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Question # 1) What is HRM? And what is the HR Policy?


Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is a function in
organizations designed to maximize employee performance of an employer's strategic
objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within
organizations, focusing on policies and systems.
Human Resource Management is the process of recruitment, selection of
employee, providing proper orientation and induction, providing proper training and the
developing skills, assessment of employee (performance of appraisal), providing proper
compensation and benefits, motivating, maintaining proper relations with labour and
with trade unions, maintaining employees safety, welfare and health by complying with
labour laws of concern state or country.
The human resource policy of a company is a set of rules, procedures and
guidelines that govern the company's interactions with its employees. They flow from
the overall strategic plan of the company, and are usually developed in consultation
with middle management and other employees. The human resource manager or
department is responsible for compiling, maintaining and administering the human
resource policies of an organization.

HR policies, usually documented on a companys Intranet, are important for several


reasons: First, they are a one-stop shop for employees looking for information on
various company policies, such as recruitment, promotion, retirement, compensation
and training. Second, they provide a framework for the human resource department to
design and administer personnel development programs and train new employees. And
third, they provide structured compliance with local and federal government standards
and regulations.

Components
The complexity of a company's HR policies depends on its size and base of operation.
Components include the mission statement, guidelines on ethical and responsible
conduct, hiring practices, grievance procedures, compensation structure, financial
support for continuing education, rules for sick and compassionate leave, and the
company's anti-discrimination and anti-harassment policies. Workplace health and
safety are also important parts of HR policy, including guidelines on operating heavy
equipment and emergency evacuation procedures.

Question 2)
Analysis?

What is Job Analysis? Briefly discuss the Components of Job

Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the
operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis
are job descriptions and job specifications.
In the words of Edwin B. Flippo, "Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting
information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job

Components of Job Analysis:-

Job Description
Job description includes basic job-related data that is useful to advertise a specific job
and attract a pool of talent. It includes information such as job title, job location,
reporting to and of employees, job summary, nature and objectives of a job, tasks and
duties to be performed, working conditions, machines, tools and equipments to be used
by a prospective worker and hazards involved in it.

Purpose of Job Description


The main purpose of job description is to collect job-related data in order to
advertise for a particular job. It helps in attracting, targeting, recruiting and
selecting the right candidate for the right job.
It is done to determine what needs to be delivered in a particular job. It clarifies
what employees are supposed to do if selected for that particular job opening.

It gives recruiting staff a clear view what kind of candidate is required by a


particular department or division to perform a specific task or job.
It also clarifies who will report to whom.

Job Specification
Also known as employee specifications, a job specification is a written statement of
educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional,
technical and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in
a job and other unusual sensory demands. It also includes general health, mental
health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability,
adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity, etc.

Purpose of Job Specification


Described on the basis of job description, job specification helps candidates
analyze whether are eligible to apply for a particular job vacancy or not.
It helps recruiting team of an organization understand what level of qualifications,
qualities and set of characteristics should be present in a candidate to make him
or her eligible for the job opening.
Job Specification gives detailed information about any job including job
responsibilities, desired technical and physical skills, conversational ability and
much more.
It helps in selecting the most appropriate candidate for a particular job.
Job description and job specification are two integral parts of job analysis. They define a
job fully and guide both employer and employee on how to go about the whole process
of recruitment and selection. Both data sets are extremely relevant for creating a right
fit between job and talent, evaluate performance and analyze training needs and
measuring the worth of a particular job.
Question 3) Explain Recruitment and Selection Process? How will you set
Recruitment policies in any company posture/position?
Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to
an organisation. Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific

instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons more likely to succeed in
the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements.
The Recruitment Process:
The recruitment process begins when you know you need someone new in the Department, either because an
existing staff member has left, or because there is new work to be done. It doesnt finish until after the
appointment has been made.
The main stages are identified in the below flow chart

In order to increase efficiency in hiring and retention and to ensure consistency and compliance in the recruitment and selection
process, it is recommended the following steps be followed (also refer to Staff Recruitment and Selection Hiring Checklist). Details
for each step include the minimum recommended best practice to attract a talented and diverse applicant pool:

Step 1: Identify Vacancy and Evaluate Need


Step 2: Develop Position Description
Step 3: Develop Recruitment Plan
Step 4: Select Search Committee
Step 5: Post Position and Implement Recruitment Plan
Step 6: Review Applicants and Develop Short List
Step 7: Conduct Interviews
Step 8: Select Hire
Step 9: Finalize Recruitment

Step 1: Identify Vacancy and Evaluate Need


Recruitments provide opportunities to departments to align staff skill sets to initiatives and goals, and for departmental and individual growth.
Proper planning and evaluation of the need will lead to hiring the right person for the role and team.

