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GATE QUESTION BANK

for

Electrical Engineering
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GATE QUESTION BANK

Contents

Contents
#1.

#2.

Subject Name
Mathematics

Topic Name

Page No.
1-148

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Linear Algebra
Probability & Distribution
Numerical Methods
Calculus
Differential Equations
Complex Variables
Laplace Transform

1 28
29 57
58 73
74 112
113 131
132 143
144 148

Network Theory
8
9
10
11
12
13

#3.

19

168 185
186 203
204 206
207 214
215 216

217 223
224 238
239 250
251 256
257 261
262 275

276 340
Basics of Control System
Time Domain Analysis
Stability & Routh Hurwitz Criterion
Root Locus Technique
Frequency Response Analysis using Nyquist plot
Frequency Response Analysis using Bode Plot
Compensators & Controllers
State Variable Analysis

Analog Circuits
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

149 167

217 275
Introduction to Signals & Systems
Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems
Fourier Representation of Signals
Z-Transform
Laplace Transform
Frequency response of LTI systems and
Diversified Topics

Control Systems
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

#5.

Network Solution Methodology


Transient/Steady State Analysis of RLC Circuits to
DC Input
Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis
Laplace Transform
Two Port Networks
Network Topology

Signals & systems


14
15
16
17
18

#4.

149 216

276 282
283 294
295 300
301 308
309 316
317 322
323 329
330 340

341 421
Diode Circuits - Analysis and Application
AC & DC Biasing-BJT and FET
Small Signal Modeling Of BJT and FET
BJT and JFET Frequency Response
Feedback and Oscillator Circuits
Operational Amplifiers and Its Applications
Power Amplifiers
th

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341 353
354 363
364 372
373 375
376 381
382 420
421
th

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Page I

GATE QUESTION BANK

#6.

Digital Circuits
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

#7.

422 424
425 430
431 435
436 438
439 456
457 462
463 464
465 472

473 483
Electromagnetic Field

473 483

Measurement
44
45
46
47
48

#9.

422 472
Number Systems & Code Conversions
Boolean Algebra & Karnaugh Maps
Logic Gates
Logic Gate Families
Combinational and Sequential Digital Circuits
AD/DA Convertor
Semiconductor Memory
Introduction to Microprocessors

EMT
43

#8.

Contents

484 516
Basics of Measurements and Error Analysis
Measurements of Basic Electrical Quantities 1
Measurements of Basic Electrical Quantities 2
Electronic Measuring Instruments 1
Electronic Measuring Instruments 2

Power Systems
49
50
51
52
53
54

517 553
Transmission and Distribution
Economics of Power Generation
Symmetrical Components & Faults Calculations
Power System Stability
Protection & Circuit Breakers
Generating Stations

#10. Power Electronics


55
56
57
58
59
60

65
66

517 526
527 532
533 544
545 548
549 552
553

554 585
Basics of Power Semiconductor Devices
Phase Controlled Rectifier
Choppers
Inverters
AC Voltage Regulators and Cycloconverters
Applications of Power Electronics

554 559
560 570
571 575
576 581
582
583 585

#11. Electrical Machines


61
62
63
64

484 487
488 498
499 503
504 509
510 516

586 - 621

Transformer
Induction Motor
D.C. Machine
Synchronous Machine
Principles of Electro Mechanical Energy
Conversion
Special Machines

th

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586 596
597 605
606 611
612 618
619 620
621

th

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Page II

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Linear Algebra
ME 2005
1.
Which one of the following is an
Eigenvector of the matrix[

(A) [

(B) [ ]

2.

5.

]?

(C) [

(D) [

A is a 3 4 real matrix and Ax=B is an


inconsistent system of equations. The
highest possible rank of A is
(A) 1
(C) 3
(B) 2
(D) 4

ME 2006
3.
Multiplication of matrices E and F is G.
Matrices E and G are
os
sin
E [ sin
] and
os
G

4.

sin
os

sin
(B) [ os

os
sin

os
(C) [ sin

sin
os

sin
(D) [ os

os
sin

7.

Eigenvectors of 0

1 is

(A) 0
(B) 1

(C) 2
(D) Infinite

If a square matrix A is real and symmetric,


then the Eigenvalues
(A) are always real
(B) are always real and positive
(C) are always real and non-negative
(D) occur in complex conjugate pairs

ME 2008
8.

The Eigenvectors of the matrix 0

1 are

written in the form 0 1 and 0 1. What is


a + b?
(A) 0
(B) 1/2

Eigen values of a matrix


0

ME 2007
6.
The number of linearly independent

]. What is the matrix F?

os
(A) [ sin

Match the items in columns I and II.


Column I
Column II
P. Singular
1. Determinant is not
matrix
defined
Q. Non-square
2. Determinant is
matrix
always one
R. Real
3. Determinant is
symmetric
zero
matrix
S. Orthogonal
4. Eigen values are
matrix
always real
5. Eigen values are
not defined
(A) P - 3 Q - 1 R - 4 S - 2
(B) P - 2 Q - 3 R - 4 S - 1
(C) P - 3 Q - 2 R - 5 S - 4
(D) P - 3 Q - 4 R - 2 S - 1

9.

(C) 1
(D) 2

The matrix [

] has one Eigenvalue


p
equal to 3. The sum of the other two
Eigenvalues is
(A) p
(C) p 2
(B) p 1
(D) p 3

1are 5 and 1. What are the

Eigenvalues of the matrix = SS?


(A) 1 and 25
(C) 5 and 1
(B) 6 and 4
(D) 2 and 10
th

th

th

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Page 1

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

For what value of a, if any, will the


following system of equations in x, y and z
have a solution
x
y
x y z
x
y z
(A) Any real number
(B) 0
(C) 1
(D) There is no such value

11.

ME 2012
15.

For a matrix,M-

(B) ( )

1 is

(A) 2
(B) 2 3

(C) 2 3
(D) 2

ME 2011
13. Consider the following system
equations:
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
The system has
(A) A unique solution
(B) No solution
(C) Infinite number of solutions
(D) Five solutions
14.

of

Eigen values of a real symmetric matrix


are always
(A) Positive
(C) Negative
(B) Real
(D) Complex

(D) ( )

of the matrix is equal to the inverse of the


,M- . The value of x is
matrix ,Mgiven by
)
(A) (
(C)
( )
(B)
(D)

1 , one of the

(C) ( )

(A) ( )

+, the transpose

ME 2010
12. One of the Eigenvectors of the matrix

For the matrix A=0

normalized Eigenvectors is given as

16.

ME 2009

Mathematics

x + 2y + z =4
2x + y + 2z =5
xy+z=1
The system of algebraic equations given
above has
(A) a unique algebraic equation of x = 1,
y = 1 and z = 1
(B) only the two solutions of ( x = 1,
y = 1, z = 1) and ( x = 2, y = 1, z = 0)
(C) infinite number of solutions.
(D) No feasible solution.

ME 2013
17. The Eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix
are all
(A) Complex with non zero positive
imaginary part.
(B) Complex with non zero negative
imaginary part.
(C) Real
(D) Pure imaginary.
18.

Choose correct set of functions, which are


linearly dependent.
(A) sin x sin x n os x
(B) os x sin x n t n x
(C) os x sin x n os x
(D) os x sin x n os x

ME 2014
19. Given that the determinant of the matrix
[

] is

12 , the determinant of

the matrix [
(A)
th

] is
(B)

th

(C)
th

(D)

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Page 2

GATE QUESTION BANK

20.

One of the Eigenvectors of the matrix


0

21.

22.

2.

Consider a non-homogeneous system of


linear equations representing
mathematically an over-determined
system. Such a system will be
(A) consistent having a unique solution
(B) consistent having many solutions
(C) inconsistent having a unique solution
(D) inconsistent having no solution

3.

Consider the matrices


,
- . The order of , (

1 is

(A) { }

(C) 2

(B) { }

(D) 2 3

Consider a 33 real symmetric matrix S


such that two of its Eigenvalues are
with respective Eigenvectors
x y
[x ] [y ] If
then x y + x y +x y
x y
equals
(A) a
(C) ab
(B) b
(D) 0
Which one of the following equations is a
correct identity for arbitrary 33 real
matrices P, Q and R?
(A) (
)
)
(B) (
(
)
(C) et
et
et
)
(D) (

CE 2005
1.
Consider the system of equations (
)
is
s l r Let
(
)
(
) where
(
) e n Eigen -pair of an Eigenvalue
and its corresponding Eigenvector for
real matrix A. Let I be a (n n) unit
matrix. Which one of the following
statement is NOT correct?
(A) For a homogeneous n n system of
linear equations,(A
) X = 0 having
a nontrivial solution the rank of
(A
) is less than n.
(B) For matrix
, m being a positive
integer, (
) will be the Eigen pair for all i.
(C) If
=
then | | = 1 for all i.
(D) If
= A then is real for all i.

Mathematics

and

- will be
)
(C) (4 3)
(D) (3 4

(A) (2 2)
(B) (3 3

CE 2006
4.
Solution for the system defined by the set
of equations 4y + 3z = 8; 2x z = 2 and
3x + 2y = 5 is
(A) x = 0; y =1; z =
(B) x = 0; y = ; z = 2
(C) x = 1; y = ; z = 2
(D) non existent

5.

For the given matrix A = [

],

one of the Eigen values is 3. The other two


Eigen values are
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
CE 2007
6.
The minimum and the maximum
Eigenvalue of the matrix [

]are 2

and 6, respectively. What is the other


Eigenvalue?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
7.

For what values of and the following


simultaneous equations have an infinite
of solutions?
X + Y + Z = 5; X + 3Y + 3Z = 9;
X+2Y+ Z
(A) 2, 7
(C) 8, 3
(B) 3, 8
(D) 7, 2
th

th

th

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Page 3

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

The inverse of the


(A)

(B)

1
1

m trix 0

(A)
(B)

is

(D)

( )

( )

( )

( )

11.

is

15.
(C)
(D)

i
i

i
i

i
i

i
i

i
i

CE 2012

1 are
and 8
and 5

The inverse of the matrix 0

The Eigenvalue of the matrix


[P] = 0

14.

(C)

CE 2008
9.
The product of matrices ( )
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D) PQ
10.

1 is

Mathematics

n
n

The following simultaneous equation


x+y+z=3
x + 2y + 3z = 4
x + 4y + kz = 6
will NOT have a unique solution for k
equal to
(A) 0
(C) 6
(B) 5
(D) 7

CE 2009
12. A square matrix B is skew-symmetric if
(C)
(A)
(D)
(B)
CE 2011
13. [A] is square matrix which is neither
symmetric nor skew-symmetric and , is its transpose. The sum and difference of
these matrices are defined as
[S] = [A] + , - and [D] = [A] , - ,
respectively. Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
(A) Both [S] and [D] are symmetric
(B) Both [S] and [D] are skew-symmetric
(C) [S] is skew-symmetric and [D] is
symmetric
(D) [S] is symmetric and [D] is skew
symmetric

The Eigenvalues of matrix 0


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

1 are

2.42 and 6.86


3.48 and 13.53
4.70 and 6.86
6.86 and 9.50

CE 2013
16. There is no value of x that can
simultaneously satisfy both the given
equations. Therefore, find the le st
squares error solution to the two
equations, i.e., find the value of x that
minimizes the sum of squares of the
errors in the two equations.
2x = 3 and 4x = 1
17.

What is the minimum number of


multiplications involved in computing the
matrix product PQR? Matrix P has 4 rows
and 2 columns, matrix Q has 2 rows and
4 columns, and matrix R has 4 rows and 1
column. __________

CE 2014
18.

Given the matrices J = [


K

19.

] n

], the product K JK is

The sum of Eigenvalues of the matrix, [M]


is, where [M] = [

(A) 915
(B) 1355
th

th

(C) 1640
(D) 2180
th

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Page 4

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.
20.

The determinant of matrix [

Let A be a 4x4 matrix with Eigenvalues


5, 2, 1, 4. Which of the following is an
I
Eigenvalue of 0
1, where I is the 4x4
I
identity matrix?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

is ____________
21.

The

rank

of

the

matrix

] is ________________

CS 2005
1.
Consider the following system of
equations
in
three
real
variables x x n x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
This system of equation has
(A) no solution
(B) a unique solution
(C) more than one but a finite number of
solutions
(D) an infinite number of solutions
2.

What are the Eigenvalues of the following


2 2 matrix?
0
(A)
(B)

1
n
n

(C)
(D)

n
n

CS 2006
3.
F is an n x n real matrix. b is an n
real
vector. Suppose there are two nx1
vectors, u and v such that u v , and
Fu=b, Fv=b. Which one of the following
statement is false?
(A) Determinant of F is zero
(B) There are infinite number of
solutions to Fx=b
(C) There is an x 0 such that Fx=0
(D) F must have two identical rows

Mathematics

CS 2007
5.
Consider the set of (column) vectors
defined by X={xR3 x1+x2+x3=0, where
XT =[x1, x2, x3]T }. Which of the following is
TRUE?
(A) {[1, 1, 0]T, [1, 0, 1]T} is a basis for
the subspace X.
(B) {[1, 1, 0]T, [1, 0, 1]T} is a linearly
independent set, but it does not span
X and therefore, is not a basis of X.
(C) X is not the subspace for R3
(D) None of the above
CS 2008
6.
The following system of
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Has unique solution. The only possible
value (s) for is/ are
(A) 0
(B) either 0 or 1
(C) one of 0,1, 1
(D) any real number except 5
7.

How many of the following matrices have


an Eigenvalue 1?
0

1 0

1 n 0

1 0

(A) One
(B) two

(C) three
(D) four

CS 2010
8.
Consider the following matrix
A=[

]
x y
If the Eigen values of A are 4 and 8, then
(A) x = 4, y = 10
(C) x = 3, y = 9
(B) x = 5, y = 8
(D) x = 4, y = 10
th

th

th

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Page 5

GATE QUESTION BANK

CS 2011
9.
Consider the matrix as given below
[

13.

The value of the dot product of the


Eigenvectors corresponding to any pair of
different Eigenvalues of a 4-by-4
symmetric positive definite matrix is
__________.

14.

If the matrix A is such that

Which one of the following options


provides the CORRECT values of the
Eigenvalues of the matrix?
(A) 1, 4, 3
(C) 7, 3, 2
(B) 3, 7, 3
(D) 1, 2, 3

CS 2013
11. Which one of
x x
equal [
y y
z z
x(x
y(y
(A) |
z(z
x
(B) |
y
z
x y
(C) |
y z
z
x y
(D) |
y z
z

15.

The product of the non zero Eigenvalues


of the matrix

is __________.
[
16.

the following does NOT


]
) x
) y
|
) z
x
|
y
z
x
y
y
z |
z
x
y
y
z |
z

],

Then the determinant of A is equal to


__________.

CS 2012
10. Let A be the 2

2 matrix with elements


and
.
Then the Eigenvalues of the matrix
are
(A) 1024 and
(B) 1024 and

(C) n

(D)
n

Mathematics

Which one of the following statements is


TRUE about every n n matrix with only
real eigenvalues?
(A) If the trace of the matrix is positive
and the determinant of the matrix is
negative, at least one of its
eigenvalues is negative.
(B) If the trace of the matrix is positive,
all its eigenvalues are positive.
(C) If the determinant of the matrix is
positive, all its eigenvalues are
positive.
(D) If the product of the trace and
determinant of the matrix is positive,
all its eigenvalues are positive.

ECE 2005
1.
Given an orthogonal matrix

CS 2014
12. Consider the following system of
equations:
x
y
x
z
x
y
z
x
y
z
The number of solutions for this system is
__________.

A= [

]. ,

is

(A) [

th

th

th

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Page 6

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

(B) [

6.

The rank of the matrix [

(C) [

(A) 0
(B) 1

(D) [

2.

Let,

A=0

1 and

Then (a + b)=
(A)
(B)
3.

= 0

1.

(C)
(D)

Given the matrix 0

Eigenvector is
(C) 0

(B) 0 1

(D) 0

ECE 2006
4.

For the matrix 0


corresponding
0

the

ECE 2007
7.
It is given that X1 , X2 M are M nonzero, orthogonal vectors. The dimension
of the vector space spanned by the 2M
vector X1 , X2 XM , X1 , X2 XM is
(A) 2M
(B) M+1
(C) M
(D) dependent on the choice of X1 , X2
XM.

9.

All the four entries of the 2 x 2 matrix


p
p
P = 0p
p 1 are non-zero, and one of
its Eigenvalues is zero. Which of the
following statements is true?
(A) p p
p p
(B) p p
p p
(C) p p
p p
(D) p p
p p

Eigenvector

1 is

(A) 2
(B) 4
5.

1 , the Eigenvalue
to

(C) 6
(D) 8

The Eigenvalues and the corresponding


Eigenvectors of a 2 2 matrix are given
by
Eigenvalue
Eigenvector
=8

v =0 1

=4

(C) 2
(D) 3

ECE 2008
8.
The system of linear equations
4x + 2y = 7, 2x + y = 6 has
(A) a unique solution
(B) no solution
(C) an infinite number of solutions
(D) exactly two distinct solutions

1 the

(A) 0 1

v =0

ECE 2009
10. The Eigen values of the following matrix
are
[

The matrix is
(A) 0

(C) 0

(B) 0

(D) 0

(A) 3, 3 + 5j, 6 j
(B) 6 + 5j, 3 + j, 3 j
(C) 3 + j, 3 j, 5 + j
(D) 3, 1 + 3j, 1 3j

th

th

th

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Page 7

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2010
11. The Eigenvalues of a skew-symmetric
matrix are
(A) Always zero
(B) Always pure imaginary
(C) Either zero or pure imaginary
(D) Always real
ECE 2011
12. The system of equations
x y z
x
y
z
x
y
z
has NO solution for values of
given by
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

Mathematics

ECE 2014
16. For matrices of same dimension M, N and
scalar c, which one of these properties
DOES NOT ALWAYS hold?
(A) (M )
M
(M)
(B) ( M )
(C) (M N)
M
N
(D) MN NM
17.

