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The impedance properties of narrow radiating slots in the broad face of rectangular waveguide

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in theBroadFace

of Rectangular Waveguide*

PartI-Theory

ARTHUR A. OLINERt

Surnrnuq-Theoretical results, validatandawayfromresonance, for the impedance propertiesof the rotatedseries slot, the displaced series slot, and the longitudinal shuntslot have been derived

by the use of variationalexpressionscoupledwithcertainstored

power considerations. The additional influence of finite wall thickness, an appreciable factor,is taken into account by a microwave

networktreatment. The results for the zero-thickness resistive elements become identicalwith those of Stevenson when theslot length

is made equal to a half wavelength.

The theoretical derivations are presented in Part I. In Part 11,

comparison is made with experimental data both previously available

and specially taken in

connection. The effect of wall thickness

and the distinction between slots of rounded and rectangular ends

are

considered. The agreement between theory and measurement is reasonably good.

A . INTRODUCTION

walls of rectangular

waveguide are widely employed as radiators of

microwaveenergy,relatively

littletheoretical

material is available on theirimpedanceproperties.

The well-known results of Stevenson1 for the slot resistance or conductance apply only at resonance. The

Manuscript received by the PGAP, September 28, 1955; revised

manuscript received, October 13, 1956.

Microwave Res. Inst., Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn, Bklyn.,

N. Y .This work was begun a t the Hughes Aircraft Co. during a threemonth leave of absence, and completed as part of consulting sewices

since that time.

1 A. F. Stevenson, Theory of slots in rectangular wave-guides,

J . Appl. Phys.Lvol. 19, pp. 2 6 3 8 ; January, 1948.

S. Silver, Microwave Antenna Theoryand Design, vol. 12,

M.I.T. Rad. Lab. Ser., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York,

Y.,

pp. 291-295;1949.

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lesswell-knowncalculations

Pounder,2basedon

Stevensons formulas, for the resonant length

of a longitudinal shunt slot are admittedly extremely tedious and

mustthereforebe

consideredimpractical.Analytical

expressions have been obtained by several authors, including Lewin3 and the group at the Polytechnic Institute of B r ~ o k l y n , ~

for- ~the impedanceproperties of

centered slots of arbitrary aspect ratiolocated in various

positions.Centered

slotsarenot

useful as radiators,

however, since the conductance changes little with slot

shape and therefore does not permit the control that is

available with a shift or rotation of the slot. The additional influence of the slot wall thickness on its impedance properties is a significant factor and has been accountedfor

bythePolytechnicgroup6

for certain

centered slots. There remains the need, therefore, for a

reasonably simple analytical procedure for determining

the impedance properties of slots in actual use, including, of course, the effect of wall thickness.

If

in the Broad Face of a RectangularWave Guide ?Numerical)

Special Comm. on Appl. Math., Natl. Res. Council of Canada, Radio

Rep., September, 1944. Quoted in W . H. Watson, The Physical

Principles of Wave Guide Transmission and AntennaSystems,

Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, pp. 199-200; 1917.

3 L. Lewin, Advanced Theory of Waveguides, Iliffe and Sons,

Ltd., London, England, pp.

121-128; 1951.

hi. Marcuvitz, The Representation, Measurement and Calculation of EquivalentCircuits for Waveguide Discontinuities with

Application to Rectangular Slots, Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn;

1949. The report was a group project.

A.A. ,?liner, EquivalentCircuitsforSlotsinRectangular

Waveguide, Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn; August, 1951. The report

was a group project.

Slot, Pa,rt

19-57

I t is attempted here to furnish such an impedance

description for radiating slots located in several

posi- for the reactances and susceptancesbecomes a formidations in the broad face of rectangular waveguide. T h e ble taskin view of the complexity of the waveguide

dyadic Greens function. However, since the susceptanc

three slot types considered are the rotated series slot,

an

inthe displaced series slot, andthe longitudinal shunt slot, of a centered slot is already a ~ a i l a b l e , ~ approach

volving

so-called

small

aperture

or

stored

power

illustrated in Fig. 1. Irariational expressions are used to

considerations is used instead. These considerations reobtain the slot equivalent circuit parameters; the slot

of the slots of Fig. 1 to

conductancesaredetermineddirectly,

while the sus- late the susceptance or reactance

the susceptance of the centered slot. The considerations

ceptances are related by certain stored energy considerations to the correspondingcentered slot result, the latter are expected to be very good for rotated and displaced

being obtained from thework of the Polytechnic group.5 series slots, but are only approximately valid for longiThe effect of mall thickness is accounted for by micro- tudinal shunt slots.

