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Fatigue of offshore structures

OE4606
Introduction to Offshore Engineering

Prof.dr.ir. Miroslaw Lech (Mirek) Kaminski


3mE - Ship & Offshore Structures

17 September 2014

Delft
University of
Technology

Challenge the future

Course schedule

Date

Subject

Lecturer

1 10-9-2014

Introduction

Mirek Kaminski

2 11-9-2014

Loads on Offshore structures

Mirek Kaminski

3 17-9-2014

Fatigue of Offshore Structures

Mirek Kaminski

4
5
6
7
8

Question

What is fatigue?

.
3

Fatigue

fatigue is
the progressive and localized
structural damage
of a material subjected to
cyclic loading
4

Source PhD thesis Gaute Storhaug

Fatigue = cracks

FPSO - bottom wing tank connection

Question

Why is fatigue dangerous?

.
7

Experiment

Fatigue effects
Increases risk of fracture
Changes load paths
May cause leakage
May initiate domino effect
9

Fatigue induced disaster

Alexander L. Kielland
10

Capsized platform

11

Crack

12

Question

How to avoid fatigue?

.
13

Structural design - general


Loading

Structure

no

Capacity

OK?
14

Check of all possible failure mechanisms

Yielding

Buckling

Fracture

Delamination

Fatigue

Corrosion
15

Experiment

16

Instruction

45

90

135

180

17

SN-curve = fatigue capacity (resistance)

a Log( N ) Log(a) m Log(S )


N m
S
1
Log (a)
Log ( S ) Log ( N )
m
m
-1/m
Log(a)/m

-0.3333
m= 3.00
2.412 a (design) = 12206435

S
45
45
45
45
90
90
90
90
135
135
135
135
180
180
180
180

N
225
183
150
175
30
20
25
22
5
8
7
6
2
5
3
4
18

Fatigue damage

Stress
range
S
45
90
135
180

Loading Capacity
Damage
cycles
cycles
n
N
n/N
3
134
0.022
9
17
0.538
2
5
0.404
0
2
0.000
Total damage 0.964
19

Fatigue damage

20

Fatigue lifetime

a
Ni m
Si
ni
D
Ni

SN - curve

Rule of Miner

1
m
D ni Si
a

Design lifetime
Fatigue lifetime
D
21

Fatigue - general
Damage ~ (stress range)3
Damage ~ number of stress cycles
20 years = 100 millions of wave (stress) cycles
Damage is cumulative

Moderate stresses cycles are important


22

Fatigue testing

23

Test specimen with crack

24

SN-curves of IIW - steel


Class
Class

2106

25

Effect of welding detail on fatigue capacity

Class

26

Important note!

In general, fatigue capacity of

structural details
does NOT depend on

steel grade and yield stress


27

Effect of welding on fatigue lifetime

2 times shorter
2 times shorter
16 times shorter

2 times shorter

2 times shorter
28

Design tips for structural details


Avoid stress concentrations no stiffness jumps
Place welds away of stress concentration areas
Use adequate class of details
Consider weld dressing

Protect against corrosion


29

Conclusion

You know
how to calculate
fatigue lifetime
of a structural detail
when fatigue loading is known
30

Your enthusiasm!

31

Repetition

to learn we need to repeat

To learn we need to repeat


32

Question

What is fatigue loading?

.
33

Question

What is fatigue capacity?

.
34

Question

What is fatigue damage?

.
35

Question

What is fatigue lifetime?

.
36

Question

What is fatigue design


criterion?

.
37

Fatigue loading, capacity, damage, lifetime


& design criterion
ni
Design lifetime
D
Fatigue lifetime
Ni
D
Capacity

38

Question

Where is the safety factor?

39

Summary
Select detail

Select appropriate SN-curve


Define fatigue loading
Calculate fatigue capacity
Apply the rule of Miner
Calculate fatigue lifetime
40

Exercise 1 calculate fatigue lifetime

Design lifetime
20 year

SN - curve
7

= 1 10
=3

Stress
MPa
range

S
10
20
50
100

Loading
number of
stress
cycles
n
150
200
2
0
41

Formula

a
Ni m
Si
ni
D
Ni

SN - curve

Rule of Miner

Design lifetime
Fatigue lifetime
D
42

Solution
Stress
MPa
range
S
10
20
50
100

Loading
number of
stress
cycles
n
150
200
2
0

Capacity
number of
Damage
cycles
stress
N
n/N
10000
0.015
1250
0.160
80
0.025
10
0.000
Total damage 0.200
100 year
Lifetime
43

Next step
Select detail

Select appropriate SN-curve


Define fatigue loading
Calculate fatigue capacity
Apply the rule of Miner
Calculate fatigue lifetime
44

Question

How to calculate fatigue


loading?

.
45

Conclusion

Fatigue induced by
quasi-static wave action
depends mainly on

moderate sea states


Non-linear response is less relevant
46

Method

Spectral analysis
47

Steps of fatigue analysis


Metocean
analysis
Hydrodynamic
analysis
Stress
analysis

Loading (n)

Resistance (N)

Damage (D)

1.E+09

0.4

1.E+07

0.3

1.E+05

0.2

1.E+03

0.1

1.E+01

Stresses

Fatigue
analysis

Damage

Motions &
pressures

Number of cycles

waves

0.0
10

30

50

70

90

110

130

150

Stress range (s) [MPa]

Lifetime

48

Steps of spectral fatigue analysis

Long Term Statistics


Scatter Diagram
Short Term Statistics
Sea state
Wave Spectrum (WS)

Operational Profile
Heading & draft

Stress Spectrum (SS)


SS = WS x RAO2
Short Term stress distribution
Rayleigh distribution
defined by

SS

Long-Term stress distribution


Weibull distribution
defined by
loop

Hydro-Structural Analysis
Stress (RAO)
Response Amplitude Operator
per unit wave amplitude
for each wave frequency,
heading & draft

Rayleigh

Fatigue Loading

Fatigue Capacity SN curve


Miners rule
Fatigue damage & lifetime
49

Lifetime assurance - methods

Preliminary
design

Design/
Engineering

First principles, empirical methods, experience


Keep the overall stress level low
Rules and direct calculations methods
Avoid stress risers, use adequate details

Construction

Fabrication procedures and quality assurance


Remove unacceptable defects

Operation

Inspection, repair & maintenance procedures


Use advisory monitoring systems
50

Lifetime assurance - advice

Preliminary design
Design/
Engineering
Building
Operation

Keep stresses low!


Use proper details!

Allow only acceptable defects!


Monitor!
51

Lifetime shortening

Based on measured
stresses

Based on stresses
calculated using design
tool and design data
Based on stresses calculated using
design tool and measured data
Time 52

Octopus - Monitas System

53

Sensoren
DGPS
Wind
sensor

LBSGs

Wave
buoy

Strain
gauges

Cabinet
Level
gauge

FDSs

Motion
sensor
54

55

Benefits of Octopus-Monitas
Prevents lost of production
Prevents unexpected damage
More time for corrective measures
Rational lifetime extension
Feedback to design
56

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