Triaxial Compression

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Triaxial Compression

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385

Hence,

f1

2 e tan

1

s1122

s1112

s3112

s3122

0.5

45 f

(12.23)

s1112 s3112 tan2 a 45

c

2 tan a 45

f1

b

2

f1

b

2

(12.24)

A consolidated-drained triaxial test on a clayey soil may take several days to complete.

This amount of time is required because deviator stress must be applied very slowly to ensure

full drainage from the soil specimen. For this reason, the CD type of triaxial test is uncommon.

Example 12.2

A consolidated-drained triaxial test was conducted on a normally consolidated clay.

The results are as follows:

s3 16 lb/in.2

(sd )f 25 lb/in.2

Determine

a. Angle of friction, f

b. Angle u that the failure plane makes with the major principal plane

Solution

For normally consolidated soil, the failure envelope equation is

tf s tan f

1because c 0 2

For the triaxial test, the effective major and minor principal stresses at failure are as follows:

s1 s1 s3 1sd 2 f 16 25 41 lb/in.2

and

s3 s3 16 lb/in.2

Part a

The Mohrs circle and the failure envelope are shown in Figure 12.24. From Eq. (12.19),

sin f

s1 s3

41 16

0.438

s1 s3

41 16

or

f 26

s1

Shear stress

u

s3

s3

f

B

s1

2u

s3 16 lb/in2

s1 41 lb/in2

Normal stress

Figure 12.24 Mohrs circle and failure envelope for a normally consolidated clay

Part b

From Eq. (12.4),

u 45

f

26

45

58

2

2

Example 12.3

Refer to Example 12.2.

a. Find the normal stress s and the shear stress tf on the failure plane.

b. Determine the effective normal stress on the plane of maximum shear stress.

Solution

Part a

From Eqs. (10.8) and (10.9),

s 1on the failure plane2

s1 s3

s1 s3

cos 2u

2

2

and

tf

s1 s3

sin 2u

2

Substituting the values of s1 41 lb/in.2, s3 16 lb/in.2, and u 58 into the preceding

equations, we get

s

41 16

41 16

cos 12 58 2 23.0 lb/in.2

2

2

387

and

tf

41 16

sin 12 582 11.2 lb/in.2

2

Part b

From Eq. (10.9), it can be seen that the maximum shear stress will occur on the plane

with u 45. From Eq. (10.8),

s1 s3

s1 s3

cos 2u

2

2

Substituting u 45 into the preceding equation gives

s

s

41 16

41 16

cos 90 28.5 lb/in.2

2

2

Example 12.4

The equation of the effective stress failure envelope for normally consolidated clayey soil

is tf s tan 30. A drained triaxial test was conducted with the same soil at a chamberconning pressure of 10 lb/in.2 Calculate the deviator stress at failure.

Solution

For normally consolidated clay, c 0. Thus, from Eq. (12.8),

s1 s3 tan2 a 45

f

b

2

f 30

s1 10 tan2 a 45

30

b 30 lb/in.2

2

So,

1sd 2 f s1 s3 30 10 20 lb/in.2

Example 12.5

The results of two drained triaxial tests on a saturated clay follow:

Specimen I:

s3 70 kN/m2

Specimen II:

s3 160 kN/m2

Determine the shear strength parameters.

Solution

Refer to Figure 12.25. For Specimen I, the principal stresses at failure are

s3 s3 70 kN/m2

and

s1 s1 s3 1 sd 2 f 70 130 200 kN/m2

Similarly, the principal stresses at failure for Specimen II are

s3 s3 160 kN/m2

and

s1 s1 s3 1sd 2 f 160 223.5 383.5 kN/m2

Now, from Eq. (12.23),

2 e tan

1

s11II2

s11I2

s31I2

s31II2

0.5

45 f 2 e tan1 c

d 45 f 20

70 160

f1

f

c

70

160

200

383.5

Figure 12.25 Effective stress failure envelope and Mohrs circles for Specimens I and II

389

s31I2

tan2 a 45

s11I2

c

12.9

f1

b

2 tan a 45

2

f1

b

2

200 70 tan2 a 45

20

b

2

20

2 tan a 45

b

2

20 kN/m2

The consolidated-undrained test is the most common type of triaxial test. In this test, the

saturated soil specimen is rst consolidated by an all-around chamber uid pressure, s3 ,

that results in drainage (Figures 12.26a and 12.26b). After the pore water pressure generated by the application of conning pressure is dissipated, the deviator stress, sd , on the

specimen is increased to cause shear failure (Figure 12.26c). During this phase of the test,

the drainage line from the specimen is kept closed. Because drainage is not permitted, the

pore water pressure, ud , will increase. During the test, simultaneous measurements of

sd and ud are made. The increase in the pore water pressure, ud , can be expressed in

a nondimensional form as

A

ud

sd

(12.25)

The general patterns of variation of sd and ud with axial strain for sand and clay

soils are shown in Figures 12.26d through 12.26g. In loose sand and normally consolidated

clay, the pore water pressure increases with strain. In dense sand and overconsolidated

clay, the pore water pressure increases with strain to a certain limit, beyond which it

decreases and becomes negative (with respect to the atmospheric pressure). This decrease

is because of a tendency of the soil to dilate.

