. This is most useful in VR scenarios where someone
wearing sensors or markers would be able to manipulate a human
figure model of a different size and proportions.

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Sync Swimming
TATReporter
This outputs the results of the 3DSSP, LBA and Fatigue Analysis
for every frame of an animation. It allows for setting hand load
changes in the animation.

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APPENDIX

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Appendix A: System Defaults


Direct Model Upgrade to v 7.3 (for Jack v7.0)
Jack v7.0 and newer utilize DirectModel 7.3. This allows for JT
v9.4 files to be read. Jack also has the ability to make use of the
Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) for certain computations. In
particular, the smooth-skin deformation can be pushed to the GPU.
As this is a fairly costly computation, but highly parallel in nature,
switching to the GPU can significantly improve performance,
especially in situations where the main processor (CPU) is tied up
with other computations.
By default this ability is disabled, however users are strongly
encouraged to give it a try by enabling it via System Defaults>Graphics->Enable Shaders. Performance will vary. Systems with
older or low end graphics cards, such as those found in laptops, are
likely to see performance degradations. Systems with certain highend/multi-core CPUs may not see any performance gains. The
shading model is slightly different when this setting is enabled; this
will be addressed in a future release.
When shaders are enabled, users are encouraged to remain in
VCO mode. This is set by default, but it can otherwise be achieved
by using the TCL console and typing:
jiViewer_setRenderOpt [jiViewer_current] 3
If you switch to other render modes while shaders are enabled,
artifacts may appear. The following rendering modes are available
and can be set in the TCL console by typing:
jiViewer_setRenderOpt [jiViewer_current] [0/1/2/3]

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Where the values are:


0

Index Mode

VBO Mode
(OpenGL Vertex
Buffer Objects)

VCO Mode
(Vertex Cache
optimized
OpenGL Vertex
Buffer Objects)

Fastest Render
Performance

Standard
Performance

Random
Render
Performance

Faster to
Fastest Render
Performance
usage

3x memory
usage

standard
memory usage

1x to 2x
memory usage

1x to 2x
memory usage

DisplayList
Mode

Color:
This page of the System Defaults dialog defines colors used in the
Jack environment. Use this group box to select or modify the color
used for the selected object. Use the radio buttons (defined below)
to identify the object whose color you are changing. The group box
includes a color sample that interactively shows changes you
make. You can select from among the pre-defined colors or
materials in the scrollable list at the bottom of this group. You can
then use the Custom group to modify the color as desired.
Custom: This group box consists of slider bars for Red, Green, and
Blue. You can also specify numeric values for R, G, and B in the
text edit fields below the respective slider bar.
Background color: Determines the color of the Graphics Window
background.
Major grid color: Specifies the color of the major grid line divisions
for the ground plane.
Minor grid color: Specifies the color of the minor grid line divisions
in the Graphics Window for the ground plane.
Site color: Specifies the color of sites.
Node color: Specifies the color of nodes.
Inside wheel color: Specifies the color of interior segments of a
rotation wheel. This color indicates valid rotation within defined joint
limits.

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Outside wheel color: Specifies the color of exterior segments of a


rotation wheel. This color indicates rotations that are outside of the
defined joint limits.
Graphics:
This page of the System Defaults dialog specifies how objects
appear in the Graphics Window.
Display Constraint Glyphs: Use this check box to enable display of
glyphs showing the difference between constraint goal and
endeffector location.
Show Backfaces: Use this check box to display backfaces of
objects.
Reverse Stereo Left/Right: Checking this box will swap the left and
right eye buffers used for stereo windows. This is necessary in
certain hardware configurations. This should not be used for 2channel stereo operation.
Set Grid/Glyph Scale: Use this edit field to enter the grid/glyph
scale.
Set Line Width: Use this edit field to enter the grid line width.
Near Clipping Plane: Use this edit field to enter the position of the
near clipping plane.
Far Clipping Plane: Use this edit field to enter the position of the far
clipping plane.
Solver:
This page of the System Defaults dialog defines constraint solver
parameters used by Jack. Use caution when making changes to
this page. These parameters affect the solution of user defined
constraints and also human behaviors and manipulations that make
use of built-in constraints.
Solver Parameters: Use the parameters in this group box to change
how constraints are solved. The parameters are:
Time Limit (ms): Jack uses an iterative numerical procedure
to evaluate the constraints. The amount of time Jack spends
solving this problem during one iteration before giving up
and accepting a less than optimal solution is controlled by
the constraint time limit.