A- Newly Created Position


When it is determined a new position is needed, it is important to:

Understand and take into consideration strategic goals for the University and/or department. Are there any upcoming changes that may
impact this role?
Conduct a quick analysis of UC Core Competencies. Are there any gaps? What core skills are missing from the department? Evaluate
the core skills required now and those which may be needed in the future.
Conduct a Job Analysis if this position will be new to your department. This will also help to identify gaps.

B- Replacement
When attrition occurs, replacing the role is typically the logical step to take. Before obtaining approval to advertise the position, consider the
following:

As with a newly created position, it may be helpful to conduct a Job Analysis in order to tailor the position to what is currently required
and to ensure proper classification. Your HR Classification Analyst can assist in reviewing and completing.
Review the role and decide if there are any changes required as certain tasks and responsibilities performed by the previous person may
not or should not be performed by the new person

Step 2: Develop Position Description


A position description is the core of a successful recruitment process. It is used to develop interview questions, interview evaluations and
reference check questions. A well-written position description:

Identify Duties and Responsibilities


Prior to developing the job description the hiring manager should identify the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

General Information
Position Purpose
Essential Functions
Minimum Requirements
Preferred Qualifications

Step 3: Develop Recruitment Plan


Each position requires a documented Recruitment Plan which is approved by the organizational unit. A carefully structured recruitment plan maps
out the strategy for attracting and hiring the best qualified candidate and helps to ensure an applicant pool which includes women and
underrepresented groups including veterans and individuals with disabilities.
In addition to the positions placement goals the plan contains advertising channels to be used to achieve those goals. The recruitment plan is
typically developed by the hiring manager in conjunction with the Departmental HR Coordinator. Placement goals identified are displayed on the
position requisition in the ATS.
Recruitment plan elements:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Posting Period
Placement Goals
Additional Advertising Resources
Diversity Agencies
Resume Banks

Contact your department HR Coordinator for a Sample Recruitment Plan

Step 4: Select Search Committee

The Hiring Manager will determine the size (no more than 6) and composition of the committee based on the nature of the position. It is
highly recommended the committee members include:
o At least one individual who has a strong understanding of the role and its contribution to the department
o A job specialist (technical or functional)
o An individual who will interact closely with the position and/or serves as a main customer

Step 5: Post Position and Implement Recruitment Plan

Once the position description has been completed, the position can then be posted to the UCR career site via the ATS. Every effort should be
made to ensure the accuracy of the job description and posting text. It may not be possible to change elements of a position once posted,
because it may impact the applicant pool.
To post the position:

The requisition is created by the Service Center Human Resources Coordinator or Departmental Human Resources Coordinator and
approved by the Service Center HR Organizational Coordinator or Organizational HR Coordinator

Once approved, the Departmental HR Coordinator or Service Center will review the requisition and route online to the HR Classification
Analyst who will assign the classification

The requisition is then routed to the HR Recruitment Analyst who will post the position

Applications can be reviewed and dispositional once the minimum number of posting days has been reached

Internal candidates will apply through the regular application process and will be included in the candidate pool along with external
candidates (see 6.0 Special Considerations for details)

