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Experiment 9

Light Phenomena

Refraction of Light

The Index of Refraction

Light travels through a vacuum at a speed

c 3.00 108 m s

Light travels through materials at a speed less than its speed


in a vacuum.

DEFINITION OF THE INDEX OF REFRACTION


The index of refraction of a material is the ratio of the speed
of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the material:

Speed of light in vacuum


c

Speed of light in the material v

The Index of Refraction

Snells Law and the Refraction of Light

SNELLS LAW

SNELLS LAW OF REFRACTION


When light travels from a material with
one index of refraction to a material with
a different index of refraction, the angle
of incidence is related to the angle of
refraction by

n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2

Snells Law and the Refraction of Light

Apparent depth,
observer directly
above object

n2
d d
n1

Snells Law and the Refraction of Light

THE DISPLACEMENT OF LIGHT BY A SLAB OF MATERIAL

The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows

Lenses

Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is
formed.

With a converging lens, paraxial rays that are parallel to the principal
axis converge to the focal point.

Lenses

With a diverging lens, paraxial rays that are parallel to the principal
axis appear to originate from the focal point.

Lenses

Reflection of Light

The Reflection of Light

LAW OF REFLECTION
The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal
to the surface all lie in the same plane, and the angle
of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

The Reflection of Light

In specular reflection, the reflected rays are parallel to each


other.

The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror

The persons right hand becomes


the images left hand.
The image has three properties:
1. It is upright.
2. It is the same size as you are.
3. The image is as far behind the
mirror are you are in front of it.

Activity 1: Refraction
A. Index of Refraction of Glass
Incident Refracted
angle
angle
10

15
20
25
30
35
40

sin i

sin r

sin i
n2
sin r

Activity 1: Refraction
B. Refraction through Parallel Plate
Angle of Incidence

Angle of Refraction
Emergent Angle
% Difference between incident and emergent
angle
Measured lateral displacement
Computed or theoretical lateral displacement
% Difference

n1 cos i

d t sin i 1
n2 cos r

Activity 1: Refraction
C. Refraction through Spherical Surfaces

Activity 2: Reflection
Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection

i r

% Difference

Activity 3: Inverse Square Law for Light Intensity


d (cm)
10 cm
20 cm
30 cm
40 cm
50 cm
60 cm

I (lux)

I (lux)

d (cm)