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Step Factor (m): The motion determined by constraints is
likely to be smoother and less prone to being caught in local
(not global) minima if the distance that the goal moved in
one iteration is small. The constraint step factor provides a
limit on the distance between the end effector and the
goal. Instead of using the actual goals, Jack uses
intermediate goals placed in the direction of the end
effectors but only a fixed distance away. This will cause the
end effector to move more smoothly towards the real goal
when the goal is far from the end effector but because the
constraint is solved at intermediate step points more time will
be required to reach the goal.
Constraint Throttling: Use the parameters to control what
happens when a solution to a constraint cannot be found:
Active: Select the Off or On radio button to disable or enable
constraint throttling. By default, this option is on. Constraint
throttling controls whether or not Jack continues to try to
solve the constraints even when there is no
improvement. With the constraint throttling on, if there is no
improvement greater than delta in the number of iterations
specified for history size than the current solution is
accepted and no further iterations are attempted until the
goal moves.
History Size: Use the slider bar or edit field to enter the
number of iterations.
History Delta: Use the edit field to specify delta
Simulation Mode: Use this to indicate whether the solver
should be active.
Environment Update Optimization: When active, this
improves the performance of some manipulations and
motions, and allows faster loading of large environment files.

UI:
This page of the System Defaults dialog specifies options for the
user interface.
Ignore Library File Warnings: Select this check box to ignore
warning messages due to data read from the Library File.
Dialogs stay on top of main graphics window: Select this check box
to have all Jack dialogs remain on top even when you click on the
Graphics Window. If you unselect this option, you can bring dialogs
to the top by pressing <Alt+Tab>.

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Open option dialog when importing files: This check box is used to
indicate whether the import options dialog should be automatically
opened when importing a file.
Remember window layout between sessions: Select this check box
to save window placement and size information when exiting. This
information will be used to give the same layout the next time you
run Jack.
Help Browser: Use this radio buttons to select the browser to use to
display on-line help. The default is an internal browser. Other
options are Netscape and Internet Explorer (Windows only). The
Netscape and Internet Explorer options require that you already
have the selected browser be installed on your machine.
Maximum Number of Recent Files: Use this edit field to enter the
number of files you want to appear in the list of files most recently
opened. This list appears in the File menu above Exit.
Default Male Filename / Default Female Filename: These indicate
the files used when creating a default male or female figure. The
fields can be changed to override the Jack default figures.
Units:
This page of the System Defaults dialog defines the units of
measure used in the Jack environment. You make selections from
the drop-down list for the type of measure you want to modify. If
desired, enter an increment in the associated edit field.
Angle: Select either degrees or radians from the drop-down list.
Density: This drop-down list provides selections for metric and
English units in various scales.
Distance: This drop-down list provides selections for metric and
English units in various scales.
Force: Select either Newtons or lbs.
Mass: Select gram, kg, or lbs.
Torque: This drop-down list provides selections for metric and
English units in various scales.
Volume: This drop-down list provides selections for metric and
English units in various scales.
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Viewers:
This page of the System Defaults dialog defines parameters for the
Graphics Window viewer. Specifically from this page you can
control the display of performance information, default lighting, and
the sensitivity of the view control.
Show Frame Rate: Use this check box to turn off or on the display
of frame rate information in the upper right hand corner of the
Graphics Window
Show Frame Information: Use this check box to turn off or on the
display of a frame count in the lower left hand corner of the
Graphics Window
Camera Light: Use this check box to determine whether the default
light located on the camera is on or off
Horizontal View Control Gain: Use this edit field to define gain for a
horizontal change of view
Vertical View Control Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for
a vertical change of view
Zoom View Control Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for
zoom
Horizontal Slide View Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for
horizontal slide change of view
Vertical Slide View Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for a
vertical slide change of view
Horizontal Pan View Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for a
horizontal pan view change
Vertical Pan View Gain: Use this edit field to define the gain for a
vertical pan view change
LOD (Level of Detail ) Quality: This can be used for JT data only.
Data must be loaded (not IMPORTED) AND requires the "level of
detail" nodes to be pre-defined. The higher the level of detail for a
part, the slower the rendering. Low LODs are useful for faster
rendering when detail is less important.

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Note: the .jt file must to be generated with the different levels of
detail per part as Jack cannot generate them on the fly.
The slider goes from 0.00 (in which the highest LOD will be
defined) to 1.0 (the lowest one). Unfortunately, this is opposite to
convention where a higher value would represent a higher LOD.
The point on the slider at which a different LOD takes effect is predefined in the .jt file construction. This is not exposed nor controlled
in Jack.