Step 6: Review Applicants and Develop Short List


Once the position has been posted, candidates will apply via UCRs job board. Candidates will complete an electronic applicant for each position
(resume and cover letter are optional). Candidates will be considered Applicants or Expressions of Interest.
Applicants are those who apply during the initial application period as described in Step 5. All applicants must be reviewed and considered.
Candidates who apply after the initial application period will be considered expressions of interest and not viewable by the search committee.
It is recommended that all search committee members review all Applicants to ensure more than one person assesses their qualifications and
that individual opinion or biases are avoided. It is permissible to have at least two committee members review all Applicants for certain
recruitments in which there are extensive applicant pools to best narrow down the pool. Alternatively, Human Resources may perform this
function. Each committee member may provide comments to each Applicants qualifications as they relate to the minimum requirements of the
position.
A phone screen may be conducted to obtain information such as availability, salary requirements, special position requirements (e.g. ability to
perform shift work), ascertain minimum requirements and other preliminary information to assist the search committee with their review. It is
possible to screen out an applicant due to information obtained during this initial screening and therefore phone screens should be properly
documented and attended by at least two search committee members or Human Resources.
Upon the search committees review of the applicants, the Chair or Chairs Associate will review all search committee comments and develop the
short list. Once the short list has been determined, the AACO or designee will submit the short list to the OFSAA for approval. If the short list is
deemed to represent a sufficiently diverse applicant pool, the short list will be approved. Once approved, the applicants can then be contacted for
interviews.

Step 7: Conduct Interview


The interview is the single most important step in the selection process. It is the opportunity for the employer and prospective employee to learn
more about each other and validate information provided by both. By following these interviewing guidelines, you will ensure you have conducted
a thorough interview process and have all necessary data to properly evaluate skills and abilities.

Step 8: Select Hire


Final Applicant
Once the interviews have been completed, the committee will meet to discuss the interviewees. Committee members will need to assess the
extent to which each one met their selection criteria.
The search committee evaluation tool will be helpful in justifying decisions and making them as objective as possible.
Your documentation should demonstrate your selection decision. Documentation is required in order to comply with OFCCP requirements. As one
of the most critical steps in the process, it is important to keep the following in mind:

The best candidate for the position was chosen based on qualifications

The candidate will help to carry out the University and Departments missions

Step 9: Finalize Recruitment


Upon completion of the recruitment process the offer to the selected finalist is made.
Prior to initiating the offer, it is recommended that one more check of the selection process be completed as follows:

Review the duties and responsibilities of the position and ensure they were accurately described and reflected in the job description and
interview process

Review selection criteria used to ensure they were based on the qualifications listed for the position

Confirm interview questions clearly matched the selection criteria

Confirm all applicants were treated uniformly in the recruitment, screening, interviewing and final selection process

Should there be any issues with the above, contact your Organizational Human Resources Coordinator.

Question 4) In what ways do business strategy and organizational culture


affect staffing decisions?
Or
How business strategies and organizational culture can affect staffing
decisions? Can work sample-test improve?
If you dont understand the culture of your company, even your most brilliant strategies
will fail. Your vision will be resisted, plans wont get executed properly, and all kinds of
things will start going wrong.Isadore Sharp, CEO, Four Seasons Hotels.

This statement by a renowned businessman clearly indicates that there is some


connection between culture and strategy. A business strategy stems from
the organizational vision and mission. The implementation, evolution and effectiveness
of strategies depends upon the people of the company. Culture plays an important role
in strategy formulation and implementation, because the staff have to fit in order to
be able to deliver.

How Culture Alignment stimulate Strategy Execution

Through Goal Alignment


Goal alignment focuses on what is done in the organization on a day-to-day basis. It ensures that the
task performed by each individual or group is focused on strategically important areas. Organizational
culture aligns goals with structures, processes, and employee interaction, for successful strategy
execution and goal achievement.

By Enhancing Productivity

When people in the organization act and interact in the same way, there is better mutual understanding
among employees and they can work in a more efficient manner. According to a study by Kotter and
Heskett, the organizations that aligned culture and strategy yielded a three times higher Return-OnInvestment than those with a non-aligned culture and strategy.

Mergers & Acquisitions


In this age of cut-throat competition, large corporations are hungry for mergers & acquisitions. However
the success of mergers and acquisitions solely depends on the integration of cultural parameters in the
acquisition plans. The outstanding example of culture-strategy alignment is the merger of Hewlett
Packard and Compaq Computers. Prior to merger both of these companies had their unique culture,
work schedules and formalization. While merging, the top officials from both the companies came
together to form an optimum culture that fits into both, without hindering the efficiency of individual
employees.
It does not matter what wonderful strategies your organization has formulated; if it doesnt fit into the
culture, it wont be materialized. Misaligned organizational cultures mar the organizations growth
engines and prevent strategies from being achieved to their full potential. The strategic orientation of an
organization is just another expression of its dominant cultural values.

Promoting Culture-Strategy Fit

Consistency is the key to hold the values true.