wave network considerations. I t should be added that

Under the small aperture assumption, the numeraall theoretical results presented herein assume that the tors of the variational expressions for all three slots are

slot radiates into a half space (;.e., bounded by an inidentical

and

equal

to

that

corresponding

to

the

finite baffle), and that the slot has rectangular ends. The

centered slot. The denominators,which are alwaysposieffects of deviationsinpracticefromthese

idealized tive definite, vary with the slot location. The implicaconditions,particularlyforroundedratherthan

rec- tion is, therefore, thatall three slotsof Fig. 1 possess the

tangular slot ends, are discussed in Part 11.

same resonant length and the same

Q value. A change in

slot width will, of course, alter both theQ value and the

resonant length. In the case of the rotated series slot,

the validity of this conclusion is borne out by the fact

that experimentally one findsthe resonant length independent of the angle of rotation. Experience with displaced transverseslotscouplingidenticalwaveguides

Fig.1-Top view of slots located in the broad face of rectangular indicates that the small aperture assumptions should

waveguide. (a) Rotated series slot, (b) displaced series slot, (c)

also be very good for the displaced series slot. The delongitudinal shunt slot.

pendence of the resonant length on displacement for the

longitudinal

shunt slot, however, implies that for this

The variational expressions are derived by following

case

one

cannot

neglect the influence of the closer side

the standard procedureof first obtaining expressions for

wall

and

that

the

small aperture results will be valid

the magnetic field in the regions inside and outside of

for

small

displacements

only. Since the present theory

the waveguide, and then imposing the conditionof condoes

not

account

for

this

dependence, there remains the

tinuity of the magnetic field in the slot aperture to obneed

for

an

improved

theoretical

expressionfor this

taintheappropriateintegralequation.Restrictedincase.8

A

more

detailed

evaluation

of

the usefulness and

tegral equations are then deduced,

following a procedure

validity of these theoretical expressions is presented in

duetoMarcuvitz,6byapplyingantisymmetricaland

the comparisonsbetween

symmetricalvoltage(orelectric

field) excitation to Part I1 inconnectionwith

series and shunt networks, respectively. These restrictedthese expressions and the measured results.

integral equations are thencast into variational form in

B. DERIVATION

OF THE VARIATIONAL

EXPRESSIONS

standard fashion. The resulting variational expressions

are of the aperture type, thus requiring the insertion

of a

Basic to the derivation of aperture type variational

trialelectric field in the slot aperture. The trial

field expressions are representations for the magneticfields in

chosen in all cases was cosinusoidal and is expected to the regionsinteriorandexteriortothe

waveguide.

be an excellent approximation. The stationary property Assuming the slot to radiate into a half space, the magof these expressions is not proved here since they are in netic field in the exterior region is given by

standard form.

Since the conductance and resistance portions of the

variational expressions are related only to the radiated

power, and do not require the consideration of the rectangular guide Greens function, their determination is where E is the electric field in the slot aperture, n is the

relatively simple. The results obtained are valid botha t normal pointing outof the guide into thehalf space, and

and away from resonance, and reduce identically to the

results of Stevenson when the slot lengthis made equal

L. A. Kurtz, Design Applications of Series Slots,Hughes

Aircraft Co. Tech. Memo. No. 273, Fig. 2 or p. 1; December, 1951.

to a half wavelength.

Also, see

C, 3, of Part I1 of the present work.

N. Ma:xvitz, \Tariational Calculations of Longitudinal Discontinuities, orally presented a t URSI-IRE meeting, San Diego,

April, 1950.

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Since the completion of this work the author has been informed

that Dr. W. K. Saunders of the Diamond Ordnance Fuze Labs. has

obtained an expression for the longitudinalshunt slot which takes this

dependence into account but contains slo.wly convergent infinite

sums.

, ~spatial The variational

expressions are most conveniently deadmittance,

from

duced

aform

reduced

equation

integral

ob-of the

tained by appropriate symmetric or antisymmetric volt(2) age excitation. If the slot is representable by a purely

shunt networkFig.

as in application

the

3(a),

of symmetric voltage excitation produces an open circuit

bisecwhere is the unit dyadic, and k 2rD.