Screen Size Culling: Use this check box to indicate whether screen
size culling should be used to prevent the rendering of small
graphical objects during object or view manipulation.
Minimum Coverage: This edit field is active when screen size
culling is enabled. This indicates the minimum screen coverage
required for rendering; objects smaller than this will not be
rendered, often increasing the frame rate in complex environments.
Draw Final Frame Full: Use this check box to specify whether
screen size culling should be bypassed when redrawing after a
manipulation or view change. This allows screen size culling to
optimize the frame rate during manipulations without compromising
the appearance of the scene during static viewing.

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Appendix B: Snap Definitions


Cursor Point:
The object you are moving will snap to the location of the cursor.
The first piece of geometry in line with the cursor is used to define
the location of the cursor.
Site:
The object you are moving will align to both the position and
orientation of the site picked (combines the snap to site position
and snap to site orientation options described below).
Site position:
The object you are moving will snap to the location of the site you
pick while keeping the original orientation.
Site orientation:
The coordinate axes of the object you are moving will snap to the
coordinate axes of the site picked, with as little rotation as possible.
That is, Jack finds the coordinate axis of the thing you are moving
that is closest to the orientation of the selected site and then aligns
the two axes. The position of the object being moved will not
change. Only its orientation will change.
Node positions:
The object you are moving will snap to the location of the node that
is picked, keeping its original orientation.
Edge line:
The object you are moving will then snap to the closest point along
the line defined by the selected edge. That is, the object will move
along a path perpendicular to the line defined by the edge. The
final position of the object being moved may or may not lie between
the endpoints of the edge. The orientation of the object will not
change.
Edge Position:
Same as Edge line except position snapped to must be between
the endpoints of the edge selected. If the closest point to the line
defined by the edge is not between the endpoints, the object will
move to the closest endpoint.

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Edge orientation:
The object you are moving will snap to the orientation of the
selected edge. As with the snap to site orientation, Jack aligns the
coordinate axis that is closest in orientation to the edge with the
edge.
Face Position:
Same as Face plane except the position snapped to must be within
the selected face. If the closest point to the plane defined by the
edge is not within the face, the object moves to the closest point on
an edge.
Face Center:
The object you are moving will snap to the center point of the
selected face. The orientation of the object does not change.
Face plane:
The object will move to the closest point in the plane defined by the
face. The orientation of the object will not change.
Face orientation:
The object you are moving will align to the orientation of the face
normal.
Square orientation:
The orientation of the object is changed to align with the global
coordinate system.
Ground Plane:
The object is moved so its lowest node is at the ground plane (i.e.,
y = 0).

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Appendix C: Additional Jack Resources


Siemens PLM Website for Jack
Collateral on the Human products within the Siemens PLM portfolio
can be found on the Web here:
www.siemens.com/plm/jack

Jack is part of the larger Tecnomatix brand within Siemens PLM.


You can learn about the other products in the Tecnomatix brand on
the Web here:
www.siemens.com/tecnomatix

Jack User Community


Jack users have a new social media community site where to ask
questions and get answers regarding use of Jack. You can join that
community here:
www.siemens.com/plm/community/tecnomatix

Support and Feedback


The Siemens PLM Global Technical Access Center (GTAC)
provides application support through telephone and electronic
access. You will need your WebKey (or SoldTo ID) to access the
GTAC system. You can contact them here:
www.siemens.com/plm/support
You can also download the latest version of the application, or any
patches, from the GTAC product download site here:
https://download.industrysoftware.automation.siemens.com/download.php

Once you logon to the site using your webkey, click on Product
Downloads and scroll down to the Jack section.

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Appendix D: .JK File Definitions (Advanced):


These are files that are in the users home directory and
save settings within Jack.
.jk4.install:
Refers to where to find files if environment has no path in
reference. If the file that Jack is looking for is in your working
directory, it will use that first.
.jkrc:
Jack variable that you want to persist from session to session.
Includes information on units, recently used files, location of
windows. Additional variables may also be set by modifying this file
(located in %HOME%/jack_8.2).
.jk.log:
log file similar to .jk.log.tcl, except that it cant be run as script. This
is just the messages minus the code to repeat steps
.jk.views:
All saved named views
.jk.log.tcl:
Log file. Prints log viewer. Will persist until Jack is restarted. This
file is continuously written (located in %HOME%/jack_8.2).
.jk.log.tcl~:
This is a back up of the previous runs log file: .jk.log.tcl.
.jk.humans.simple:
Contains information on human models that have been created and
scaled using the standard scaling dialog. This is used by the Add
to menu option in the Simple Scaling dialog.
.jk.humans.complex:
Contains information on human models that have been created and
scaled using the advanced scaling panel. This is used by the Add
to menu option in the Advanced Scaling dialog.