Keep making small but valuable changes over time.
Promote management groups and employees to come up with innovative ideas and practices.
Use effective communication practices to concentrate on what is important.

A personality assessment is a highly effective tool and an efficient use of company resources at this crucial point of
the decision making process.

In-depth Work Style & Personality Assessment Testing A


Standard in Recruiting
As with any business decision, having the right information is critical. Work style and personality assessment testing
can provide insight into potential hires, as well as your current workforce, in several ways:

Identify potential red flags: A personality assessment can discover issues that are sometimes overlooked
during the interviewing process and can quantify an intuition or feeling the interviewer may have about a particular

candidate. It can be used to identify potential red flags concerning behavioral issues, help to understand how to
manage individuals for greater work performance and compare interpersonal dynamics of teams, departments and
candidates.
Learn how to optimize employee work performance: A personality assessment can provide extensive

information on an individuals ability to work with their job responsibilities, team dynamics and company culture.
Additionally, the assessment can show effective strategies to gain optimal performance from that individual within
their particular work environment. It can also be employed to quickly identify the most effective management style
for a new employee or predict how team members are likely to interact.
Ensure you have the right people in the right positions: Additionally, personality assessments can be
utilized in rehires, or situations which call for employees to re-apply for their current jobs, as in the case of a
corporate merger or restructuring. A personality assessment test can also ensure that your company continues to
have the right people in the right positions and distributes assets & talents effectively.

Question 5) How organization manage the new employee orientation for


maximum output?
After effective recruitment and selection, one of the most important ways that organizations can
improve the effectiveness of their talent management systems is through the strategic use of on
boarding. On boarding is the process of helping new hires adjusts to social and performance aspects of
their new jobs quickly and smoothly. This should always be a priority for HR departments.
Every organization has its own version of the complex process through which new hires learn attitudes,
knowledge, skills and behaviors required to function effectively. Academic researchers who study
onboarding also use the term organizational socialization. 5 No matter what the terminology, the bottom
line is that the faster new hires feel welcome and prepared for their jobs, the faster they will be able to
successfully contribute to the firms mission.

Starting with a first-day welcome, global beauty company LOreal says, Our aim is to develop
successful, committed and mutually beneficial relationships with each of our employees.
The company supports on boarding with a two-year, six-part integration program called LOreal Fit.
The program includes:
Training and roundtable discussions.
Meetings with key insiders.
On-the-job learning supported by line management.
Individual mentoring and HR support.
Field and product experiences such as site visits and shadowing programs.
Approaches to on boarding range from quite structured and systematicas in the case of LOrealto
the sink or swim strategy, in which new employees often struggle to figure out precisely what is
expected and to understand the norms of their new workplace.
One of the first things HR managers should consider is whether their firm is served best by informal or
formal onboarding.
Informal on boarding refers to the process by which an employee learns about his or her new job
without an explicit organizational plan.
Formal on boarding refers to a written set of coordinated policies and procedures that assist an
employee in adjusting to his or her new job in terms of both tasks and socialization.
Short-Term Outcomes of Onboarding: New Employee Adjustment

a- Self-Efficacy, Or Self-Confidence
The first lever for successful on boarding is Self-Efficacy, or Self-Confidence, in job performance. To
the degree that a new employee feels confident in doing the job well, he or she will be more motivated
and eventually more successful than less confident counterparts. Organizations should target specific on
boarding programs to help boost employees confidence as they navigate new organizational waters.
Self-efficacy has been shown to have an impact on organizational commitment, satisfaction and
turnover.

b- Role Clarity
A second task-related lever is role clarityhow well a new employee understands his or her role and
expectations. Performance will suffer if expectations are ambiguous. In fact, a study of employees in the
United States and United Kingdom found that businesses lose an estimated $37 billion each year as a
result of employees not understanding their jobs. Therefore, role clarity (or its flipside, role ambiguity) is
a good indication of how well-adjusted a new employee is, and measuring role clarity can help
organizations stop potential performance problems before they get worse, leading to poor job attitudes.
If new employees say they understand the roles they occupy, that obviously indicate higher role clarity.
Researchers have also studied role conflict in new employees, with lower role conflict indicating more
positive onboarding outcomes. Overall, measures of role clarity are among the most consistent
predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment during the onboarding process.