A real (4 4) matrix A satisfies the


equation
I where is the (4 4)
identity matrix. The positive Eigenvalue
of A is _____.

18.

Consider the matrix

J
ECE\EE\IN 2012
13.

Given that A = 0

1 and I = 0

the value of A3 is
(A) 15 A + 12 I
(B) 19A + 30

(C) 17 A + 15 I
(D) 17A +21

ECE 2013
14. The minimum Eigenvalue of the following
matrix is
[

19.

The determinant of matrix A is 5 and the


determinant of matrix B is 40. The
determinant of matrix AB is ________.

20.

The system of linear equations

(A) 0
(B) 1
15.

[
]
Which is obtained by reversing the order
of the columns of the identity matrix I .
Let
I
J where
is a nonnegative real number. The value of for
which det(P) = 0 is _____.

1,

(C) 2
(D) 3

Let A be a m n matrix and B be a n m


matrix. It is given that
) determinant
Determinant(I
(I
) where I is the k k identity
matrix. Using the above property, the
determinant of the matrix given below is

(A) 2
(B) 5

)h s

(A) a unique solution


(B) infinitely many solutions
(C) no solution
(D) exactly two solutions
21.

)4 5

]
(C) 8
(D) 16

th

Which one of the following statements is


NOT true for a square matrix A?
(A) If A is upper triangular, the
Eigenvalues of A are the diagonal
elements of it
(B) If A is real symmetric, the Eigenvalues
of A are always real and positive
th

th

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Page 8

GATE QUESTION BANK

(C) If A is real, the Eigenvalues of A and


are always the same
(D) If all the principal minors of A are
positive, all the Eigenvalues of A are
also positive
22.

The maximum value of the determinant


among all 22 real symmetric matrices
with trace 14 is ___.

EE 2005
1.

5.

If R = [

] , then top row of

(A) ,
(B) ,

2.

(C) ,
(D) ,

(B) [

] [

] [

(C) [

] [

] [

(D) [

] [

] [

(A) [ ]
(B) [

(C) [

(B) [

(D) [ ]

In the matrix equation Px = q, which of


the following is necessary condition for
the existence of at least one solution for
the unknown vector x
(A) Augmented matrix [P/Q] must have
the same rank as matrix P
(B) Vector q must have only non-zero
elements
(C) Matrix P must be singular
(D) Matrix P must be square

] ,R=[

(C) [ ]
]

(D) [

EE 2007
6.
X = [x , x . . . . x - is an n-tuple non-zero
vector. The n n matrix V = X
(A) Has rank zero (C) Is orthogonal
(B) Has rank 1
(D) Has rank n
7.

The linear operation L(x) is defined by


the cross product L(x) = b x, where
b =[0 1 0- and x =[x x x - are three
dimensional vectors. The
matrix M
of this operation satisfies
x
L(x) = M [ x ]
x
Then the Eigenvalues of M are
(A) 0, +1, 1
(C) i, i, 1
(B) 1, 1, 1
(D) i, i, 0

8.

Let x and y be two vectors in a 3


dimensional space and <x, y> denote
their dot product. Then the determinant
xx
xy
det 0 y x
yy 1
(A) is zero when x and y are linearly
independent
(B) is positive when x and y are linearly
independent
(C) is non-zero for all non-zero x and y
(D) is zero only when either x or y is zero

EE 2006
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 4
and 5.

4.

is

] , one of

(A) [

] ,Q=[

] [

For the matrix p = [

P=[

(A) [

The following vector is linearly


dependent upon the solution to the
previous problem

the Eigenvalues is equal to 2 . Which of


the following is an Eigenvector?

3.

Mathematics

] are

three vectors
An orthogonal set of vectors having a
span that contains P,Q, R is
th

th

th

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Page 9

GATE QUESTION BANK

Statement for Linked Questions 9 and 10.


Cayley-Hamilton Theorem states that a
square matrix satisfies its own
characteristic equation. Consider a
matrix.
A=0

A satisfies the relation


(A) A + 3 + 2
=0
2
(B) A + 2A + 2 = 0
(C) (A+ ) (A 2) = 0
(D) exp (A) = 0

10.

equals
(A) 511 A + 510
(B) 309 A + 104
(C) 154 A + 155
(D) exp (9A)

EE 2008
11. If the rank of a (
) matrix Q is 4, then
which one of the following statements is
correct?
(A) Q will have four linearly independent
rows and four linearly independent
columns
(B) Q will have four linearly independent
rows and five linearly independent
columns
(C) Q will be invertible
(D)
Q will be invertible
12.

13.

(A) A A+ A = A
(B) (AA+ ) = A A+
14.

The characteristic equation of a (


)
matrix P is defined as
() = | P| =

=0
If I denotes identity matrix, then the
inverse of matrix P will be
(A) (
I)
(B) (
I)
(C) (
I)
(D) (
I)

(C) A+ A =
(D) A A+ A = A+

Let P be a
real orthogonal matrix. x
is a real vector [x x - with length
x
(x
x ) . Then, which one of the
following statements is correct?
(A)
x
x
where at least one
vector satisfies
x
x
(B)
x
x for all vectors x
(C)
x
x
where at least one
vector satisfies
x
x
(D) No relationship can be established
between x and
x

9.

Mathematics

EE 2009
15. The trace and determinant of a
matrix are known to be 2 and 35
respe tively Its Eigenv lues re
(A) 30 and 5
(C) 7 and 5
(B) 37 and 1
(D) 17.5 and 2
EE 2010
16. For the set of equations
x
x
x
x =2
x
x
x
x =6
The following statement is true
(A) Only the trivial solution
x
x
x
x = 0 exists
(B) There are no solutions
(C) A unique non-trivial solution exists
(D) Multiple non-trivial solutions exist

17.

An Eigenvector of

(A) ,
(B) ,

(C) ,
(D) ,

] is
-

EE 2011
18.

The matrix[A] = 0

1 is decomposed

into a product of a lower triangular


matrix [L] and an upper triangular matrix
[U]. The properly decomposed [L] and [U]
matrices respectively are

A is m n full rank matrix with m > n and


is an identity matrix. Let matrix
A+ = (
)
, then, which one of the
following statements is FALSE?

(A) 0
th

th

1 and 0

1
th

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Page 10

GATE QUESTION BANK

(B) 0
(C) 0
(D) 0

1 and 0
1 and 0
1 and 0

23.

1
1
1

EE 2013
19.

The equation 0

x
1 0x 1

0 1 has

0 1.

Eigenvector of the matrix A = 0

(C) Non zero unique solution


(D) Multiple solution
20.

(A) [ 1 1]T
(B) [3 1]T

A matrix has Eigenvalues 1 and 2. The


corresponding Eigenvectors are 0
0

1 respectively. The matrix is

(A) 0

(C) 0

(B) 0

(D) 0

Which one of the following statements is


true for all real symmetric matrices?
(A) All the eigenvalues are real.
(B) All the eigenvalues are positive.
(C) All the eigenvalues are distinct.
(D) Sum of all the eigenvalues is zero.

1?

(C) [1 1]T
(D) [ 2 1]T

Let A be a 3 3 matrix with rank 2. Then


AX = 0 has
(A) only the trivial solution X = 0
(B) one independent solution
(C) two independent solutions
(D) three independent solutions

2.

1 and

EE 2014
21. Given a system of equations:
x
y
z
x y
z
Which of the following is true regarding
its solutions?
(A) The system has a unique solution for
any given and
(B) The system will have infinitely many
solutions for any given and
(C) Whether or not a solution exists
depends on the given and
(D) The system would have no solution
for any values of and
22.

Two matrices A and B are given below:


p
q pr qs
p q
[
]
0
1
r s
pr qs r
s
If the rank of matrix A is N, then the rank
of matrix B is
(A) N
(C) N
(B) N
(D) N

IN 2005
1.
Identify which one of the following is an

(A) No solution
x
(B) Only one solution 0x 1

Mathematics

IN 2006
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 3
and 4
A
system of linear simultaneous
equations is given as Ax=B where
[

] n

[ ]

3.

The rank of matrix A is


(A) 1
(C) 3
(B) 2
(D) 4

4.

Which of the following statements is true?


(A) x is a null vector
(B) x is unique
(C) x does not exist
(D) x has infinitely many values

5.

For a given
that
0

matrix A, it is observed
0

1 n

Then matrix A is

th

th

th

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Page 11

GATE QUESTION BANK

2 1 1 0 1 1

1 1 0 2 1 2

10.

(A) A

1 1 0 2

1 1

(B) A

1 2 0 2 1 1
(C) A

1 2 0

02 1
2 1 1

0 2

(D) A

1 3
IN 2007
6.
Let A = [ ]
i j n with n
= i. j. Then the rank of A is
(A)
(C) n
(B)
(D) n
7.

Let A be an nn real matrix such that


= I and y be an n- dimensional vector.
Then the linear system of equations Ax=Y
has
(A) no solution
(B) a unique solution
(C) more than one but finitely many
independent solutions
(D) Infinitely many independent
solutions

The matrix P =[

12.

9.

The Eigenvalues of a (2 2) matrix X are


2 and 3. The Eigenvalues of matrix
(
I) (
I) are
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

)(

(D) n
IN 2011
13.

The matrix M = [

] has

Eigenvalues
. An Eigenvector
corresponding to the Eigenvalue 5 is
,
- . One of the Eigenvectors of
the matrix M is
(A) ,
(C) ,

(B) ,
(D) ,

] rotates a vector

(C)
(D)

A real n n matrix A = [ ] is defined as


i
i j
follows: {
otherwise
The summation of all n Eigenvalues of A is
(A) n(n
)
(B) n(n
)
(C)

about the axis[ ] by an angle of


(A)
(B)

Let P 0 be a 3 3 real matrix. There exist


linearly independent vectors x and y such
that Px = 0 and Py = 0. The dimension of
the range space of P is
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D) 3

IN 2010
11. X and Y are non-zero square matrices of
size n n. If
then
(A) |X| = 0 and |Y| 0
(B) |X| 0 and |Y| = 0
(C) |X| = 0 and |Y| = 0
(D) |X| 0 and |Y| 0

IN 2009
8.

Mathematics

IN 2013
14. The dimension of the null space of the

15.

matrix [

] is

(A) 0
(B) 1

(C) 2
(D) 3

One of Eigenvectors corresponding to the


two Eigenvalues of the matrix 0
(A) [

] 0

(B) 0 1 0
th

th

1 is

(C) [ ] 0 1
j
j
(D) [ ] 0 1
j

1
1
th

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Page 12

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

IN 2014
16. For the matrix A satisfying the equation
given below, the eigenvalues are
, -[

(A) (
,)
(B) (1,1,0)

]
(C) (
)
(D) (1,0,0)

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

and G = [

[Ans. A]
[

Now E F = G

h r teristi equ tions is |


I|
(
)(
)(
)
Real eigenvalues are 5, 5 other two are
complex
Eigenvector corresponding to
is (
I)
(or)
( )
Verify the options which satisfies relation
(1)
Option (A) satisfies.
[Ans. B]
Given

in onsistent

4.

5.

[Ans. A]

6.

[Ans. B]
1 Eigenv lues re 2, 2
I)

I)

No. of L.I Eigenvectors


(
(no of v ri les)

( )

7.

matrix be A = 0
sin
os

/
I)

[Ans. A]
(
I)
.
olving for , Let the symmetric and real

[Ans. C]
os
Given , E = [ sin

matrix, if Eigenvalues are


then for
matrix,
the Eigenvalues will be , ,

For S matrix, if Eigenvalues are 1 and 5


then for
matrix, the Eigenvalues are 1
and 25.

No (

3.

sin
os

[Ans. A]
For S

( )
n ( )
( (
)
minimum of m n)
For inconsistence
( )
( )
he highest possi le r nk of is

os
[ sin

,E-

2.

th

Now |

Which gives (

th

th

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Page 13

GATE QUESTION BANK

Hence real Eigen value.


8.

Mathematics

x
[

][

[Ans. B]
Let

eigenv lues re

12.

Eigen vector corresponding to


is (
I)
x
.
/ .y/ . /
By simplifying
K
. / . / y t king K

Equating the elements x

[Ans. A]
0

1 Eigenv lues re

Eigenve tor is x
13.

Eigen vector corresponding to =2


is (
I)
x
.
/ .y/ . /
K
By simplifying
(
) 4
5 by

[Ans. C]
[

taking K

x verify the options

( )

infinite m ny solutions

9.

10.

[Ans. C]
Sum of the diagonal elements = Sum of
the Eigenvalues
1 + 0 + p = 3+S
S= p 2

[Ans. B]
Eigenvalues of a real symmetric matrix
are always real

15.

[Ans. B]
0

If

1 eigenv lues v lue

Eigen vector will be .

Norm lize ve tor

[Ans. B]
( )

11.

14.

( )

[( )

) ]

16.

system will h ve solution

[Ans. A]
iven M

MM

th

[Ans. C]
The given system is
x
y z
x y
z
x y z
Use Gauss elimination method as follows
Augmented matrix is

th

th

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Page 14

GATE QUESTION BANK

, | -

| ]
[

So, |

[Ans. C]
Suppose the Eigenvalue of matrix A is
(
i )(s y) and the Eigenvector is
x where s the onjug te p ir of
Eigenvalue and Eigenvector is n x.
So Ax = x
and x x
king tr nspose of equ tion
x
x
[( )
n is s l r ]

x
x x x
x x x x ,
x x x x
(x x) (
re s l r )
(x x)

20.

[Ans. C]
We know that
os x
os x sin x
( ) os x
sin x ( ) os x
Hence 1, 1 and 1 are coefficients. They
are linearly dependent.

1 eigen v lues

Eigenve tor is

verify for oth


n

21.

[Ans. D]
We know that the Eigenvectors
corresponding to distinct Eigenvalues of
real symmetric matrix are orthogonal.
x
y
x
y
[ ][ ] x y
x y
x y
y
x

22.

[Ans. D]
(
)
In case of matrix PQ

CE
1.

QP (generally)

[Ans. C]
If
=
i.e. A is orthogonal, we can
only s y th t if is n Eigenv lue of
then

also will be an Eigenvalue of A,

which does not necessarily imply that


| | = 1 for all i.
2.

[Ans. A]
In an over determined system having
more equations than variables, it is
necessary to have consistent unique
solution, by definition

3.

[Ans. A]
With the given order we can say that
order of matrices are as follows:
34
Y 43
33

[Ans. A]
|

[Ans. D]
0

nnot e zero )

Hence Eigenvalue of a symmetric matrix


are real

19.

(Taking 2 common from each row)


(
)

( x x re Eigenve tors they


i
i
i
0

18.

nk ( )
nk ( | )
So, Rank (A) = Rank (A|B) = 2 < n (no. of
variables)
So, we have infinite number of solutions
17.

Mathematics

th

th

th

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Page 15

GATE QUESTION BANK

(
) 33
P 23
32
P(
)
(23) (33) (32)
22
( (
)
) 22

Using Gauss elimination we reduce this to


an upper triangular matrix to find its
rank
| ]

4.

[Ans. D]
The augmented matrix for given system is
[

| ]

| ]

| ]

8.

| ]

( )
( )
( )
( )
olution is non existent for above
system.
5.

6.

7.

[Ans. B]
= Trace (A)
+ + = Trace (A)
= 2 + ( 1) + 0 = 1
Now = 3
3+ + =1

Only choice (B) satisfies this condition.


[Ans. B]
= Trace (A)
+ + =1+5+1=7
Now = 2, = 6
2+6+ =7
=3

1 is
(

)
0

9.

10.

1
1

[Ans. B]
( ) P=(
(
)(
)
=(
) (I) =

)P

[Ans. B]
A=0

Characteristic equation of A is
|

|=0

(4
)( 5
) 2 5 =0
+
30 = 0
6, 5
11.

[Ans. A]
The augmented matrix for given system is
[

[Ans. A]
Inverse of 0

Now for infinite solution last row must be


completely zero
ie 2=0 n
7=0

Then by Gauss elimination procedure


[

Mathematics

| ]

th

[Ans. D]
The augmented matrix for given system is
x
[
| ] 6y7 [ ]
z
k
Using Gauss elimination we reduce this to
an upper triangular matrix to find its rank

th

th

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Page 16

GATE QUESTION BANK

| ]

17.

[Ans. 16]
, , M trix , The product of matrix PQR is
, - , - , The minimum number of multiplications
involves in computing the matrix product
PQR is 16

18.

[Ans. 23]

k
[

| ]

| ]

Now if k
Rank (A) = rank (A|B) = 3
Unique solution
If k = 7, rank (A) = rank (A|B) = 2
which is less than number of variables
When K = 7, unique solution is not
possible and only infinite solution is
possible
12.

[Ans. A]
A square matrix B is defined as skewsymmetric if and only if
= B

13.

[Ans. D]
By definition A +
is always symmetric
is symmetri
is lw ys skew symmetri
is skew symmetri

Mathematics

][

K JK

-[
,

]
-

19.

[Ans. A]
Sum of Eigenvalues
= Sum of trace/main diagonal elements
= 215 + 150 + 550
= 915

20.

[Ans. 88]
The determinant of matrix is
[

14.

[Ans. B]
1 =(

15.

,(
=

i)(
i
i

1
i -

i)
i
i

i
i

i
i

1
Interchanging Column 1& Column 2 and
taking transpose

Sum of the Eigenvalues = 17


Product of the Eigenvalues =
From options, 3.48 + 13.53 = 17
(3.48)(13.53) = 47
16.

[Ans. B]
0

[Ans. 0.5]
0.5

th

th

th

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Page 17

GATE QUESTION BANK


* (

= (
21.

)+

= 1, 6
The Eigenvalues of A are 1 and 6

[Ans. 2]
]

3.

[Ans. D]
Given that Fu =b and Fv =b
If F is non singular, then it has a unique
inverse.
Now, u =
b and v=
b
Since
is unique, u = v but it is given
th t u
v his is contradiction. So F
must be singular. This means that
(A) Determinant of F is zero is true. Also
(B) There are infinite number of
solution to Fx= b is true since |F| = 0
(C) here is n
su h the
is
also true, since X has infinite number
of solutions., including the X = 0
solution
(D) F must have 2 identical rows is false,
since a determinant may become
zero, even if two identical columns
are present. It is not necessary that 2
identical rows must be present for
|F| to become zero.