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jack801-win64.bat / jack801-win32.bat:
Start up script. Includes information on directory paths and install
directory (this is located in the root of the Jack Installation).

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Appendix E: Extending Jack through Scripting


Basic Scripting
(Command: ViewToolbars Consoles)
Jack provides powerful capability to extend the product functionality
using Tcl and Python scripting languages.
Details on the Python based JackScript language can be found
under the Jack Help menu JackScript.
An example is provided in the installation to illustrate how to use
the Tcl/Tk and Python languages to create an add-on module for
Jack. You can find this in your Jack installation in the
\library\user_module directory.
Details on language versions
The following scripting language version updates occurred with the
v7.0 release and are still used in v8.2:
Tcl/Tk is now at version 8.5.8
Python is now at version 2.6.6
Note: If you write scripts or modules to work with Jack, these
upgrades may impact you.
Scripting Language Resources:
Python:
Python homepage: http://www.python.org
Python v2.6.6 documentation: http://docs.python.org/release/2.6.6/
Books: http://wiki.python.org/moin/PythonBooks
License: http://docs.python.org/release/2.6.6/license.html
Tcl/Tk:
Tcl/Tk homepage: http://tcl.tk
Tcl/Tk v8.5.x documentation: http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.5
Books: http://www.tcl.tk/doc/
License: http://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/license.html
Tix License: http://tix.sourceforge.net/dist/current/license.terms

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Glossary
Ambient: Determines the color of the surface when it is not
illuminated by a light source.
Balance Polygon: The display of the area considered to define
balance. The area is a line between the toes and heels, down the
foot center. If the composite center of mass of the human projects
within this area, the figure is in balance.
Channels: Channels are interpolated (in-between) frame data
created during animation. Each channel holds interpolated data for
an individual (or set) of parameters for each frame in an animation.
For example, each figure in the environment has a channel
associated with it. The figure channel holds the root site and global
transformation matrix for each frame in the animation. If the
animation is 60 frames long, each figure channel has 60 units. The
data in all channels at a particular time represents the frame data.
Check box: In a GUI, a square box next to a description of an
option that you can turn on and off. A check box contains a check
mark if the option is selected (turned on).
Collision Queue: Defines the list of objects in the scene which are
checked for collisions. You can add segment members to the
queue via the collision detection utility interface.
Constraint: A constraint is a desired geometric relationship. It also
refers to all information that collectively defines that relationship.
Jack solves constraints by the inverse kinematics algorithm, which
means that appropriate joints of articulated figures are positioned
so that desired relationships are satisfied. The constraint facility
uses an iterative optimization algorithm to compute a set of joint
angles that satisfy the constraint by placing the figure in a desired
posture. We sometimes use the term reach because it is easy to
visualize in terms of a reaching human arm. Jack allows you to
define multiple constraints of various types. Constraints are
geometric connections between objects, similar in some ways to
joints, although the two are intrinsically different in two important
ways. The first arises when a figure is over-constrained, meaning
that all of its constraint relationships cannot be completely satisfied.
The types of relationships modeled with joints, in human figure
models and robot models, can never be violated, even just a little.
Joints as we know them are not desired relationships: they are

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absolute relationships. Constraints are more flexible. The second


distinction between joints and constraints is that in practice the
desired relationships commonly expressed by the two fall into
different classifications. Joints are typically rotational and/or
translational. The transformation across a joint consists of a set of
rotations or translations along predefined axes. Constraints can be
much more general and vague; such has point-to-plane, direction,
etc.
Constraints and motion: The purpose of a constraint is principally
to describe the position of a figure so that it satisfies some
geometric condition. Constraints express desired relationships. The
constraint evaluation procedure is the process by which joint angles
of a figure are set so that proper relationships are achieved. The
inverse kinematics algorithm is iterative, and each iteration
generates a new set of joint angles which describe a new posture
for the figure. Taken collectively, these positions can be viewed as
motion: as the constraint is solved, the figure moves from its current
posture into a posture which satisfies the geometric relationships of
all constraints. However, this is not motion in the sense of
animation or simulation, but is an illustration of the execution of the
numerical algorithm. Because of the problems with local minima
and redundancies, the inverse kinematics algorithm is not good at
generating motion sequences. We often refer to the influence of
constraints, and speak of figures moving under the influence of
constraints. The constraints themselves are not the primary cause
of motion, but they allow a figure to reach to motion initiated by
other means. If we measure the desired relationships described by
the constraints with potential energy, then the process of evaluating
constraints is the search for equilibrium. The animation or
simulation of articulated figures consists of the explicit movement of
certain elements of the geometric environment. The process of
evaluating constraints generates desired motions as a side effect.
Degree of Freedom: For a kinematic joint, the degree(s) of
freedom (or "DOF") define the allowable motions for the joint. There
are maximum three translational and three rotational DOFs
possible for any joint.
Diffuse: Determines the color of the surface when it is illuminated
by white light.
Drop-down list: A drop-down list appears next to an edit field with
an associated drop-down arrow button. An edit field with a dropdown list displays the current choice, which you can change using
either of two techniques:

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Click on the drop-down arrow button. This displays a selection list.