c- Social integration
Social integration is the third lever for successful onboarding. Meeting and starting to work with
organizational insiders is an important aspect of learning about any organization. In addition, new
employees need to feel socially comfortable and accepted by their peers and superiors. Research has
long found acceptance by peers to be an indicator of adjustment.

d- Knowledge of and fit within an organizational culture


Knowledge of and fit within an organizational culture is the fourth aspect of onboarding. Every
company has a unique culture, so helping new hires navigates that cultureand their place within itis
essential. Understanding an organizations politics, goals and values, and learning the firms unique
language are all important indicators of employee adjustment and down the line are associated with
commitment, satisfaction and turnover.

Major Issues in defining Conduction and evaluation of Training


Program

What are the key issues that should be addressed in the design, conduct, and evaluation of training programs?
The following are the key issues to be addressed for a successful training program:

Place (indoor/outdoor)

Audio visual aids

Relevant training materials

Facilities

Time schedule

Non visual aids

Trainer

How does Goal Setting Affect the Trainee learning and motivations ?

10 Reasons Why Performance Management Fails


and how to remedy them

Below are ten common causes of failure of performance management.


(Adapted from a PhD dissertation Integrated Performance Management Systems by Dr Marko Saravanja)

1. Lack of integration
Performance management has to be approached from an integrated perspective. Synergy has to be created between the
performance management system and strategic planning, human resource management processes, organisational culture,
structure and all other major organisational systems and processes. Individual, team and organisational strategic objectives
must be harmonised. Without integration, no performance management system can succeed on its own, no matter how good
the performance management system may be.
2. Design challenges
The performance management system and tools must be designed to address the particular needs of organisations. The design
process should involve thorough consultation with major stakeholders and especially with future users of the system.
Consultation and interaction are necessary to build trust and relationships with employees and relevant stakeholders. Trust is
an absolute requirement for the success of the performance management system. The new performance management system
should be piloted and thoroughly tested before it is applied in the organisation. Applying an incomplete system leads to loss of
credibility, time, financial and human resources, and

increases resistance to change and low acceptance of the new

performance management system.


People involved in the design of the system must have expertise in performance management and an understanding of the
institutions context. Overreliance on external consultants might be an expensive way of developing the system, which often
has additional negative consequences of dependency and lack of ownership of the new performance management system.
3. Lack of leadership support
The implementation of the performance management system has to be supported and driven by top leadership and
management. Leadership has to be committed to implementing the performance management system. Leaders should be
encouraged to develop the capacity to create a shared vision, inspire staff and build a performance management system that
drives the entire organisation towards a common purpose. Organisations with the best performance management results have
strong value and vision-driven leaders at the top who inspire people, communicate the vision, take risks, and provide support
and rewards.
4. Implementation failure

The change management aspect of performance management should be managed strategically. The organisations top
leadership must drive the change process. Resistance to change should be managed proactively. A communication process
should be put in place which will explain the benefits of the performance management system, communicate progress with the
implementation and reduce uncertainties, fears and anxieties. Managers must be encouraged to engage in careful, systematic
and professional planning and implementation of the performance management system. Implementation time frames must be
respected. All documentation and forms must be completed properly and professionally, especially performance agreements
and personal development plans. Mechanisms must be put in place to ensure the objectivity of performance ratings and
judgements, and to reduce favouritism and bias. Performance management should be a continuous process and not an activity
conducted once or twice a year. Performance feedback should be timely and continuous. A rewards system, comprising both
monetary and nonmonetary rewards, should be developed to reward high performers. Mechanisms must be put in place to deal
with nonperformers.
5. Incompetence
All those involved in the performance management system must possess appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills to utilise
the system. The following are major skills required:

Development of performance indicators, key results areas, core management competencies and performance
agreements

Measurement of performance indicators

Communication of results and feedback

Monitoring and evaluation of the performance management system.