4.

[Ans. C]
It is given that Eigenvalues of A is
5, 2, 1, 4
I
Let P = 0
1
I
Eigenvalues of P : |
I|
I
|
|
I
(
)
I
I
I
Eigenvalue of P is
( 5 +1 ), ( 2+ 1), (1+ 1), (4+1 ),
( 5 1 ), ( 2 1 ),(1 1), (4 1)
= 4, 1, 2, 5, 6, 3,0,3

5.

[Ans. B]
|x
X= {x
x
x
= ,x x x - then,

[
( )

( )
]

( )

( )

]
( )

no. of non zero rows = 2

[Ans. B]
The augmented matrix for the given
system is [

| ]

Using elementary transformation on above


matrix we get,
[

| ]

|
]

Rank ([A B]) = 3


Rank ([A]) = 3
Since
Rank ([A B]) = Rank ([A]) = number of
variables, the system has unique solution.
2.

[Ans. B]
0

The characteristic equation of this matrix


is given by
|
I|
|

CS
1.

)(

Mathematics

|
th

th

th

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Page 18

GATE QUESTION BANK

{ [1, 1, 0]T , [1,0, 1 ]T } is a linearly


independent set because one cannot be
obtained from another by scalar
multiplication. However (1, 1, 0) and
(1,0, 1) do not span X, since all such
combinations (x1, x2, x3) such that
x1+ x2+ x3 =0 cannot be expressed as
linear combination of (1, 1,0) and
(1,0, 1)
6.

7.

Only one matrix has an Eigenvalue of 1


which is 0

| ]

Correct choice is (A)


8.

[Ans. D]
|

|
x
y
(
)(
y)
When
(
y)
x
y
x
When
(
y)
x
y
x
x
y
Solving (1) & (2)
x
y

[Ans. D]
The augmented matrix for above system
is
[

Mathematics

| ]
| ]

( )

( )

Now as long as 5 0,
rank (A) =rank (A|B) =3
can be any real value except 5. Closest
correct answer is (D).

9.

[Ans. A]
The Eigenvalues of a upper triangular
matrix are given by its diagonal entries.
Eigenvalues are 1, 4, 3 only

[Ans. A]

10.

[Ans. D]

Eigenvalues of 0
|

| =0

Eigenvalues of 0
|

Eigenvalues of the matrix (A) are the


roots of the characteristic polynomial
given below.

=0,1
1

| =0
=0

( )

)(
) =0
= 1, 1

n ( )
n

| =0

(
(

)
)

Eigenvalues of A are
respectively
So Eigenvalues of

)
=0
)
= i or 1
= 1 i or 1 + i

Eigenvalues of 0

)(
)(

|= 0

(
(

= 0, 0

Eigenvalues of 0
|

) =0

th

th

th

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Page 19

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

12.

[Ans. A]

p
q
nd
Since 2
& 3rd columns have been
swapped which introduces a ve sign
Hence (A) is not equal to the problem

16.

(
)
( )
no of v ri
nique solution exists

14.

[
]
x
x
Let X = x
e eigen ve tor
x
[x ]
By the definition of eigenvector, AX =
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
[
] [x ]
[x ]
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
n x
x
x
x
x
x
(I) If
s yx
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
(2) If
Eigenv lue
Three distinct eigenvalues are 0, 2, 3
Product of non zero eigenvalues = 2 3 = 6

les

[Ans. 0]
The Eigenvectors corresponding to distinct
Eigenvalues of real symmetric matrix are
orthogonal

ECE
1.

2.

[Ans. A]
If the trace or determinant of matrix is
positive then it is not necessary that all
eigenvalues are positive. So, option (B), (C),
(D) are not correct

[Ans. C]
Since, ,

]
(

=I

16

[Ans. A]
We know,

[Ans. 0]

| |

[Ans. 6]
Let A =

[Ans. 1]
x
y
x
z
x y z
x
y
z
ugmente m trix is [

13.

15.

Mathematics

7=0
1

1
1

1
b
, a
60
10
1 1 21 7

a+b =
3 60 60 20

Or 2a 0.1b=0, 2a

th

th

th

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Page 20

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

[Ans. C]

8.

[Ans. B]
Approach 1:
Given 4x + 2y =7
and 2x + y =6

(A I)=0
( 4 ) (3 ) 2 4=0
2 + 20=0 = 5, 4

4 2 x 7
2 1y 6


0 0 x 5
2 1y 6

x1
x2

Putting = 5, 0

1 =0

x + 2x = 0 x = 2x

On comparing LHS and RHS


0= 5, which is irrelevant and so no
solution.
Approach 2:
4x + 2y =7

x
x
1= 2
2 1
Hence, 0
4.

1 is Eigenvector.

[Ans. C]

Then Eigenvector is x
Verify the options (C)
5.

or 2x y=

1 We know th t it is Eigenvalue

We know

|I A|=0

2 I2 +32 =0
= 4, 8 (Eigenvalues)
For

= 4, ( I

)=0

)=0

9.

[Ans. C]
Matrix will be singular if any of the
Eigenvalues are zero.
|
|= 0
For = 0, P = 0
p
p
|p
p | =0
p p
p p

10.

[Ans. D]
Approach1: Eigenvalues exists as complex
conjugate or real
Approach 2: Eigenvalues are given by

v =0 1
For

= 8, ( I

v =0
6.

[Ans. C]
[

]
[

[Ans. C]
There are M non-zero, orthogonal vectors,
so there is required M dimension to
represent them

| =0

( )
7.

7
2

2x+y=6
Since both the linear equation represent
parallel set of straight lines, therefore no
solution exists.
Approach 3:
Rank (A)=1; rank (C)=2,
As Rank (A)
rank (C) therefore no
solution exists.

[Ans. A]
or m trix

Mathematics

11.

th

)((
,

)=0

)
j

[Ans. C]
Eigenvalue of skew symmetric matrix is
either zero or pure imaginary.
th

th

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Page 21

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

13.

[Ans. B]
Given equations are x y z
x
y
z
and x
y
z
If
and
,
then x
y
z
have Infinite solution
If
and
, then
x
y
z
(
) no solution
x
y
z
If
n
x
y
z
will have solution
x
y
z
and
will also give solution

et of , -

et of [

16.

[Ans. D]
Matrix multiplication is not commutative
in general.

17.

[Ans. *] Range 0.99 to 1.01


Let e Eigenv lue of hen
e Eigenv lue of

A.
=I=
Using Cauchey Hamilton Theorem,

[Ans. B]
0

Mathematics

will

Characteristic Equations is
18.
By Cayley Hamilton theorem
I

(
I)
I
14.

I
| |
[

[Ans. A]
[

[Ans. *] Range 199 to 201


From matrix properties we know that the
determinant of the product is equal to the
product of the determinants.
That is if A and B are two matrix with
determinant | | n | | respectively,
then | | | | | |
| | | | | |

20.

[Ans. B]

)
]

19.

| |

| | Product of Eigenvalues = 0
Minimum Eigenv lue h s to e
15.

[Ans. *] Range 0.99 to 1.01


I
J
I
J

[Ans. B]
,

Let

[ ]

Then AB = [4]; BA
Here m = 1, n = 4
)
And et(I

th

les

[Ans. B]
onsi er

( )
( | )
no of v r
Infinitely many solutions
21.

et(I

th

1
th

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Page 22

GATE QUESTION BANK

whi h is re l symmetri m trix


h r teristi equ tion is |
I|
(
)

(not positive)
( ) is not true
(A), (C), (D) are true using properties of
Eigenvalues
22.

EE
1.

2.

[Ans. B]
]
j( )
| |

=[

Top row of

=,

[Ans. D]
Since matrix is triangular, the Eigenvalues
are the diagonal elements themselves
namely = 3, 2 & 1.
Corresponding to Eigenvalue = 2, let
us find the Eigenvector
[A - ] x = 0
x
[
][x ]
[ ]
x
Putting
in above equation we get,
x
[
][x ] [ ]
x
Which gives the equations,
5x
x
x =0
. . . . . (i)
x =0
. . . . . (ii)
3x = 0
. . . . . (iii)
Since eqa (ii) and (iii) are same we have
5x
x
x =0
. . . . . (i)
x =0
. . . . . (ii)
Putting x = k, we get
x = 0, x = k and 5x
k
=0

[Ans. *] Range 48.9 to 49.1


Real symmetric matrices are diagnosable
Let the matrix be
x
0
1 s tr e is
x
So determinant is product of diagonal
entries
So | |
x x
M ximum v lue of etermin nt
x
x
| |

R= [

Mathematics

, of tor( )| |

x = k
| |=|

Eigenvectorss are of the form


x
k
x
[ ] * k +
x

= 1(2 + 3) 0(4 + 2) 1 (6 2) = 1
Since we need only the top row of
, we
need to find only first column of (R)
which after transpose will become first
row adj(A).
cof. (1, 1) = + |

|=2+3=5

cof. (2, 1) =

|= 3

cof. (2, 1) = + |

i.e. x x x = k : k : 0
= :1:0
=2:5:0
x
x
[ ]=[ ] is an Eigenvector of matrix p.
x

|= +1
3.

cof. (A) = [

[Ans. A]
Rank [P|Q] = Rank [P] is necessary for
existence of at least one solution to
x q.

Adj (A) =, of ( )=[

Dividing by |R| = 1 gives


th

th

th

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Page 23

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

[Ans. A]
We need to find orthogonal vectors, verify
the options.
Option (A) is orthogonal vectors
(

)(

[Ans. B]
The vector (
) is linearly
dependent upon the solution obtained in
- and ,
Q. No. 4 namely ,
We can easily verify the linearly
dependence as
|

6.

7.

[Ans. B]
xy
xx
| yx

xy
xx
x n xy yx
xy
x xy
y y | |y x y |
(x y)
x y
= Positive when x and y are linearly
independent.

Option (B), (C), (D) are not orthogonal


5.

)
i

8.

Mathematics

9.

[Ans. A]
A=0

|A | = 0

[Ans. B]
hen n
n m trix
xx
x x
x x
x x
x x x x
x x
*
+
x x x x
x x
Take x common from 1st row,
x common from 2nd row
x common from nth row.
It h s r nk

| =0

A will satisfy this equation according to


Cayley Hamilton theorem
i.e.
I=0
Multiplying by
on oth si es we get
I=0
I
=0
10.

[Ans. A]
To calculate
Start from
derived above

I = 0 which has
I

[Ans. D]

k
L(x) = |

|
x

= (x )

I)(

x
(

(
k

x )

I)
I

x
= x

=[
x k

x
L(x) = M [x ]
x
Comparing both , we get,

I)
(

I)
I

|
(

I)

I)
I

Hence Eigenvalue of M : | M

I)(
I

]
x

M=[

I)
I

)
th

th

th

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Page 24

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

12.

13.

[Ans. A]
If rank of (5 6 ) matrix is 4,then surely
it must have exactly 4 linearly
independent rows as well as 4 linearly
independent columns.

= A is correct
=A[(
)
-A
= A[(
)
Put
=P
Then A [
] = A. = A
Choice (C)
= is also correct since
=(
)
=
I
14.

os

x in )

|| x || = x

(x in

[Ans. C]
Trace = Sum of Principle diagonal
elements.

16.

[Ans. D]
On writing the equation in the form of
AX =B

, *

nk ( )
nk( )
Number of variables = 4
Since, Rank (A) = Rank(C) < Number of
variables
Hence, system of equations are consistent
and there is multiple non-trivial solution
exists.
17.

[Ans. B]
Characteristic equation |
|

I|

(1 ) (
)(
)

Eigenve tors orrespon ing to


(
I)
x
[
] [x ] [ ]
x
2x
x
x
x
At x
x
x
x
x
x
At x
,x

is

Eigenvectors = c[ ]{Here c is a constant}

os )
18.

[Ans. D]
, - ,L-, - Options D is correct

19.

[Ans. D]
x
x
(i)
} (i) n (ii) re s me
x
x
(ii)
x
x
So it has multiple solutions.

|| x || = || x|| for any vector x


15.

* +

Argument matrix C =*

[Ans. B]
Let orthogonal matrix be
os
in
P=0
1
in
os
By Property of orthogonal matrix A
I
x os
x in
So, x = [
]
x in
x os
|| x || =
(x

x
x
+ *x +
x

[Ans. D]
If characteristic equation is

=0
Then by Cayley Hamilton theorem,
I=0
=
Multiplying by
on both sides,
=
I = (
I)
[Ans. D]
Choice (A)
Since

Mathematics

th

th

th

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Page 25

GATE QUESTION BANK

20.

[Ans. D]
Eigen value

|A

Eigenvectors 0

1 n 0

Let matrix 0
x

x
10

10

I|= |

i.e., (1 ) (2 )
2
Thus the Eigenvalue are 1, 2.
If x, y, be the component of Eigenvectors
corresponding to the Eigenv lues
we
have
x
[A- I- 0
1 0y1=0

Mathematics

For =1, we get the Eigenvector as 0


Hence, the answer will be ,

21.

22.

23.

IN
1.

[Ans. B]
AX=0 and (A) = 2
n=3
No. of linearly independent solutions
= n r
= 3
=1

3.

[Ans. C]
There are 3 non-zero rows and hence
rank (A) = 3

4.

[Ans. C]
Rank (A) = 3 (This is Co-efficient matrix)
Rank (A:b) =4(This is Augmented matrix)
s r nk( ) r nk (
) olution oes
not exist.

5.

[Ans. C]
We know
Hen e from the given
problem, Eigenvalue & Eigenvector is
known.

[Ans. B]
Since there are 2 equations and 3 variables
(unknowns), there will be infinitely many
solutions. If
if
then
x
y
z
x y
z
x z y
For any x and z, there will be a value of y.
Infinitely many solutions
[Ans. A]
For all real symmetric matrices, the
Eigenvalues are real (property), they may
be either ve or ve and also may be same.
The sum of Eigenvalues necessarily not be
zero.
[Ans. C]
p q
0
1
r s
( pplying p
q
r
s element ry tr nsform tions)
p
q pr qs
[
]
pr qs r
s
hey h ve s me r nk N

1
X1 , X2
1

1
2 , 1 1, 2 2

We also know that

, where

1 1

P X1 X2

1 2

1 0 1 0

0 2 0 2

[Ans. B]
Given:

2.
Solving
0

& D=
0

1
Hence

Characteristic equation is,

th

th

th

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Page 26

GATE QUESTION BANK

1 1 1 0 2 1
A

1 2 0 2 1 1
6.

12.

[Ans. B]
A= [

]=[

A=[

[Ans. B]
Given
I
Hence rank (A) = n
Hence AX= Y will have unique solution

8.

[Ans. C]

9.

[Ans. C]
Approach 1:

13.

14.

Assume,

10

Now | I

[Ans. B]
Dim of null space [A]= nullity of A.

|
)(

Apply row operations


1

- is also vector

For given A = [

I)
0

[Ans. B]
If AX =
From this result [1, 2,
for M

|
(

I)

n
For diagonal matrix Eigenvalues are
diagonal elements itself.
n(n
)

Hence, rank (A) =1


7.

[Ans. A]
A=[ ]
i if i j
= 0 otherwise.
For n n matrix

Using elementary transformation


[

Mathematics

)=0

[Ans. D]

11.

[Ans. C]
A null matrix can be obtained by
multiplying either with one null matrix or
two singular matrices.

]
]

( )
By rank nullity theorem
Rank [A]+ nullity [A]= no. of columns[A]
Nullity [A]= 3
Nullity , -

Approach 2:
Eigenvalues of (
I) is = 1, 1/2
Eigenvalues of (X+5I) is = 3, 2
Eigenvalues of (
I) (X+5I) is =
,
10.

15.

[Ans. A]
A=|

Characteristics equation |
|

I|

|
j
j

th

th

th

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Page 27

GATE QUESTION BANK

x
] 0x 1

Mathematics

0 1

x
x

j
j

j
j

x
] 0x 1

0 1

x
16.

[Ans. C]

A[

]=[

| | |

]
|

| |
(

| two rows ounter lose thus | |

| |)
=Product of eigenvalues
Verify options
Options (C) correct answer

th

th

th

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Page 28

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Probability and Distribution


ME - 2005
1.
A single die is thrown twice. What is the
probability that the sum is neither 8 nor
9?
(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)

ME - 2008
6.
A coin is tossed 4 times. What is the
probability of getting heads exactly 3
times?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

2.

ME - 2009
7.
The standard deviation of a uniformly
distributed random variable between 0
and 1 is
(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)

A lot has 10% defective items. Ten items


are chosen randomly from this lot. The
probability that exactly 2 of the chosen
items are defective is
(A) 0.0036
(C) 0.2234
(B) 0.1937
(D) 0.3874

ME - 2006
3.
Consider a continuous random variable
with probability density function
f(t) = 1 + t for 1 t 0
= 1 t for 0 t 1
The standard deviation of the random
variable is:
(C)
(A)
(D)
(B)
4.

A box contains 20 defective items and 80


non-defective items. If two items are
selected at random without replacement,
what will be the probability that both
items are defective?

(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)

ME - 2007
5.
Let X and Y be two independent random
variables. Which one of the relations
between expectation (E), variance (Var)
and covariance (Cov) given below is
FALSE?
(A) E (XY) = E (X) E (Y)
(B) Cov (X, Y) = 0
(C) Var (X + Y) = Var (X) + Var (Y)
(D)

(X Y )

( (X)) ( (Y))

8.