11 - 1 2 , 1'

21'

V - The

The representationchosen for the magnetic field ill tionof the network, with

integral equation then becomes

the interior region islo

are

with

tions are

h(p)

KZ

jh,(p) sin KZ

jh&) cos KZ

@(1)(r)

Fig. 3-Shunt

series network.

nXE in dot product fashion and integration over the

slot aperture, employing"

where the geometry is indicated in Fig. 2.

jYoJJslo:

and dividing by

Fig. 2-Geometry

I*)@(l)(r) j 4 Y d V 1

(2a2

R+jX

where allintegralsaretakenoverthe

slot aperture.

The normalized value is obtained by dividing both sides

by the characteristic impedance

l/Yo).

If the slotis representable by a purely series network,

as in Fig. 3(b), the applicationof antisymmetric voltage

excitation, with VI

V2, Il I2 =I, yields a short

circuitbisection of the network so thattheintegral

equation reduces to

V4W2)(r)

E*((YA ja3)dS

IV)

0. ( 6 )

H. Levine and J. Schwinger, "On the Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Diffraction by an Aperture in a n Infinite Plane Conducting Screen," In "Theory of Electromagnetic Waves, A Symposium,"

Academic Press, New York, N. Y., pp.

1951.

10 N. Marcuvitz and J. Schninger, "On the representation of the

electric and magnetic fields produced by currents anddiscontinuities

in wave guides," J. A#& Phys., vol.

pp. 806419; June, 1951.

(3.38b),

and (3.41).

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(8)

of rectangular waveguide.

Marcuvitz and Schningerlo and

definedin their (3.1)

and (3). Yo is thecharacteristicadmittance

of the

dominant mode. The guide(internal)dyadicGreen's

function, or spatial susceptance,

is given in (3.41).1

Upon application of the condition of continuity of

magnetic field in the slot aperture, the

following integral

equation for the electric

field in the apertureis obtained.

+(I1

E*@(2)dS

JJ,;

E - ( C Y ~ja3)ds.

the slot aperture, together with the employment of1'

Ibid.

(3.42b).

Properties

Impedance

Oliner:

1957

v2

and division by (2

casts the integral equation into

variational form, viz.,

2v

-G+jB

JJJJsl,,n

Js,,,,.

(yh

j@) n

where thenumerator

@ ( 2 ) is given by

EdSdS

2

is givenin(14).Using(4)

and

(12)

E*@(1)dS]

by Yo on both sides.

livision

C. THE RESISTANCE

AND CONDUCTANCE

EXPRESSIONS

The resistance and conductance expressions, obtainable from the variational expressions (9) and (12), are

particularly simple to evaluate as only the real part of

the total dyadicGreens function (yh+j@)need be considered. Since all the slots treated here radiate into a

half space, the numeratorsof the variationalexpressions

for all of the slots mill be identical, namely,

JJJJs,,,n

E(r) 9h.n

E(r)dSdS,

(134

I

T

(b)

Fig. 4-Longitudinal

equivalent network.

where

and is the real part of yh.The integral (13a), which is

related to the power radiated by the slot, has already

been evaluated inpreviouswork

at thePolytechnic

Institute of Brooklyn12 in connection with a transverse

slot radiating from the end of the guide intoa half space.

The result is

Power Radiated

16

3n

21

~,

a and

neglecting terms of the order of ( 6 / ~ ) where

6 are the slot length and width, respectively. Eq.

is expected t o be quite accurate for all narrow slots in

general use.

The denominators of the various variational expressions, representing the square of the voltage or current,

depending upon the slot in question, will vary with the

slot location.

Longitudinal Shunt Slot

The equivalent network of Fig. 4(b) is valid at the

terminal plane T. Appropriate variational expression for

normalized resistance R/Zo folIows from (9) as

la A. A. Oliner, op. cit. The particular integral in questionwas

evaluated by H. Kurss.

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?TZ

result (14). For slots in general use this is expectedto be

an excellent approximation.

