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A

PROJECT REPORT
on

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
FROOTI AND
ITS COMPETITORS
Submitted To
KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
In partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of
Master of Science (M.Sc.) Microbiology
(Session 2014-2015)

Submitted to:

Submited by:

Dr. Neena Puri

DeepuKoul

H.O.D.

M.Sc. (Microbiology)

Microbiology Department
G.N.K. College, Yamuna Nagar

GURU NANAK KHALSA COLLEGE


YAMUNANAGAR
1

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that the project report entitled Comparative Analysis Of Frooti And
ItsCompetitorscarried out at PARLE AGRO is my work submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirement for Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCEIN MICROBIOLOGY(M.Sc),
from KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA and not submitted for the award
of any degree

DEEPU KOUL
M.Sc. (Microbiology)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my privilege to express my gratitude and respect to those who guided and
inspired me in the completion of this project.
I am deeply indebted to my project guide of the Mr. Anil Palta for giving me this
opportunity to undergo my project in his esteemed organization and for his timely
suggestions and valuable guidance.
On the occasion of complete and submission of project, I would like to express my
deep Sense of gratitude to college HOD Dr. Mrs. Neena Puri for providing me the Platform
of M.Sc.
I am grateful to the Director, Faculties, administrative staff and the librarian of Guru
Nanak Khalsa College for providing me all the support required for successful completion
of my project.

DeepuKoul

INDEX
3

CHAPTE
R NO
1

CHAPTER NAME

PAGE
NO

INTRODUCTION
EXECUTIVE SUMMERY
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

BACKGROUND OF TOPIC
INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION

PARLE AGRO PRODUCTS


FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
INDUSTRY SUSTAINABILITY
BRAND EQUITY
COMPETITORS OF FROOTI

PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION


PARLE AGRO

MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF BEVERAGES,


DRINKING WATER

ANALYSIS OF DATA

CONCLUSION AND FINDINGS


FINDING
CONCLUSION

APPENDICES
QUESTIONNAIRE
BIBLIOGRAPHY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Progress is a continuous process. It is relative and absolute. We cannot stop at a certain
destination and declare that target has been achieved and we need not to go further.
4

In this new are all the countries & their companies are trying their best to improve economic
growth. This trend has created a very complex & competitive environment in the field of
business, trend & win the race a new system of management is much needed. To fulfill this
need a new field of modern science has developed very fast i.e. Master of Management. In
this curriculum there are several phases, which have to be covered & compelled properly.
The experience that I have gathered during this period has certainly provided me with an
orientation which, I believe, will help me to shoulder my assignment successfully in near
future. During this period, I have collected all the information of Competitive analysis of
Frooti and its competitors through primary data which were available at the Mumbai.
On the basis of my training program, I have tried my best to arrange my work in symmetric
way. However to cover the detailed information in such a short period was not possible.
Despite the inherent shortcomings of the study, a genuine attempt was made on my part see
that the study was carried out in the right respective.
Be it a big city or a remote village of India, the Parle agro name symbolizes quality, health
and great taste! And this reputation has been built, by constantly innovating and catering to
new tastes. Due to change in market scenario i.e. rising trend in Organized retailing, the
distributors of Parle agro product would like to know where its products are better placed.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To evaluate the major competitors of frooti in the market.


5

To determine is there is any relation between consumers age group Who likes frooti

3
4

and price level of frooti.


To know the satisfaction level of customers about prices of frooti.
To know the how to improvement of advertising and campaign of frooti in the market.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY


Thesources of data usedin this project report areboth primaryand secondarydata.

1. Primary data
Primarydata consistsoforiginal information gathered from samplesizeof200
respondents residinginMumbai,India.
6

2. Secondary data
Secondarydata consistsof information that alreadyexists andthat was collected in
the past forsomeother purposes.

Sample Design:
Sizeof Sample: Thesample size selected fortheresearch is 200 in the areaof
Mumbai
Parameters ofInterests:Themajorparameter ofinterest is the subgroupofpeople
who are workingprofessionaland web savvyhavinganexperiencein online
shopping. Thetwo othersubsidiaryparameters ofinterest are:
oThe respondent shouldalsohave an experiencegroceryshopping.
oAnd the femalerespondent who have an onlineshoppingexperience.

SamplingTechnique:
Stratified sampling1

Stratification is the process of dividing members of the population into homogeneous


subgroups before sampling. The strata should be mutually exclusive: every element in the
population must be assigned to only one stratum. The strata should also be collectively
exhaustive: no population element can be excluded. Then simple random sampling or
systematic sampling is applied within each stratum. This often improves the
representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error.

LIMITATIONS

Some of the responses might be biased.

Most of the survey was carried out in and around Alwar.

It is wholly based on primary data.

INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION

'Parle Products Pvt Ltd based in Mumbai, India has been India's largest manufacturer of
biscuits and confectionery, for almost 80 years. Makers of the world's largest selling biscuit,
Parle-G, and a host of other very popular brands. Its reach spans even to the remotest villages
of India. Many of the Parle products - biscuits or confectioneries, are market leaders in their
category and have won acclaim at the Monde Selection, since 1971. With a 40% share of the
total biscuit market and a 15% share of the total confectionery market in India, Parle has
grown to become a multi-million dollar company.Parle Agro is a food and beverage company
based in Mumbai, India.
Parle Agro - a trusted name in the beverage industry for agro based drinks. Parle Agro is
a leading Indian Beverage Company, the only Indian transnational giant with the past
experience of having successfully launched leading soft drink brands like 'Frooti, Appy
Classic, Appy- Fizz, Bailley Packaged Drinking Water & Confectionery brands like Mintrox
and Buttercup'. Parle Agro strength is our people who have worked towards making our
presence felt throughout the country and all over the world through a strong Mumbai see
network and well-developed strong infrastructure. Parle Agro has its factories located in
Silvassa, Patalganga, Bhopal, Chennai, Ghaziabad and Hyderabad. At Parle Agro, success is a
habit; where greater heights are achieved through consumer insight, sound business practices,
marketing and sales innovation, with the focus on the consumer. 'Thinking consumer, Tasting
success, Always' - that is what Parle Agro is all about.