If three coins are tossed simultaneously,


the probability of getting at least one head
is
(A) 1/8
(C) 1/2
(B) 3/8
(D) 7/8

ME - 2010
9.
A box contains 2 washers, 3 nuts and 4
bolts. Items are drawn from the box at
random one at a time without
replacement. The probability of drawing
2 washers first followed by 3 nuts and
subsequently the 4 bolts is
(A) 2/315
(C) 1/1260
(B) 1/630
(D) 1/2520
ME - 2011
10. An unbiased coin is tossed five times. The
outcome of each toss is either a head or a
tail. The probability of getting at least one
head is________

(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)
ME - 2012
11. A box contains 4 red balls and 6 black
balls. Three balls are selected randomly
from the box one after another, without
replacement. The probability that the
selected set has one red ball and two
black balls is
(A) 1/20
(C) 3/10
(B) 1/12
(D) 1/2
th

th

th

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Page 29

GATE QUESTION BANK

ME - 2013
12. Let X be a normal random variable with
mean 1 and variance 4. The probability
(X
) is
(A) 0.5
(B) Greater than zero and less than 0.5
(C) Greater than 0.5 and less than 1.0
(D) 1.0
13.

The probability that a student knows the


correct answer to a multiple choice

the probability of obtaining red colour on


top face of the dice at least twice is _______
17.

A group consists of equal number of men


and women. Of this group 20% of the men
and 50% of the women are unemployed.
If a person is selected at random from this
group, the probability of the selected
person being employed is _______

18.

A machine produces 0, 1 or 2 defective


pieces in a day with associated
probability of 1/6, 2/3 and 1/6,
respectively. The mean value and the
variance of the number of defective pieces
produced by the machine in a day,
respectively, are
(A) 1 and 1/3
(C) 1 and 4/3
(B) 1/3 and 1
(D) 1/3 and 4/3

19.

A nationalized bank has found that the


daily balance available in its savings
accounts follows a normal distribution
with a mean of Rs. 500 and a standard
deviation of Rs. 50. The percentage of
savings account holders, who maintain an
average daily balance more than Rs. 500
is _______

20.

The number of accidents occurring in a


plant in a month follows Poisson
distribution with mean as 5.2. The
probability of occurrence of less than 2
accidents in the plant during a randomly
selected month is
(A) 0.029
(C) 0.039
(B) 0.034
(D) 0.044

question is . If the student dose not know


the answer, then the student guesses the
answer. The probability of the guessed
answer being correct is . Given that the
student has answered the questions
correctly, the conditional probability that
the student knows the correct answer is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
ME - 2014
14. In the following table x is a discrete
random variable and P(x) is the
probability density. The standard
deviation of x is
x
1
2
3
P(x) 0.3 0.6 0.1
(A) 0.18
(C) 0.54
(B) 0.3
(D) 0.6
15.

16.

Box contains 25 parts of which 10 are


defective. Two parts are being drawn
simultaneously in a random manner from
the box. The probability of both the parts
being good is
( )

( )

( )

( )

Consider an unbiased cubic dice with


opposite faces coloured identically and
each face coloured red, blue or green such
that each colour appears only two times
on the dice. If the dice is thrown thrice,

Mathematics

CE - 2005
1.
Which one of the following statements is
NOT true?
(A) The measure of skewness is
dependent upon the amount of
dispersion

th

th

th

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Page 30

GATE QUESTION BANK

(B) In a symmetric distribution the value


of mean, mode and median are the
same
(C) In a positively skewed distribution
mean > median > mode
(D) In a negatively skewed distribution
mode > mean > median
CE - 2006
2.
A class of first years B. Tech students is
composed of four batches A, B, C and D
each consisting of 30 students. It is found
that the sessional marks of students in
Engineering Drawing in batch C have a
mean of 6.6 and standard deviation of 2.3.
The mean and standard deviation of the
marks for the entire class are 5.5 and 4.2
respectively. It is decided by the course
instruction to normalize the marks of the
students of all batches to have the same
mean and standard deviation as that of
the entire class. Due to this, the marks of a
student in batch C are changed from 8.5
to
(A) 6.0
(C) 8.0
(B) 7.0
(D) 9.0
3.

There are 25 calculators in a box. Two of


them are defective. Suppose 5 calculators
are randomly picked for inspection (i.e.
each has the same chance of being
selected). What is the probability that
only one of the defective calculators will
be included in the inspection?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

CE - 2007
4.
If the standard deviation of the spot speed
of vehicles in a highway is 8.8 kmph and
the mean speed of the vehicles is
33 kmph, the coefficient of variation in
speed is
(A) 0.1517
(C) 0.2666
(B) 0.1867
(D) 0.3646

Mathematics

CE - 2008
5.
If probability density function of a random
variable x is
x for
x
nd
f(x) {
for ny other v lue of x
Then, the percentage probability
P.

/ is

(A) 0.247
(B) 2.47
6.

(C) 24.7
(D) 247

A person on a trip has a choice between


private car and public transport. The
probability of using a private car is 0.45.
While using the public transport, further
choices available are bus and metro out of
which the probability of commuting by a
bus is 0.55. In such a situation, the
probability, (rounded upto two decimals)
of using a car, bus and metro, respectively
would be
(A) 0.45, 0.30 and 0.25
(B) 0.45, 0.25 and 0.30
(C) 0.45, 0.55 and 0.00
(D) 0.45, 0.35 and 0.20

CE - 2009
7.
The standard normal probability function
can be approximated as
(x )

|x | )
exp(
Where x = standard normal deviate. If
mean and standard deviation of annual
precipitation are 102 cm and 27 cm
respectively, the probability that the
annual precipitation will be between
90 cm and 102 cm is
(A) 66.7%
(C) 33.3%
(B) 50.0%
(D) 16.7%
CE - 2010
8.
Two coins are simultaneously tossed. The
probability of two heads simultaneously
appearing is
(A) 1/8
(C) 1/4
(B) 1/6
(D) 1/2

th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

CE - 2011
9.
There are two containers with one
containing 4 red and 3 green balls and the
other containing 3 blue and 4 green balls.
One ball is drawn at random from each
container. The probability that one of the
balls is red and the other is blue will be
(A) 1/7
(C) 12/49
(B) 9/49
(D) 3/7
CE - 2012
10. The annual precipitation data of a city is
normally distributed with mean and
standard deviation as 1000mm and
200 mm, respectively. The probability
that the annual precipitation will be more
than 1200 mm is
(A) < 50 %
(C) 75 %
(B) 50 %
(D) 100 %
11.

14.

A traffic office imposes on an average 5


number of penalties daily on traffic
violators. Assume that the number of
penalties on different days is independent
and follows a poisson distribution. The
probability that there will be less than 4
penalties in a day is ____.

15.

A fair (unbiased) coin was tossed four


times in succession and resulted in the
following outcomes:
(i) Head
(iii) Head
(ii) Head
(iv) Head
The prob bility of obt ining T il when
the coin is tossed again is
(A) 0
(C)
(B)
(D)

16.

An observer counts 240 veh/h at a


specific highway location. Assume that
the vehicle arrival at the location is
Poisson distributed, the probability of
having one vehicle arriving over a
30-second time interval is ____________

In an experiment, positive and negative


values are equally likely to occur. The
probability of obtaining at most one
negative value in five trials is
(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

CE - 2013
12. Find the value of such that the function
f(x) is a valid probability density function
____________________
(x
)(
f(x)
x)
for
x
otherwise
CE - 2014
13. The probability density function of
evaporation E on any day during a year in
a watershed is given by
f( )

mm d y

Mathematics

CS - 2005
1.
Box P has 2 red balls and 3 blue balls and
box Q has 3 red balls and 1 blue ball. A
ball is selected as follows: (i) select a box
(ii) choose a ball from the selected box
such that each ball in the box is equally
likely to be chosen. The probabilities of
selecting boxes P and Q are 1/3 and 2/3
respectively. Given that a ball selected in
the above process is red, the probability
that it comes from box P is
(A) 4/19
(C) 2/9
(B) 5/19
(D) 19/30
2.

Let f(x) be the continuous probability


density function of a random variable X.
The probability that a X b , is
(A) f(b a)
(C) f(x)dx

otherwise
The probability that E lies in between 2
and 4 mm/day in a day in the watershed
is (in decimal) ______

(B) f(b)

th

th

f( )

(D) x f(x)dx

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

CS - 2006
3.
For each element in a set of size 2n, an
unbiased coin is tossed. The 2n coin
tosses are independent. An element is
chosen if the corresponding coin toss
were head. The probability that exactly n
elements are chosen is
(A) ( n )
(C) ( n )
(D)
(B) ( n )
CS - 2007
Linked Data for Q4 & Q5 are given below.
Solve the problems and choose the correct
answers.
Suppose that robot is placed on the
Cartesian plane. At each step it is easy to
move either one unit up or one unit right,
i.e if it is at (i,j) then it can move to either
(i+1,j) or (i,j+1)
4.
How many distinct paths are there for the
robot to reach the point (10,10) starting
from the initial position (0,0)?
(C) 210
(A)
20
(D) None of these
(B) 2
5.

Suppose that the robot is not allowed to


traverse the line segment from (4,4) to
(5,4). With this constraint, how many
distinct paths are there for the robot to
reach (10,10) starting from (0,0)?
(A) 29
(B) 219
(C) . / .
(D) .

6.

/
. / .

Suppose we uniformly and randomly


select a permutation from the 20!
ermut tions of

Wh t is
the probability that 2 appears at an
earlier position than any other even
number in the selected permutation?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D) none of these

Mathematics

CS - 2008
7.
Let X be a random variable following
normal distribution with mean +1 and
variance 4. Let Y be another normal
variable with mean of 1 and variance
unknown
If (X
)
(Y ) the
standard deviation of Y is
(A) 3
(C)
(B) 2
(D) 1
8.

Aishwarya studies either computer


science or mathematics every day. If she
studies computer science on a day, then
the probability that she studies
mathematics the next day is 0.6. If she
studies mathematics on a day, then the
probability that she studies computer
science the next day is 0.4. Given that
Aishwarya studies computer science on
Monday, what is the probability that she
studies computer science on Wednesday?
(A) 0.24
(C) 0.4
(B) 0.36
(D) 0.6

CS - 2009
9.
An unbalanced dice (with 6 faces,
numbered from 1 to 6) is thrown. The
probability that the face value is odd is
90% of the probability that the face value
is even. The probability of getting any
even numbered face is the same. If the
probability that the face is even given that
it is greater than 3 is 0.75, which one of
the following options is closest to the
probability that the face value exceeds 3?
(A) 0.453
(C) 0.485
(B) 0.468
(D) 0.492
CS - 2010
10. Consider a company that assembles
computers. The probability of a faulty
assembly of any computer is p. The
company
therefore
subjects
each
computer to a testing process. This
testing process gives the correct result for
any computer with a probability of q.
What is the probability of a computer
being declared faulty?
th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
11.

12.

pq+(1 p)(1 q)
(1 q)p
(1 p)q
pq

What is the probability that a divisor of


is a multiple of
?
(A) 1/625
(C) 12/625
(B) 4/625
(D) 16/625
If the difference between the expectation
of the square if a random variable ( ,x -)
and the square if the exopectation of the
random variable ( ,x-) is denoted by R,
then
(A) R = 0
(C) R
(B) R< 0
(D) R > 0

CS - 2011
13. A deck of 5 cards (each carrying a distinct
number from 1 to 5) is shuffled
thoroughly. Two cards are then removed
one at a time from the deck. What is the
probability that the two cards are
selected with the number on the first card
being one higher than the number on the
second card?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
14.

Consider a finite sequence of random


values X = [x1, x2 xn].Let
be the
me n nd x be the standard deviation of
X. Let another finite sequence Y of equal
length be derived from this as yi, a*xi+b,
where a and b are positive constants. Let
y be the me n nd y be the standard
deviation of this sequence. Which one of
the following statements is INCORRECT?
(A) Index position of mode of X in X is
the same as the index position of
mode of Y in Y.
(B) Index position of median of X in X is
the same as the index position of
median of Y in Y.
(C) y
x + b
(D) y
x + b

15.

Mathematics

If two fair coins flipped and at least one of


the outcomes is known to be a head, what
is the probability that both outcomes are
heads?
(A) 1/3
(C) 1/4
(B) 1/2
(D) 2/3

CS - 2012
16. Suppose a fair six sided die is rolled
once. If the value on the die is 1,2, or 3 the
die is rolled a second time. What is the
probability that the some total of value
that turn up is at least 6?
(A) 10/21
(C) 2/3
(B) 5/12
(D) 1/6
17.

Consider a random variable X that takes


values +1 and 1 with probability 0.5
each. The values of the cumulative
distribution function F(x) at x =
and
+1 are
(A) 0 and 0.5
(C) 0.5 and 1
(B) 0 and 1
(D) 0.25 and 0.75

CS - 2013
18. Suppose p is the number of cars per
minute passing through a certain road
junction between 5 PM and 6 PM, and p
has a Poisson distribution with mean 3.
What is the probability of observing
fewer than 3 cars during any given
minute in this interval?
e
(A) e
(C)
e
(B) e
(D)
CS - 2014
19. Suppose you break a stick of unit length
at a point chosen uniformly at random.
Then the expected length of the shorter
stick is ________ .
20.

th

Four fair six sided dice are rolled. The


probability that the sum of the results
being 22 is x/1296. The value of x is
____________

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

21.

The security system at an IT office is


composed of 10 computers of which
exactly four are working. To check
whether the system is functional, the
officials inspect four of the computers
picked at random (without replacement).
The system is deemed functional if at
least three of the four computers
inspected are working.
Let the
probability that the system is deemed
functional be denoted by p. Then 100p =
_____________.

22.

Each of the nine words in the sentence


The quick brown fox jumps over the l zy
dog is written on
sep r te piece of
paper. These nine pieces of paper are kept
in a box. One of the pieces is drawn at
random from the box. The expected
length of the word drawn is _____________.
(The answer should be rounded to one
decimal place.)

23.

The probability that a given positive


integer lying between 1 and 100 (both
inclusive) is NOT divisible by 2, 3 or 5 is
__________.

24.

Let S be a sample space and two mutually


exclusive events A and B be such that

S If ( ) denotes the prob bility


of the event, the maximum value of
P(A) P(B) is _______

ECE - 2006
3.
A probability density function is of the
).
form (x)
e || x (
The value of K is
(A) 0.5
(C) 0.5a
(B) 1
(D) A
4.

Three Companies X, Y and Z supply


computers to a university. The percentage
of computers supplied by them and the
probability of those being defective are
tabulated below
Company
% of
Probability
computers
of being
supplied
defective
X
60%
0.01
Y
30%
0.02
Z
10%
0.03
Given that a computer is defective, the
probability that it was supplied by Y is
(A) 0.1
(C) 0.3
(B) 0.2
(D) 0.4

ECE - 2007
5.
If E denotes expectation, the variance of a
random variable X is given by
(A) E[X2] E2[X]
(C) E[X2]
(B) E[X2] + E2[X]
(D) E2[X]
6.

An examination consists of two papers,


Paper1 and Paper2. The probability of
failing in Paper1 is 0.3 and that in Paper2
is 0.2.Given that a student has failed in
Paper2, the probability of failing in
paper1 is 0.6. The probability of a student
failing in both the papers is
(A) 0.5
(C) 0.12
(B) 0.18
(D) 0.06

ECE - 2005
1.
A fair dice is rolled twice. The probability
that an odd number will follow an even
number is

2.

( )

( )

( )

( )

Mathematics

The value of the integral

x2
1
exp
dx is
2 0
8

(A) 1
(B)

(C) 2
(D)
th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2008
7.
The probability density function (PDF) of
a random variable X is as shown below.

(x)
exp( |x|)
exp( |x|) is
the probability density function for the
real random variable X, over the entire x
axis. M and N are both positive real
numbers. The equation relating M and N
is

8.

PDF
PDF

Mathematics

(A)
1

(B) 2M

x
11

The -1
corresponding
cumulative
0
distribution function (CDF) has the form

(A)

(C) M + N = 1
(D) M + N = 3
ECE - 2009
9.
Consider two independent random
variables X and Y with identical
distributions. The variables X and Y take
value 0, 1 and 2 with probabilities

CDF

N=1

and respectively. What is the


1

(B)

conditional probability
(x y
)
|x y|
(A) 0
(C)

(B)
(D) 1

CD
F
C

D
F

10.
0

1
-1

(C)

(B)

11.
1

1
1
1

0
0
1

1
2

(C)
2

(D)

10

1
2

(A)

CDF 1

A fair coin is tossed 10 times. What is the


probability that ONLY the first two tosses
will yield heads?

CDF

1
1

th

10

10

1
C2
2

(D)

10

1
C2
2

A discrete random variable X takes values


from 1 to 5 with probabilities as shown in
the table. A student calculates the mean of
X as 3.5 and her teacher calculates the
variance of X as 1.5. Which of the
following statements is true?
k
P(X=k)
1
0.1
2
0.2
3
0.4
4
0.2
5
0.1

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) Both the student and the teacher are


right
(B) Both the student and the teacher are
wrong
(C) The student is wrong but the teacher
is right
(D) The student is right but the teacher is
wrong
ECE - 2010
12. A fair coin is tossed independently four
times. The prob bility of the event the
number of times heads show up is more
th n the number of times t ils show up is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
ECE - 2011
13. A fair dice is tossed two times. The
probability that the second toss results in
a value that is higher than the first toss is
(A) 2/36
(C) 5/12
(B) 2/6
(D) 1/2
ECE\EE\IN - 2012
14. A fair coin is tossed till a head appears for
the first time probability that the number
of required tosses is odd , is
(A) 1/3
(C) 2/3
(B) 1/2
(D) 3/4
ECE - 2013
15. Let U and V be two independent zero
mean Gaussian random variables of
variances and respectively. The
probability ( V U) is
(A) 4/9
(C) 2/3
(B) 1/2
(D) 5/9
16.

Consider two identically distributed zeromean random variables U and V . Let the
cumulative distribution functions of U
and 2V be F(x) and G(x) respectively.
Then, for all values of x
(x))
(A) ( (x)
(B) ( (x)

(C) ( (x)
(D) ( (x)

Mathematics

(x)) x
(x)) x

ECE - 2014
17. In a housing society, half of the families
have a single child per family, while the
remaining half have two children per
family. The probability that a child picked
at random, has a sibling is _____
18.

Let X X nd X , be independent and


identically distributed random variables
with the uniform distribution on [0, 1].
The probability P{X is the largest} is _____

19.