The integration over the slot aperture indicated in the

denominator of (15) proceeds in straightforward fashion

to yield

r

=abtGG2

h2b

sin

nd

cos

Ka

When (19) is combined with (17) and (14), the result for

the normalized resistance becomes

R

8aa3b

20

3h3Xg

[l

(-32]2[1

0.374(:7

sin2

0.130

(s)

(31

(20)

January

8

Stevenson presents a result for the normalized conductance of a longitudinal shunt slot a t resonance, i e . ,

when the network element is purely real, but with the

slot length indicated as a half wavelength. If one takes

the reciprocal of (20) aftersubstituting

and

simplifying, one obtains

(xa/2a)

The equivalent network of Fig. 5(b) is valid at the

terminal plane T.The appropriate variational expression for the normalized conductance G/ Yofollows from

(25)

and, when combined with (14), yields the following result for the normalized conductance

1

in exact agreement with Stevenson as quoted in (45) of

Silver. Even though the slot

is generally not resonanta t

exactly a half wavelength, Stevensons result is quite

accuratebecause of therelativeinsensitivity

of (20)

with a.

rd

cos2

O.I30(:)]

0.374(:).

sec xd

(26)

Stevensons resonant resistance for the displaced series

slot is obtained by inverting (26) after is set equal to

The result is

0.522

inagreementwith

given as 0.523).

,t

Xab

cos2

TX

xd

4a

(12) as

Power Radiated

JJsIo:

(22)

E(r) @ W d S

EO

where thenumeratorisgiven

in (14),andthemode

function @(l)is obtained from (4) and (5) as

terminal plane T. The appropriate variational expression for the normalized conductance is the same as(22)

for the displaced series slot, with the numerator again

given by (14)and the mode function @ ( I ) by (23). The

trialapertureelectric

field hasagain a cosinusoidal

form, but is oriented in the direction [see Fig. 6(a)],

so that

n

sin

TX

TU

u0cos---

(28)

sin

UK

Fig. &Rotated

(b)

Fig. 5-Displaced

0 between the ZL and axes, with

x

sin

z

cos 6

The trial aperture electric field has the same form as for

of the variathe longitudinalshuntslotbutisoriented

a t right so that the voltage term in the denominator

tional

expression

becomes

angles so that

7-x

xocos-~

With this trial field, the denominator, which is essentially the square of a voltage, becomes

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Slot, Part

1957

the following result is obtained for the normalized conductance

8?r X,ab

I>:(

KNOWN:

0.130

0.374

Za

Fig. 7-The

-+j-=

Yo

Yo

where

Power radiated

Yo

JJ

Power stored

(31)

E-Q(~)~s]~

Withthehighlyreasonableassumptionthattheslot

field is of the same form for either slot (a) or (b)

of

Fig. 7, the power radiated and the power stored in

and

the externalregion are identical for both cases, sincethe

slotsareassumedtoradiateintoa

half space. The

denominators are quite different for the two cases

as

$(I) is a function of angle.

Again, the result of Stevenson for the normalized reThe assumption in the present treatment relates to

sistance at resonance may be checked by inversion

of the power stored in the interior, or guide,

region. The

(29) after the substitution a=X/2 is made. The result stored power, or, considered loosely, the distortion of

the field lines in the neighborhood of the slot, will be

most strongly affected by the guide

wallsclosest by,

which, for both of these slots, is the bottom wall directly opposite the slots.

the slot is rotated through

wi h A(6) and B(8) defined as in (29), but with

angle 8, the influence of the bottom wall remains conx

stant while that of the sidewalls changes somewhat.

sin f

cos 0

Since the side walls are relatively far away, we assume

that the lattereffect is negligible. The assumption that

is i n exact agreement with (49) in Silver, upon noting

the interior stored power is independent of the angle

that -4 and B above are identical with

I and J used

of rotation of the slot therefore means that the varia; h re.

tional expressions (31) for the two slots have identical

D. THE REACTANCE

ABD SUSCEPTANCE

EXPRESSIONSnumerators, and differ only by the denominators.

With this assumption, the susceptance for arbitrary

Theevaluation of reactancesandsusceptancesvia

6

is

related to the known susceptance for the centered

the variational expressions is generally a rather difficult

slot

(6 = ~ / 2 jby equating the numerators in the exprestask. In particular, the difficulty is associated with the

sions

(31) for the two slots and taking only the imagiintegrations in the numerator of the variational expresnary

parts

sions,involving

the guide(not

half space)dyadic

Greens function, However, with the recognition that

the imaginary portion of the numerator is related to the

stored power in the vicinity of the slot, i t is sometimes

possible to obtain the reactance or susceptanceof a slot

i n a particular location from the corresponding already

evaluated result for a slot in some other location.

