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contributions

The ImpedanceProperties of Narrow Radiating Slots


in theBroadFace

of Rectangular Waveguide*
PartI-Theory
ARTHUR A. OLINERt

Surnrnuq-Theoretical results, validatandawayfromresonance, for the impedance propertiesof the rotatedseries slot, the displaced series slot, and the longitudinal shuntslot have been derived
by the use of variationalexpressionscoupledwithcertainstored
power considerations. The additional influence of finite wall thickness, an appreciable factor,is taken into account by a microwave
networktreatment. The results for the zero-thickness resistive elements become identicalwith those of Stevenson when theslot length
is made equal to a half wavelength.
The theoretical derivations are presented in Part I. In Part 11,
comparison is made with experimental data both previously available
and specially taken in
connection. The effect of wall thickness
and the distinction between slots of rounded and rectangular ends
are
considered. The agreement between theory and measurement is reasonably good.

A . INTRODUCTION

LTHOUGH slots cut in the

walls of rectangular
waveguide are widely employed as radiators of
microwaveenergy,relatively
littletheoretical
material is available on theirimpedanceproperties.
The well-known results of Stevenson1 for the slot resistance or conductance apply only at resonance. The
Manuscript received by the PGAP, September 28, 1955; revised
manuscript received, October 13, 1956.
Microwave Res. Inst., Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn, Bklyn.,
N. Y .This work was begun a t the Hughes Aircraft Co. during a threemonth leave of absence, and completed as part of consulting sewices
since that time.
1 A. F. Stevenson, Theory of slots in rectangular wave-guides,
J . Appl. Phys.Lvol. 19, pp. 2 6 3 8 ; January, 1948.
S. Silver, Microwave Antenna Theoryand Design, vol. 12,
M.I.T. Rad. Lab. Ser., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,
Y.,
pp. 291-295;1949.
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lesswell-knowncalculations
Pounder,2basedon
Stevensons formulas, for the resonant length
of a longitudinal shunt slot are admittedly extremely tedious and
mustthereforebe
consideredimpractical.Analytical
expressions have been obtained by several authors, including Lewin3 and the group at the Polytechnic Institute of B r ~ o k l y n , ~
for- ~the impedanceproperties of
centered slots of arbitrary aspect ratiolocated in various
positions.Centered
slotsarenot
useful as radiators,
however, since the conductance changes little with slot
shape and therefore does not permit the control that is
available with a shift or rotation of the slot. The additional influence of the slot wall thickness on its impedance properties is a significant factor and has been accountedfor
bythePolytechnicgroup6
for certain
centered slots. There remains the need, therefore, for a
reasonably simple analytical procedure for determining
the impedance properties of slots in actual use, including, of course, the effect of wall thickness.
If

J. R. Pounder, Theoretical Impedance of a Lon itudinal Slot


in the Broad Face of a RectangularWave Guide ?Numerical)
Special Comm. on Appl. Math., Natl. Res. Council of Canada, Radio
Rep., September, 1944. Quoted in W . H. Watson, The Physical
Principles of Wave Guide Transmission and AntennaSystems,
Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, pp. 199-200; 1917.
3 L. Lewin, Advanced Theory of Waveguides, Iliffe and Sons,
Ltd., London, England, pp.
121-128; 1951.
hi. Marcuvitz, The Representation, Measurement and Calculation of EquivalentCircuits for Waveguide Discontinuities with
Application to Rectangular Slots, Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn;
1949. The report was a group project.
A.A. ,?liner, EquivalentCircuitsforSlotsinRectangular
Waveguide, Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn; August, 1951. The report
was a group project.

