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Industrial Revolution

Industrial revolution describes the period between 1750 and 1850, in which tremendous
changes characterized by developments in textile, iron were realized. The revolution was
spearheaded by Britain. Modern historians refer to these changes as the first industrial
revolution .The second revolution was characterized by steel, electronics and automobiles
and was spearheaded by Germany.
Changes
Although Industrial revolution brought about significant economic development
throughout Europe, there were also considerable social and cultural changes seen as well.
Industrial revolution had a tremendous transformation on the middle class, which initially
was comprised of industrialists and businessmen to another class of noble and gentry
people. There were increased employment opportunities for the ordinary working people in
the industries, but under strict working conditions. There work was monitored and controlled
by machines hence long hours of work.
Industrial revolution led to the introduction of urbanization since many people
relocated to the cities to look for employment in factories; such as the water power silk mill
and the cotton spinning mill. This was characterized by dense, cramped housing and poor
living conditions.
There was the introduction of new laws guarding child labor, public health and
working condition for the ordinary workers to avoid exploitation of the minority.
As much as there were positive effects of the industrial revolution such as
urbanization, there was also a negative impact on industrial revolution that comprised of
people who were anti technologists such as the luddites.
There was a change in culture since new cities grew rapidly, affecting families and peer
groups. For instance, there was an influence in drugs by peer groups.
Economic Changes
During the first industrial revolution, there was an unprecedented economic
transformation; there was a tremendous increase in population growth that was sustained.
This led to considerable expansions of commercial activities in Europe.
Steam power was invented that was used to provide power in the factories, used for mining,
and transport. It replaced human labor and introduced machines that could do mining in
depth, increase production in the industries, and fast means of transport to the markets.
The textile industry was changed by new machines the spinning Jenny allowing for much
higher production at lower costs and in less time.

Thanks to the industrial revolution that brought about, better transport system such
as the canals and then the railway. These provided quick, better means of transporting raw
materials from the mines and also finished products to the market. Trade expansion was
enabled.
There was also much development in metal and chemical industries due to the
industrial revolution that provided better working conditions for its workers.
Development of all-metal machine tools enabled the manufacture of more production
machines for industries. These spread all over Western Europe and North America then to
the rest of the world. The industrial revolution facilitated the manufacture of more
production machines.
Causes of Industrial revolution
Industrial revolution came about due to several inventions and the scientific
revolution allowing for new discoveries such as technology. Resources required for the
industrial revolutions were readily available hence boost industrialization to occur. There was
a culture of hard work, developing ideas and risk taking that initiated for the industrial
revolution in Europe. Availability of large amount of capital that Europe was ready to use for
investment also led to the industrial revolution. There was the end of feudalism that
changed the economic relationship among the Europe continent, this encouraged industrial
revolution. A large population that allowed for industrial workforce was available.
Conclusion
As much as Western Europe tried to do away with capitalism, industrial revolution
contributed to the creation of a true capitalist system. There was wide spread of
investments, stock markets, and business corporations. Britain was the main advocator for
the industrial revolution due to the agricultural revolution. The British kings lost power and
the land holders gained power