Choose an option by clicking on it.
Click in the edit field, and type the desired option.
Edge: A psurf represents the geometry of each segment. Psurfs
are graphs of nodes and edges. Two nodes define an edge and an
edge is part of the definition of two adjacent faces.
Edit field: A rectangular box in a GUI into which you type
information, such as a figure name.
End effector: The end effector is the reference point on the figure
which is constrained. The positional component of the end effector
must be a single point. Currently, the end effector may be a site or
a node. The significant part of the end effector is one dimensional
Jack does not yet have the ability to define multi-dimensional
end
effectors,
such
as
lines
or
planes.
Environment (env) file: An env (environment) file defines all
figures, camera locations, and lighting in a scene. It defines names
for all figures, and reloading an environment file will reset the scene
as opposed to creating duplicate figures.
Face: Each segment has a geometry associated with it that is
represented by nodes and faces. The outside of a face is defined
by a clockwise walk of nodes and the application of the right-hand
rule to determine the outward pointing normal to the face. The
opposite side of the face is the inside.
Face Orientation: Jack assumes that all faces have a consistent
orientation. It determines orientation using a right hand rule:
Traverse all nodes of a face in a counterclockwise direction.
Applying the right hand rule to these nodes yields an outwardpointing normal to the face.
Only the outside surface of faces have shading. The reverse side of
a face always appears with ambient light shading. Reversing a
face changes the direction of the normal, so the face will change
from shaded to transparent and vice versa. The Fix All command in
the Geometry Editing dialog with the Face entity type selected
attempts to correct the shading of all faces using the right hand rule
described above.
Face goal: When you select a face goal type, the end effector is
directed toward any point in the face. With a face goal, you may
have a position relationship of point-to-point, point-to-line, or pointto-plane. The orientation relationships use the orientation of the

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segment to which the face belongs. With a point-to-point position


relationship, the potential energy of the constraint is the shortest
distance between the end effector and the face. The relationship is
a piecewise function. If the point on the face closest to the end
effector is a vertex of the face, then it acts like a point-to-point type.
If the closest point is along an edge of the face, then it acts like a
point-to-line type. If the closest point is in the interior of the face, the
it acts like a point-to-plane type. With a point-to-line relationship
with a face goal, the line is allowed to pass through anywhere on
the face. The direction of the line is a parameter that you must
enter. The default value is the normal to the face. With a point-toplane relationship, the plane passes through the center of the face.
You must enter the normal to the plane. The default value is the
surface normal of the face. With this value, the plane is the plane of
the face.
Figure: Figures are composed of one or more segments. If there is
more than one segment in a figure, the segments are usually
connected by joints to allow movement. The location of segments
and joints are identified by sites. Each segment has a geometry
associated with it that is represented by nodes and faces.
Figure (fig) file: A fig (figure) file defines all the segments and
joints of a figure. This is a generalized template of a figure that you
can load with different names.
Glossiness (Gloss): Specifies the distribution of the specular
highlights. A large value (approximately 50) indicates small and
focused specular highlights. Smaller values define broader
highlights. By default this value is zero, which indicates that there is
no specular highlight. A value of 30 is typical for a shiny surface.
Goal: The goal is a geometric location that describes the desired
position for the end effector. Currently, the goal may be a site, a
node, a face, or a general homogeneous transform. The goal itself
is a geometric entity how the goal defines the desired position of
the end effector is defined by the objective type. The positional
component of the goal may be more than a single point, such as an
unbounded line or plane.
Goal site: A site that is the goal for the end effector. The goal site
defines the desired position of the end effector at the completion of
a motion.
Graphics window: The main application window in Jack. All
manipulations and animations occur in the Graphics Window.