Oliner: Impedance PrqeTties of NarrowI-Theury


Slot, Pa,rt

19-57

T h e direct evaluation of the variational expressions


I t is attempted here to furnish such an impedance
description for radiating slots located in several
posi- for the reactances and susceptancesbecomes a formidations in the broad face of rectangular waveguide. T h e ble taskin view of the complexity of the waveguide
dyadic Greens function. However, since the susceptanc
three slot types considered are the rotated series slot,
an
inthe displaced series slot, andthe longitudinal shunt slot, of a centered slot is already a ~ a i l a b l e , ~ approach
volving
so-called
small
aperture
or
stored
power
illustrated in Fig. 1. Irariational expressions are used to
considerations is used instead. These considerations reobtain the slot equivalent circuit parameters; the slot
of the slots of Fig. 1 to
conductancesaredetermineddirectly,
while the sus- late the susceptance or reactance
the susceptance of the centered slot. The considerations
ceptances are related by certain stored energy considerations to the correspondingcentered slot result, the latter are expected to be very good for rotated and displaced
being obtained from thework of the Polytechnic group.5 series slots, but are only approximately valid for longiThe effect of mall thickness is accounted for by micro- tudinal shunt slots.
wave network considerations. I t should be added that
Under the small aperture assumption, the numeraall theoretical results presented herein assume that the tors of the variational expressions for all three slots are
slot radiates into a half space (;.e., bounded by an inidentical
and
equal
to
that
corresponding
to
the
finite baffle), and that the slot has rectangular ends. The
centered slot. The denominators,which are alwaysposieffects of deviationsinpracticefromthese
idealized tive definite, vary with the slot location. The implicaconditions,particularlyforroundedratherthan
rec- tion is, therefore, thatall three slotsof Fig. 1 possess the
tangular slot ends, are discussed in Part 11.
same resonant length and the same
Q value. A change in
slot width will, of course, alter both theQ value and the
resonant length. In the case of the rotated series slot,
the validity of this conclusion is borne out by the fact
that experimentally one findsthe resonant length independent of the angle of rotation. Experience with displaced transverseslotscouplingidenticalwaveguides
Fig.1-Top view of slots located in the broad face of rectangular indicates that the small aperture assumptions should
waveguide. (a) Rotated series slot, (b) displaced series slot, (c)
also be very good for the displaced series slot. The delongitudinal shunt slot.
pendence of the resonant length on displacement for the
longitudinal
shunt slot, however, implies that for this
The variational expressions are derived by following
case
one
cannot
neglect the influence of the closer side
the standard procedureof first obtaining expressions for
wall
and
that
the
small aperture results will be valid
the magnetic field in the regions inside and outside of
for
small
displacements
only. Since the present theory
the waveguide, and then imposing the conditionof condoes
not
account
for
this
dependence, there remains the
tinuity of the magnetic field in the slot aperture to obneed
for
an
improved
theoretical
expressionfor this
taintheappropriateintegralequation.Restrictedincase.8
A
more
detailed
evaluation
of
the usefulness and
tegral equations are then deduced,
following a procedure
validity of these theoretical expressions is presented in
duetoMarcuvitz,6byapplyingantisymmetricaland
the comparisonsbetween
symmetricalvoltage(orelectric
field) excitation to Part I1 inconnectionwith
series and shunt networks, respectively. These restrictedthese expressions and the measured results.
integral equations are thencast into variational form in
B. DERIVATION
OF THE VARIATIONAL
EXPRESSIONS
standard fashion. The resulting variational expressions
are of the aperture type, thus requiring the insertion
of a
Basic to the derivation of aperture type variational
trialelectric field in the slot aperture. The trial
field expressions are representations for the magneticfields in
chosen in all cases was cosinusoidal and is expected to the regionsinteriorandexteriortothe
waveguide.
be an excellent approximation. The stationary property Assuming the slot to radiate into a half space, the magof these expressions is not proved here since they are in netic field in the exterior region is given by
standard form.
Since the conductance and resistance portions of the
variational expressions are related only to the radiated
power, and do not require the consideration of the rectangular guide Greens function, their determination is where E is the electric field in the slot aperture, n is the
relatively simple. The results obtained are valid botha t normal pointing outof the guide into thehalf space, and
and away from resonance, and reduce identically to the
results of Stevenson when the slot lengthis made equal
L. A. Kurtz, Design Applications of Series Slots,Hughes
Aircraft Co. Tech. Memo. No. 273, Fig. 2 or p. 1; December, 1951.
to a half wavelength.
Also, see
C, 3, of Part I1 of the present work.