Unlike the consolidated-drained test, the total and effective principal stresses are not

the same in the consolidated-undrained test. Because the pore water pressure at failure is

measured in this test, the principal stresses may be analyzed as follows:

s3 1sd 2 f s1

s3

s1 1ud 2 f s1

In these equations, (ud)f pore water pressure at failure. The preceding derivations

show that

s1 s3 s1 s3

Example 12.6

A specimen of saturated sand was consolidated under an all-around pressure of 12 lb/in.2

The axial stress was then increased and drainage was prevented. The specimen failed

when the axial deviator stress reached 9.1 lb/in.2 The pore water pressure at failure was

6.8 lb/in.2 Determine

a. Consolidated-undrained angle of shearing resistance, f

b. Drained friction angle, f

Solution

Part a

For this case, s3 12 lb/in.2, s1 12 + 9.1 21.1 lb/in.2, and (ud)f 6.8 lb/in.2. The

total and effective stress failure envelopes are shown in Figure 12.30. From Eq. (12.27),

f sin 1 a

s1 s3

21.1 12

b 16

b sin 1 a

s1 s3

21.1 12

Part b

From Eq. (12.28),

f sin 1 c

s1 s3

21.1 12

d 27.8

d sin 1 c

s1 s3 21ud 2 f

21.1 12 12 2 16.82

f

Total stress failure envelope

B

B

5.2

A

12

14.3

21.1

Figure 12.30 Failure envelopes and Mohrs circles for a saturated sand

395

Example 12.7

Refer to the soil specimen described in Example 12.6. What would be the deviator

stress at failure, (sd )f , if a drained test was conducted with the same chamber allaround pressure (that is, 12 lb/in.2 )?

Solution

From Eq. (12.8) (with c 0),

s1 s3 tan2 a 45

f

b

2

s1 12 tan2 a 45

27.8

b 33 lb/in.2

2

1sd 2 f s1 s3 33 12 21 lb/in.2

12.10

In unconsolidated-undrained tests, drainage from the soil specimen is not permitted during the

application of chamber pressure s3 . The test specimen is sheared to failure by the application

of deviator stress, sd , and drainage is prevented. Because drainage is not allowed at any stage,

the test can be performed quickly. Because of the application of chamber conning pressure s3 ,

the pore water pressure in the soil specimen will increase by uc . A further increase in the pore

water pressure (ud) will occur because of the deviator stress application. Hence, the total pore

water pressure u in the specimen at any stage of deviator stress application can be given as

u uc ud

(12.31)

u Bs3 Asd Bs3 A1s1 s3 2

(12.32)

This test usually is conducted on clay specimens and depends on a very important

strength concept for cohesive soils if the soil is fully saturated. The added axial stress at failure (sd)f is practically the same regardless of the chamber conning pressure. This property

is shown in Figure 12.31. The failure envelope for the total stress Mohrs circles becomes a

horizontal line and hence is called a f 0 condition. From Eq. (12.9) with f 0, we get

tf c cu

(12.33)

where cu is the undrained shear strength and is equal to the radius of the Mohrs circles.

Note that the f 0 concept is applicable to only saturated clays and silts.

417

Shear stress, or q

F

Effective stress Mohrs circle

U

U

U

a

1

s3

s3

s1

s, s, or p

ud

test on a normally consolidated clay

and

q

s1 s3

sd

2

2

(12.63)

The preceding values of p and q will plot as point U in Figure 12.55. Points such as U

represent values of p and q as the test progresses. At failure of the soil specimen,

p s3

1sd 2 f

2

1ud 2 f

(12.64)

and

q

1sd 2 f

2

(12.65)

The values of p and q given by Eqs. (12.64) and (12.65) will plot as point U.

Hence, the effective stress path for a consolidated-undrained test can be given by the curve

IU U. Note that point U will fall on the modied failure envelope, OF (see Figure 12.54),

which is inclined at an angle a to the horizontal. Lambe (1964) proposed a technique to

evaluate the elastic and consolidation settlements of foundations on clay soils by using the

stress paths determined in this manner.

Example 12.9

For a normally consolidated clay, the failure envelope is given by the equation tf s

tan f. The corresponding modied failure envelope (q-p plot) is given by Eq. (12.57)

as q p tan a. In a similar manner, if the failure envelope is tf c s tan f, the

corresponding modied failure envelope is a q-p plot that can be expressed as q

m p tan a. Express a as a function of f, and give m as a function of c and f.