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Ground plane: The ground plane is the XZ grid that appears in the
Graphics Window. The Y-axis points up, orthogonal to this plane.
Inverse kinematics: An iterative optimization algorithm used to
compute a set of joint angles that satisfy constraints by placing the
figure in a desired posture. Each iteration of the inverse kinematics
algorithm generates a new set of joint angles that describe a new
posture for the figure. Taken collectively, these positions appear to
be motion because the figure moves from its current posture to a
posture that satisfies geometric relationships defined by
constraints. However, this motion is not the same as animation. It is
simply the result of computations made to position the figure so that
it satisfies the constraint relationships.
Joint: The angles at the joints of a figure define its posture. Joints
connect sites on different segments within a figure. These joint
angles may be manipulated in Jack with Human>Adjust joint. For
convenience, this command is bound to <Ctrl-e>. Joints in Jack
may have specific degrees of freedom. A degree of freedom (DOF)
is a rotation around a specific axis. This rotation describes the
relative orientation of the two sites that the joint connects. Joints
may also be prismatic, in which case they translate along the axis.
The transformation between the sites that a joint connects is
formed by the product of the simple rotations and translations
associated with each degree of freedom in order. If a joint has no
degrees of freedom, it means that no axes of rotation or translation
have been defined. Such joints represent arbitrary transformations
between segments. When you adjust such a joint, you can
manipulate the transformation across the joint the same way as
with the move figure command.
Library file: One of the file types supported by Jack contained in a
directory in the search path for the library.
Node: A point on a segment defined by local X, Y, and Z
coordinates. (Also known as a "vertex".) Collectively, the nodes of a
segment define its geometric shape. Two nodes define an edge.
Nodes and edges define a psurf, and a psurf represents the
geometry of each segment.
Objective type: The objective type describes the type of geometric
relationship between the end effector and the goal, i.e. position,
orientation, direction, etc. This describes the distance or potential
energy between the end effector and the goal. The inverse
kinematics algorithm is based on the minimization of the value

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described by the objective function. The objective type comes in


two parts: the position component and the orientation component.
The two are evaluated separately and summed with the help of a
position/orientation weight which describes their relative
importance. For the position component, the objective type may be
point-to-point, point-to-line, or point-to-plane. Note that everything is
point-to... because the end effector must be a point. The orientation
objective may be full 3D orientation, direction, or the hybrid types
aim or view. With the aim type, the orientation of a reference vector
on the end effector is directed to be aimed towards the goal point.
The view is similar except with the additional restriction against
twist along the aiming direction (this is useful for camera positioning
where the camera should not twist but should maintain its
horizontal axis perpendicular to the world vertical axis). The
position of the goal then does not describe the desired position of
the end effector but rather is used to describe its orientation.
Therefore it is not allowable to have a position component when the
orientation component is aim or view. The goal is a geometric
entity: a site, a node, a face, or a global transform in space. The
objective type specifies what element of the goal is important to the
objective function. With the objective types point-to-line and pointto-plane, the location of the reference point defining the line or
plane is taken from the point of the goal, whether it is a node, site,
etc. The direction of the line and normal of the plane are additional
parameters. Therefore, it is possible to match different objective
functions with different types of goals.
Option menu: Option menus appear when you press an option
button. To use an option menu, follow these steps:
Point to the option button and press the left mouse button. This
causes the option menu to appear.
Drag the cursor selection (indicated by the highlighted entry) to the
desired option.
Click the left mouse button with the desired option highlighted.
Phi resolution: An integer specifying the polygon resolution along
the phi axis.
Pick button: A special pointing-finger button used throughout the
Jack GUI. When pressed, this button appears highlighted (usually
in yellow), and enables selection of an object in the Graphics
Window. As your mouse pointer passes over candidate objects in
the Graphics Window, they appear highlighted. Clicking on a
highlighted object selects it and places its name in the edit field
associated with the Pick button. Pick buttons are context sensitive