N. Ma:xvitz, \Tariational Calculations of Longitudinal Discontinuities, orally presented a t URSI-IRE meeting, San Diego,
April, 1950.
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Since the completion of this work the author has been informed
that Dr. W. K. Saunders of the Diamond Ordnance Fuze Labs. has
obtained an expression for the longitudinalshunt slot which takes this
dependence into account but contains slo.wly convergent infinite
sums.

? j h is the half-space dyadic Green's f u n c t i ~ nor


, ~spatial The variational
expressions are most conveniently deadmittance,
from
duced
aform
reduced
equation
integral
ob-of the
tained by appropriate symmetric or antisymmetric volt(2) age excitation. If the slot is representable by a purely
shunt networkFig.
as in application
the
3(a),
of symmetric voltage excitation produces an open circuit
bisecwhere is the unit dyadic, and k 2rD.
11 - 1 2 , 1'
21'
V - The
The representationchosen for the magnetic field ill tionof the network, with
integral equation then becomes
the interior region islo

where the composite (standing wave type) mode functions @ ( l )and


are

with
tions are

h(p)

KZ

jh,(p) sin KZ

@(2)(r) h(p) sin KZ

jh&) cos KZ

@(1)(r)

y) and ~ = 2 r / X , . The ordinary mode func(a)


Fig. 3-Shunt

and series networks. (a) Shunt network, (b)


series network.

The variational formfollows uponmultiplication by


nXE in dot product fashion and integration over the
slot aperture, employing"
where the geometry is indicated in Fig. 2.

jYoJJslo:
and dividing by

Fig. 2-Geometry

I*)@(l)(r) j 4 Y d V 1

(2a2

R+jX

where allintegralsaretakenoverthe
slot aperture.
The normalized value is obtained by dividing both sides
by the characteristic impedance
l/Yo).
If the slotis representable by a purely series network,
as in Fig. 3(b), the applicationof antisymmetric voltage
excitation, with VI
V2, Il I2 =I, yields a short
circuitbisection of the network so thattheintegral
equation reduces to

V4W2)(r)
E*((YA ja3)dS

IV)

0. ( 6 )

H. Levine and J. Schwinger, "On the Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Diffraction by an Aperture in a n Infinite Plane Conducting Screen," In "Theory of Electromagnetic Waves, A Symposium,"
Academic Press, New York, N. Y., pp.
1951.
10 N. Marcuvitz and J. Schninger, "On the representation of the
electric and magnetic fields produced by currents anddiscontinuities
in wave guides," J. A#& Phys., vol.
pp. 806419; June, 1951.
(3.38b),
and (3.41).
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(8)

of rectangular waveguide.

The voltages and currents V and I are discussed by


Marcuvitz and Schningerlo and
definedin their (3.1)
and (3). Yo is thecharacteristicadmittance
of the
dominant mode. The guide(internal)dyadicGreen's
function, or spatial susceptance,
is given in (3.41).1
Upon application of the condition of continuity of
magnetic field in the slot aperture, the
following integral
equation for the electric
field in the apertureis obtained.
+(I1

E*@(2)dS

JJ,;

E - ( C Y ~ja3)ds.

Again, the multiplication by nXE and integration over


the slot aperture, together with the employment of1'

Ibid.

(3.42b).

of .Ararrm Slot, Part I--Theory

Properties
Impedance
Oliner:

1957

v2

and division by (2
casts the integral equation into
variational form, viz.,

2v

-G+jB
JJJJsl,,n

Js,,,,.