In the 1950s the undivided Chauhan family manufactured beverages, water,


confectionery, biscuits, etc. under its registered brand name Parle.
Over the years, the group split into three different companies Parle Agro, Parle
Bisleri and Parle Products. Currently, all three are separate companies with separate
ownership and management. They also have different products manufactured under them. All
three companies continue to use the family trademark name Parle under which the current
companies are named.
Parle Agro commenced operations in 1984. Starting with only beverages and
diversifying to include bottled water in 1993 and confectionery in 2007. Frooti was the first
product that was rolled out of Parle Agro in 1985. It went on to become Indias favourite
mango drink. It still has a leading market share.
Mr. Prakash Chauhan is the Executive Chairman of Parle Agro.
Schauna Chauhan is the CEO of parleagro .
Alisha chauhanis the Director of parle agro .
Nadia chauhan is the Director of parleagro .
Parle Agro is an Indian company in the beverages industry and has brands like Frooti,
consistent winner of India's fruit beverage brand, Appy, Appy Fizz and packaged drinking
water, Bailley.
A pioneer in the Indian industry, Parle Agro is associated with many firsts. They were the first
to introduce fruit drinks in tetra packaging, first to introduce apple nectar and the first to
introduce fruit drinks in PET bottles
In 2008, Parle Agro forayed into foods with the launch of two confectionery brands,
Mintrox mints and Buttercup candies. This was soon followed by two more brands Buttercup Softease and Softease Mithai.
Recent beverage products from Parle Agro include Saint Juice, LMN and Grappo Fizz. In
2009, Parle Agro forayed into snacks with the launch of Hippo, in line with the companys
vision of becoming a major player in the foods and beverages industry.
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Parle agro products

11

Parle Agro Pvt. Ltd operates under three business verticals: Beverages fruit
drinks, nectars, 100% Juice, sparkling drinks Water Packaged Drinking Water Foods
confectionery, snacks
1. BEVERAGES Frooti: Launched in 1985 as a mango drink, Frooti is the first beverage to be launched in tetra
packaging in India. Frooti is Indias favorite Mango drink and is ranked amongst the most
trusted brands in numerous national surveys
A) Appy ClassicLaunched in 1986 as an apple nectar and originally available in a white tetra pack with an
apple and leaf graphic, today it comes in black tetra packaging. Appy remains the first apple
nectar to be launched in India.

B) Appy Fizz-

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Launched in 2005, Appy Fizz is Indias first sparkling apple drink available in a champagne
shaped PET bottle. Considered the Champagne of Fruit drinks
Appy Fizz is a one of a kind product in the beverage market . Recently, Appy Fizz has been
given a makeover in terms of a new packaging.
Saint Juice: Launched in 2008, Saint Juice is available in three variants Orange, Mixed
fruit, Grape and Apple. Saint Juice is 100% juice with no added color, sugar or preservatives.

C) LMN-

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Launched in 2009, LMN is a fresh take on nimbupani. It contains real lemon juice and has
no artificial flavors or preservatives. LMN works as an Emergency Lemon Refresher, and
tastes closest to authentic nimbupani.

D) Grappo Fizz14

Launched in 2008, Grappo Fizz is a sparkling grape juice drink. Credited with creating the
sparkling fruit drinks category in India
Grappo Fizz is along the lines of existing product Appy Fizz. It is purple-red in color and has
no close competition in the market. 2. 3. Snacks & Confectionery.

E) Hippo

15

HIPPO is a baked snack with the goodness of wheat. It is available in seven flavors from
around the world - Italian Pizza, Chinese Manchurian, Hot-n-Sweet Tomato, Thai Chilli,
Yoghurt Mint Chutney, Indian Chatpatta and Arabian Salted. These baked wheat munchies
have no added MSG, no GMO, no cholesterol and zero trans-fat.

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
16

In todays global marketplace, where growth via acquisition is prominent, the key to
sustained positive financial performance is the ability to understand and respond to consumer
demands

and

competitive

pressures

while

reducing

cost

of

production.

INDUSTRY SUSTAINABILITY

Manufacturers want to have a positive impact on society and the environment. In addition,
they want to turn sustainability challenges into business advantages. At the heart of a wellplanned sustainability program is the belief that corporate investment in environmental and
social responsibility must strengthen business performance to be successful. It must reduce
environmental impact, achieve genuine economy in the use of resources, deliver a return on
investment, and enhance the equity of your company. Through automation, three major
sustainability objectives can be addressed: Energy conservation and efficiency
Environmental responsibility and resource management Safety for workers, machinery,
processes and products

BRAND EQUITY
Customer loyalty is key to the success of your business, and maintaining customer loyalty is
achieved through consistently manufacturing high-quality products, batch after batch. In
doing so you add value to your brand

COMPETITORS OF FROOTI
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Maaza is a Coca-Cola fruit drink brand marketed in India and Bangladesh Mango drinks
currently account for 90% of the fruit juice market in India. Maaza currently dominates the
fruit drink category and competes with Pepsi's Slice brand of mango drink and Frooti,
manufactured by Parle Agro.
History
Maaza was launched in 1976 in India. The Union Beverages Factory, based in the United
Arab Emirates, began selling Maaza as a franchisee in the Middle East and Africa in 1976.
By 1995, it had acquired rights to the Maaza brand in these countries through Maaza
International Co LLC Dubai. In India ,Maaza was acquired by Coca-Cola India in 1993 from
Parle-Bisleri along with other brands such as Limca, Citra, Thums Up and Gold Spot. As for
North America, Maaza was acquired by House of Spices in 2005.