Let X be a random variable which is


uniformly chosen from the set of positive
odd numbers less than 100. The
expectation, E[X], is __________.

20.

An unbiased coin is tossed an infinite


number of times. The probability that the
fourth head appears at the tenth toss is
(A) 0.067
(C) 0.082
(B) 0.073
(D) 0.091

21.

A fair coin is tossed repeatedly till both


head and tail appear at least once. The
average number of tosses required is
_______.

22.

Let X X and X be independent and


identically distributed random variables
with the uniform distribution on [0, 1].
The probability P{X
X
X } is ______.

23.

Let X be a zero mean unit variance


Gaussian random variable. ,|x|- is equal
to __________

24.

Parcels from sender S to receiver R pass


sequentially through two post-offices.
Each post-office has a probability

of

losing an incoming parcel, independently


of all other parcels. Given that a parcel is
lost, the probability that it was lost by the
second post-office is ____________.

(x))
th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2005
1.
If P and Q are two random events, then
the following is TRUE
(A) Independence of P and Q implies that
probability (P Q) = 0
(B) Probability (P Q) Probability (P)
+Probability (Q)
(C) If P and Q are mutually exclusive,
then they must be independent
(D) Probability (P Q) Probability (P)
2.

A fair coin is tossed three times in


succession. If the first toss produces a
head, then the probability of getting
exactly two heads in three tosses is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

EE - 2006
3.
Two f ir dice re rolled nd the sum r
of the numbers turned up is considered
(A) Pr (r > 6) =
(B) Pr (r/3 is an integer) =
(C) Pr (r = 8|r/4 is an integer) =
(D) Pr (r = 6|r/5 is an integer) =
EE - 2007
4.
A loaded dice has following probability
distribution of occurrences
Dice Value
Probability

1
2

6
If three identical dice as the above are
thrown, the probability of occurrence of
values, 1, 5 and 6 on the three dice is
(A) same as that of occurrence of 3, 4, 5
(B) same as that of occurrence of 1, 2, 5
(C) 1/128
(D) 5/8

Mathematics

EE - 2008
5.
X is a uniformly distributed random
variable that takes values between 0 and
1. The value of E{X } will be
(A) 0
(C) 1/4
(B) 1/8
(D) 1/2
EE - 2009
6.
Assume for simplicity that N people, all
born in April (a month of 30 days), are
collected in a room. Consider the event of
atleast two people in the room being born
on the same date of the month, even if in
different years, e.g. 1980 and 1985. What
is the smallest N so that the probability of
this event exceeds 0.5?
(A) 20
(C) 15
(B) 7
(D) 16
EE - 2010
7.
A box contains 4 white balls and 3 red
balls. In succession, two balls are
randomly selected and removed from the
box. Given that the first removed ball is
white, the probability that the second
removed ball is red is
(A) 1/3
(C) 1/2
(B) 3/7
(D) 4/7
ECE\EE\IN - 2012
8.
Two independent random variables X and
Y are uniformly distributed in the interval
,
-. The probability that max ,
- is
less than 1/2 is
(A) 3/4
(C) 1/4
(B) 9/16
(D) 2/3
EE - 2013
9.
A continuous random variable x has a
probability density function
+ is
f(x) e
x
. Then *x
(A) 0.368
(C) 0.632
(B) 0.5
(D) 1.0

th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2014
10. A fair coin is tossed n times. The
probability that the difference between
the number of heads and tails is (n 3) is
(C)
(A)
(B)
(D)
11.

12.

13.

14.

IN - 2005
1.
The probability that there are 53 Sundays
in a randomly chosen leap year is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
2.

A mass of 10 kg is measured with an


instrument and the readings are normally
distributed with respect to the mean of
10 kg. Given that

Consider a dice with the property that the


probability of a face with n dots showing
up is proportional to n. The probability of
the face with three dots showing up is
_______________
Let x be a random variable with
probability density function
for |x|
f(x)
{
|x|
for
otherwise
The probability P(0.5 < x < 5) is_________
Lifetime of an electric bulb is a random
variable with density f(x) kx , where x
is measured in years. If the minimum and
maximum lifetimes of bulb are 1 and 2
years respectively, then the value of k
is__________
The mean thickness and variance of
silicon steel laminations are 0.2 mm and
0.02 respectively. The varnish insulation
is applied on both the sides of the
laminations. The mean thickness of one
side insulation and its variance are
0.1 mm and 0.01 respectively. If the
transformer core is made using 100 such
varnish coated laminations, the mean
thickness and variance of the core
respectively are
(A) 30 mm and 0.22
(B) 30 mm and 2.44
(C) 40 mm and 2.44
(D) 40 mm and 0.24

Mathematics

exp .

/ d =0.6

and that 60per cent of the readings are


found to be within 0.05 kg from the mean,
the standard deviation of the data is
(A) 0.02
(C) 0.06
(B) 0.04
(D) 0.08
3.

The measurements of a source voltage are


5.9V, 5.7V and 6.1V. The sample standard
deviation of the readings is
(A) 0.013
(C) 0.115
(B) 0.04
(D) 0.2

IN - 2006
4.
You have gone to a cyber-cafe with a
friend. You found that the cyber-caf has
only three terminals. All terminals are
unoccupied. You and your friend have to
make a random choice of selecting a
terminal. What is the probability that
both of you will NOT select the same
terminal?
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D) 1
5.

Probability density function p(x) of a


random variable x is as shown below. The
value of is
p(x)

th

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

th

th

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Page 39

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

Mathematics

Two dices are rolled simultaneously. The


probability that the sum of digits on the
top surface of the two dices is even is
(A) 0.5
(C) 0.167
(B) 0.25
(D) 0.125

measurements, it can be expected that the


number of measurement more than 10.15
mm will be
(A) 230
(C) 15
(B) 115
(D) 2

IN - 2007
7.
Assume that the duration in minutes of a
telephone conversation follows the

IN - 2011
12. The box 1 contains chips numbered 3, 6,
9, 12 and 15. The box 2 contains chips
numbered 6, 11, 16, 21 and 26. Two chips,
one from each box, are drawn at random.
The numbers written on these chips are
multiplied. The probability for the
product to be an even number is
(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)

exponential distribution f(x) =

e ,x

The probability that the conversation will


exceed five minutes is
(A)
e
(C)
(B)
e
(D)
e
IN - 2008
8.
Consider a Gaussian distributed random
variable with zero mean and standard
deviation . The value of its cummulative
distribution function at the origin will be
(A) 0
(C) 1
(B) 0.5
(D)

9.

A random variable is uniformly


distributed over the interval 2 to 10. Its
variance will be

(A)
(C)
(B) 6
(D) 36

IN - 2013
13. A continuous random variable X has
probability density f(x) =
.
Then P(X > 1) is
(A) 0.368
(C) 0.632
(B) 0.5
(D) 1.0
IN - 2014
14. Given that x is a random variable in the
r nge ,
- with
prob bility density
function

the value of the constant k is

___________________
IN - 2009
10. A screening test is carried out to detect a
certain disease. It is found that 12% of the
positive reports and 15% of the negative
reports are incorrect. Assuming that the
probability of a person getting a positive
report is 0.01, the probability that a
person tested gets an incorrect report is
(A) 0.0027
(C) 0.1497
(B) 0.0173
(D) 0.2100

15.

IN - 2010
11. The diameters of 10000 ball bearings
were measured. The mean diameter and
standard deviation were found to be
10 mm and 0.05mm respectively.
Assuming Gaussian distribution of

The figure shows the schematic of


production process with machines A,B
and C. An input job needs to be preprocessed either by A or by B before it is
fed to C, from which the final finished
product comes out. The probabilities of
failure of the machines are given as:

Assuming independence of failures of the


machines, the probability that a given job
is successfully processed (up to third
decimal place)is ______________

th

th

th

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Page 40

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

4.
[Ans. D]
The number of ways coming 8 and 9 are
(2,6),(3,5),(4,4),(5,3),(6,2),(3,6),(4,5),
(5,4),(6,3)
Total ways =9
So Probability of coming 8 and 9 are

[Ans. D]

5.

[Ans. D]
X and Y are independent
( ) ( ) ( ) re true
Only (D) is odd one

6.

[Ans. A]
Number of favourable cases are given by
HHHT
HHTH
HTHH
THHH
Total number of cases
= 2C1 2C1 2C1 2C1 =16

So probability of not coming these

2.

[Ans. B]
Probability of defective item =
Probability of not defective item = 1 0.1
= 0.9
So, Probability that exactly 2 of the
chosen items are defective
=
( ) ( )

3.

[Ans. B]

Probability =
7.

[Ans. A]
A uniform
function

Mean (t) = t f(t) dt


t(
t
6

t)dt
t

t
6

t(

t)dt

t)dt

= (t
=0

t )dt
1

density

Density function

f(x) b a
0

t (

t)dt

a,x b
a x,x b

Mean E(x)=

t)dt

x(F(x))
x a

ab
2

Variance = F(x)2 f(x)

x F(x) xF(x)
x a
x a

=
Standard deviation = v ri nce
=

and

0,x a
x a

f(x) f x dx
, axb
0
b a

xb
0,

t (

distribution

Variance = t f(t)dt
= t (

( oth defective)
S mple sp ce

( oth defective)

Put the value of F(x), we get

1
1
b

dx x.
dx
Variance x
ba
x a
x a b a
b

th

th

th

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Page 41

GATE QUESTION BANK


b

x3 xL


3(b a) a 2 b a

Mathematics
3

1 7
(3 3 1)
2 8

b3 a3 (b2 a2 )2

3(b a) 4 b a 2

(b a)(b2 ab a2 ) (b a)2(b a)2

2
3(b a)
4 b a

4b2 4ab 4a2 3a2 3b2 6ab


12

b2 a2 2ab
12

9.

[Ans. C]
Probability of drawing 2 washers, first
followed by 3 nuts, and subsequently the
4 bolts

10.

[Ans. D]
Required probability =

(b a)2

12

. / . /

Standard deviation = v ri nce

(b a)2
12
(b a)

12

11.

[Ans. D]
Given 4R and 6B
,
-

12.

[Ans. C]

Given: b=1, a=0

Standard deviation =

8.

10
1

12
12

[Ans. D]
Let probability of getting atleast one head
= P(H) then
P (at least one head) = 1 P(no head)
P(H)=1 P(all tails)
But in all cases, 23=8

1 7
8 8

X=0

P (H) = 1

(X
) is
Below X
(X
) has to be less than 0.5 but
greater than zero

Alternately
Probability of getting at least one head
( ) ( )

13.

1 7
1
8 8
Alternately
From Binomial theorem
Probability of getting at least one head
pq
( )

( )

X=1

[Ans. D]
A
event that he knows the correct
answer
B
event that student answered
correctly the question P(B) = ?
( )

( )

th

th

th

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Page 42

GATE QUESTION BANK

( )

he knows
correct nswer

)
(

( )

14.

No. of employed men = 80% of men = 80


No. of employed women
= 50% of women = 50
Probability if the selected one person
being employed
= probability of one employed women
+probability of one employed man

e does not know


correct nswer
so he guesses

( ) ( )
)

( )

[Ans. D]
x
1
2
P(x) 0.3
0.6
(x)
(x)
x

18.

V(x)
x
(

(x )

[Ans. A]

3
0.1
So from figure
Mean value = 1
V ri nce : me n x defective pieces
(x )

)
n(n
(
)
(
) (
)
(
)

(x)
x (x)

Mathematics

, (x)-

(x) ( x (x))
) ( )

( )

15.

[Ans. A]
19.

16.

[Ans. *](Range 49 to 51)

[Ans. *] Range 0.25 to 0.27


p
orm l distribution

Given that

x x
z

ere x
, s x gre ter th n
z
)
ence prob bility (z

Using Binomial distribution


(x )

17.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

e
dz

of s ving ccount holder

[Ans. *] Range 0.64 to 0.66


Let number of men = 100
Number of women = 100
th

th

th

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Page 43

GATE QUESTION BANK

20.

[Ans. B]
Mean m = np = 5.2
me
(x
) e

25 Calculators

23 Non-defective

2 Defective

5 Calculators

e
(x

Mathematics

)
4 Non-defective

1 Defective

CE
1.

2.

[Ans D]
A, B, C are true
(D) is not true. Since in a negatively
skewed distribution
mode > median > mean
[Ans. D]
Let the mean and standard deviation of
the students of batch C be and
respectively and the mean and standard
deviation of entire class of first year
students be and respectively
Now given,

and

In order to normalise batch C to entire


class, the normalize score must be
equated
since Z =
Z =

Now Z =

p( defective in c lcul tors)

4.

[Ans. C]

5.

[Ans. B]
Given f(x) = x for
x
= 0 else where
(

f(x)dx

x dx

=0 1
The probability expressed in percentage
P=
= 2.469% = 2.47%
6.

[Ans. A]
Given
P(private car) = 0.45
P(bus 1 public transport) = 0.55
Since a person has a choice between
private car and public transport
P(public transport) = 1 P(private car)
= 1 0.45 =0.55
P(bus) = P(bus public transport)
(bus public tr nsport)
(public tr nsport)
= 0.55 0.55
= 0.3025 0.30
Now P(metro)
= 1 [P(private car) + P(bus)]
= 1 (0.45 + 0.30) = 0.25

Equation these two and solving, we get


=
x = 8.969 9.0
3.

[Ans. B]
Since population is finite, hypergeometric
distribution is applicable

th

th

th

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Page 44

GATE QUESTION BANK

P(private car) = 0.45


P(bus) = 0.30
and P(metro) = 0.25
7.

12.

[Ans. D]
ere
cm;
(
x 102)
=P.

[Ans. 6]
f(x)dx
( x

f(x)

( x

cm
6

Mathematics

)dx

x
otherwise

x7

/
[

=P(
x
)
This area is shown below:

)]

-0.44

The shades area in above figure is given


by F(0) F ( 0.44)
=

( )

)(

= 0.5 0.3345
= 1.1655 16.55%
Closest answer is 16.7%
8.

13.

[Ans. 0.4]
(

f( )d

[Ans. C]
( )|

P(2 heads) =
9.

[Ans. C]
P(one ball is Red & another is blue)
= P(first is Red and second is Blue)

14.

=
10.

[Ans. A]
Given = 1000, = 200
We know that Z
When X= 1200, Z
Req. Prob = P (X
(Z
)
(
Z
Less than 50%

11.

[Ans. D]
(X
)
( )

(X

[Ans. *] Range 0.26 to 0.27


Avg= 5
Let x denote penalty
(x
)
(x
)
(x
)
(x
)
(x
)
e
ew (x n)
x
e
e
e
)
p(x
e

(X

15.

[Ans. B]
S * T+
n( )
( )
n(S)

16.

[Ans. *] Range 0.25 to 0.28


( t)
e
(n t)
n

( )

th

th

th

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Page 45

GATE QUESTION BANK

no of vehicles
(

veh km

m ke ex ctly moves nd U moves


in any order.
Similarly to reach (10, 10) from (0,0) the
robot h s to m ke
moves nd
U
moves in any order. The number of ways
this can be done is same as number of
permutations of a word consisting of 10
s nd
Us
Applying formula of permutation with
limited repetitions we get the answer
as

= 2.e
= 0.2707
CS
1.

[Ans. A]
P: Event of selecting Box P,
Q: Event of selecting Box P
P(P)=1/3, P(Q)=2/3
P(R/P)=2/5, P(R/Q)=3/4

P(R/P).P(P)
P(R/P).P(P) P(R/Q)P(Q)
2/51/3

4/19
2/51/3 3/ 4 2/3
P(P/R)=

2.

5.

[Ans. D]
The robot can reach (4,4) from (0,0) in
8C ways as argued in previous problem.
4
Now after reaching (4,4) robot is not
allowed to go to (5,4)
Let us count how many paths are there
from (0,0) to (10,10) if robot goes from
(4,4) to (5,4) and then we can subtract
this from total number of ways to get the
answer.
Now there are 8C4 ways for robot to reach
(4,4) from (0,0) and then robot takes the
U move from ( ) to ( ) ow from
(5,4) to (10,10) the robot has to make 5
U moves nd moves in ny order
which can be done in 11! ways
= 11C5 ways
Therefore, the number of ways robot can
move from (0,0) (10,10) via (4,4) (5,4)
move is

[Ans. C]
If f (x) is the continuous probability
density function of a random variable X
then,
(
x b) P(
x b)
b

= f x dx

3.

4.

[Ans. A]
The probability that exactly n elements
are chosen
=The probability of getting n heads out of
2n tosses
=

) . /

=
=

) (

Mathematics

(Binomial formula)
)

8C
4

[Ans. A]
Consider the following diagram
(3,3)

11C
5

8 11

4 5

No. of ways robot can move from (0,0) to


(10,10) without using (4,4) to (5,4) move
is

20 8 11
ways
10 4 5

(0,0)
The robot can move only right or up as
defined in problem. Let us denote right
move by nd up move by U ow to
reach (3, 3), from (0,0) , the robot has to

which is choice (D)

th

th

th

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Page 46

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

[Ans. D]
umber of permut tions with in the
first position =19!
Number of permutations with in the
second position = 10 18!
(Fill the first space with any of the 10 odd
numbers and the 18 spaces after the 2
with 18 of the remaining numbers in 18!
ways)
umber of permut tions with in rd
position =10 9 17!
(Fill the first 2 place with 2 of the 10 odd
numbers and then the remaining 17
places with remaining 17 numbers)
nd so on until is in th place. After
that it is not possible to satisfy the given
condition, since there are only 10 odd
numbers v il ble to fill before the
So the desired number of permutations
which satisfies the given condition is

8.

[Ans. C]
Let C denote computes science study and
M denotes maths study.
P(C on Monday and C on Wednesday)
= P(C on Monday, M on Tuesday and C on
Wednesday)
+ P(C on Monday, C on Tuesday and C on
Wednesday)
=1 0.6 0.4+ 1 0.4 0.4
= 0.24 + 0.16 = 0.40

9.

[Ans. B]
It is given that
P (odd) = 0.9 P (even)
Now since P(x) = 1
P (odd) + P (even) = 1
0.9 P (even) + P (even) = 1
P(even) =

P(2) = P(4) = P(6) = P(even)


)

Which are clearly not choices (A), (B) or (C)


7.

