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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

CIVIL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY 1

Luis Angel Bellido Dolores


Johan Chalco Collantes
Karol Guiselle De La Cruz Espinoza
Juan Eduardo Surca Hernndez
Abilio Mendez Varga

Lima Per
2015-1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

We present the information field about the granulometry practice, for this we use the
sieves to determine the course and fine aggregates in the concrete.
Obtain the percentage of accumulated retained we can calculated the fineness
modulus. For make the best combination according with the ASTM.
In this laboratory we use the next sieves:
1 , 1, , , 3/8, and N4 for course aggregates.
N4, N8, N16, N30, N50, N100 for fine aggregates.
Then the resistance to degradation of small size course aggregates by abrasion and
impact in the Los Angeles Machine. In this test we measure the degradation of the
aggregates grinding in a rotating steel drum containing a number of steel spheres.
The total evaporate moisture content of aggregate by drying, is the amount of water
retained by surface pores of the aggregate, is the difference between the current state
of the aggregate and dry.
The moisture is directly related to the porosity of the particles, the porosity then is
related to the pore size, permeability and total volume.
The specific gravity and the absorption, the specific gravity may be expressed as bulk
specific gravity, saturated-surface-dry bulk specific gravity (SSD), or apparent specific
gravity; and the absorption is the relation between (SSD) with weight dry.

Standard Test Method for Materials Finer than 75-m (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral
Aggregates by Washing, this test method covers the determination of the amount of
material finer than a 75-m (No. 200) sieve in aggregate by washing.

Clay particles and other aggregate particles that are dispersed by the wash water, as
well as water-soluble materials, will be removed from the aggregate during the test.

When we use only water for the washing operation, and the other including a wetting
agent to assist the loosening of the material finer than the 75-m (No. 200) sieve from
the coarser material.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................4
GENERAL OBJECTIVES................................................................................................... 4
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES................................................................................................... 4
BACKGROUND........................................................................................5
SIEVE GRANULOMETRY FOR FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES....................5
THEORY.................................................................................................................... 5
LABORATORY PROCEDURE............................................................................................. 6
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS................................................................................................ 7
SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATES......................8
THEORY.................................................................................................................... 8
LABORATORY PROCEDURE............................................................................................. 8
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS................................................................................................ 9
RESISTANCE TO DEGRADATION OF SMALL-SIZE COARSE AGGREGATE BY
ABRASION AND IMPACT IN THE LOS ANGELES MACHINE..........................10
THEORY.................................................................................................................. 10
LABORATORY PROCEDURE........................................................................................... 10
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS.............................................................................................. 10
MOISTURE CONTENT.............................................................................11
THEORY.................................................................................................................. 11
LABORATORY PROCEDURE........................................................................................... 11
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS.............................................................................................. 11
STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR MATERIALS FINER THAN 75-M (NO. 200)
SIEVE................................................................................................... 12
LABORATORY PROCEDURE........................................................................................... 12
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS.............................................................................................. 12
CONCLUSIONS......................................................................................13
REFERENCES.........................................................................................14
APPENDICES.........................................................................................15

INTRODUCTION
As we know for civil engineering students to carry out the execution of various tests
such as granulometry, the machine angels, specific weight of aggregate and unit
among others; applied to both fine and coarse aggregates it is essential since these
happen to be between 70 and /or 75% of the mixture of concrete or mortar; it is also
essential that the addition is optimal in order to provide the mixture strength and
durability favorable structures.
General Objectives:
Recognize the different characteristics of the aggregates by the test methods described
in the laboratory as colorimetric equivalent sand grain, wear Angeles, specific weight
and unit among others; to see if they are acceptable or not.
Specific Objectives:
-

Detect unfavorable organic compounds in the sand, to know if it's indicated to

be used in the concrete mix or mortar.


Study quantitatively the amount of fine and ultra fine sand forming.
Test the size gradation of aggregate particles in order to produce a compact

packing.
Detect the added strength greater thickness of "wear through the machine

angels.
Calculate the specific gravity to calculate the volume occupied by the aggregate

in the concrete.
Get the loose and compacted in thin, thick and mixed by calculating unit weight
of test unit weight aggregates.

BACKGROUND
The study of the particle size of the aggregates occupied an important place in the
investigations into the concrete, the proportioning of the fine and course mixtures to
produce the highest aggregate compactness and therefore more resistant and
economic led to the proposed numerous prototype curves.
In the analysis of compactness it is estimated that the aggregate dimension similarly
produce the greatest number of voids, while, if exist a certain difference between sizes,
their adaptation occurs with maximum compactness.
The wear rate of an aggregate is related to its resistance to abrasion by mechanical
means and with the resistance capacity of concrete made with him; is particularly
important in aggregates used in concrete pavements.
NCh 1369.of 78 standard establishes the procedure for determining the resistance to
wear normal gravel real density.
In this case, correspond to a task force and an assay is performed only in qualified
laboratories will summarize only the most useful aspects directly related to laboratories.
The method involves analyzing a coarse aggregate granulometrically, prepare a test
sample is subjected to abrasion machine Los Angeles and express the loss of material
or wear as the percentage of mass loss of the sample with respect to its initial mass.