Solution

From Figure 12.56,

s1 s3

b

2

AB

AB

sin f

s1 s3

AC

CO OA

c cot f a

b

2

a

So,

s1 s3

s1 s3

c cos f a

b sin f

2

2

(a)

q m p tan a

(b)

or

Comparing Eqs. (a) and (b), we nd that

m c cos F

and

tan a sin f

or

a tan1 1sin F2

f

Shear stress

tf c s' tan f

B

s1' s3'

2

c

C

O

c cot f

s3

s1 s3

2

s1

Normal stress

12.19

In this chapter, the shear strengths of granular and cohesive soils were examined. Laboratory

procedures for determining the shear strength parameters were described.

In textbooks, determination of the shear strength parameters of cohesive soils

appears to be fairly simple. However, in practice, the proper choice of these parameters for

design and stability checks of various earth, earth-retaining, and earth-supported structures

Problems

419

is very difcult and requires experience and an appropriate theoretical background in geotechnical engineering. In this chapter, three types of strength parameters (consolidateddrained, consolidated-undrained, and unconsolidated-undrained) were introduced. Their

use depends on drainage conditions.

Consolidated-drained strength parameters can be used to determine the long-term

stability of structures such as earth embankments and cut slopes. Consolidated-undrained

shear strength parameters can be used to study stability problems relating to cases where

the soil initially is fully consolidated and then there is rapid loading. An excellent example

of this is the stability of slopes of earth dams after rapid drawdown. The unconsolidatedundrained shear strength of clays can be used to evaluate the end-of-construction stability

of saturated cohesive soils with the assumption that the load caused by construction has

been applied rapidly and there has been little time for drainage to take place. The bearing

capacity of foundations on soft saturated clays and the stability of the base of embankments on soft clays are examples of this condition.

The unconsolidated-undrained shear strength of some saturated clays can vary

depending on the direction of load application; this is referred to as anisotropy with respect

to strength. Anisotropy is caused primarily by the nature of the deposition of the cohesive

soils, and subsequent consolidation makes the clay particles orient perpendicular to the

direction of the major principal stress. Parallel orientation of the clay particles can cause

the strength of clay to vary with direction. The anisotropy with respect to strength for clays

can have an important effect on the load-bearing capacity of foundations and the stability

of earth embankments because the direction of the major principal stress along the potential failure surfaces changes.

The sensitivity of clays was discussed in Section 12.13. It is imperative that sensitive clay deposits are properly identied. For instance, when machine foundations (which

are subjected to vibratory loading) are constructed over sensitive clays, the clay may lose

its load-bearing capacity substantially, and failure may occur.

Problems

12.1 For a direct shear test on a dry sand, the following are given:

Specimen size: 75 mm 75 mm 30 mm (height)

Normal stress: 200 kN/m2

Shear stress at failure: 175 kN/m2

a. Determine the angle of friction, f

b. For a normal stress of 150 kN/m2, what shear force is required to cause failure

in the specimen?

12.2 For a dry sand specimen in a direct shear test box, the following are given:

Angle of friction: 38

Size of specimen: 2 in. 2 in. 1.2 in. (height)

Normal stress: 20 lb/in.2

Determine the shear force required to cause failure.

12.3 The following are the results of four drained, direct shear tests on a normally

consolidated clay. Given:

Size of specimen 60 mm 60 mm

Height of specimen 30 mm

Test

no.

Normal

force

(N)

Shear

force at

failure (N)

1

2

3

4

200

300

400

500

155

230

310

385

Draw a graph for the shear stress at failure against the normal stress, and

determine the drained angle of friction from the graph.

12.4 Repeat Problem 12.3 with the following data. Given specimen size:

Diameter 2 in.

Height 1 in.

Test

no.

Normal

force

(lb)

Shear

force at

failure (lb)

1

2

3

4

60

90

110

125

37.5

55

70

80

12.5 The equation of the effective stress failure envelope for a loose, sandy soil was

obtained from a direct shear test at tf s tan 30. A drained triaxial test was

conducted with the same soil at a chamber conning pressure of 10 lb/in.2.

Calculate the deviator stress at failure.

12.6 For the triaxial test described in Problem 12.5:

a. Estimate the angle that the failure plane makes with the major principal

plane.

b. Determine the normal stress and shear stress (when the specimen failed) on a

plane that makes an angle of 30 with the major principal plane. Also, explain

why the specimen did not fail along the plane during the test.

12.7 The relationship between the relative density, Dr , and the angle of friction, f, of

a sand can be given as f 25 0.18Dr (Dr is in %). A drained triaxial test on

the same sand was conducted with a chamber-conning pressure of 18 lb/in.2. The

relative density of compaction was 60%. Calculate the major principal stress at

failure.