/ = P (z

.z

/ = P (z

(z

) = P (z

10.
_____(i)

P(f ce
)

)
(

)
(

(0.5263)

= 0.1754
It is given that
P(even | face > 3) = 0.75

[Ans. A]
Given = 1, = 4
=2
and = 1,
is unknown
Given, P(X
) = P (Y 2 )
Converting into standard normal variates,
.z

= 0.5263

Now, it is given that P(any even face) is same


i.e. P(2) = P(4) = P(6)
Now since,
P(even) = P(2) or P(4) or P(6)
= P(2) + P(4) + P(6)

Now the probability of this happening is


given by =
(

Mathematics

= 0.75

= 0.75
( )

( )

=1

decl red f ulty

f ulty

q
p

=3

not
f ulty

decl red not f ulty


decl red f ulty

decl red not f ulty

From above tree


(decl red f ulty)
th

=0.468

[Ans. A]
The tree diagram of probabilities is
shown below
q

Now since we know that in standard


normal distribution
P (z
) = P (z 1)
_____(ii)
Comparing (i) and (ii) we can say that

th

pq
th

q)(

p)

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Page 47

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

[Ans. A]
If
b c
Then, no. of divisors of
(x
)(y
)(z
)
iven
o of ivisors of
(
)(
(
)(
)

which are multiples

13.

14.

15.

[Ans. C]
(x ) , (x)V(x)
Where V(x) is the variance of x,
Since variance is and hence never
negative,

( t le st one he d)

TT )

So required prob bility

equired rob bility


12.

( )

16.
No. of divisors of
of
o of divisors of
(
)(
)

Mathematics

[Ans. B]
Required Probability
= P (getting 6 in the first time)
+ P (getting 1 in the first time and getting
5 or 6 in the second time)
+ P (getting 2 in the first time and getting
4 or 5 or 6 in the second time)
+ P (getting 3 in the first time and getting
3 or 4 or 5 or 6 in the second time)
( )

( )

( )

17.

[Ans. C]
The p.d.f of the random variable is
x
+1
P(x) 0.5 0.5
The cumulative distribution function F(x)
is the probability upto x as given below
x
+1
F(x) 0.5 1.0
So correct option is (C)

18.

[Ans. C]
e
(k)

[Ans. A]
+
The five cards are *
Sample space
ordered pairs
st
nd
P (1 card = 2 card + 1)
)( )( )( )+
*(

k
P is no. of cars per minute travelling.

[Ans. D]
y = a x is the correct expression
Since variance of constant is zero.

For no cars. (i.e. k = 0)


For no cars. P(0) e
So P can be either 0,1,2. (i.e. k = 0,1,2)
For k = 1, p(1)=e

[Ans. A]
Let A be the event of head in one coin. B
be the event of head in second coin.
The required probability is
*
) ( )+
(
)| )
( )
(
)
( )
(
)
(both coin he ds)

For k = 2 , P(2)=
Hence
( )
e
e
th

( )

( )

e
4

th

e
5

th

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Page 48

GATE QUESTION BANK

e
(

20.

equired prob bility is


(
(
)

( )
(

[Ans. *] Range 0.24 to 0.27


The smaller sticks, therefore, will range in
length from almost 0 meters upto a
maximum of 0.5 meters, with each length
equally possible.
Thus, the average length will be about
0.25 meters, or about a quarter of the
stick.

24.

[Ans. 10]
22 occurs in following ways
6 6 6 4
w ys
6 6 5 5
w ys

[Ans. 0.25]
( ) P(S) = 1
( )
( )
(
)
utu lly exclusive (
)
( )
( )
et ( ) x; ( )
x
P(A) P(B) = x(
x)
Maximum value of y = x (
x)
dy
(
x) x
dx
= 2x = 1
x

equired prob bility

(max)

x
21.

( )

)
e

19.

( )

Mathematics

ximum v lue of y

[Ans. *] Range 11.85 to 11.95


For functioning 3 need to be working
(function)

ECE
1.

[Ans. D]

3 1

6 2
3 1
P(even number )
6 2
Since events are independent, therefore
1 1 1
P(odd/even)
2 2 4
P(Odd number)

p
22.

[Ans. *] Range 3.8 to 3.9


Expected length = Average length of all
words

2.

[Ans. A]
I

omp ring with


(

23.

ut

[Ans. *] Range 0.259 to 0.261


Let A = divisible by 2, B = divisible by 3
and C = divisible by 5, then
n(A) = 50, n(B) = 33, n(C) = 20
n(
)
n(
)
n(
)
n(
)
P( )

rom
x

th

th

dx

dx

dx

nd
x

th

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Page 49

GATE QUESTION BANK

Put

3.

in

Probability of failing in paper 2,


P (B) = 0.2
Probability of failing in paper 1, when

equ tion

A
0.6
B
A P A B
We know that, P
PB
B

student has failed in paper 2, P

[Ans. C]

P x.dx 1

Ke

Mathematics

.dx 1

ax

e dx

dx

x x,for x 0

x for x 0
K K
1
a a

( )

= 0.6 0.2
= 0.12

or

( )

7.

[Ans. A]
CDF: F x

PDF

dx

For x<0, F x

x 1

dx

4.

[Ans. D]
. / ( )

P (Y/D) =

. / ( )

. / ( )

=
5.

. / ( )

=0.4

F0

1
2

conc ve upw rds

For x>0, F x F0

x 1

dx

[Ans. A]
var[x]= =E[(x x)2]
Where, x=E[x]
x= expected or mean value of X defining

1 x2

x concave downwards
2 2

Hence the CDF is, shown in the figure (A).

E[X] =

xf xdx
x

8.

[Ans. A]

Given: Px x Me2|x| Ne3|x|

x P xi x xi dx

P xdx 1
x

xiP xi

Variance is a measure of the spread of


the values of X from its mean x.
Using relation , E[X+Y]= E[X]+E[Y]
And E[CX]=CE[X]
On var[x]= =E[(x x)2]
= ,Xx2
= E[X2] [ ,X-]
6.

Me2|x| Ne3|x| dx 2 Me2|x| Ne3|x| dx 1


0

By simplifying

2
3

M N 1
9.

[Ans. B]
x+y=2
x y=0
=> x =1, y = 1
P(x=1,y=1) =

[Ans. C]
Probability of failing in paper 1,
P (A) = 0.3
th

th

= 1/16
th

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Page 50

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

[Ans. C]

14.

Probability of getting head in first toss =


Probability of getting head in second toss
=

[Ans. C]
P(no. of tosses is odd)
(no of tosses is

P(no. of toss is 1) = P(Head in 1st toss)

and in all other 8 tosses there should

P(no. of toss is 3) = P(tail in first toss, tail


in second toss and head in third toss)

be tail always.
So probability of getting head in first two
tosses
(
)(
)(
) (
)
= (1/2)10

P(no. of toss is 5) = P(T,T,T,TH)


. /

11.

Mathematics

[Ans. B]
Both the teacher and student are wrong
Mean =
k
= 0.1 + 0.4 + 1.2 + 0.8 + 0.5
= 3.0
E(x2) =
k

etc

So,
P(no. of tosses in odd)

Variance(x)= E(x2) * (x)+ =10.2 9=1.2


12.

[Ans. D]
P(H, H, H, T) +P (H, H, H, H )
=

13.

. /

. /

15.

[Ans. B]
( V V)
( V
V )
*z
v
v+ Linear combination of
Gaussian random variable is Gaussian
(z )
and not mean till zero
because both random variables has mean
zero hence ( )
Hence Option B is correct

16.

[Ans. D]
F(x) = P{X x}
(x)
* X x+
x
2X
3

. / =

[Ans. C]
Total number of cases = 36
Favorable cases:
(1, 1)
(2, 1)
(3, 1)
(4, 1)
(5, 1)
(6, 1)
(1, 2)
(2, 2)
(3, 2)
(4, 2)
(5, 2)
(6, 2)
(1, 3)
(2, 3)
(3, 3)
(4, 3)
(5, 3)
(6, 3)
(1, 4)
(2, 4)
(3, 4)
(4, 4)
(5, 4)
(6, 4)
(1, 5)
(2, 5)
(3, 5)
(4, 5)
(5, 5)
(6, 5)
(1, 6)
(2, 6)
(3, 6)
(4, 6)
(5, 6)
(6, 6)
Total number of favorable cases

For positive value of x,


(x)
(x) is always greater than zero
For negative value of x
(x)
(x)is ve
ut , (x)
(x)- x

Then probability
th

th

th

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Page 51

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

18.

[Ans. *] Range 0.65 to 0.68


et be different types of f milies nd S
be there siblings.
S
S S (siblings)
Probability that child chosen at random
having sibling is 2/3

(x)

et S

x f(x)

[Ans. C]

21.

[Ans. *] Range 2.9 to 3.1


Let the first toss be head.
Let x denotes the number of tosses(after
getting first head) to get first tail.
We can summarize the even as
Event(After
x
Probability
getting first H)
T
1
1/2
HT
2
1/2 1/2=1/4
HHT
3
1/8
nd so on

II)gives

)S

(x)
i.e. The expected number of tosses (after
first head) to get first tail is 2 and same
can be applicable if first toss results in
tail.
Hence the average number of tosses is

22.

20.

(I

(II)

(I)

f(x)
(x)

[Ans. *] Range 0.32 to 0.34


This is a tricky question, here, X X X
independent and identically distributed
random variables with the uniform
distribution
, -.
So,
they
are
equiprobable. So X X or X have chances
being largest are equiprobable.
So, [P {X is largest}] or [P {X is largest}]
or [P {X is largest}] =1
and P {X is largest} = P {X is largest} =
P {X is largest}

[Ans. *] Range 49.9 to 50.1


Set of positive odd number less than 100
is 50. As it is a uniform distribution

x (x)

*X is l rgest +
19.

Mathematics

[Ans. *] Range 0.15 to 0.18


X
X
X
X
X
X
et z X
X
X
(X
)
X
X
(z
)
Pdf of z we need to determine. It is the
convolution of three pdf

(z

23.

th

dz

[Ans. *] Range 0.79 to 0.81


|x|
,|x|-
e dx

th

th

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Page 52

GATE QUESTION BANK

|x| exp 4

x
x

x exp 4

pr(P Q) pr(P) + pr(Q)


(D) is true
since P Q P
n(P Q) n(P)
pr(P Q) pr(P)

5 dx
5 dx

5 dx
2.

x exp 4

x exp 4

[ exp (

,
24.

|x| exp 4

[Ans. B]
P(A|B) =

5 dx
5 dx

x ) dx]

( he d in tosses nd first toss in he d)


= P(HHT) + P(HTH)

4/5

Parcel is
sent to R

Required probability =
R

3.

1/5

Parcel is lost
Parcel is lost

parcel

is

[Ans. C]
If two fair dices are rolles the probability
distribution of r where r is the sum of the
numbers on each die is given by
r
P(r)

4/5

that

)
( )

Also, P(first toss is head) =

Parcel is sent to

Probability

P(2 heads in 3 tosses | first toss is


head)
( he ds in tosses nd first toss in he d)
(first toss is he d)

[Ans. *] Range 0.43 to 0.45


Pre flow diagram is

1/5

Mathematics

lost

2
Probability that parcel is lost by
3
Probability that parcel is lost by
provided that the parcel is lost

4
5

EE
1.

6
[Ans. D]
(A) is false since of P & Q are
independent
pr(P Q) = pr(P) pr(Q)
which need not be zero.
(B) is false since
pr(P Q)
= pr(P) + pr(Q) pr(P Q)
(C) is false since independence and
mutually exclusion are unrelated
properties.

7
8
9
10
11
12
th

th

th

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Page 53

GATE QUESTION BANK

The above table has been obtained by


taking all different all different ways of
obtaining a particular sum. For example, a
sum of 5 can be obtained by (1, 4), (2, 3),
(3, 2) and (4, 1).
P(x = 5) = 4/36
Now let us consider choice (A)
Pr(r > 6) = Pr(r 7)

P(1, 5, 6) =

P(3, 4, 5) =

P(1, 2, 5) =

Choice (C) P(1, 5 and 6) =


5.

is correct.

[Ans. C]
x is uniformly distributes in [0, 1]
Probability density function

=
=

Mathematics

f(x) =

Choice (A) i.e. pr(r > 6) = 1/6 is wrong.


Consider choice (B)
pr(r/3 is an integer)
= pr(r = 3) + pr (r = 6) + pr (r = 9)
+ pr (r = 1)

=1

f(x) = 1 0 < x < 1


Now E(x ) = x f(x)dx
x

dx

=
=

6.

[Ans. B]
Let N people in room. So no. of events that
at least two people in room born at same
date

Choice (B) i.e. pr (r/3) is an integer


= 5/6 is wrong.
Consider choice (C)
Now,
pr(r/4 is an integer) = pr(r = 4)
+ pr (r = 8) + pr (r = 12)
=
=

Solving, we get N = 7

7.

[Ans. C]
(II is red|I is white)
(II is red nd I is white)
(I is white)
(I is white nd II is red)
(I is white)

8.

[Ans. B]

pr(r = 8) =
pr(r = 8 | r/4 is an integer) =

=
Choice (C) is correct.
4.

[Ans. C]
Dice value
1
2

Probability

and

is the entrie

rectangle
The region in which maximum of {x, y} is

less than

is shown below as shaded

region inside this rectangle

5
6

th

th

th

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Page 54

GATE QUESTION BANK


y
(

12.

Mathematics

[Ans. *] Range 0.35 to 0.45


(

dx

x|

dx

dx

x|

13.
p .m x,x y-

f(x)dx

[Ans. *] Range 0.4 to 0.5


f(x) dx

by property

kx dx
k
9.

14.

[Ans. A]
(x

)
,e

10.

e dx
e -

, e -

[Ans. B]
Let number of heads = x,
Number of tails n x
ifference x (n x)or (n
x n or n
x
If x n n
x
n
x

If n

IN
1.

[Ans. D]

=52 weeks and 2 days are extra. Out of


x)

7, (SUN MON) (or) (SAT SUN) are


favorable.
So, Probability of this event=
2.

or x

[Ans. C]
Since the reading taken by the instrument
is normally distributed, hence
P(x

x )

Where,
[Ans. *] Range 0.13 to 0.15
Let proportionality constant = k
( dot) k ( dots)
k
( dots)
k
( dots)
k ( dots)
k
( dots)
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
rob bility of showing dots

[Ans. D]
Since leap chosen will be random, so, we
assume it being the case of uniform
probability distribution function.
Number of days in a leap year=366 days

As x and n are integers, this is not


possible
Probability 0
11.

Now

.dx

e n of the distribution
St nd rd devi tion of the
distribution.

exp(

)dx

where, n=x 10 (
kg)
and from the data given in question

dx

On equating, we get 0.05=0.84


k

th

th

th

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Page 55

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

[Ans. D]
Mean=

8.

[Ans. B]
By definition of Gaussian distribution,
total area under the curve =1. Hence half
of the area =0.5

9.

[Ans. A]

=5.9 V.
(

V
(closest answer is 0.2)

P(x)=
4.

[Ans. C]
( )

Mean =
( )

x (x)dx =

Var(x)= (x

1 2

3 3
5.

Mathematics

[Ans. A] ]

(x

(x)dx

) dx =

10.

[Ans. C]
Probability of incorrect report

11.

[Ans. C]

mm

mm
Then probability

P(x)dx 1

x dx = 6

Area under triangle =

c
1
2

6.

[Ans. A]
Probability that the sum of digits of two
dices is even is same either both dices
shows even numbers or odd numbers on
the top of the surface
( )
( )
( )
Where
( )
Probability of occurring even
number of both the dices
( )
Probability of occurring odd
number of both the dices
(

(X
where x

mm

( )

So, number of measurement more than


10.15mm
P Total number of measurement

nd (

( )
12.
7.

[Ans. A]
f(x) dx=P
or

or e

.dx =P

[Ans. D]
For the product to be even, the numbers
from both the boxes should not turn out
to be odd simultaneously.
( )

( )( )

or P = .

th

th

th

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Page 56

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

[Ans. A]
f(x)dx
e |

14.

15.

e dx

[Ans. 2]
For valid pdf

Mathematics

dx

pdf dx

;k

[Ans. *] Range 0.890 to 0.899


Probability that job is successfully
processed = (
)(
)

th

th

th

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Page 57

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Numerical Methods
ME 2005
1.
Starting from x = 1, one step of Newton
Raphson method in solving the equation
x +3x 7=0 gives the next value (x) as
(A) x=0.5
(C) x = .5
(B) x= . 0
(D) x=2
2.

With a 1 unit change in b, what is the


change in x in the solution of the system
of equation
= 2 .0
0.
=
(A) Zero
(C) 50 units
(B) 2 units
(D) 100 units

ME 2006
3.
Match the items in columns I and II.
Column I
Column II
(P) Gauss-Seidel
(1) Interpolation
method
(Q) Forward
(2) Non-linear
Newton-Gauss
differential
method
equations
(R) Runge-Kutta
(3) Numerical
method
integration
(S) Trapezoidal
(4) Linear algebraic
Rule
equation
(A)
2
(B)
2
(C)
2
(D)
2
4.

Equation of the line normal to function


)
f(x) = (x
(A) y = x 5
(B) y = x 5

at (0 5) is
(C) y = x
(D) y = x

5
5

ME 2007
5.
A calculator has accuracy up to 8 digits
2

after decimal place. The value of

sinxdx
0

when evaluated using this calculator by


trapezoidal method with 8 equal
intervals, to 5 significant digits is
(A) 0.00000
(C) 0.00500
(B) 1.0000
(D) 0.00025

ME 2010
6.
Torque exerted on a flywheel over a cycle
is listed in the table. Flywheel energy (in
J per unit cycle) using impsons rule is
Angle (degree)
Torque (N-m)
0
0
60
1066
120
323
180
0
240
323
300
55
360
0
(A) 542
(C) 1444
(B) 992.7
(D) 1986
ME 2011
7.