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and only highlight objects in the Graphics Window that are of the
desired pick mode (i.e., figure, site, node, or joint).
Pick mode: The current Pick Mode is indicated in the Jack toolbar
by the special Pick Mode option menu. The items in the Pick Mode
option menu include "Fig" (figure), "Seg" (segment), "Site", "Jnt"
(joint), "Con" (constraint), "Hum" (human), a face icon, an edge
icon, a node icon, a viewer (eye) icon, and "Mat" (material). This
Pick Mode option menu will automatically switch temporarily to the
appropriate pick mode if you press a Pick button. For example, if
you press the Pick button on the Node Properties dialog, the Pick
Mode option menu will automatically switch to the node icon during
the pick, and will switch back to the previous pick mode when the
pick is complete.
The current Pick Mode also determines which type of pop-up menu
will appear in the Graphics window when the right mouse button is
pressed. Note that only the first four "primary" pick modes (Fig,
Seg, Site and Jnt) have their own pop-up menus... you should
never need to explicitly select any of the other types from the Pick
Mode option menu. A shortcut method exists for switching between
the four primary pick modes simply by clicking the middle mouse
button in the Graphics window.
Property Sheet: A user interface element that defines specific
properties of a figure, segment, site, or joint. The property sheet
provides a single interface for setting all characteristics for the
chosen entity.
Psurf (pss) file: Defines the geometry of a segment. This includes
the coordinates of all the nodes, and the grouping of nodes into
faces.
Radio button: In a GUI, a circular button that selects an option
from a list of mutually exclusive items. The selected option contains
a black dot. You click on an option button to select a different
option.
Rename: You can rename objects by using the Rename button
(designated by a "R" on the small button) located by an object
name field. For example, to rename a figure, bring up the figure
properties sheet for the figure. Select the Rename button, type in
the desired new name (followed by a carraige return), then hit
Apply.
Root Site: The root site is the "ground" location of a kinematic
chain. It is the beginning site for the kinematics definition, and acts

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as the "handle" for a figure. For example, the root site of a seated
human is the "lower_torso.proximal" site. That means that all
kinematics are calculated outward from that site and that when you
move the figure your location reference is that site.
Rooting constraint: A rooting constraint controls the location of a
figure. This allows a figure to be connected to another figure.
Rooting constraints are just like other constraints except that no
joints are affected by the constraint. The constraint variable is the
figure location. Moving a figure with a rooting constraint creates a
temporary constraint between the figure's root and the transform
created by the moving process. The position the figure assumes is
a weighted average of the two constraints as determined by the
inverse kinematics algorithm.
Rotation wheel: A graphical representation of the plane of rotation
about a joint in the Graphics Window. The rotation wheel has
colored segments that show in green the amount of rotation
permitted by joint limits and constraints. A set of local coordinate
reference axes appear to show the orientation of the joint as you
use the mouse to drag the moving segment to a new position. The
axes will follow the mouse even through non-valid rotations, but the
moving segment won't travel beyond its specified limits.
Ruler: A ruler may be visible or invisible. You can have the ruler
show fixed increments in different colors, and you can optionally
display the distance between the two sites in the Graphics Window.
Scene: A scene or environment consists of a collection of figures.
Segment: Figures are composed of one or more segments. If there
is more than one segment in a figure, the segments are connected
by joints which define the structure of a figure. The location of
segments and joints are identified by sites. Each segment has a
geometry associated with it that is represented by nodes and faces.
Set of joints: The set of joints define which joints apply to the
constraint. These joints are the variables of the constraint. The
goal, end effector, and objective type collectively describe a desired
geometric relationship, but the set of joints associated with the
constraint define which part of the geometric environment is
allowed to ``move'' to satisfy the relationship. Internally, the joints
are the variables to the inverse kinematics. There are two reasons
for explicitly defining this set of joints. The first is efficiency: it is
best to limit the number of variables which the inverse kinematics
algorithm controls. The second and more important reason is

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control: giving explicit directions about which joints move to satisfy


a positioning task provides much more local control over the
behavior of the figure. The set of joints is specified by the
designation of a single ``starting joint.'' The sequence of joints
between the end effector and the starting joint defines the joint set.
The set of joints of a constraint must be completely contained within
a single figure.
Slider bar: A slider bar provides a control that you drag along a
horizontal or vertical track between pre-set minimum and maximum
values. Slider bars generally have an associated edit field that lets
you select the current entry and directly modify or overtype the
current value.
Site: A site is a location on a segment relative to the coordinate
frame of the segment. The location of joints is identified by sites.
Specular: Determines the color of shiny parts of the surface.
Specular highlights occur when light reflects off a surface toward
the view. The default specular highlight is white.
Spin button: A spin button (or spin box) provides up and down
arrow buttons that let you select a numeric value. Spin boxes let
you select the current entry and directly modify or overtype the
current value.
Tcl/Tk scripting language: The programming language used to
create the Jack GUI environment. It provides a system independent
platform that provides cross-platform operation of Jack on UNIX
and Windows systems. This scripting language is available for
custom user programming.
Texture: A texture object is an image file that you map to one or
more faces of a figure. Texture mapping permits the addition of
visual detail to a scene without adding extra geometry. This can
add significant realism to a scene without increasing model
complexity and degrading simulation performance.
Theta resolution: An integer specifying the polygon resolution
along the theta axis.
VRML: Virtual reality modeling language (VRML) is a standard
language used to define three-dimensional spaces. VRML worlds
let users "walk" through defined spaces as if they were physically
present.