Slice - Pure Mango Pleasure

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Brand History
Slice was launched in India in 1993 as a refreshing mango drink and quickly went on to
become a leading player in the category.In 2008, Slice was relaunched with a 'winning'
product formulation which made the consumers fall in love with its taste.
Brand Advantage
With the launch of Aamsutra campaign in 2008 along with a winning taste & most
appealing pack graphics, Slice created disruptive excitement in the category and celebrated
mango indulgence like no other.As a first ever by any brand in the Juice and Juice Drinks
Category, Bollywoods reigning Diva, Katrina Kaif was signed on as the Brand Ambassador
on Slice.

Brand History
Tropicana was founded in Bradenton, Florida, USA, in 1947. And is now enjoyed almost
everywhere in the world. Carefully nurtured for over 50 years, it has matured into one of
the most respected beverage brands. Today it is the World's no. 1 juice brand and is
available in 63 countries. Since 1998, it has been owned by PepsiCo, Inc. Tropicana
Premium Gold was re-launched as Tropicana 100% in year 2008.

Brand Advantage
It continues to select the best in fruit to craft high-quality juices, create original products,
pioneer innovative processes and explore new markets for its products. It is devoted

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towards a healthful lifestyle by ensuring that the products are naturally nutritious and
provide the daily benefits that one needs.

DABUR REAL FRUIT JUICE


Real has been the preferred choice of consumers when it comes to packaged fruit juices,
which is what makes India's No. 1 Fruit Juice brand. A validation of this success is that Ral
has been awarded Indias Most Trusted Brand status for four years in a row.
Real is endorsed by PFNDAI
The nutritional contents of Ral Fruit Juices & Nectars are endorsed by PFNDAI -- Protein
Foods & Nutrition development Association of India.

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GODREJ JUMPIN MANGO JUICE


The foods division of Godrej Industries produces and markets edible oils, vanaspati, fruit
drinks, fruit nectar and bakery fats. The division has two state-of-the-art manufacturing
facilities: at Wadala in Mumbai, the capital of the western Indian state of Maharashtra; and at
Mandideep near Bhopal in the northern Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION

MISSION
We will be the leaders in our business by maintaining high quality, introducing new and

innovative products, reaching every part of India, remaining customer-centric, constantly


upgrading our knowledge and skills.
To provide consumers superior, wholesome agro based food and drink bands through
which Parle can build a profitable; growth oriented organization.

HISTORY
In 1929 a small company by the name of Parle products emerged in British dominated India.
The intent was to spread joy and cheer to children and adults alike, all over the country with
its sweets and candies. The company knew that it wouldn't be an easy task, but they decided
to take the brave step. A small factory was set up in the suburbs of Mumbai, to manufacture
sweets and toffees. Apart from the factories in Mumbai and Bangalore Parle also has factories
in Bangalore Parle also has factories in Bahadurgarh in Haryana and Neman in Rajasthan,
which are the largest biscuit and confectionary plants in the country. Additionally, Parle
products also have 7 manufacturing units and 51 manufacturing units on contract.

OBJECTIVE: To build successful channel relationships (vendor to partner)


To assess the critical success factors when selling through distributors
To outline terms and conditions for establishing partnerships
22

To integrate sales and marketing objectives


Quality Assurance

All the products of Parle Agro Pvt. Ltd. are manufactured under the most hygienic conditions.
Great care is exercised in the selection & quality control of raw materials, packaging
materials. Rigid quality standards are ensured at every stage of the manufacturing process.
Every batch of drink, packaged drinking water and confectioneries are thoroughly checked by
quality experts using the most modern equipment.

Our drinks are made available in Tetra Packs and Pet Bottles which retains the freshness of
the drink for a long time. The special technology used in the packaging keeps the drink fresh
for a longer period of time. Owing to all these reasons, our products have been awarded with
ISO certification. Thus we are engaged in providing the new generation consumers with
healthy and delicious drink to refresh.

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Infrastructure
For the brands Frooti, Appy Classic and Appy Fizz, Parle Agro Pvt. Ltd. has strategically
located manufacturing facilities at Patalganga, Bhopal, Chennai, Hyderabad and Ghaziabad.
We have franchisee location at Kolkata, Guwahati, Ambala and Jharkhand. The locations of
these units ensure a constant output and easy distribution. Each factory has state-of-the-art
machinery with automatic packaging facilities.
The plant that produces Bailley meets the stringent requirements of the BIS norms
comprising of chemical and microbiological tests. All the plants adhere to the recommended
International Code of Practices and the General Principles of Food Hygiene.
The state-of-the-art plants also minimize the wastage and render high yield. We have strength
of highly qualified and experienced team of dedicated engineers. These engineers along with
our team of R&D professionals are constantly involved in innovating various techniques and
methods to add value to the industry. The extensive distribution network, built over the years,
is a major strength for our company, since it helps us to make available to consumers our
products even in the most remote places.
PRODUCT RANGE

FROOTI Mango Drink

APPY Apple Drink

APPY FIZZ Carbonated Apple Drink

BAILLEY Packaged Drinking Water

Primary Competitive Advantages

Products are manufactured under the most hygienic conditions

The drinks are made available in a Tetra Pak and Pet Bottles
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Healthy and nutritious alternative which are also delicious

Access to best quality fruits

Strategically located manufacturing facilities

State-of-the-art manufacturing plants

An extensive distribution network

Memberships

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Exports Developments Authority (APEDA)

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)

Project Exports Promotion Council of India (PEPC)

Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO)


Standard Certification
ISO certification
HACCP certification

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MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTING OF BEVERAGES,


DRINKING WATER

INTRODUCTION
The consumers steadily growing requirements for the quality and the longer shelf life of
foods and beverages must be met by the manufacturer.
Quality assurance cant be limited to inspection of the final product alone, such as a bottled
beverage or a prepared food product. Instead, continuous inspection of incoming raw
materials and in-process quality control tests must be performed throughout production.
Microbiological and aseptic testing play a significant role in such quality assurance.
In the soft drink industry the microbiological and hygienic quality including the biological
stability of the products are important criteria for their assessment. The reason: just a few
microbes are often all it takes to spoil large quantities of a beverage. Although the explosive
technological development has reduced the risk of contamination by spoiling microbes, the
issue of shelf life has taken on new dimensions as a result of the enormous production output
possibilities of today. Quality control of bottling and filling, in terms of chemical and, above
all, biological stability, must be adapted to this development by state-of-the-art test methods.
The requirements for a practical microbiological test method are that it permits quantitative
and reproducible detection of trace contamination and that it can be performed efficiently and
economically under routine conditions.

