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IV Syntax

Adjective
comparative
superlative

IV

.
.

Adverb
suffix
manner adverbs
degree adverbs
Adverbial
Argument
Aspect
Clause (have subject-predicate structure)

- ( )


()
()
()

()

(
)
SPOCA ( - + +
+ +

Phrase
sentence
single clause
subject
predicate
object
complement
adverbial (adjunct)
simple sentence
multiple sentences (consist of more than one
clause)
SPOCA (the structure subject+predicate+object+complement+
adverbial

onjunction (conjunct)
coordinating conjunctions
subordinating conjunctions
conjuncts connectives
definite article
indefinite article
possessives
demonstratives
ellipsis
Finite
participle
infinitive
base infinitive
bare infinitive
Functional/ systemic grammar
Modes: attributive and carrier,
behavioral processes (behaver)
verbal processes (sayer)
Existential processes
The clause as exchange
theme
rheme
topic
comment
Lexeme
conversion
lexicon/ lexis
Minimalism/ minimalist programm
economy principle
mood (modality)
types of mood: indicative, imperative,
subjunctive
indicative - declarative and interrogative
auxiliary verb
imperative - directive
statement, question, command
modal auxiliaries verbs
alethic, epistemic, deontic

(-, ,
.)

c to
to
/
:
,
()
()

( )
/
/

: ,
,
-


. -
, ,

. , ,

Morpheme/ morphology

bound morphemes

monomorphemic (1 morpheme)
polymorphemic (more than 1 morpheme)
inflectional morphemes
derivational (lexical) morphemes
root
morphs

(1 )
( 1 )
( )
()

agglutinative (linear sequencing) rules

Noun

(
)
(, .
)

proper nouns

subject of a sentence
common nouns
proper nouns
countable nouns
uncountable nouns
concrete nouns
abstract nouns
collective nouns
general nouns
variable and non-variable nouns


.







.

Phrase marker
particular constituents

Preposition (time, place, logic)


Preposition plus a complement

(, , )

Pronoun (personal, possesive, reflexive,


demonstrative, interrogative, relative,
indefinite)

(, ,
., ,
, ,
)



(),
/ , ,
)


:,
.,.,
,,,

allomorph

minor sentence
major sentence
elements in a main clause (subject),
verb/predicator, object, complement and
adjunct/ adverbial)
complex sentence
compound-complex sentence
declarative, interrogative, imperative,
exclamati types of sentences
statement, question, command, exclamation

II General Terms and Concepts

II

subject and object


competence
cognitive
diachronic linguistics
complementary distribution
duality of patterning/ structure
patterning
distinctive linguistic properties
binary
grammar
descriptive and theoretical grammar

(
)
( )


/
()

( )
()


(, )
-

/
/

langue (the system of communication within


a community)
language (the general faculty of language)
level of analysis
surface structure
marked/ unmarked
inflection
paradigmatic
aphasia
productivity (productive)
semi-productive
relative clauses
sign (signifier, signified)
semiotic - the study of signs
linguistic signs
structuralism
synchrony/ synchronic
syntagmatic/ syntagm
syntagmatic relations
variety
well-formed/ ill-formed

III Phonetics and Phonology


articulatory phonetics
acoustic phonetics
auditory phonetics
Allophone (phoneme)

III



()

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