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CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory

4th Quarter SY 2009-2010

Heat of Solution
Nieva, Aileen D.1, Arceo, Mary Anne V., Cuales, Jelline C., Kim, Sung Min, Ngan, Emil Joseph T., Rivera, Jainie Lynne
B.2
Professor, School of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biotechnology, Mapua Institute of Technology; 2Student (s), CHM170L/A41, School of Chemical Engineering,
Chemistry and Biotechnology, Mapua Institute of Technology
1

ABSTRACT
The abstract is a condensed version of the entire lab report (approximately 250 words). A reader uses the abstract to quickly
understand the purpose, methods, results and significance of your research without reading the entire paper. Abstracts or
papers published in scholarly journals are useful to you when you are conducting library research, because you can quickly
determine whether the research report will be relevant to your topic. The material in the abstract is written in the same order
as that within the paper, and has the same emphasis. An effective abstract should include a sentence or two summarizing the
highlights from each of the sections: introduction (including purpose), methods, results, and discussion. To reflect the content
(especially results and conclusions) of the paper accurately, the abstract should be written after the final draft of your paper is
complete, although it is placed at the beginning of the paper. Begin the abstract with a brief, but specific, background
statement to introduce your report. State your main purpose or objective and hypothesis. Describe the important points of your
methodology (species/reagents/ingredients, the number of subjects or samples, and techniques or instruments used to make
measurements). Summarize the main results numerically and qualitatively (include standard errors and p values as required).
Summarize the major points from the discussion/conclusion. Focus on the points that directly relate to your
hypothesis/question. For each type of information, use the same tense as in each corresponding section (i.e., past tense for
methods and results, present tense for theory and conclusions).

Keywords: albumin, casein, invertase, Bradford Assay, Warburg-Christian Assay, Benedicts reagent

INTRODUCTION
The enthalpy change of solution (or heat of solution) is
the enthalpy change associated with the dissolution of a
substance in a solvent at constant pressure.
The enthalpy change of solution is one of the three
dimensions of solubility analysis. It is most often
expressed in kJ/mol at constant temperature. Just as the
energy of forming a chemical bond is the difference
between electron affinity and ionization energy, the heat
of solution of a substance is defined as the sum of the
energy absorbed, or endothermic energy (expressed in
"positive" kJ/mol), and energy released, or exothermic
energy (expressed in "negative" kJ/mol).
Because heating decreases the solubility of a gas,
dissolution of gases is exothermic. Consequently, as a
gas continues to dissolve in a liquid solvent, temperature

Experiment 05 Group No. 4 18 May 2010

will decrease, while the solution continues to release


energy. This is an effect of the increase in heat or of the
energy required to attract solute and solvent molecules in
other words, this energy outweighs the energy required to
separate solvent molecules. When the gas is
"completely" dissolved (this is purely theoretical as no
substance can infinitely dissolve)the heat of solution
will be at its maximum.
Dissolution can be viewed as occurring in three steps:
1. Breaking solute-solute attractions (endothermic),
see for instance lattice energy in salts.
2. Breaking
solvent-solvent
attractions
(endothermic), for instance that of hydrogen
bonding
3. Forming solvent-solute attractions (exothermic),
in solvation.

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CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory


4th Quarter SY 2009-2010

METHODOLOGY
Experimental Procedure:
Heat of Solution Measurement using Parr 1455 Solution
Calorimeter
A. Heat of Solution of Different States
1. Measurement at least 0.5000 g of sodium
chloride and place it in the Teflon dish.
2. Measure 100 ml of distilled water and place it
in the Dewar flask.
3. Set-up the Parr 1455 Solution Calorimeter.
Press F1 to begin the initialization stage. Note
down the sample ID and press ENTER.
4. Input The Exact weight of the sample and
press ENTER
5. Wait for the first beep and fire the push rod
and press ENTER.
6. Wait for the second beep and press DONE
7. Browse the result using the arrow up () and
down () keys.
8. Clean the Solution Calorimeter for the next
sample.
9. Repeat procedures for the next samples.

Before conducting the experiment, the laboratory


instruments used in the experiment must be familiarized.
The equipments used are the following:

Parr 1455 Solution Calorimeter

analytical balance

100-ml graduated cylinder

Reagents: sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium


chloride, water

sodium chloride

ammonium chloride

Treatment of Results:
Compare the heat of solution of the three samples.
Differentiate between the endothermic and the exothermic
reaction based on the results. Discuss the effect of
changing the concentration of a solution with respect to its
heat of solution.

Experiment 05 Group No. 4 18 May 2010

calcium chloride

water

Before proceeding to the experiment, all of the apparatus


were prepared, cleaned using chromic acid, rinsed with
distilled water and calibrated by the lab assistant.

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CHM170L Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory


4th Quarter SY 2009-2010

For the experiment proper of part A (Heat


of Solution Measurement using Parr 1455
Solution Calorimeter), at least 0.5000 g of
sodium chloride (sample) and a 100 ml of
distilled water were measured using a
digital balance and a graduated cylinder
respectively. The samples were placed on
a clean Teflon dish, which was wiped using a tissue, and in
the Dewar flask respectively.
The Parr1455 Solution Calorimeter setup was prepared and F1 was pressed
to begin the initialization stage. The
sample ID was noted and ENTER was
pressed. The mass of the sample was
acquired using a digital balance. The
sample must be completely dry to
avoid error. The exact weight of the sample was inputted in
the machine and ENTER was pressed.
When the first beep was heard, the push rod was fired
and ENTER was pressed. It took at least 15 minutes for the
second long beep to be heard. After hearing the first beep,
DONE was pressed.
The experiment took long
because of the errors such as
machine failure encountered
during the experiment proper.
The results were browsed using the arrow up () and down
() keys.
The Solution Calorimeter was cleaned for the next sample
and the procedures were repeated for the other samples.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_solution
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exothermic_reaction
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endothermic

Experiment 05 Group No. 4 18 May 2010

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