In

particular, the available result for the susceptance of a

centered transverse series slot, located in the broad face

of rectangular waveguide, is related below to the corresponding quantity for a rotated series slot, a displaced

series slot, and a longitudinal shunt slot.

evaluated in connection with the conductance expressions. Their ratio is denoted i n Part I1 by Vs2 and presented as (16). The expressionfor BJY,, for a zerothickness slot is13

for this slot are given in Fig.6 . The susceptance of this

slot will be obtained from that of a centered transverse

series slot;thetwoslotsaresketchedin

Fig. 7. The

variational expressionfor the normalizedslotadmittance for eitherslot is obtained from (12) as

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[1n2+-&

?rbt

+T

(Ix,

(33)

A. A. Oliner, up.

The result presented here for B,/Y, is

modification of the original result evaluated by J. Blass.

10

as (S),

and

respectively. Incontrasttothe

above, the symbolBc/ Y Oin Part I1 refers to a centered

series slot for which the slot thickness has been taken

into account. An expression, analogous to (32), can be

written for conductances, but this is unnecessary since

the separate conductanceexpressions for zero-thickness

slots are given in Section C.

The quantity B t / Y o represents the normalized susceptance of a zero-thicknesstransverseslotcoupling

identical waveguides. It is seen in (8) of Part I1 that a

closed formexpression is presentedforthis

quantity

despitethefactthatthewaveguidedyadicGreens

function, which occurs in the numerator of the variational expression,involvesinfinitesums.

Thisresult,

derived previously,5 was obtained by first expressing the

dyadic Greens function inthe form of a dyadic operator

operating on a scalar function. This scalar function, an

infinite double sum, separates naturally into a sum corresponding to what is obtained for a slot of full width

(capacitive),and a sumovertheremaininghigher

modes. The latter sum is thenconverted by means of a

Poisson transformation into a series of Bessel functions

of the second kind of imaginary argument; as a result,

it converges rapidly enough to be approximated by a

single, rather than a double, infinite sum. This transformedkernel,whenemployedin

thevariationalintegrals, will againcontributeaninfiniteseries

whose

sum, however, can be readily approximated. One thereby otains a closed form result which expresses the slot

susceptance as that for the full width slot plus correction terms. Lewins derivation3 for the same slot

also

employs a Poisson transformation, but effects an inductive rather than a capacitive separation. The result

(8) of Part I1 for B J Y 0 is therefore approximate but

has yielded quite good agreement with measured data.

B,

Yo

Yo

sec2

January

(34)

series slot is given in (33).

3. Longitudinal Shunt Slot

The physical structure and equivalent network are

given in Fig.

the variational expression for the normalized slot impedance may be written from (9) as

Power radiated

Power stored

Eq. ( 3 5 ) is to be compared to the corresponding relation (31) for the normalized admittance of the centered series slot in an attempt to relate the reactance

of the former to the susceptance of the latter. Since the

slot fields are assumed identical for the two cases, the

power stored in the exterior region and the power

radiated are identical for both slots since they both

radiate into a half space. T h e assumption will be made

now that the power stored in the interior regionis

also identical for both slots. This assumption is not as

valid here as it was in the case of the rotated and the

displaced series slots since here

the side walls exert a

nonnegligible influence on the stored power. Since the

stored field extends out some distance away from the

slot in itsnarrowdimension,thenearerside

wallis

expected to exert a noticeable effect here in contrast to

the case of the displacedseries slot. The effect of the side

walls can be accounted for by considering appropriate

image terms in the Greens function, but this has not

been attempted. The influence of the side walls should

manifest itself in a smallshift in theresonantfrequency of the slot as it is moved off-center; the con2. Displaced Series Slot

stancy of the numerator in the case of the rotated and

The physical structure and equivalent network are

displacedseries slots implies a constancy of resonant

given in Fig. one notes that the centeredseries slot is

frequency with angle of rotation or displacement. These

the centered position of the displaced series slot, ;.e.,

effects are borne out by the available experimental data.

when

The variational expression for the admitWith the assumption that the numeratorsof (31) and

tance of the displaced series slot is also given by (31),

( 3 5 ) are identical, one obtains, upon equating the nuand the associated remarks given there apply here also.

merators and taking the imaginary parts (the denominaSince little of the stored field associated with the slot

tors are always purely real)

extends beyond the ends

of the slotin its long dimension,

r

7

the proximity of the side wall as the slot is displaced has

relatively little influence on the numerator of the variational expression. The assumption made in subsection 1

concerning the constancy of the numerator as the slot

is moved, in this case displaced, is therefore applicable.

