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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Actuarial mathematics
Simple life statuses and related concepts

Edward Furman
Department of Mathematics and Statistics
York University

Edward Furman

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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Life table
Definition 1.1 (Life table.)
We shall call the distribution of (u) its life table.
Example 1.1
[x, x + t)
[0, 1)
[1, 2)
[2, 3)
[3, 4)
[4, 5)
...

lx
100, 000
98, 740
98, 648
98, 584
98, 535
...

qx
0.01260
0.00093
0.00065
0.00050
0.00040
...

dx
1, 260
92
64
49
40
...

Lx
98, 973
98, 694
98, 617
98, 560
98, 515
...

Tx
7, 387, 758
7, 288, 785
7, 190, 091
7, 091, 474
6, 992, 914
...

ex
73.88
73.82
72.89
71.93
70.97
...

Edward Furman

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Fractional ages

Definition 1.2 (Random number of survivors to age x.)

Let us have a group of l0 new born children. Then, for 1{j}
indicating the survival of the new born child number j to age x,
L(x) :=

l0
X

1{j}

j=1

denotes the number of children alive at age x. L(x) is an r.v.

Definition 1.3 (Expected number of survivors to age x.)
For x p0 = P[1{j} = 1] for every j = 1, . . . , l0 , the expectation of
L(x) is

l0
X
1{j} = l0 x p0 .
lx := E[L(x)] = E
j=1

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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Definition 1.4
Let n D(x) := L(x) L(x + n) denote the group of deaths
between ages x and x + n. We then define the expected
number of deaths (out of l0 and between the aforementioned
ages)
n dx

:= E[n D(x)] = l0 (x p0 x+n p0 ) = lx lx+n .

Proposition 1.1
We have that
(x) =

1 d
lx .

lx dx

Proof.
Noticing that x p0 = lx /l0 completes the proof.
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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

At home.
Check that
lx+n
lx lx+n


 Z x+n
(s)ds ,
= lx exp
x
Z x+n
=
ls (s)ds.
x

Proposition 1.2
We have that the local extrema points of lx (x) correspond to
the points of inflection of lx .
Proof.
d
d 1 d
d2
lx (x) = lx
lx = 2 lx ,
dx
dx lx dx
dx
which completes the proof.
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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Figure: Plot of lx
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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Figure: Plot of lx (x )
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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

Figure: Plot of (x )
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Fractional ages

Approximating life functions at fractional ages

Life table functions investigated hitherto specify the c.d.f.
of K (x) completely. To specify the c.d.f. of T (x) we must
postulate an analytic form or adopt an assumption in
We shall further review three different assumptions for
fractional ages, given a fixed x = 0, 1, . . . and t (0, 1),
1

Linear interpolation or the uniform distribution of deaths

(UDD),
S(x + t) = (1 t)S(x ) + tS(x + 1).

Exponential interpolation or the constant force of mortality

(CFM),
log S(x + t) = (1 t) log S(x ) + t log S(x + 1).

Harmonic interpolation,
1/S(x + t) = (1 t)/S(x ) + t/S(x + 1).
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Fractional ages

Edward Furman

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Life tables with one source of decrement

Fractional ages

The UDD
Linear approximation applied.
We find the value of lx+s , x = 0, 1, 2 . . . and s (0, 1) from the
following equations:
x +sx
lx lx+s
=
= s,
lx lx+1
x +1x
which yields
lx+s = lx slx + slx+1 .
Finally, we find that:
lx+s = (1 s)lx + slx+1 .

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Fractional ages

In terms of the number of deaths, we have that

lx+s = (1 s)lx + slx+1 = lx sdx ,
where dx = lx lx+1 .
The d.d.f.
Further, dividing by lx , we have that
s px

UDD

UDD

= 1 sqx s qx = sqx .

As qx is tabulated we can calculate s qx for any non-integer

duration s.
The p.d.f.
Also, we have that
fT (x) (s) =

d
UDD
s qx = qx , for 0 < s < 1.
ds

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Fractional ages

As fT (x) (s) is constant in s and equal to qx , deaths are said

to be uniformly distributed over the interval [x, x + 1).
We have seen that
(x) =

fT (x) (s)
f (x)
f (x)
and, similarly, (x + s) =
.
=
S(x)
x p0
s px

The force of mortality.

Then the force of mortality is
UDD

(x + s) =

qx
,
1 s qx

which increases in s.

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Fractional ages

Age is fractional as well.

If both the age and the duration are non-integer, i.e., we want to
calculate st qx+t , 0 < t < s < 1, then
s px

=t px st px+t

st px+t

s px
t px

Hence,
st qx+t

= 1 st px+t = 1

s px
t px

=1

1 s qx
,
1 t qx

which after applying the UDD assumption reduces to

st qx+t

UDD

= 1

1 s qx
(s t)qx
=
, for 0 < t < s < 1.
1 t qx
1 t qx

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Fractional ages

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