12.8 For a normally consolidated clay, the results of a drained triaxial test are as

follows.

Chamber conning pressure: 15 lb/in.2

Deviator stress at failure: 34 lb/in.2

Determine the soil friction angle, f.

12.9 For a normally consolidated clay, f 24. In a drained triaxial test, the

specimen failed at a deviator stress of 175 kN/m2. What was the chamber

conning pressure, s3 ?

12.10 For a normally consolidated clay, f 28. In a drained triaxial test, the

specimen failed at a deviator stress of 30 lb/in.2. What was the chamber conning

pressure, s3 ?

Problems

421

clay. The results were as follows:

s3 250 kN/m2

1sd 2 f 275 kN/m2

Determine:

a. Angle of friction, f

b. Angle u that the failure plane makes with the major principal plane

c. Normal stress, s, and shear stress, tf , on the failure plane

12.12 The results of two drained triaxial tests on a saturated clay are given next:

Specimen I:

Chamber conning pressure 15 lb/in.2

Deviator stress at failure 31.4 lb/in.2

Specimen II: Chamber-conning pressure 25 lb/in.2

Deviator stress at failure 47 lb/in.2

Calculate the shear strength parameters of the soil.

12.13 If the clay specimen described in Problem 12.12 is tested in a triaxial apparatus with a

chamber-conning pressure of 25 lb/in.2, what is the major principal stress at failure?

12.14 A sandy soil has a drained angle of friction of 38. In a drained triaxial test on the

same soil, the deviator stress at failure is 175 kN/m2. What is the chamberconning pressure?

12.15 A consolidated-undrained test on a normally consolidated clay yielded the following results:

s3 15 lb/in.2

Deviator stress: (sd)f 11 lb/in.2

Pore pressure: (ud )f 7.2 lb/in.2

Calculate the consolidated-undrained friction angle and the drained friction angle.

12.16 Repeat Problem 12.15 with the following:

s3 140 kN/m2

1sd 2 f 125 kN/m2

1ud 2 f 75 kN/m2

12.17 The shear strength of a normally consolidated clay can be given by the equation

tf s tan 31. A consolidated-undrained triaxial test was conducted on the

clay. Following are the results of the test:

Chamber conning pressure 112 kN/m2

Deviator stress at failure 100 kN/m2

Determine:

a. Consolidated-undrained friction angle

b. Pore water pressure developed in the clay specimen at failure

12.18 For the clay specimen described in Problem 12.17, what would have been the

deviator stress at failure if a drained test had been conducted with the same

chamber-conning pressure (that is, s3 112 kN/m2 )?

12.19 For a normally consolidated clay soil, f 32 and f 22. A consolidatedundrained triaxial test was conducted on this clay soil with a chamber-conning pressure of 15 lb/in.2. Determine the deviator stress and the pore water pressure at failure.

12.20 The friction angle, f, of a normally consolidated clay specimen collected during

eld exploration was determined from drained triaxial tests to be 25. The

unconned compression strength, qu , of a similar specimen was found to be

100 kN/m2. Determine the pore water pressure at failure for the unconned

compression test.

12.21 Repeat Problem 12.20 using the following values.

f 23

qu 120 kN/m2

12.22 The results of two consolidated-drained triaxial tests on a clayey soil are as follows.

Test no.

S3

(lb/in.2)

S11failure2

(lb/in.2)

1

2

27

12

73

48

tan a. (Do not plot the graph.)

a. Find m and a

b. Find c and f

12.23 A 15-m thick normally consolidated clay layer is shown in Figure 12.57. The

plasticity index of the clay is 18. Estimate the undrained cohesion as would be

determined from a vane shear test at a depth of 8 m below the ground surface.

Use Eq. (12.35).

g 16 kN/m3

3m

Groundwater table

15 m

gsat 18.6 kN/m3

Dry sand

Clay

Rock

Figure 12.57

References

ACAR, Y. B., DURGUNOGLU, H. T., and TUMAY, M. T. (1982). Interface Properties of Sand,

Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 108, No. GT4, 648654.

ARMAN, A., POPLIN, J. K., and AHMAD, N. (1975). Study of Vane Shear, Proceedings,

Conference on In Situ Measurement and Soil Properties, ASCE, Vol. 1, 93120.

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (2004). Annual Book of ASTM Standards,

Vol. 04.08, Philadelphia, Pa.

BISHOP, A. W., and BJERRUM, L. (1960). The Relevance of the Triaxial Test to the Solution of

Stability Problems, Proceedings, Research Conference on Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils,

ASCE, 437501.

BJERRUM, L. (1974). Problems of Soil Mechanics and Construction on Soft Clays, Norwegian

Geotechnical Institute, Publication No. 110, Oslo.

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