The integral

dx, when evaluated by

using impsons / rule on two equal


subintervals each of length 1, equals
(A) 1.000
(C) 1.111
(B) 1.098
(D) 1.120
ME 2013
8.
Match the correct pairs.
Numerical
Order of Fitting
Integration Scheme
Polynomial
. impsons
/
1. First
Rule
Q. Trapezoidal Rule 2. Second
. impsons /
3. Third
Rule
(A) P 2 , Q 1, R 3
(B) P 3, Q 2 , R 1
(C) P 1, Q 2 , R 3
(D) P 3, Q 1 , R 2
ME 2014
9.
Using the trapezoidal rule, and dividing
the interval of integration into three equal
sub intervals, the definite integral
|x|dx is ____________

th

th

th

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Page 58

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

The value of .

( )

value approximate
estimate?

calculated using

the Trapezoidal rule with five sub


intervals is _______
11.

The definite integral

12.

The real root of the equation


5x
2cosx
= 0 (up to two decimal
accuracy) is _______

13.

Consider

an

equation

= t

.If x =x at t = 0 , the

CE 2005
Linked Answer Question 1 and 2
Give a>0, we wish to calculate its
reciprocal value 1/a by using Newton
Raphson Method for f(x) = 0.

2.

The Newton Raphson algorithm for the


function will be
(A) x

= (x

(B) x

= (x

x )

(C) x

= 2x

ax

(D) x

=x

in

the

(C)
(D)

CE 2007
4.
The following equation needs to be
numerically solved using the NewtonRaphson method
x3 + 4x 9 = 0 the iterative equation for
the purpose is (k indicates the iteration
level)

differential

increment in x calculated using RungeKutta fourth order multi-step method


with a step size of t = 0.2 is
(A) 0.22
(C) 0.66
(B) 0.44
(D) 0.88

1.

(A)
(B) 0

value)

is evaluated

using Trapezoidal rule with a step size of


1. The correct answer is _______

ordinary

Mathematics

For a = 7 and starting with x = 0.2 the


first two iteration will be
(A) 0.11, 0.1299
(C) 0.12, 0.1416
(B) 0.12, 0.1392
(D) 0.13, 0.1428

CE 2006
3.
A 2nd degree polynomial f(x) has values of
1, 4 and 15 at x = 0, 1 and 2 respectively.

5.

(A) x

(B) x

(C) x

=x

(D) x

Given that one root of the equation


x
10x + 31x 30 = 0 is 5, the other
two roots are
(A) 2 and
(C) and
(B) 2 and
(D) 2 and

CE 2008
6.
Three values of x and y are to be fitted in
a straight line in the form y = a + bx by
the method of least squares. Given
x = 6, y = 2 x =
and xy =
the values of a and b are respectively
(A) 2 and 3
(C) 2 and 1
(B) 1 and 2
(D) 3 and 2
CE 2009
7.
In the solution of the following set of
linear equation by Gauss elimination
using partial pivoting 5x + y + 2z = 34;
4y 3z = 12; and 10x 2y + z = 4; the
pivots for elimination of x and y are
(A) 10 and 4
(C) 5 and 4
(B) 10 and 2
(D) 5 and 4

The integral f(x) dx is to be estimated


by applying the trapezoidal rule to this
data. What is the error (define as true
th

th

th

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Page 59

GATE QUESTION BANK

CE 2010
8.
The table below given values of a function
F(x) obtained for values of x at intervals
of 0.25.
x
0 0.25
0.5 0.75 1.0
F(x) 1 0.9412 0.8 0.64 0.50
The value of the integral of the function
between the limits 0 to using impsons
rule is
(A) 0.7854
(C) 3.1416
(B) 2.3562
(D) 7.5000
CE
9.

2011
The square root of a number N is to be
obtained by applying the Newton
Raphson iterations to the equation
x
= 0. If i denotes the iteration
index, the correct iteration scheme will be
(A) x
(B) x

= (x

= (x

CE 2013
12. Find the magnitude of the error (correct
to two decimal places) in the estimation
of following integral using impsons
Rule. Take the step length as 1.___________
(x

1.

Consider

(D) x

= (x

he error in

xe dx

is 2

1
R
xn1 xn can be used to compute
2
xn

the
(A) square of R
(B) reciprocal of R
(C) square root of R
(D) logarithm of R

0 .

CE 2012
The estimate of .

1
3

to an accuracy of at least 106

The Newton-Raphson iteration

for a continuous

The values of
and ( ) are 19.78 and
500.01, respectively. The corresponding
error in the central difference estimate
for h = 0.02 is approximately
(A) .
0
(C) .5
0
(B) .0
0
(D) .0
0

11.

function estimated with h=0.03 using the


central difference formula
f(x)|

using the trapezoidal rule is


(A) 1000e
(C) 100e
(B) 1000
(D) 100

f(x)|

series

CS 2008
2.
The minimum number of equal length
subintervals needed to approximate

3.
10.

the

= 0.5 obtained from the NewtonRaphson method. The series converges to


(A) 1.5
(C) 1.6
(D) 1.4
(B) 2

= (x

0) dx

CS 2007

(C) x

Mathematics

obtained using

impsons rule with three point function


evaluation exceeds the exact value by
(A) 0.235
(C) 0.024
(B) 0.068
(D) 0.012

CS 2010
4.
Newton-Raphson method is used to
compute a root of the equation
x
13 = 0 with 3.5 as the initial value.
The approximation after one iteration is
(A) 3.575
(C) 3.667
(B) 3.677
(D) 3.607

th

th

th

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Page 60

GATE QUESTION BANK

CS 2012
5.
The bisection method is applied to
compute a zero of the function
f(x) = x
x
x
in the interval
[1,9]. The method converges to a solution
after ___________ iterations.
(A) 1
(C) 5
(B) 3
(D) 7
CS 2013
6.
Function f is known at the following
points:
x
f(x)
0
0
0.3 0.09
0.6 0.36
0.9 0.81
1.2 1.44
1.5 2.25
1.8 3.24
2.1 4.41
2.4 5.76
2.7 7.29
3.0 9.00
he value of f(x)dx computed using
the trapezpidal rule is
(A) 8.983
(C) 9.017
(B) 9.003
(D) 9.045
CS 2014
7.
The function f(x) = x sin x satisfied the
following equation:
( ) + f(x) + t cos x = 0.
The value of t is _________.
8.

In the Newton-Raphson method, an initial


guess of
= 2 made and the sequence
x x x
.. is obtained for the function
0.75x
2x
2x
=0
Consider the statements
(I) x = 0.
(II) The method converges to a solution
in a finite number of iterations.
Which of the following is TRUE?
(A) Only I

Mathematics

(B) Only II
(C) Both I and II
(D) Neither I nor II
9.

With respect to the numerical evaluation


of the definite integral,

= x dx
where a and b are given, which of the
following statements is/are TRUE?
(I) The value of K obtained using the
trapezoidal rule is always greater
then or equal to the exact value of
the defined integral
(II) The value of K obtained using the
impsons rule is always equal to the
exact value of the definite integral
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) Both I and II
(D) Neither I nor II
ECE 2005
1.
Match the following and choose the
correct combination
Group I
Group II
(A) Newton1. Solving nonRaphson
linear equations
method
(B) Runge-Kutta
2. Solving linear
method
simultaneous
equations
(C) impsons
3. Solving ordinary
Rule
differential
equations
(D) Gauss
4. Numerical
elimination
integration
method
5. Interpolation
6. Calculation of
Eigen values
(A) A-6, B-1, C-5, D-3
(B) A-1, B-6, C-4, D-3
(C) A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
(D) A-5, B-3, C-4, D-1

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Page 61

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2007
2.
The equation x3 x2+4x 4=0 is to be
solved using the Newton-Raphson
method. If x=2 is taken as the initial
approximation of the solution, then the
next approximation using this method
will be
(A) 2/3
(C) 1
(B) 4/3
(D) 3/2

(A) 2

sin x
..

2 cos x

..

(C) 2

..

(D) 2

..

8.

The series

eXn
1 eXn
X2 eXn 1 Xn 1
(D) Xn1 n
Xn -eXn

ECE 2014
6.
The Taylor expansion of
is

Match the application to appropriate


numerical method.
Application
Numerical
Method
P1:Numerical
M1:Newtonintegration
Raphson Method
P2:Solution to a
M2:Runge-Kutta
transcendental
Method
equation
P3:Solution to a
M : impsons
system of linear
1/3-rule
equations
P4:Solution to a
M4:Gauss
differential equation
Elimination
Method
(A) P1M3, P2M2, P3M4, P4M1
(B) P1M3, P2M1, P3M4, P4M2
(C) P1M4, P2M1, P3M3, P4M2
(D) P1M2, P2M1, P3M3, P4M4

(C) Xn1 1 Xn

ECE 2013
5.
A polynomial
f(x) = a x
a x
a x
a x a
with all coefficients positive has
(A) No real root
(B) No negative real root
(C) Odd number of real roots
(D) At least one positive and one
negative real root

(B) 2

7.

ECE 2008
3.
The recursion relation to solve x=
using Newton-Raphson method is
(A)
=e
(B)
=
e

ECE 2011
4.
A numerical solution of the equation
f(x) = x x
= 0 can be obtained
using Newton Raphson method. If the
starting value is x = 2 for the iteration,
the value of x that is to be used in the next
step is
(A) 0.306
(C) 1.694
(B) 0.739
(D) 2.306

Mathematics

converges to

(A) 2 ln 2
(B) 2

(C) 2
(D) e

EE 2007
1.

The differential equation

is

discretised using Eulers numerical


integration method with a time step
T > 0. What is the maximum permissible
value of T to ensure stability of the
solution of the corresponding discrete
time equation?
(A) 1
(C)
(B) /2
(D) 2
EE 2008
2.
Equation e
= 0 is required to be
solved using ewtons method with an
initial guess x =
. Then, after one

th

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Page 62

GATE QUESTION BANK

step of ewtons method estimate x of


the solution will be given by
(A) 0.71828
(C) 0.20587
(B) 0.36784
(D) 0.00000
3.

A differential equation dx/dt = e u(t)


has to be solved using trapezoidal rule of
integration with a step size h = 0.01 sec.
Function u(t) indicates a unit step
function. If x(0)= 0, then value of x at
t = 0.01 s will be given by
(A) 0.00099
(C) 0.0099
(B) 0.00495
(D) 0.0198

EE 2009
4.
Let x
7 = 0. The iterative steps for
the solution using Newton aphsons
method is given by
(A) x

= (x

(B) x

=x

(C) x

=x

(D) x

=x

EE 2013
7.
When the Newton Raphson method is
applied
to
solve
the
equation
f(x) = x
2x
= 0 the solution at the
end of the first iteration with the initial
guess value as x = .2 is
(A) 0.82
(C) 0.705
(B) 0.49
(D) 1.69
EE 2014
8.
The function ( ) =
is to be
solved using Newton-Raphson method. If
the initial value of is taken as 1.0, then
the absolute error observed at 2nd
iteration is ___________
IN 2006
1.
For k = 0
2
. the steps of
Newton-Raphson method for solving a
non-linear equation is given as

2
5
xk 1 xk xK2 .
3
3
(x

Starting from a suitable initial choice as k


tends to , the iterate tends to
(A) 1.7099
(C) 3.1251
(B) 2.2361
(D) 5.0000

EE 2011
5.
Solution of the variables
and
for the
following equations is to be obtained by
employing the Newton-Raphson iterative
method
equation(i) 0x inx
0. = 0
equation(ii) 0x
0x cosx
0. = 0
Assuming the initial values
= 0.0 and
= .0 the jacobian matrix is
0
0.
0
0.
(A) *
(C) *
+
+
0
0.
0
0.
0 0
0
0
(B) *
(D) *
+
+
0
0
0
0
6.

Mathematics

IN 2007
2.
Identify the Newton-Raphson iteration
scheme for finding the square root of 2.

3.

(A) x

(x

(B) x

= (x

(C) x

(D) x

= 2

The polynomial p(x) = x + x + 2 has


(A) all real roots
(B) 3 real and 2 complex roots
(C) 1 real and 4 complex roots
(D) all complex roots

Roots of the algebraic equation


x
x
x
= 0 are
)
(A) (
(C) (0 0 0)
(B) (
j j)
(D) (
j j)

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Page 63

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN 2008
4.
It is known that two roots of the
nonlinear equation x3 6x2 +11x 6 = 0
are 1 and 3. The third root will be
(A) j
(C) 2
(B)
j
(D) 4

IN 2013
8.
While numerically solving the differential
equation

The differential equation

with

x(0) = 0 and the constant


0 is to be
numerically integrated using the forward
Euler method with a constant integration
time step T. The maximum value of T such
that the numerical solution of x converges
is
(C)
(A)
(B)

2xy = 0 y(0) =

using

Eulers predictor corrector (improved


Euler Cauchy )method with a step size
of 0.2, the value of y after the first step is
(A) 1.00
(C) 0.97
(B) 1.03
(D) 0.96

IN 2009
5.

Mathematics

IN 2014
9.
The iteration step in order to solve for the
cube roots of a given number N using the
Newton- aphsons method is

(D) 2

(A) x

=x

(B) x

= (2x

(C) x

=x

(D) x

= (2x

x )
)

x )
)

IN 2010
6.
The velocity v (in m/s) of a moving mass,
starting from rest, is given as

=v

t.

Using Eulers forward difference method


(also known as Cauchy-Euler method)
with a step size of 0.1s, the velocity at 0.2s
evaluates to
(A) 0.01 m/s
(C) 0.2 m/s
(B) 0.1 m/s
(D) 1 m/s
IN 2011
7.
The extremum (minimum or maximum)
point of a function f(x) is to be
determined by solving

( )

= 0 using the

Newton-Raphson method.
Let f(x) = x
x and x = 1 be the initial
guess of x. The value of x after two
iterations (x ) is
(A) 0.0141
(C) 1.4167
(B) 1.4142
(D) 1.5000

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Page 64

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

y = sin ( ) =
2

[Ans. C]
By N-R method ,

=x

f(x) = x
f( ) =

x =x

( )
( )

y = sin (

x =

y = sin( ) = 0
5
y = sin ( ) =

y = sin (

f (x) = x
f ( )= ,

=1

) = 0.70 0

)=

7
y = sin ( ) =

[Ans. C]
Given x y = 2
(i)
.0 x 0.0 y = b
(ii)
Multiply 0.99 is equation (i) and subtract
from equation (ii); we get
( .0
0. )x = b (2 0. )
0.02x = b
.
0.02x = b
x =

0.02

[Ans. D]

4.

[Ans. B]
Given f(x) = (x
2
)
f (x) = (x

f(x)dx = [(y

0.70 0

6.

y )

[(0

0)

0.70 0

0.70 0

[(0

y )]

7.

[Ans. C]
x
y=

( 0

0)

2(
2.7 /unit cycle.

Slope of normal = 3
( roduct of slopes = 1)
Slope of normal at point (0, 5)
y 5 = (x 0)
y= x 5
[Ans. A]
b a 2
0
h=
=
=
n
y = sin(0) = 0

0=0

[Ans. B]
ower = = Area under the curve.
h
(y
= [(y
y )
y
y )

Slope of tangent at point (0, 5)


2
) / =
m = (0

2(0.70 0

2(y

2(y

)]

sinx dx =

5.

)=0

Trapezoidal rule

= 50 units

3.

0.70 0

(0.5) = .5

y = sin (
2.

0.70 0

1
1

x
dx = (y

= (

55)

2 )]

2
h

y
2

y )

= .
8.

[Ans. D]
By the definition only

y = sin ( ) = 0.70 0

th

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Page 65

GATE QUESTION BANK

9.

[Ans. *] Range 1.10 to 1.12

By intermediate value theorem roots lie


be between 0 and 1.
et x = rad = 57. 2
By Newton Raphson method
f(x )
x
=x
f (x )
2x sin x
2 cos x
x
=
5 2 sin x
x = 0.5 2
x = 0.5 25
x = 0.5 2

|x|dx is
h
ydx = [y
2

2(y

0.33

y ]

0.33

|x|dx =

.)

0.33

0.333

2(0.

0.

)]

13.

= . 0
10.

[Ans. *] Range 1.74 to 1.76


2.5
h=
= 0.
5
y
2y
2y
. ln (x)dx = [
2y
y
=

[ln(2.5)

2ln( . )
= .75
11.

2(ln2. )

2y

2 ln( . )

CE
1.

[Ans. *]Range 1.1 to 1.2

t|

x = 0.0

0. = 0.

= 2t

t|

Set up the equation as x =


i.e. = a

f(x)dx = [y

2(y

iven in question
0
1
1
2
1
0.5

dx = [y
x
2

t
x =
2

To calculate using N-R method

rapezoidal rule

x
y

)dt

[Ans. C]

dx by trapezoidal rule
x

h=

[Ans. D]
The variation in options are much, so it
can be solved by integrating directly
dx
= t
dt
dx = ( t

ln( )]

2ln( .7)

Mathematics

..y

)]

a=0
i.e. f(x) =

2
3
0.33

a=0

Now f (x) =
f(x ) =

f (x ) =

2(y )]

For N-R method


= [
2
= .

0.

0.5]

=x
x

12.

[Ans. *] Range 0.53 to 0.56


Let f(x) = 5x 2 cos x
f (x) = 5 2 sin x
f(0) =
f( ) = 2.

=x

)
(

Simplifying which we get


x
= 2x
ax

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Page 66

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

[Ans. B]
For a = 7 iteration equation
Becomes x
= 2x
7x
with x = 0.2
x = 2x
7x = 2 0.2 7(0.2) = 0.12
and x = 2x
7x = 2 0.12 7(0. 2)
= 0.1392

[Ans. A]
f(x) = 1, 4, 15 at x = 0, 1 and 2
respectively
f(x)dx = (f

2f

=x
x

5.

f )

f(x)dx = (1 + 2(4) + 15) = 12

and

4.