26

These requirements are fulfilled optimally by the membrane filter method. The principle of
this method is based on the concentration of microorganisms from relatively large samples on
the surface of the membrane filter, and on culturing these microbes on a nutrient pad or an
agar culture medium.

THE MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD


Description
The Membrane Filter Method A membrane filter of the appropriate pore size is placed in a
filter holder, and the sample is filtered. In this process microorganisms in the test sample are
retained
on the filter surface by the screening action of the membrane filter.
Growth inhibitors can be removed by flushing the membrane with sterile NaCl solution after
filtration. Afterwards, the membrane filter is placed on a culture medium and incubated.
For the Monitor MF-Methode the monitor is ready to use due to a pre-asembled membrane
and pad inside. The nutrient media is added from the top and sucked into the pad by a short
vacuum
(<1 sec.) After removal of the funnel the lid and the base fit to a petri dish. Nutrients and
metabolites are exchanged through the pore system of the membrane filter. Colonies, which
have developed on the membrane filter surface during incubation, are counted and related to
the sample volume.
The Advantages:
Proofen accuracy Compared with the direct method, considerably larger sample volumes
can be tested. This concentration effect increases the accuracy of microbial detection.
Quantitative results
The visible colonies can be related directly to the sample volume.
27

Documentation
The membrane filter with colony growth can be filed as a permanent record of the test.
No Inhibitors
Inhibitors, such as essential oils or disinfectants, can be flushed from the membrane filter
after filtration.
GMP Quality
Sartorius Stedim Biotech Membrane Filters are manufactured under GMP conditions,
ensuring consistently quality and high reproducibility from batch to batch and within each
batch.
The Culture Media
Microorganisms can be detected by different methods. Methods involving culturing
techniques
and the microscope are used to detect microbes, whereas biochemical and serological
techniques are commonly applied to differentiate among such organisms. For detecting
microorganisms in cultures, liquid and solid culture media are employed. Microorganisms are
concentrated by growth in or on these culture media. Quantitative detection is only possible
with solid culture media because the individually developing colonies can be evaluated and
counted on the surface.
The following culture media can be used for microbiological testing:
Nutrient Pad Sets
Nutrient Pad Sets definitely optimize the membrane filter method.
They standardize microbiological test procedures, making them much more efficient.
The simplify laboratory work.
They help to save time and money.
Absorbent pads to be wetted with culture media. Culture media with agar or gelatin as the
solidifying agent. The nutrient Pad Sets are described on the following pages and certainly
offer the most convenient way to use the membrane filter method.

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NUTRIENT PAD SETS


Sartorius Stedim Biotech Nutrient Pad Sets have been used successfully in the membrane
filter method for over 20 years. Practical and easy to handle, they reduce labor and simplify
many microbiological testing procedures.
Nutrient pads are sterile, dehydrated culture media. Once they are moistened with 3.03.5 ml
of sterile and demineralized (or distilled) water they are ready to use immediately.
The level of moisture is optimal when an excess ring of water surrounding the pad is visible.
All Nutrient Pad Set types are supplied with the appropriate membrane filters, which
are also presterilized and individually packaged or dispenser-ready packaged on a band
for the use with the Microsart e.motion dispenser.
The membrane filters tailored to meet the special requirements of microbial detection are
available with 47 mm or 50 mm diameters.
Nutrient pad sets (NPS) are continuously enhanced as part of our development program to
adapt our products to changing application requirements. Besides the new NPS types, we
have also updated our packaging design. The standard NPS box contains 100 sterile nutrient
pads, each of
which is individually inserted in a petri dish and sterilized. Ten each of these petri dishes are
sealed in an aluminum bag. This special packaging in bags protects the sensitive formula
constituents of the nutrient pads during transport and storage from fluctuations in humidity
and
temperature. As a result, it guarantees the high quality of our NPS throughout their entire
shelf life of up to 24 months.
29

How to Use Nutrient Pad Sets


Its so easy to use Nutrient Pad Sets: NPS and go Before starting with the tests remove
everything that is not essentially needed for this work. Carefully clean and disinfect your
working area. For simple microbiological tests a laminar flow box is not needed. When used
unprofessionally, a laminar flow box increases the risk of secondary contamination instead of
protecting from it. A good protection against airborne contamination, however, is to work
close to the flame of a Bunsen burner. Instruments like forceps should be placed into a glass
with alcohol.

30

31

Description and Typical Growth Evaluation Results


Caso NPS
Type 14063
Soybean-Casein Digest medium for isolating microorganisms and for determining the total
CfU count. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (dairy), APHA (food), APHA (water), AOAC, DAB, EG 98/83, EP, FDA, IDF, ISO
7704, ISO 8199, ISO 9308-1 [1990], ISO 9308-1 [2001], USDA, USP
Incubation Conditions:
Bacteria: < 3 days at 3035C
Yeasts and molds: < 5 days at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Predominantly bacteria of different sizes, shapes and colors. Remarks: Depending on the
microbes to be detected, this medium can be converted into a selective one. When 10% serum
is added to the wetting liquid a number of fastidious pathogenic bacteria like the genera
Pneumococcus, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix and Brucella are
able to grow on the medium.
R2A NPS
Type 14084
Low nutrient medium for the enumeration of heterophilic organisms in treated potable water
and highly purified water. Growth medium for microorganisms which have adapted to the
particular living conditions of water low in nutrients. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in water for pharmaceutical purpose, water (general quality),
waste water and other products.
References:
APHA (water), EP, ISO 7704
Incubation Conditions:
> 5 days at 3035C

