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In this lecture youll learn

Chapter 4 Lecture

The concept of force and its role


in causing changes in motion
Newtons three laws of motion
About the force of gravity
g
y
Including the distinction
between mass and weight
How
H
tto apply
l N
Newtons
t llaws iin
one-dimensional motion

Force and Motion

Slide 4-1

Newtons First Law of Motion

The Fundamental Forces

Newtons first law is often called the law of inertia.


The tendency of an object to resist any attempt to change
its velocity is called inertia
Every object continues in its state of rest, or of uniform
velocity in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net
force.
When no net force acts on an object, the acceleration of
the object is zero.
Motion with constant velocity is as natural a state as being
at rest.
Newton
Newtons
s first law is valid only in an inertial frame of
reference, or a frame of reference that does not undergo
acceleration.
Any reference frame that moves with constant velocity
relative to an inertial frame is itself an inertial frame
Slide 4-3

Newtons Second Law

F ma

In component form: Fx max Fy ma y Fz maz


Mass m (SI unit: kg) is a quantitative measure of an objects
inertia and is an intrinsic property of the object.
A given force is less effective in changing the motion of a
more massive object
object.
The force required to accelerate a 1-kg mass at the rate of 1
m/s2 is defined to be 1 Newton (N).
The Second Law can
also be expressed in terms of linear
momentum p mv :

ddp

There are four fundamental forces or


interactions in nature:
Strong nuclear force
Holds the nuclei together
Very strong but very short range
Weak nuclear force
Responsible for nuclear decay
Acts over short distance
Electromagnetic
El t
ti fforce
Causes electric and magnetic
effects
Acts over long distance

Gravitational force
Weakest of all fundamental forces
Always attractive and acts over long
range

Nearly all
everyday forces,
except gravity,
gravity are
electromagnetic
forces
Slide 4-4

Newtons Third Law

The acceleration of an object


j
is directly
yp
proportional
p
to the net
force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass:

F dt

Slide 4-2

dv

ma (when m is constant)
dt

Slide 4-5

Forces come in pairs.


p
If object A exerts a force on object B, then object B exerts
an oppositely directed force of equal magnitude on A.
Alternatively, for every action there is an equal but
opposite reaction.
The two
t o forces al
always
a s act on different
objects; therefore they cant cancel
each other
other.
Example: The force Fhn exerted by
the hammer on the nail is equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction
to the force Fnh exerted by the nail
on the hammer
hammer.
Slide 4-6

Clicker Question

Clicker Question
If a fly collides with the windshield of a fast-moving
bus which object experiences a stronger impact
bus,
force?

An object experiences no acceleration. Which of the


following cannot be true for the object?

1.
2.
3
3.

A single force acts on the object.


No forces act on the object.
Forces act on the object
object, but the forces
cancel.

1.
2.
3.

the fly
the bus
the same force is experienced by both

Clicker 4-8

Slide 4-7

Clicker Question

Clicker Question

A sailboat is being blown across the sea at a constant


velocity.
l it Wh
Whatt is
i th
the di
direction
ti off th
the nett force
f
on the
th boat?
b t?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Left
Right
Net force is zero
Down
Up

Two rubber bands stretched the standard distance


cause an object to accelerate at 2 m/s2. Suppose
another object with twice the mass is pulled by four
rubber bands stretched the standard length. The
acceleration of this second object is
1) 1 m/s2 .
2) 2 m/s2 .
3) 4 m/s2 .
4) 8 m/s
/ 2.
5) 16 m/s2 .

Clicker 4-9

Clicker Question

Clicker 4-10

Weight and Normal Force

Weight
e g t is
s tthe
e force
o ce o
of g
gravity
a ty o
on a
an object
object: W mg
Mass is an intrinsic property and doesnt depend on the
presence or strength of gravity.
Weight depends on gravity, so varies with location:
The force exerted perpendicular to a surface is called the
normal force

Three forces act on an object. In which direction


does the object accelerate?

Clicker 4-11

Slide 4-12

Apparent Weight

Upward Acceleration

When a person stands on a scale, the reading on the scale, or


the apparent weight is the normal force exerted by the scale
back on the person
When the scale and person are at rest or moving at constant
velocity,
l it th
the apparentt weight
i ht iis equall tto th
the ttrue weight
i ht
When the scale and person experience an upward or downward
acceleration, the normal force changes resulting in an apparent
weight that is greater or less than the true weight

The elevator may be going up and speeding up or going


down and slowing down

N mg ma
N mg ma mg

a
mg

Slide 4-13

Downward Acceleration

Clicker Question

The elevator may be going down and speeding up or going up


and slowing down

mg N ma

Slide 4-14

Consider a person standing in an elevator that is moving


upward
p
at constant speed.
p
The magnitude
g
of the upward
p
normal force, N, exerted by the elevator floor on the
person's feet is
1) larger than
2) the same as
3) smaller
ll than
h

N mg ma mg
mg

the magnitude
g
of the downward weight,
g , Fg, of the person.
p

When the elevator is in free fall,, the normal force becomes zero
(weightless!)
Clicker 4-16

Slide 4-15

Clicker Question

Clicker Question

A woman in an elevator is standing on a scale. When the


elevator is at rest, the scale reading is S = 50 kg,
corresponding to a weight of approximately 500 N
N. While
the elevator is moving upward, it is decelerating with |a| =
g/10. The new scale reading will be which of the following?
1.
2.
3.

A Martian lander is approaching


the surface. It is slowing its
descent by firing its rocket motor.
Whi h iis th
Which
the correctt ffree-body
b d
diagram for the lander?

< 50 kg
g
= 50 kg
> 50 kg

(1)
Clicker 4-17

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)
Clicker 4-18

Spring Forces

Tension Force

A stretched
t t h d or compressed
d spring
i produces
d
a fforce
proportional to the stretch or compression from its
equilibrium configuration: Fsp = kx.
The spring force is a
restoring force
b
because
iits di
direction
i iis
opposite that of the
stretch or compression.
p

Ignore the mass of the rope


Ignore any frictional forces on the rope
The
Th magnitude
it d off the
th force
f
exerted
t d along
l
the
th rope is
i called
ll d
the tension
The tension is the same at all p
points in the rope
p

Springs provide
convenient devices for
measuring force.

Slide 4-19

Clicker Question

Summary

Find the tension in an elevator cable if the 1000 kg


elevator is descending with an acceleration of 1.8 m/s2,
downward.
downward

1.
2.
3
3.
4.

Slide 4-20

5,700 N
8,000 N
9 800 N
9,800
11,600 N

In Newtonian physics
physics, forcea
force a push or pullcauses
pull causes not
motion itself but change in motion.
Newtons
Newton s three laws are
First law: A body in motion remains in uniform motion,
and a body at rest remains at rest, unless acted on by a
nonzero net force.
Second law: The acceleration of an object is directly
proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely
proportional to its mass

F ma
Third law: If object A exerts a force on object B, then
object B exerts an oppositely directed force of equal
magnitude on A
A.

Clicker 4-21

An objects weight is the force that gravity exerts on it.

Clicker 4-22