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Index
/t See Joint Motors, 144
Animation, xii, 130, 131, 158, 160, 161,
162, 163, 164, 166, 168, 169, 171,
172, 197, 212, 213, 216
Camera Motions, 166
Human Motions, 166
Path Motion, 165
Timed Attachments, 164
Timed Behaviors, 166
Anthropometry, 40
Attachments, 9, 145, 164, 171
Human, xi
Balance, xi
Behaviors, xii, 1, 66, 108, 166, 201
Camera, 9, 10, 23, 53, 54, 55, 56, 166,
193, 204, 214, 217
Camera \t Also See View Control, 9,
10, 11, 23, 53, 54, 55, 56, 166, 193,
204, 214, 217
Center of Mass, 212
Change View, 10, 166
Classic Jack, xii, xiii
Collision Detection, xi, 26, 212
Color /t See Material Properties, 22,
41, 42, 43, 110, 147, 200, 201, 212,
213, 220
Constraints, xi, 20, 21, 23, 66, 69, 77,
140, 144, 149, 170, 201, 202, 212,
213, 216, 219
Context Sensitive Menus, 11, 59, 86,
122
Control Bar, 1, 2
Edges, 26, 33, 52, 107, 108, 129, 214,
216
Environment, 21, 26
Export, 29, 30, 31, 168, 169
CAD, 24, 25, 29, 42, 104, 106, 107
Images, 31, 32, 33, 56, 110, 169, 170
Movies, 168
Eyes, 55, 87
Faces, 26, 43, 102, 107, 108, 126, 128,
129, 214, 215, 218, 219, 220
Field of View, 54, 55

Figure, 22
Flat Shading, 109
Force, 45
Ghost, 110
Graphics Window, 1, 33, 44, 129, 202,
215, 218
Grasp, xi
Head, xi, 55, 86, 149
Hot Keys /t See Key Bindings, 44
Human
Anthropometry, 68, 69
Behaviors, xii, 1, 66, 108, 166, 201
Force, 203
Head, 73
Manipulation, 1, 3, 7, 33, 130, 144,
164, 205
Shoulder, 73
Torque, 203
View Cones, 87
Icon Toolbar, 2, 3, 60
IGES, 24, 25, 29, 31
Import, 20, 24, 203
Joint Motors, 144
Joint Properties, 125
Joints, xi, xii, 11, 12, 20, 22, 23, 26, 59,
66, 77, 78, 140, 144, 149, 164, 170,
212, 215, 216, 219, 220
JT, 25, 26, 27
Key Binding, 44
Left Mouse Button, 5, 217
Lighting, 41, 103, 204, 214
Lisp, xii
Manikins, 72, 73, 74, 196
Manipulation, 1, 3, 7, 33, 130, 144, 164,
205
Material Properties, 22, 41
Menus, xii, 1, 2, 4, 11, 12, 13, 43, 159,
217, 218
Message Area, 2, 4
Middle Mouse Button, 5, 218
Modules, 2, 192, 196
Move Controller, 2, 4, 5, 7, 164
Movie Export

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Resolution, 169, 217, 220
Nodes, 11, 26, 102, 107, 108, 109, 122,
126, 128, 147, 200, 214, 215, 216,
218, 219
Object Hierarchy, 1, 3, 59, 60
Objects
CAD Primitives, 104
Object Library, 105
Plug-ins, 192
Projections, 127
Properties
Joint, 125
Site, 124
Psurf, 26, 41, 107, 214, 216
Psurf /t Polygon Surface, 26, 41, 107,
214, 216
Python, xii, 196, 211
Rendering, 103, 108, 109, 205
Right Mouse Button, 5, 218
Root Site, 124, 212, 218
Save, 21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 44, 52, 166,
171, 203
Scaling, xi, xii, 25, 40, 41, 68, 69, 74,
103, 201
Scripting, 211

SIEMENS PLM SOFTWARE


Session Log, 1
Shading, 52, 108, 109, 214
Shoulder, 149
Site, 13, 45, 55, 59, 102, 107, 124, 125,
131, 165, 193, 206, 207, 208, 214,
215, 217, 218, 220
Site Properties, 124
Snap, 7, 25, 55, 206, 207
System Requirements, xv
Texture Map, 53
Timed Attachments, 166
Timed Behaviors, 166
Tools, x, xi, xv, 31, 194
Torque, 45
Torso, 219
Trace, 109
Transparent, 87, 103, 108, 214
View Cones, xii
View Control, 53, 204
Visible, 219
VRML, 24, 25, 29, 30, 220
Window Paramenters, 58
Wireframe, 52, 128, 194
Workspace, 51

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