(yh

j@) n

where thenumerator
@ ( 2 ) is given by

EdSdS
2

is givenin(14).Using(4)

and

(12)

E*@(1)dS]

Again, the normalized value is obtained upon


by Yo on both sides.

livision

C. THE RESISTANCE
AND CONDUCTANCE
EXPRESSIONS
The resistance and conductance expressions, obtainable from the variational expressions (9) and (12), are
particularly simple to evaluate as only the real part of
the total dyadicGreens function (yh+j@)need be considered. Since all the slots treated here radiate into a
half space, the numeratorsof the variationalexpressions
for all of the slots mill be identical, namely,

JJJJs,,,n

E(r) 9h.n

E(r)dSdS,

(134

I
T
(b)

Fig. 4-Longitudinal

shunt slot. (a) Physical structure, (b)


equivalent network.

Since the dominant mode is an H mode, the characteristic admittance Yo is

where

The trial aperture electric field E must be chosen as


and is the real part of yh.The integral (13a), which is
related to the power radiated by the slot, has already
been evaluated inpreviouswork
at thePolytechnic
Institute of Brooklyn12 in connection with a transverse
slot radiating from the end of the guide intoa half space.
The result is
Power Radiated

16

3n

21

~,
a and
neglecting terms of the order of ( 6 / ~ ) where
6 are the slot length and width, respectively. Eq.
is expected t o be quite accurate for all narrow slots in
general use.
The denominators of the various variational expressions, representing the square of the voltage or current,
depending upon the slot in question, will vary with the
slot location.
Longitudinal Shunt Slot
The equivalent network of Fig. 4(b) is valid at the
terminal plane T. Appropriate variational expression for
normalized resistance R/Zo folIows from (9) as
la A. A. Oliner, op. cit. The particular integral in questionwas
evaluated by H. Kurss.

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?TZ

since that was the valuechosen for the numerator in the


result (14). For slots in general use this is expectedto be
an excellent approximation.
The integration over the slot aperture indicated in the
denominator of (15) proceeds in straightforward fashion
to yield

r
=abtGG2

h2b

sin

nd

cos

Ka

When (19) is combined with (17) and (14), the result for
the normalized resistance becomes
R

8aa3b

20

3h3Xg

[l

(-32]2[1

0.374(:7

sin2

0.130

(s)

(31
(20)

January

8
Stevenson presents a result for the normalized conductance of a longitudinal shunt slot a t resonance, i e . ,
when the network element is purely real, but with the
slot length indicated as a half wavelength. If one takes
the reciprocal of (20) aftersubstituting
and
simplifying, one obtains

(xa/2a)

Displaced Series Slot


The equivalent network of Fig. 5(b) is valid at the
terminal plane T.The appropriate variational expression for the normalized conductance G/ Yofollows from

(25)

and, when combined with (14), yields the following result for the normalized conductance

1
in exact agreement with Stevenson as quoted in (45) of
Silver. Even though the slot
is generally not resonanta t
exactly a half wavelength, Stevensons result is quite
accuratebecause of therelativeinsensitivity
of (20)
with a.

rd
cos2

O.I30(:)]

0.374(:).

sec xd

(26)

As with the longitudinal shunt slot, agreement with


Stevensons resonant resistance for the displaced series
slot is obtained by inverting (26) after is set equal to
The result is

0.522

inagreementwith
given as 0.523).

,t

Xab

cos2

TX

xd

4a

(48) of Silver (thefactorthereis

(12) as

3) Rotated Series Slot

Power Radiated
JJsIo:

(22)

E(r) @ W d S

EO

where thenumeratorisgiven
in (14),andthemode
function @(l)is obtained from (4) and (5) as

The equivalent network of Fig. 6(b) is valid at the


terminal plane T. The appropriate variational expression for the normalized conductance is the same as(22)
for the displaced series slot, with the numerator again
given by (14)and the mode function @ ( I ) by (23). The
trialapertureelectric
field hasagain a cosinusoidal
form, but is oriented in the direction [see Fig. 6(a)],
so that

n
sin

TX

TU

u0cos---

(28)

sin

UK

Fig. &Rotated
(b)

Fig. 5-Displaced

series slot. (a) Physical structure, (b) equivalent network.

series slot. (a) Physical structure, (b) equivalent network.