SIEVE GRANULOMETRY FOR FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Theory
Maximum Size (of aggregate) - in specifications for, or description of aggregate,
the smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of aggregate is
required to pass.

Nominal Maximum Size (of aggregate) - in specifications for, or description of


aggregate, the smallest sieve opening through which the entire amount of the
aggregate is permitted to pass.

Laboratory procedure
Coarse aggregate:
1. Select a sample of 5000 grams and place on a tray.
2. Put the sample into the coarse aggregate shaking machine.
3. Turn on the machine for one minute and observe the material retained on the

various sieves.
4. Removing the material retained on each sieve and weighs it in the balance to

obtain the retained weights.

Fine aggregate:
1. Select a sample of 500 grams and place on a tray.
2. Pour the material in the sieves, previously placed in the fine aggregate shaking

machine.
3. Turn on the machine for one minute and observe the procedure.
4. Removing the material retained on each sieve and weighs it in the balance to

obtain the retained weights.

Analysis and results


Coarse aggregate:
Mass retained in weight:

w retained =w retained+tray w tray

% retained in weight:

Retained=

mass of soil retained


100
total mass

% accumulated retained in weight:

Accumulated Retained= retainedthe sieve+ accumulated retained previous sieve

In table 1 we show the all process.


Sieve No

Mass retained

% retained

1
1

3/8

No 4
Pan
Total
Table 1

0
196
2283
2045
315
119
0
38
4996

0
3.923
45.697
40.933
6.305
2.382
0
0.761

% retained
acumulate
0
3.923
49.620
90.553
96.858
99.240
99.240
100

% Passing
100
96.077
50.380
9.447
3.142
0.760
0.760
0

Sieves for coarse aggregate = 1 , , 3/8, N 4, N 8, N 16, N 30, N 50, N 100


FINENESS MODULUS =

retained acumulate
100

F.M =

0+49.620+ 90.553+ 96.858+99.240+100+100+100+ 100+100


100
F.M= 8.36
Maximum aggregate size: 1 1/2"
Nominal maximum aggregate size: 1"
Fine aggregate:
Mass retained in weight:

w retained =w retained+tray w tray


% retained in weight:

Retained=

mass of soil reta ined


100
total mass
7

% accumulated retained in weight:

Accumulated Retained= retainedthe sieve+ accumulated retained previous sieve


% passing in weight:

pass=100 Accumulated Retained

Sieve No

Mass retained

% retained

3/8
No 4
No 8
No 16
No 30
No 50
No 100
Pan

0
16.5
76
116
118
86
50
35
497.5

0
3.317
15.275
23.316
23,718
17.285
10.050
7.035

% retained
acumulate
0
3.317
18.592
41.908
65.626
82.911
92.961
100

% Passing
100
96.683
81.408
58.092
34.374
17.089
7.039
0

Table 2:

Fineness Modulus:
Sieves for coarse aggregate = 1 , , 3/8, N 4, N 8, N 16, N 30, N 50, N 100

FM =

Ri
100

Ri = cumulative percent retained on sieve sequence.

FM =

0+ 3.317+18.592+41.908+65.626+ 82.911+92.961
100

FM =3.05

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATES


Theory
Specific Gravity - the ratio of the mass in air of a unit volume of material to the
mass of the same volume of water at a specified temperature (without units).
8

Apparent Specific Gravity - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of the
impermeable portion of aggregate to the weight in air of an equal volume of
gas-free distilled water at specified temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate
(including the permeable and impermeable voids in the particles, but not
including the voids between particles) to the weight in air of an equal volume of
gas-free distilled water at specified temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD) - the ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of
aggregate, including the weight of water within the voids filled to the extent
achieved by submersion in water for 24 hour (but not including the voids
between particles) to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled
water at specified temperature.

Absorption - the increase in the weight of aggregate due to water in the pores of
the material, but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the
particles, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight. Dry aggregate is
achieved when all uncombined water has been removed at a temperature of
110C.

Laboratory procedure
Coarse aggregate:
1. A day before, wash the sample of 3000 grams and leave it completely
submerged in water.
2. The sample is dried with a soft cloth on a flat surface.
3. Weighs the basket where you will put the sample. .
4. Weighs the basket and the sample in the balance.
5. Places the sample in the oven for 24 hours to dry and then remove it and weigh
it again.

Fine aggregate:
1. A day earlier, taking a sample and dry it.
2. Make the cone test to the sample and determine what is appropriate for this
trial.
9

3. Weighs the balloon and take a sample of 500 grams.


4. Put the sample into the bucket and add water until it is unified and ensure that
contains no bubbles.
5. Weighs the balloon and the sample in the balance.
6. Put the sample in the oven for 24 hours and then weigh it again.