32

Evaluation and Typical Results:


Predominantly bacteria grow on this medium. Their colonies are of different size and color,
most of them are white or colorless.
Remarks: Stressed and chlorine-tolerant bacteria are stimulated by this medium in
combination with lower incubation temperatures and longer incubation time.
Standard TTC (I mod.) NPS
Type 14055
Meat extract-peptone medium for determining the total CfU count based on the APHA
(water) and modified by the addition of TTC.
Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general
quality), waste water, beverages, beer, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (water), ISO 7704, VLB
Incubation Conditions:
< 5 days at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Predominantly bacteria grow on this medium. The majority of their colonies are stained red
by TTC reduction.

Staphylococcus aureus

Escherichia coli

Total Colony Count


33

Bacillus subtilis

Standard NPS
Type 14064
Meat extract-peptone medium for determining the total CfU count; based on the APHA
(water). Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water
(general quality), waste water, beverages, beer, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (water), ISO 7704, VLB
Incubation Conditions:
< 5 days at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Predominantly bacteria grow on this medium. The morphology and color of their colonies
vary.
Type 14076
Tryptone Glucose Extract medium for isolating microorganisms and for determining the total
CfU count. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials,
water (general quality), waste water, beverages, soft drinks, concentrates, foods and other
products.
References:
APHA (dairy), APHA (food), APHA (water),
API, ISO 7704
Incubation Conditions:
< 5 days at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
On this medium predominantly colonies of bacteria grow that can have different size and
colors.
Yeast Extract NPS
Type 14090
For the detection of the total count of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Dehydrated culture
medium for cultivating microorganisms in water (general quality) and other products.
References:
EG 98/83, HMSO, ISO 6222, ISO 7704,
ISO 8199
34

Incubation Conditions:
44 4 hours at 36 2C;
68 4 hours at 22 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Predominantly bacteria grow on this medium. The majority of all colonies are colorless.

2. E. Coli and Coliforms, Enterobacteria CHROMOCULT* NPS


Type 14087
For the detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, beverages,
foods and other products.
References:
ISO 7704, Journal Food Protection,
ZenHyg (journal of hygiene)
Incubation Conditions:
2028 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
E. coli develops dark-blue to violet colonies, other coliforms red to pink colonies. Other
gram-negative colonies are colorless, a few with -Glucuronidase activity are light blue to
turquoise. Remarks: To confirm E. coli give one drop of Kovacs indole reagent on each dark
blue colony. Cherry red color after a few seconds is a positive reaction.
ECD NPS
Type 14082
Selective culture medium for detecting and identifying Escherichia coli. Bile salt inhibits the
accompanying flora of microbes not living in the intestine. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, beverages,
foods and other products.

References:
APHA (water), DIN 10110, EG 98/83,

35

ISO 7704, ISO 8199, ISO 9308-1 [2001],


LMBG, USDA
Incubation Conditions:
1618 hours at 44 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Colonies that show light blue fluorescence under UV light indicate E. coli; confirmation with
a drop of KOVCS indole reagent is required, a positive reaction is shown by a cherry color
after a few seconds.
Remarks: This medium can be used for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli based on the
ISO 9308-1.
Endo NPS
Type 14053
Selective medium for detecting and enumerating E. coli and coliform bacteria. Dehydrated
culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general quality),
natural water, waste water, beverages, soft drinks, concentrates, fruit juice, sugar, sugar
products, foods
and other products.
References:
APHA (dairy), APHA (food), APHA (water),
DGHM, ISO 7704, ISO 9308-1 [1990], MNO,
USDA
Incubation Conditions:
1824 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
E. coli form red colonies with a metallic sheen and a red dot at the underside of the
membrane. Other coliforms grow as dark to light red colonies without metallic sheen.
Colorless colonies of lactosenegative bacteria are not counted.

36

Escherchia coli

Escherchia coli

Escherchia coli

Mixed culture from water

E. coli colonies fluoresence in


UV light

E. coli and coliforms from


river water

MacConkey NPS
Type 14097
For the isolation and differentiation of coliform bacteria and other enterobacteriaceae.
Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics,
raw materials, water (general quality), natural water, waste water, beverages, soft drinks,
concentrates, fruit juice, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (dairy), APHA (food), APHA (water),
AOAC, DAB, DIN 38411, DGHM, EP, ISO
7704, LMBG, MNO, USDA, USP
Incubation Conditions:
1872 hours at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
37

Escherichia coli forms large red or reddish colonies, coliform microbes form large pink,
sometimes slimy colonies, lactose-negative enterobacteria form colorless colonies. Grampositive microbes are inhibited.

m FC NPS
Type 14068
For the detection of E. coli and faecal coliform bacteria according to Geldreich et al.
Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general
quality), waste water, beverages, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (food), APHA (water), AOAC, EPA,
FDA, ISO 7704, ISO 9308-1 [1990], USDA
Incubation Conditions:
1824 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
E. coli and coliform bacteria form blue colonies with a blue surrounding. This color is dark
blue at faecal coliforms with strong lactose fermentation and lighter blue for non-faecal
coliforms with weaker lactose fermentation. Lactose-negative bacteria grow with different
colors and are not evaluated.
Remarks: Higher incubation temperatures largely suppress the nonfaecal coliforms.
Teepol NPS
Type 14067
Lauryl Sulphate medium for the detection of E. coli and faecal coliform bacteria according to
Burman, N.P. (1967). Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in water
(general quality), waste water, beverages, foods and other products.
References:
AFNOR, APHA (water), BS, FDA, ISO 7704,
ISO 9308-1 [1990], USDA
Incubation Conditions:
1824 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:

38

E. coli and coliform bacteria form 12 mm diameter yellow colonies surrounded by a yellow
zone. Non-lactose fermenting bacteria develop red or colorless colonies without yellow zone.