The angle of rotation of the slot is defined b y the angle


0 between the ZL and axes, with

x
sin
z
cos 6
The trial aperture electric field has the same form as for
of the variathe longitudinalshuntslotbutisoriented
a t right so that the voltage term in the denominator
tional
expression
becomes
angles so that

7-x
xocos-~

With this trial field, the denominator, which is essentially the square of a voltage, becomes

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Oliner: Impedance PToperties of NarrowI-lheory


Slot, Part

1957

Upon performing the integrations and employing (14)


the following result is obtained for the normalized conductance

8?r X,ab

I>:(

KNOWN:

0.130

0.374

Za

Fig. 7-The

-+j-=
Yo
Yo

where

centered and rotated series slots.

Power radiated
Yo

JJ

Power stored

(31)

E-Q(~)~s]~

Withthehighlyreasonableassumptionthattheslot
field is of the same form for either slot (a) or (b)
of
Fig. 7, the power radiated and the power stored in
and
the externalregion are identical for both cases, sincethe
slotsareassumedtoradiateintoa
half space. The
denominators are quite different for the two cases
as
$(I) is a function of angle.
Again, the result of Stevenson for the normalized reThe assumption in the present treatment relates to
sistance at resonance may be checked by inversion
of the power stored in the interior, or guide,
region. The
(29) after the substitution a=X/2 is made. The result stored power, or, considered loosely, the distortion of
the field lines in the neighborhood of the slot, will be
most strongly affected by the guide
wallsclosest by,
which, for both of these slots, is the bottom wall directly opposite the slots.
the slot is rotated through
wi h A(6) and B(8) defined as in (29), but with
angle 8, the influence of the bottom wall remains conx
stant while that of the sidewalls changes somewhat.
sin f
cos 0
Since the side walls are relatively far away, we assume
that the lattereffect is negligible. The assumption that
is i n exact agreement with (49) in Silver, upon noting
the interior stored power is independent of the angle
that -4 and B above are identical with
I and J used
of rotation of the slot therefore means that the varia; h re.
tional expressions (31) for the two slots have identical
D. THE REACTANCE
ABD SUSCEPTANCE
EXPRESSIONSnumerators, and differ only by the denominators.
With this assumption, the susceptance for arbitrary
Theevaluation of reactancesandsusceptancesvia
6
is
related to the known susceptance for the centered
the variational expressions is generally a rather difficult
slot
(6 = ~ / 2 jby equating the numerators in the exprestask. In particular, the difficulty is associated with the
sions
(31) for the two slots and taking only the imagiintegrations in the numerator of the variational expresnary
parts
sions,involving
the guide(not
half space)dyadic
Greens function, However, with the recognition that
the imaginary portion of the numerator is related to the
stored power in the vicinity of the slot, i t is sometimes
possible to obtain the reactance or susceptanceof a slot
i n a particular location from the corresponding already
evaluated result for a slot in some other location.
In
particular, the available result for the susceptance of a
centered transverse series slot, located in the broad face
of rectangular waveguide, is related below to the corresponding quantity for a rotated series slot, a displaced
series slot, and a longitudinal shunt slot.

The voltage terms multiplyingB,/ Yohave already been


evaluated in connection with the conductance expressions. Their ratio is denoted i n Part I1 by Vs2 and presented as (16). The expressionfor BJY,, for a zerothickness slot is13

1. Rotated Series SIot

The physical structure and the equivalent network


for this slot are given in Fig.6 . The susceptance of this
slot will be obtained from that of a centered transverse
series slot;thetwoslotsaresketchedin
Fig. 7. The
variational expressionfor the normalizedslotadmittance for eitherslot is obtained from (12) as
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[1n2+-&
?rbt
+T

(Ix,

(33)