Analysis and results

Coarse aggregate

Fine aggregate
Peso de la arena superficialmente seca
Peso de la arena superficialmente seca + peso del baln +
peso del agua
Peso del baln
Peso del agua W
Peso de la arena seca al horno A
Volumen del baln V
Peso especfico de masa A/ (V-W)
Peso especfico de masa superficialmente seco 500/ (V-W)
Peso especfico aparente A/ (V-W) - (500-A)
Porcentaje de absorcin (500-A) X 100/A

gr
500.0 .
gr
950.8 .
gr
140.7 .
gr
310.1 .
gr
493.4 .
m
500.0 l
2.60
2.63
2.69
1.34 %

RESISTANCE TO DEGRADATION OF SMALL-SIZE COARSE AGGREGATE BY


ABRASION AND IMPACT IN THE LOS ANGELES MACHINE

Theory
10

The aggregates have features of the mother rock, which is in the quarry, so the
resistance to abrasion depends of hardness of this mother rock.
These features have more importance when the particles of the aggregate are in
contact with other materials with certain hardness.
The wear depends the contact resistance with the steel spheres, and if the loss a little
so the aggregate has a good resistance for use in concrete. To measure this wear we
use the Los Angeles Machine.
The revolutions and grinding time depends of the granulometry and particles weight of
the aggregates.

Laboratory procedure
Wash and let dry material per 24 hours. After this time, get a sample of 5000 grams,
later to place it into the LA machine together with the charge.
The LA machine should turn around 50 laps, then remove the material and perform the
sieve analysis, obtaining other weight.
Analysis and results
Charge the charge shall consist of steel spheres averaging approximately
46.8 mm in diameter and each weighing between 390 and 445 g. The charge,
depending upon the grading of the test sample, shall be as follows:

Grading

Number of
Spheres

Weight of Charge,
g

12

5000 +/- 25

In this test we used 5kg of coarse aggregate, method A with 12 spheres.


INITIAL WEIGHT= 5000 gr.
FINAL WEIGHT (after passing the abrasion machine) = 4897gr

50004897
X 100=2.06
5000
Resistance of the aggregate to wear.
Typically U.S. state specifications limit the abrasion of coarse aggregate for
HMA use to a maximum ranging from 25 to 55 percent, with most states using a
specification of 40 or 45 percent . Requirements for Portland Cement Concrete
11

(PCC) tend to be similar, while requirements for specialized mixes such as


Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) tend to be lower; AASHTO specifies a maximum
L.A. abrasion loss of 30 percent for SMA.

MOISTURE CONTENT
Theory
The aggregate has 4 states:
Dry.- It is achieved by an oven at 110C
Partially dry. - In the open air.
Saturated surface dry (SSD).- It is an ideal state, is when the pores are filled
with water and are superficially dry.
Wet. - When the pores and surface are filled with water.

Laboratory procedure
1. Take a sample of 500 grams of sand and a sample of 1000 grams of stone
2. Put the samples to dry in the oven for 24 hour
3. Removing the samples and weigh them again to determine their moisture
content.

Analysis and results


Sand:

P = (W D) / D x 100
where:
P = total evaporable moisture content (%)
W = original mass of the sample (gr)
D = dry mass of the sample (gr)

12

Initial weight (W)


Dry weight (D)
Water weight in the mass
Moisture content % (P)

500
493.3
6.7
1.36

gr.
gr.
gr.
%

1000
995
5
0.5

gr.
gr.
gr.
%

Stone:

P = (W D) / D x 100
where:
P = total evaporable moisture content (%)
W = original mass of the sample (gr)
D = dry mass of the sample (gr)

Initial weight (W)


Dry weight (D)
Water weight in the mass
Moisture content % (P)

13

Standard test method for materials finer than 75-m (no. 200) sieve

Laboratory procedure
1. Take a dry sample of 500 grams
2. Passing the sample through the sieve number 200, adding water to make all
possible material passes.
3. Later, the material obtained was put in the oven to dry and thus obtain a weight.
Analysis and results
Ensayo malla N 200
Peso inicial
Peso seco
Ensayo de control de calidad

500 gr.
451.8 gr.
9.64 %

Quality control test: NO MORE THAN 10% ACCEPTED AND MORE THAN
15% (REJECTED)
CONCLUSIONS
-

Sampling procedures aggregate and the crushed pidra and gravel extracted
from the river, where we have seen the quality of each aggregate concrete

technology laboratory will serve as an important.


Upon completion of the sampling procedure we can see that to be a reference
to the strength and quality of the material (aggregate) we always do a test

sample by the quartering method.


We can identify aggregates brought from a particular quarry or site are different

from those brought from another.


For this test we must clean organic materials

14

REFERENCES

ASTM C-75, Standard Practice aggregate sample.


ASTM C-33, Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates.
Mix design ADDED John Harman.
NATURE OF CONCRETE AND MATERIALS Henry L. Rivva
ADDED TESTS ON FINE AND GRUESOS.ASTM-C117
ASTM C-136, determination methodof sampling fine aggregates by sieving

method.
ASTM-D75, sampling of coarse and fine aggregate for research, quality control,
acceptance or rejection of material

15

APPENDICES

16

FINE AGGREGATE SHAKING

COARSE AGGREGATE SHAKING


MACHINE

17

COARSE AGGREGATE

RETAINED WEIGHTS (FINE


AGGREGATE)

18

SPECIFIC WEIGHT TEST


L.A.MACHINE FOR ABRASION TEST

19

SIEVE N 200 TEST

20