Tergitol TTC NPS


Type 14056
Selective and differential medium for the detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria and
E. coli according to Pollard; modified acc. to Chapman. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, beverages,
foods and other products.
References:
APHA (food), EG 98/83, ISO 7704, ISO 8199,
ISO 9308-1 [1990], ISO 9308-1 [2001]
Incubation Conditions:
1824 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:

39

Lactose-positive microorganisms form yellow-orange colonies with a yellow surrounding and


have a yellow dot under the membrane filter. According to ISO 9308-1 all colonies that show
yellow color under the membrane filter are counted as positive. Remarks: Tergitol 7 inhibits
Gram positive colonies and minimizes the swarming of Proteus. Further differentiations of
E.coli and coliforms with Oxidase- and Indol-Tests are required.
Azide NPS
Type 14051
For the detection and enumeration of intestinal enterococci according to Slanetz and Bartley.
Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general
quality), natural water, waste water, beverages, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (food), APHA (water), EG 98/83,
HMSO, ISO 7704, ISO 7899-2, ISO 8199,
LMBG, MNO
Incubation Conditions:
4048 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Enterococci form red, pink or reddish brown colonies with a diameter of 0.52 mm.
Remarks: Enterococci are considered to be indicator organisms of faecal contamination. They
are less
sensitive to chemical effects than are E. coli organisms and are therefore longer detectable,
for instance in waste water and in chlorinated water.
Bismuth Sulfite NPS
Type 14057
Selective culture medium according to Wilson and Blair for isolating Salmonella typhi and
other salmonellae. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, foods and
other products.
References:
AFNOR, APHA (dairy), APHA (food), AOAC,
DGHM, FDA, HMSO, ISO 6579 [1981],
ISO 7704, USDA, USP
40

Incubation Conditions:
4048 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Most salmonellae form light colored colonies with brown to black centers surrounded by a
black zone with a metallic sheen (fish eye). Some Salmonella species develop uniformly
dark brown to black colonies which may lack the typical zone. Remarks: If a very slight
contamination with salmonellae is suspected, prepare a selective enrichment culture and
subsequently streak the sample with an inoculation loop on a membrane filter that has been
placed on the pre-wetted NPS.

Cetrimide NPS
Type 14075
For the detection and enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa according to Lowbury.
Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in cosmetics, raw materials,
water (general quality), waste water, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (water), AOAC, ASM, DIN 38411,
EG 98/83, FDA, ISO 7704, ISO 8199,
41

EN 12780, EN ISO 16266


Incubation Conditions:
4048 hours at 36 2C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms blue, blue-green or yellow-green colonies with 12 mm
diameter and blue zones. The colonies produce pyocyanin and fluorescein and show
fluorescence in
UV-light. Other Pseudomonads develop colonies with different colors.
Remarks:
Further tests are necessary for definitive identification of Ps. aeruginosa.
Chapman NPS
Type 14074
Mannitol salt medium according to Chapman, modified for detecting and isolating pathogenic
Staphylococci.

Dehydrated

culture

medium

for

cultivating

microorganisms

in

pharmaceuticals,
cosmetics, raw materials, water (general quality), waste water, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (food), AOAC, DGHM, FDA, HMSO,
ISO 7704, USP
Incubation Conditions:
1872 hours at 3035C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Staphylococcus aureus forms yellow colonies with a yellow surrounding (mannitol-positive).
Other Staphylococci grow without zones of color change. Most other bacteria are inhibited.
Lysine NPS
Type 14061
Selective medium for isolating and enumerating wild yeasts in breweries acc. to Morris and
Eddy. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in beer and other products.
References:
Journal Institute of Brewing, VLB
Incubation Conditions:
35 days at 3035C
42

Evaluation and Typical Results:


Only wild yeasts (not belonging to the genus Saccharomyces) which utilize lysine as sole
source of nitrogen grow on this medium, they form white or cream colored colonies; brewery
culture yeasts grow not at all or very poorly.

Malt Extract NPS


Type 14086
For the isolation and enumeration of yeasts and molds. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in beverages, wine, soft drinks, concentrates, fruit juice, foods
and other products.
References:
APHA (food), AOAC, IFU
Incubation Conditions:
35 days at 2025C or at 3035C
depending on the target of the investigation

43

Evaluation and Typical Results:


Yeasts normally develop smooth white, rarely colored colonies. Molds generally form velvety
or fluffy, cotton-like colonies that are white during the early growth phase and later, after
conidiospore formation, of various colors.
Remarks: The low pH of this medium suppresses the growth of most bacteria. This medium
is available with two different types of membrane filters.
Sabouraud NPS
Type 14069
For the cultivation and enumeration of yeasts and molds. Dehydrated culture medium for
cultivating microorganisms in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, raw materials, water (general
quality), waste water and other products.
References:
APHA (food), AOAC, EP, USP
Incubation Conditions:
< 5 days at 2025C
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Yeasts usually develop smooth white or colored colonies. Molds form velvety or fluffy,
cotton-like colonies that are white in the early growth phase and may take various colors after
conidiospore production.
Remarks: According to the EP | USP antibiotics could be added immediately before use.
Schaufus Pottinger
(m Green yeast and mold) NPS
Type 14070; 14072; 14080; 14083; 14091.
M Green Yeast and Mold medium for the detection of yeasts and molds according to
Schaufus and Pottinger. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in wine,
soft drinks, concentrates, sugar, sugar products and other products.
Incubation Conditions:
25 days at 2025C or at 3035C depending on the target of the investigation
Evaluation and Typical Results:

44

Molds develop velvety or fluffy whitish or greenish colonies which can get various colors
after conidiospore production. Yeasts have a smooth surface. Acid forming sugar fermenters
are whitish to yellow, non-acid formers are, by contrast, greenish to bluegreen.
Remarks: The low pH suppresses the growth of most bacteria. This medium is available with
various types of membrane filters: 3 different pore sizes and 2 different colors.