Proactive training and development interventions should be implemented to ensure that the users of the performance
management system are continuously developed. Special emphasis should be given to soft skills and the behavioural aspects
of performance.
6. Lack of rewards
A reward system that rewards high performance and discourages low and mediocre performance must be put in place. A
comprehensive and holistic reward system, which includes various rewards such as financial rewards, public acknowledgments,
merit awards, promotions, greater work responsibilities, learning and study opportunities, should be developed and
communicated to staff. Much greater emphasis must be given to non-monetary rewards. Mechanisms must be put in place to
take corrective action against low performers.
7. Communication challenges
A proactive communication strategy and process must be followed throughout the implementation of the performance
management system. In the planning and design phases, good communication will enable buy-in from the major stakeholders.
In the implementation phase, good communication will assist with managing resistance to change and building positive
momentum. In the monitoring and evaluation phase, good communication will assist with learning and reinforcing
achievements gained. Users of the system must be trained to communicate professionally and developmentally during the
process of conducting performance appraisals and when communicating outcomes and feedback. Communication is one of the

most critical success factors of the entire performance management system. Effective communication requires the provision of
relevant information, ensures buy-in from the users of the system, reduces fears and anxieties, reduces resistance to change,
and generates commitment to the system.
8. Inspiration challenges
The organisations must ensure high levels of staff inspiration. This requires a systematic approach to addressing the challenges
of staff inspiration. It requires continuous investment in human resources. Staff motivation should not be left unmanaged. If it is
left unmanaged, staff motivation naturally deteriorates. Programmes are required to ensure high levels of staff motivation and
commitment to the organisational vision, which may include a variety of activities such as team building, strategic planning,
family picnics, internal competitions and awards, learning and development opportunities, behavioural change exercises,
attitude change activities, sport activities, and similar. These programmes must be proactive, continuous and have a long-term
focus on ensuring sustainable levels of staff motivation.
In addition to direct staff motivation programmes, organisations must build an enabling organisational environment for staff
motivation. Organisational development interventions must be implemented continuously in order to ensure high levels of staff
motivation in a sustainable manner.

Special emphasis must be given to culture change programmes to ensure that the

organisational culture is progressive and developmental. Issues of the objectivity of performance ratings, fairness and equity
should be addressed otherwise staff motivation is compromised.
The organisational structure should be reviewed and issues of power, layers of bureaucracy, organograms, accountabilities,
reporting and communication channels should be analysed. Obstacles should be removed in order to ensure that structure is
not an obstacle to staff motivation.
Organisational processes should be streamlined, simplified and made user-friendly to motivate staff and not to demotivate
them with red-tape and bureaucratic procedures. Proactive communication processes must be put in place to ensure that
information is continuously communicated to the right people. Effective communication reduces fear and uncertainties and
prevents wrong assumptions, gossip, and politics.

Performance feedback should be given timeously and continuously and not

once or twice a year following the performance appraisal process.


Human resource management and development policies, strategies and activities should be proactive and developmental. They
should be designed and implemented to attract, nurture, develop and retain the best staff.

In addition to the development of

intellectual capabilities and technical skills, training and development interventions should emphasise the development of
emotional and spiritual intelligence. A comprehensive reward system should be implemented, comprising monetary and
nonmonetary rewards, to ensure high levels of staff motivation on a sustainable basis. A reward system should be designed in
such a way that it encourages excellence, discourages mediocrity and addresses non-performance.
Leadership plays a crucial role with regard to staff motivation. It is the main responsibility of a leader to inspire staff, to ensure
that obstacles to staff motivation are removed and to generate their passion and commitment to the organisational mission.
High motivation generally leads to high performance. Without motivated staff, no performance management system can be
successful, irrespective of how well the system is developed and how sophisticated performance documents, forms and
agreements are.

9. Lack of monitoring
Performance management system implementation must be continuously monitored. Problems must be detected at an early
stage to enable prompt corrective action. Monitoring systems must be developed to systematically collect information, analyse
and interpret it, and use it for decision-making.
10. Lack of evaluation
The evaluation process must be conducted at regular intervals to enable the detection of problems at an early stage. The
problems identified should be fed back to the design phase. This will ensure that prompt corrective action is taken to address
the identified problems. In order to ensure the integrity of the evaluation process, it is advisable that an independent party
conducts the evaluation process. In order to be successful, the performance management system must be continuously
evaluated and improved.
The system below on Integrated Performance Management has been developed based on the identification of major
performance management problems, weaknesses and challenges. The system addresses these problems in an integrated
manner and provides long-term

solutions. The solutions are based on practical recommendations from performance

management practitioners. They are underpinned by strong theoretical foundations informed by leading local and international
performance management scholars, experts and consultants.