J

An expression relatingthesusceptance

of the disBc/Yo havealready

placed slot to that of the centered slot is obtained in a The voltagetermsmultiplying

fashion similar to that for the rotated slot. The result, been evaluated and aregiven in ( 1 9 ) and (25), the latter

for the case of d = O . Their ratio is denoted in Part I1

identical to (32) withrotatedquantitiesreplacedby

by Veh2and presented as ( 1 2 ) . The susceptance B c / YO

displacedquantities,

becomes, aftertheappropriate

of the zero-thickness centered seriesslot is given in (33).

voltage terms are evaluated using (25),

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Properties

Impedance

Oliner:

1957

of KarrowI-Theory

Slot, Part

11

E. EFFECTOFWALL THICKNESS

The variational expressions andthevarious

slot

parameter results obtained above are based on the assumption that the slot

walls are of zero thickness. Since,

inpractice,thefinitethickness

of the wallsexerts a

Tr

noticeable effect on the slot admittance, this effect is

theoreticallytakenintoaccountherebymicrowave

network considerations. The thick slot is viewed as a

Fig. &Radiating junction. (a) Physical structure, (b) equivalent network.

compositestructure,consisting

of a length of waveguide,equal to the slot wall thicknessand of crosssectional dimensions equal to those of the slot, connecting two junctions, onea radiating junction between the

slot waveguide and a half space, and the other a Tee

junctionbetweentheslotwaveguideandthemain

guide. Since the slot wall thickness is usually comparable to the slot width, we can assume negligible higher

mode interaction between the junctions and consider

them as isolated.

For slots of the same cross-sectional dimensions and

Fig. 9-E plane Tee junction. (a) Physical structure,

(b) equivalent network.

thickness, it is evident in this microwave network picturethattheradiatingjunctionandtheconnecting

waveguide are identical for all thrcc slot locations, since

the slots radiate into a half space. Only the Tee junctions will be different for each.

The radiating junction, common to all three slot

locations, is shown in Fig. 8. The Tee junction for the thick

centered series slot is the centeredE plane Tee pictured

in Fig. 9 together with an equivalent network

whose

simple form is valid since the slot width is small compared to its length. When the component junctions are

connected by a length of transmission line equal to the

T

slot thickness, the composite representation

of Fig. 10

Fig. @

lT

-he

thick centered series slot. (a) Physical structure,

is obtained for the complete thick centered series slot.

(b) composite equivalent network.

In Fig. 10(a), the slot width 6 and the thickness are

exaggerated for clarity. The subscripts j signify juncnifying trcentered,by comparing the two networks and

tion,

using transmission line relations

to reduce the former

I t can beshown5 that the parameterBj/ Y oof the Tee to the latter. By inspection, onefinds

junction of Fig. 9 is given by variational expression (12)

when y h is replaced byj&, the dyadic Greens function

for the stubguide of the Tee, which corresponds here to

the slot guide. The term Yothen drops out,of course.

Since the trial aperture electric

field was chosen as a

cosine, it is orthogonal toall the terms composing and

the stub guide contribution toBj/Yo vanishes. The expression for parameter Bi/Yo then becomes identically

equal to the interior contribution to B / Y o in the zerothickness case. It is evident that the stored power con- Upon rationalization, the separate expressions presented

siderations discussed aboveapplyhereinthesame

in the summary, Section B of Part 11, for the conducfashion, so that we may use the expressions derived in tance

Yo and the susceptance BJYO are obtained.

Section D to relate the admittance or impedanceof the Yo and K are seen to be the characteristic admittance

thick slot of interest to the admittance

of the thick

andpropagationwavenumber

of theconnectingslot

centered series slot.

waveguide. Theoretical expressions for the component

The parameters of the composite representation of parameters employed above are presented in (4) to (8)

Fig. 10(b) are related to those

of the over-all representa- of Part 11. The relations between Gc/Yo and B,/Yo and

tion, the latter being a series network such as that in the parameters of the other slots are also presented in

Fig. 3(b) with parameters

and B,, the subscript sig- Part 11.

Authorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Downlade on May 10,2 at 19:037 UTC from IE Xplore. Restricon aply.

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