Glucose Tryptone NPS


Type 14066
For the enumeration of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, especially flat-sour
microorganisms in canned foods.
References:
APHA (dairy), APHA (food), AOAC, ICUMSA,
IFU, ISO 7704, NCA
Incubation Conditions:
1872 hours at 3035C for mesophilic bacteria; 4872 hours at 55 2C for thermophilic
sporulating microorganisms
Evaluation and Typical Results:
45

Microorganisms that ferment glucose and produce acid grow as yellowish green colonies.
Flat-sour colonies have a diameter of 2-5 mm, a yellowish-green color and are surrounded
by a yellow zone.
Remarks: For the incubation at 55 2C the petri dishes must be placed into a moist
chamber.
Jus de Tomate (Tomato Juice) NPS
Type 14079
For the detection of product spoiling lactic acid bacteria especially Oenococcus oeni acc. to
Dubois, Bindan and Lafon-Lafourcade. Tight-fitting, special petri dishes for microaerophilic
incubation. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in wine, fruit juice
and other products.
References:
ISO 7704, Lanaridris& Lafon-Lafourcade
Incubation Conditions:
57 days at 3035C anaerobic (microaerophil); control for slowly growing micro-organisms
after 10 days is recommended
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Lactobacilli form compact, whitish to slightly yellowish colonies with 13 mm diameter.
Pediococci develop somewhat smaller colonies with approx. 1 mm diameter that later get a
whitish to slightly brownish color. Oenococcus oeni grows as colorless to whitish colonies
with a
diameter smaller than 1 mm.
Remarks:
This medium must be incubated under anaerobic to microaerophilic conditions.

Orange Serum NPS


Type 14062; 14096
For the isolation and enumeration of acid-tolerant microorganisms. Dehydrated culture
medium for cultivating microorganisms in raw materials, water (general quality), waste
water, wine, soft drinks, concentrates, fruit juice, foods and other products.
References:
APHA (water), IFU, ISO 7704, MPP
(packaging staff)
46

Incubation Conditions:
35 days at 3035C aerobic or anaerobic depending on the target of the investigation
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Only acid-tolerant microorganisms can grow on this medium such as lactic acid bacteria
(Lactobacillus, Pediococcus etc.), acetic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds. Remarks: This
medium is available with pH 5.5 and with pH 3.2.

VLB-S7-S NPS
Type 14059
For the detection of pediococci and lactobacilli according to Emeis; modified acc. to Rinck
and Wackerbauer. Dehydrated culture medium for cultivating microorganisms in beer and
other products.
References:
EBC, ISO 7704, MEBAC, VLB
Incubation Conditions:
35 days at 3035C anaerobic (microaerophil)
Evaluation and Typical Results:
Pediococci (Sarcina) develop round pale green colonies with smooth peripheries and
approx. 1 mm in diameter. Lactobacilli grow as slightly rounded, irregularly lobed colonies
with approx. 2 mm in diameter which are initially light green and later
dark green.
Remarks: This medium must be incubated under anaerobic to microaerophilic conditions.

47

GROWTH COMPARISON
The principle of the membrane filter method is based on the concentration of microorganisms
from relatively large samples on the surface of a membrane filter. Nutrients and metabolites
are
exchanged through the pore system of the membrane filter. The pore size alone is not a
meaningful criterion. Due to the variance in allocation of the pores, not all membranes
guarantee sufficient nutrient supply. A comparison of Sartorius Stedim Biotech cellulose
nitrate (cellulose mixed ester) membranes with other mixed ester membranes reveals
significant differences in growth promotion results. E. coli forms red colonies with a metallic
sheen. Other coliforms would grow as dark to light red colonies without metallic sheen.

E. coli shows no metallic sheen on this mixed esters membrane. Therefore it is very difficult
to differenciate between E. coli and coliforms without any further test. A quantitative
statement is difficult due to the fact of running colonies on the mixed esters membrane
surface.

48

Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms blue, blue-green or yellow-green colonies with 12 mm


diameter and blue zones. The colonies produce pyocyanin and fluorescein and show
fluorescence in UV-light. Other Pseudomonads would develop colonies with different colors.

On this mixed esters membrane grow less colonies and without the blue zone. Due to the
variance in the allocation of the pores, here the mixed esters membrane did not guarantee a
sufficient nutrient supply. This may cause in false negative results.

49

ANALYSIS OF DATA

1) Where do you purchase frooti ?


(a) General Store

(b) Pan Shop

(c) Sweet Shop

(d) Canteen.

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

General Store

84

42

Pan Shop

56

28

Sweet Shop

50

25

Canteen.

10

05

Percentage(%)
45
40
35
30

Percentage(%)

25
20
15
10
5
0
General store

Pan shop

Sweet shop

Interpretation-

2) Which brand of soft drink you deal in.


50

Canteen

(a) Frooti

(b) Maaza

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

(e) Dabur Real

(f) Others.

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Frooti

65

32.5

Maaza

36

18

Slice

26

13

Jump in

22

11

Dabur Real

26

13

Others

25

12.5

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Percentage
No. of respondent

InterpretationIn the outlet the mostly soft drink are available and Frooti and Maaza are the more frequent
soft drink which is found and other soft drinks are available i.e. Slice, Jump in, Dabur real.

3 ) Which brand is the nearest competitor of frooti brand in your opinion?


(a) Dabur Real

(b) Maaza
51

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

(e) Others.
Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Dabur Real

13

6.5

Maaza

84

42

Slice

75

37.5

Jump in

25

12.5

Others

03

1.5

Percentage(%)
45
40
35
30

Percentage(%)

25
20
15
10
5
0
Dabur Real

Maaza

Slice

Jump in

Others

InterpretationAccording to the retailer the nearest competitor of Frooti is the Maaza and Slice. Other soft
drink are the Jump in and other local fruits juice.