A. A. Oliner, up.
The result presented here for B,/Y, is
modification of the original result evaluated by J. Blass.

IRE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION

10

where B t / Y o ,B,j/Yo, and l / n j 2are presented in Part I1


as (S),
and
respectively. Incontrasttothe
above, the symbolBc/ Y Oin Part I1 refers to a centered
series slot for which the slot thickness has been taken
into account. An expression, analogous to (32), can be
written for conductances, but this is unnecessary since
the separate conductanceexpressions for zero-thickness
slots are given in Section C.
The quantity B t / Y o represents the normalized susceptance of a zero-thicknesstransverseslotcoupling
identical waveguides. It is seen in (8) of Part I1 that a
closed formexpression is presentedforthis
quantity
despitethefactthatthewaveguidedyadicGreens
function, which occurs in the numerator of the variational expression,involvesinfinitesums.
Thisresult,
derived previously,5 was obtained by first expressing the
dyadic Greens function inthe form of a dyadic operator
operating on a scalar function. This scalar function, an
infinite double sum, separates naturally into a sum corresponding to what is obtained for a slot of full width
(capacitive),and a sumovertheremaininghigher
modes. The latter sum is thenconverted by means of a
Poisson transformation into a series of Bessel functions
of the second kind of imaginary argument; as a result,
it converges rapidly enough to be approximated by a
single, rather than a double, infinite sum. This transformedkernel,whenemployedin
thevariationalintegrals, will againcontributeaninfiniteseries
whose
sum, however, can be readily approximated. One thereby otains a closed form result which expresses the slot
susceptance as that for the full width slot plus correction terms. Lewins derivation3 for the same slot
also
employs a Poisson transformation, but effects an inductive rather than a capacitive separation. The result
(8) of Part I1 for B J Y 0 is therefore approximate but
has yielded quite good agreement with measured data.

B,

Yo

Yo

sec2

January

(34)

The susceptance BC/Yoof the zero-thickness centered


series slot is given in (33).
3. Longitudinal Shunt Slot
The physical structure and equivalent network are
given in Fig.
the variational expression for the normalized slot impedance may be written from (9) as

Power radiated

Power stored

Eq. ( 3 5 ) is to be compared to the corresponding relation (31) for the normalized admittance of the centered series slot in an attempt to relate the reactance
of the former to the susceptance of the latter. Since the
slot fields are assumed identical for the two cases, the
power stored in the exterior region and the power
radiated are identical for both slots since they both
radiate into a half space. T h e assumption will be made
now that the power stored in the interior regionis
also identical for both slots. This assumption is not as
valid here as it was in the case of the rotated and the
displaced series slots since here
the side walls exert a
nonnegligible influence on the stored power. Since the
stored field extends out some distance away from the
slot in itsnarrowdimension,thenearerside
wallis
expected to exert a noticeable effect here in contrast to
the case of the displacedseries slot. The effect of the side
walls can be accounted for by considering appropriate
image terms in the Greens function, but this has not
been attempted. The influence of the side walls should
manifest itself in a smallshift in theresonantfrequency of the slot as it is moved off-center; the con2. Displaced Series Slot
stancy of the numerator in the case of the rotated and
The physical structure and equivalent network are
displacedseries slots implies a constancy of resonant
given in Fig. one notes that the centeredseries slot is
frequency with angle of rotation or displacement. These
the centered position of the displaced series slot, ;.e.,
effects are borne out by the available experimental data.
when
The variational expression for the admitWith the assumption that the numeratorsof (31) and
tance of the displaced series slot is also given by (31),
( 3 5 ) are identical, one obtains, upon equating the nuand the associated remarks given there apply here also.
merators and taking the imaginary parts (the denominaSince little of the stored field associated with the slot
tors are always purely real)
extends beyond the ends
of the slotin its long dimension,
r
7
the proximity of the side wall as the slot is displaced has
relatively little influence on the numerator of the variational expression. The assumption made in subsection 1
concerning the constancy of the numerator as the slot
is moved, in this case displaced, is therefore applicable.
J
An expression relatingthesusceptance
of the disBc/Yo havealready
placed slot to that of the centered slot is obtained in a The voltagetermsmultiplying
fashion similar to that for the rotated slot. The result, been evaluated and aregiven in ( 1 9 ) and (25), the latter
for the case of d = O . Their ratio is denoted in Part I1
identical to (32) withrotatedquantitiesreplacedby
by Veh2and presented as ( 1 2 ) . The susceptance B c / YO
displacedquantities,
becomes, aftertheappropriate
of the zero-thickness centered seriesslot is given in (33).
voltage terms are evaluated using (25),
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Properties
Impedance
Oliner:

1957

of KarrowI-Theory
Slot, Part

11

E. EFFECTOFWALL THICKNESS
The variational expressions andthevarious
slot
parameter results obtained above are based on the assumption that the slot
walls are of zero thickness. Since,
inpractice,thefinitethickness
of the wallsexerts a
Tr
noticeable effect on the slot admittance, this effect is
theoreticallytakenintoaccountherebymicrowave
network considerations. The thick slot is viewed as a
Fig. &Radiating junction. (a) Physical structure, (b) equivalent network.
compositestructure,consisting
of a length of waveguide,equal to the slot wall thicknessand of crosssectional dimensions equal to those of the slot, connecting two junctions, onea radiating junction between the
slot waveguide and a half space, and the other a Tee
junctionbetweentheslotwaveguideandthemain
guide. Since the slot wall thickness is usually comparable to the slot width, we can assume negligible higher
mode interaction between the junctions and consider
them as isolated.
For slots of the same cross-sectional dimensions and
Fig. 9-E plane Tee junction. (a) Physical structure,
(b) equivalent network.
thickness, it is evident in this microwave network picturethattheradiatingjunctionandtheconnecting
waveguide are identical for all thrcc slot locations, since
the slots radiate into a half space. Only the Tee junctions will be different for each.
The radiating junction, common to all three slot
locations, is shown in Fig. 8. The Tee junction for the thick
centered series slot is the centeredE plane Tee pictured
in Fig. 9 together with an equivalent network
whose
simple form is valid since the slot width is small compared to its length. When the component junctions are
connected by a length of transmission line equal to the
T
slot thickness, the composite representation
of Fig. 10
Fig. @
lT
-he
thick centered series slot. (a) Physical structure,
is obtained for the complete thick centered series slot.
(b) composite equivalent network.
In Fig. 10(a), the slot width 6 and the thickness are
exaggerated for clarity. The subscripts j signify juncnifying trcentered,by comparing the two networks and
tion,
using transmission line relations
to reduce the former
I t can beshown5 that the parameterBj/ Y oof the Tee to the latter. By inspection, onefinds
junction of Fig. 9 is given by variational expression (12)
when y h is replaced byj&, the dyadic Greens function
for the stubguide of the Tee, which corresponds here to
the slot guide. The term Yothen drops out,of course.
Since the trial aperture electric
field was chosen as a
cosine, it is orthogonal toall the terms composing and
the stub guide contribution toBj/Yo vanishes. The expression for parameter Bi/Yo then becomes identically
equal to the interior contribution to B / Y o in the zerothickness case. It is evident that the stored power con- Upon rationalization, the separate expressions presented
siderations discussed aboveapplyhereinthesame
in the summary, Section B of Part 11, for the conducfashion, so that we may use the expressions derived in tance
Yo and the susceptance BJYO are obtained.
Section D to relate the admittance or impedanceof the Yo and K are seen to be the characteristic admittance
thick slot of interest to the admittance
of the thick
andpropagationwavenumber
of theconnectingslot
centered series slot.
waveguide. Theoretical expressions for the component
The parameters of the composite representation of parameters employed above are presented in (4) to (8)
Fig. 10(b) are related to those
of the over-all representa- of Part 11. The relations between Gc/Yo and B,/Yo and
tion, the latter being a series network such as that in the parameters of the other slots are also presented in
Fig. 3(b) with parameters
and B,, the subscript sig- Part 11.

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