4 ) Which company have better distribution network?


(a) Frooti

(b) Maaza

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

52

(e) Dabur Real

(f) Others.

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Frooti

60

30

Maaza

54

27

Slice

40

20

Jump in

16

08

Dabur Real

20

10

Others

10

05

Percentage(%)
30
25
20

Percentage(%)

15
10
5
0
Frooti

Maaza

Slice

Jump in Dabur Real Others

InterpretationThe distribution network of theFrooti brand is good as regards to their near competitors like
Maaza and Slice. According to the retailer point of view because the manufacturing unit of
Frooti is found in this state.

5) Which is most preferred size of the bottle by you?


(a) 200ml

(b) 300ml

(c) 500ml

(d) 1000ml

(d) 1500ml

(Use more than one tick)


53

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

200ml

65

32.5

300ml

40

20

500ml

29

14.5

1000ml

45

22.5

1500ml

21

10.5

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Percentage
No. of respondent

InterpretationAccording to the given data it shows that the maximum selling of the bottle and TCA pack is
in 200ml, 500ml, and 1000ml. So the best preferred size is 200ml and 500ml.

6) You know the difference between branded and non branded soft drink?
(a) Yes

(b) No

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Yes

170

85

No

30

15

54

Percentage(%)

15%
Yes
No

85%

InterpretationIn the market the maximum customer know about the branded soft drink so this is advantage
for the soft drink brand in the market.

7) What do you feel about the price of soft drinks


(a) Very high

(b) High

(c) medium

(d) low

(e) Reasonable
Option

No. of respondent
55

Percentage

Very high

24

12

High

70

35

medium

51

25.5

low

36

18

Reasonable

19

9.5

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
very high

high

medium

low

very low

InterpretationAccording to the mostly retailer opinion the price of soft drink is high so the branded
company need to change the price of the soft drink that helps to increase the sales.

8) Do you feel a price reduction will increase the sales of branded soft drinks?
(a) Yes

(b) No

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Yes

145

72.5

No

55

27.5

56

Percentage(%)

28%

Yes
No

73%

InterpretationIf the price of the soft drinks will reduced then the sales will be increase as per the given data.

9) Which medium affected to you to buy?


(a) Television

(b) Magazine/Newspapers

(c) Display

(d) Hoardings

(e) campaign
Option

No. of respondent
57

Percentage

Television

75

37.5

Magazine/Newspapers

40

20

Display

30

15

Hoardings

25

12.5

campaign

30

15

Percentage(%)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Percentage(%)

InterpretationIn the given data explain that the advertising media is the most prominent than other media so
we can say that for improving sale of fruit soft drink should be use this media and that will
affect the sale in the market.

10) Do you think that aggressive advertisement further increase the sales volume of
frooti?
(a) Yes

(b) No

(c) No reply
Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

Yes

120

60
58

No

45

22.5

No reply

35

17.5

Percentage(%)
60
50
40

Percentage(%)

30
20
10
0
Yes

No

No Reply

InterpretationAggressive advertisement is the beneficial promotional activities for the sale promotion.
Maximum retailer are agree from the aggressive advertisement.

11) What are your suggestion to improve the sale?


(a) New scheme

(b) Advertisement

(c) Regular supply

(d) Credit facilities

(e) Refrigeration system

(Use more than one tick)

Option

No. of respondent

Percentage

New scheme

72

36
59

Advertisement

52

26

Regular supply

25

12.5

Credit facilities

27

13.5

Refrigeration system

24

12

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

Percentage
No. of respondent

InterpretationAccording to retailer perception time to time new scheme should be provide and regular
supply is necessary in the market that improve the sale. Company should also provide the
refrigerator for the own product refrigeration.

FINDING AND CONCLUSION

In the outlet the mostly soft drink are available and Frooti and Maaza are the more
frequent soft drink which is found and other soft drinks are available i.e. Slice, Jump
in, Dabur real.

60

In the market the most customer age segment is the 15 to 35. They are the prominent
to visit the retail shop and purchase the soft drink. So the brand need to focus on this
segment of customers.

According to the mostly retailer opinion the price of soft drink is high so they Prefer
Frooti.

Aggressive advertisement is the beneficial promotional activities for the sale


promotion. Maximum retailer are agree from the aggressive advertisement.

QUESTIONAIRE

1) Where do you purchase frooti ?


(a) General Store

(b) Pan Shop

(c) Sweet Shop

(d) Canteen.

2) Which brand of soft drink you deal in.


61

(a) Frooti

(b) Maaza

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

(e) Dabur Real

(f) Others.

3 ) Which brand is the nearest competitor of frooti brand in your opinion?


(a) Dabur Real

(b) Maaza

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

(e) Others.

4 ) Which company have better distribution network?


(a) Frooti

(b) Maaza

(c) Slice

(d) Jump in

(e) Dabur Real

(f) Others

5) Which is most preferred size of the bottle by you?


(a) 200ml

(b) 300ml

(c) 500ml

(d) 1000ml

(d) 1500ml

6) Do you know the difference between branded and non branded soft drink?
(a) Yes

(b) No

7) What do you feel about the price of soft drinks


62

(a) Very high

(b) High

(c) medium

(d) low

(e) Reasonable

8) Do you feel a price reduction will increase the sales of branded soft drinks?
(a) Yes

(b) No

9) Which medium affect the sales most?


(a) Television

(b) Magazine/Newspapers

(c) Display

(d) Hoardings

(e) campaign

10) Do you think that aggressive advertisement further increase the sales volume of frooti?
(a) Yes

(b) No

(c) No reply

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Websites:
1

www.isource.com

www.frooti.com

Books:
3

Statistical Method by S.P.Gupta.


63

Research Methodology by C.R.Kothari.

Methodology of research in social sciences by Krishna swami.

64