= 30

= 5

5 =

5 ( ) =
ince = from (i)
5 ( )
=
=5
=
olving for and
(5 ) =

5
=0
= 2 and =
Alternative method
5
1
0
31
0
0
5
25
30
1
5
6
0
(x 5)(x
)=0
5x
(x 5)(x 2)(x
)=0
x=2 5

x )dx
+ =

2=

[Ans. A ]
Given f(x) = x
x
=0
f (x) = x
Newton Raphson formula is

= (i)
Also

Error = exact Approximate value


=

= 5

Now exact value f(x)dx

= *x

2x
x

Approximate value by rapezoidal ule


= 12
Since f(x) is second degree polynomial, let
f(x) = a0 + a x + a x
f(0) = 1
a
0 0=
a =
f(1) = 4
a
a
a =
1+ a
a =
a
a =
f(2) = 15
a
2a
a = 5

2a
a = 5
2a
a =
Solving (i) and (ii) a =
and a =
f(x) = 1 x + 4 x
x

[Ans. A]
Given
x 10 x + 31x 30 = 0
One root = 5
Let the roots be and of equation
ax + bx + cx + d = 0

(3 points Trapezoidal Rule)


Here h = 1

= (

f(x )
f (x )
(x
x
)
( x
)
x
x
x
( x
)

=x

x
3.

Mathematics

6.

[Ans. D]
Y = a + bx
Given
n= x =
and xy =
th

th

y = 2 x = 14

th

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Page 67

GATE QUESTION BANK

Normal equations are


y = na bx
xy = ax bx
Substitute the values and simply
a= b=2
7.

9.

5
[0
0

| 2]
2

0
[0
5

f(x )
f(x )

=x

=x

2x

2x

[x

10.

[Ans. D]
Error in central difference formula is
(h)
This means, error
If error for h = 0.03 is 2
0
then
Error for h = 0.02 is approximately
(0.02)
2
0
0
(0.0 )

11.

[Ans. D]
Exact value of .

| 2]
2

So the pivot for eliminating x is a = 10


Now we eliminate x using this pivot
as follows :
0
2
[0
| 2]
5
2
5
0
2
0
2]

[0
0
2
/2
Now to eliminate y, we need to compare
the elements in second column at and
below the diagonal element Since a = 4
is already larger in absolute value
compares to a = 2
The pivot element for eliminating y is
a = 4 itself.
The pivots for eliminating x and y are
respectively 10 and 4
8.

[Ans. A]
x

[Ans. A]
The equation is
5x + y + 2z = 34
0x + 4y 3z = 12
and 10x 2y + z =
The augmented matrix for gauss
elimination is
5
2
[0
| 2]
0
2
Since in the first column maximum
element in absolute value is 10 we need
to exchange row 1 with row 3

Mathematics

dx = .0

Using impsons rule in three point


form,
b a
.5 0.5
h=
=
= 0.5
n
2
So,
x 0.5 1 1.5
y 2
1 0.67

=
=

0.5

]
[2

0. 7

= .
So, the estimate exceeds the exact value by
Approximate value Exact value
= 1.1116 1.0986
=0.012(approximately)

12.

[Ans. *](Range 0.52 to 0.55)


Using impsons ule
X
0
1
2
3
Y
10
11
26
91

4
266

[Ans. A]
I = h(f
=
0.
= 0.7 5

2f

0.25(

0.

0.

0.5)

(x

f )
2

= [( 0

0)dx
2

2(2 )

)]

= 2 5.
The value of integral
th

th

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Page 68

GATE QUESTION BANK

(x

0) dx = *

=2

x
5

0x+
3.

[Ans. A]
+

, x = 0.5

2 =

=x =

2 = + R
=R
=
So this iteration will compute the square
root of R

= +
=
8 = 4 +9
=
4.

= = 1.5
[Ans. A]
Here, the function being integrated is
f(x) = xe
f (x) = xe + e = e (x + 1)
f (x) = xe + e + e = e (x + 2)
Since,
both
are
increasing
functions of x, maximum value of f ( ) in
interval 1
2, occurs at = 2 so
(
)|
(2
max |f
=e
2) = e
Truncation Error for trapezoidal rule
= TE (bound)

[Ans. D]
y=x
dy
= 2x
dx
f(x)= x
x

= .5

5.

(b a) max |f ( )| 1

(2 1) [e (2 + 2)]

Now putting

= 57 7

)=5
f(x )
2
oot lies between and

x =(

)=2
f(x ) 0
2
After ' ' interations we get the root

x =(

=
max |f ( )|

[Ans. B]
f( ) = 5
f( ) = 5
72
)
)
f(
0 f(
0

is number of subintervals

= . 07

max |f ( )|

Where

(x

2=+
=

when the series converges x

= 1000 e

At convergence
x
=x =
=

Given x

2.

)/

[Ans. C]

5
Magnitude of error
= 2 5.
2 . = 0.5
CS
1.

Mathematics

6.

[Ans. D]
h
f(x)dx = [f(0)
2
=

0
[

.
.

0.

f( )

2(0.0
0.
. . 7.2 )

2(f )]
]

5 . ]

= 9.045

h=
Now, No. of intervals,

=
th

th

th

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Page 69

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

8.

9.

ECE
1.

2.

[Ans. ]
Given (x) + f(x) + t cos x = 0
and f(x) = x sin x
f (x) = x cos x + sin x
f (x) = x ( sin x) + cos x + cos x
= 2 cos x x sin x
= 2 cos x f (x)
2 cos x f (x) + f(x) +t cos x = 0
2 cos x = tcos x t = 2
[Ans. A]
f(x) = 0.75x
2x
2x
f (x) = 2.25x
x 2
x =2 f = 2 f =
f
x =x
=0
f
f = f = 2
f
x =x
=2
f
f = 2 f =
f
x =x
=0
f
Also, root does not lies between 0 and 1
So, the method diverges if x = 2
nly ( )is true.

x1 2
3.

1 x n
4.

x1 x0

e
e

e xn
1 exn

[Ans. C]
x

f(x )
f (x )

=x

f(2) = (2

) = 2

f (2) =

=2

and

= .

5.

[Ans. D]
f(x) = a x
a x
a x
a x a
If the above equation have complex roots,
then they must be in complex conjugate
pair, because its given all co-efficients are
positive ( they are real )
So if complex roots are even no. (in pair)
then real roots will also be even.
ption ( )is wrong
From the equation
( 0)
roduct of roots =
As no. of roots = 4,
Product of roots < 1
either one root 0
(or)
Product of three roots < 0
ption ( )is rong.
Now, take option (A),
Let us take it is correct .
Roots are in complex conjugate pairs
=
Product of roots
0
| | | |
0 which is not possible
ption (A) is wrong
orrect answer is option ( )

[Ans. C]
By definition (& the application) of
various methods

4=0

Next approximation x1 x0

8 4

12 3

[Ans. C]
Given : f(x)= x e
By Newton Raphson method,
f(x )
x
x
=x
=x
f (x )

[Ans. C]
For value of K if trapezoidal rule is used
then the value is either greater than
actual value of definite integral and if
impsons rule is used then value is exact
Hence both statements are TRUE

[Ans. B]
y(t) =x3 x2 + 4x
x0 = 2

Mathematics

f x0
f ' x0

x03 x02 4x0 4


3x02 2x0 4
th

th

th

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Page 70

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

[Ans. A]
sin x 2 cos x
x
= (x
)

7.

[Ans. B]

8.

[Ans. D]

2(

x
2

Put x =
as given,
x = [e ( 2)
]/e
= 0.71828

[Ans. C]

=e

.. = e

u(t)

x
2

. . x in
t

[Ans. D]
Here,

x = e u(t) dt = f(t) dt
At t = 0.01, x = Area of trapezoidal

=
x

f(x y) =

=(

)x
h

4.

5.

=[

=*

( )

f(x ) = e
f(x ) = e

6.

0x cos x
0x sinx

20x

0sinx
]
0cosx

0
0

is

0
+
0

[Ans. D]
x
x
x
=0
(x
)(x
)=0
x
=0 x
=0
x=
x= j

=x
(

The matrix at x = 0 x =

( )

[Ans. B]
u(x x ) = 0x sin x
0. = 0
v(x x ) = 0x
0x cosx
0. = 0
The Jacobian matrix is
u
u
x
x
v
v
[ x
x ]

[Ans. A]
Here
f(x) = e
f (x) = e
The Newton Raphson iterative equation is

=x

= *x

2
o maximum permissible value of is 2 .

i.e. x

[Ans. A]

since h = here

= x

=x

= 0.0099

or stability |

f(0.0 )] =

= [f(0)

Eulers method equation is


x = x h. f(x y )
x
x
= x h(
)

2.

i=0

x =

as e =
EE
1.

Now put

3.

Mathematics

th

th

th

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Page 71

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

[Ans. C]
x =x
=

.2

Hence, it will have atleast 5 (0+1)= 4


complex roots.

f(x )
f (x )
( .2)
2( .2)
( .2)
2

4.

[Ans. C]
Approach- 1
Given, x3 6x2 + 11x 6 = 0
Or (x 1)(x 3)(x 2) = 0
x= 1, 2, 3.

= 0.705
8.

[Ans. *] Range 0.05 to 0.07


Clearly, x = 0 is root of the equation
f(x) = e
=0
f (x) = e and x = .0
Using ewton raphson method
(e .
)
f(x )
x =x
=
=
f (x )
e.
e
and x = x

f(x )
=
f (x ) e
=

(e

Approach- 2
For ax3 +bx2 + cx +d = 0
If the three roots are p,q,r then
Sum of the roots= p+q+r= b/a
Product of the roots= pqr= d/a
pq+qr+rp=c/a

)
e

5.

[Ans. D]
dx
x
=
dt
f(x, y) =

e
= 0. 7 0.
= 0.0
Absolute error at 2nd itteration is
|0 0.0 | = 0.0
IN
1.

=x
h

=(
[Ans. A]
As k xk+1 xk
xk = x

h (x y ) = x
)x

2.

3.

h(

or stability |

x = x
x =5
x =5

Mathematics

= 1.70

[Ans. A]
Assume x =
f(x) = x
=0
f(x )
x
=x
= [x
f (x ) 2

6.

[Ans. A]
dv
=v t
dt
t
v dv
=v t
dt
0 0 0 0+0 0. = 0
0.1 0 0+0.1 0. = 0.0

7.

[Ans. C]
f(x) = x
x
f (x) = x
= g(x)
x = initial guess
g (x) = x
g (x )
x =x
g (x )

2
]
x

[Ans. C]
Given p(x) = x + x + 2
There is no sign change, hence at most 0
positive root ( rom escartes rule of
signs)
p( x) = x
x+2
There is one sign change, hence at most 1
negative root ( rom escartes rule of
signs)

th

th

th

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Page 72

GATE QUESTION BANK

=
x =x
= .5
= .

= .5

g(x )
g (x )
0.75
7

8.

[Ans. D]
dy
= 2xy x = 0 y = h = 0.2
dx
y =y
h. f(x y )
(0.2)f(0 ) =
=
and y = y
[f(x y ) f(x y )]
(0. )[f(0 ) f(0.2 )]
=
= 0.
is the value of y after first step, using
Eulers predictor corrector method

9.

[Ans. B]
For convergence
x

Mathematics

= x =x x=

x =

(2x

x=

th

th

th

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Page 73

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Calculus
ME 2005
1.

ME 2006

The line integral of the vector


function ( ) 2xyz + xz +
ky from
the origin to the point P (1,1,1)
(A) is 1
(B) is Zero
(C) is 1
(D) cannot be determined without
specifying the path

2.

be
(A)
(B)
8.

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

Changing the order of the integration in


the double integral I =

What is q?

(A)

(C) X
(D) 8
)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

10.

(A) 0
(B)

is equal to
11.

(C)
(D) 1

The area of a triangle formed by the tips


of vectors a , b and c is
(A)

)(

(D) Zero

(B)

|(

Stoke theorem connects


(A) A line integral and a surface integral
(B) Surface integral and a volume
integral
(C) A line integral and a volume integral
(D) Gradient of function and its surface
integral

(C)

(D)

(C) 2 (

ME 2007

(B) 2

6.

1 and t is a real number,

Let x denote a real number. Find out the


INCORRECT statement
+ represents the set if all
(A) S *
real numbers greater then 3
+ represents the empty
(B) S *
set
+ represents the
(C) S *
union of set A and set B
+ represents the set
(D) S *
of all real umbers between a and b,
where and b are real number

leads to
(A) 4y
(B) 16y

(C) 0
(D)

dt is:

9.

4.

By a change of variables
x(u,v) = uv, y(u,v) = v/u is double
integral, the integral f(x,y) changes to
f(uv, u/v) ( ). Then, ( )
(A) 2 v/u
(C) v
(B) 2 u v
(D) 1

I = (

2x2 7x 3
, then limf(x) will
x 3
5x2 12x 9

Assuming i =

The right circular cone of largest volume


that can be enclosed by a sphere of 1 m
radius has a height of

3.

5.

If f( x ) =

7.

th

th

)
(

)|

|
)

th

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Page 74

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

If

y (2) =
(A) 4 or 1
(B) 4 only
13.

, then

14.

20.

The divergence of the vector field


) (
) is
(x y) (
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D) 3

21.

Let

(C) 1
(D) 1/ln2

y2 4x and x2 4y is

(A)
(B) 8
23.

(C)
(D) 16

The distance between the origin and the


point nearest to it on the surface

The directional derivative of the scalar

z2 1 xy is

function f(x, y, z) = x2 2y2 z at the

(A) 1

point P = (1, 1, 2) in the direction of the


vector

is
(A) 4
(C) 1
(B) 2
(D) 1

at x=2, y=1?

ME 2009
22. The area enclosed between the curves

Which of the following integrals is


unbounded?
(C)
(A)
(D)

What is

(A) 0
(B) ln2

The length of the curve

(B)
16.

In the Taylor series expansion of ex about


x = 2, the coefficient of (x 2)4 is

(A)
(C)

(B)
(D)

The minimum value of function y = x2 in


the interval [1, 5] is
(A) 0
(C) 25
(B) 1
(D) Undefined

between x = 0 and x = 1 is
(A) 0.27
(C) 1
(B) 0.67
(D) 1.22
15.

19.

(C) 1 only
(D) Undefined

ME 2008

Mathematics

(C)
(D) 2

(B)
24.

A path AB in the form of one quarter of a


circle of unit radius is shown in the figure.
Integration of x y on path AB
2

17.

Consider the shaded triangular region P


shown in the figure. What is xydxdy?
y

18.

The value of
(A)
(B)

x+2y=2

0
(A)
(B)

traversed in a counter-clockwise sense is

(C)
(D) 1

(C)
(D)

25.

is

th

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D) 1

The divergence of the vector field


at a point (1,1,1) is

equal to
(A) 7
(C) 3
(B) 4
(D) 0
th

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Page 75

GATE QUESTION BANK

ME 2010
26. Velocity vector of a flow field is given as

. The vorticity vector at


(1, 1, 1) is
(A) 4
(B) 4
27.

The function
(A)
o
o

(C)
(D)

(B)
o
o

except at x = 3/2
(C)
o
o

except at x = 2/3
(D)
o
o

28.

29.

ME 2012
33. Consider the function ( )
in the
interval
. At the point x = 0,
f(x) is
(A) Continuous and differentiable.
(B) Non continuous and differentiable.
(C) Continuous and non differentiable.
(D) Neither continuous nor
differentiable.

R
R
R
R

34.

R
R

ME 2011
30. If f(x) is an even function and is a positive
real number, then ( )dx equals

31.

What is
(A)
(B)

32.

36.

For the spherical surface


the unit outward
normal vector at the point

is

(C)
(D)

(C)

(B)
(C)

is

(A)
(B)

has

(C)
(D)
37.

equal to?

A series expansion for the function


(A)

( )

(C) 0
(D) 1

(C) 1
(D) 2

At x = 0, the function f(x) =


(A) A maximum value
(B) A minimum value
(C) A singularity
(D) A point of inflection

R except at x = 3

(D)

/ is

35.

The parabolic arc


is

revolved around the x-axis. The volume of


the solid of revolution is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

(A) 0
(B)

.
(A) 1/4
(B) 1/2

The value of the integral


(A)
(B)

Mathematics

The area enclosed between the straight


line y = x and the parabola y = in the
x y plane is
(A) 1/6
(C) 1/3
(B) 1/4
(D) 1/2

ME 2013
38. The following surface integral is to be
evaluated over a sphere for the given
steady velocity vector field
defined with respect to a
cartesian coordinate system having i, j and
k as unit base vectors.
(

(D)
th

th

)
th

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Page 76

GATE QUESTION BANK

Where S is the sphere,


and n is the outward unit normal vector to
the sphere. The value of the surface
integral is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
39.

45.

If a function is continuous at a point,


(A) the limit of the function may not exist
at the point
(B) the function must be derivable at the
point
(C) the limit of the function at the point
tends to infinity
(D) the limit must exist at the point and
the value of limit should be same as
the value of the function at that point

The value of the definite integral


( )

is

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

46.

Divergence of the vector field


(

) is
(A) 0
(C) 5
(B) 3
(D) 6

(C) 3
(D)Not defined

47.

The value of the integral

ME 2014
40.

is
(A) 0
(B) 1

41.

Which one of the following describes the


relationship among the three vectors

(A) The vectors are mutually


perpendicular
(B) The vectors are linearly dependent
(C) The vectors are linearly independent
(D) The vectors are unit vectors

42.

/ is equal to

(A) 0
(B) 0.5
43.

)
)

)
(

(A) 3
(B) 0
48.

(C) 1
(D) 2

The value of the integral


is
(

(C) (

(B) (

(D) .

(A)

)
/

).

Where, c is the square cut from the first


quadrant by the lines x = 1 and y = 1 will
(
G
h o
o h
h
line integral into double integral)
(A)
(C)
(B) 1
(D)

(
(

CE 2005
1.
Value of the integral (

(C) 1
(D) 2

Curl of vector

(A) (
(B) (
(C)
(D)

44.

Mathematics

2.

A rail engine accelerates from its


stationary position for 8 seconds and
travels a distance of 280 m. According to
the
Mean
Value
theorem,
the
speedometer at a certain time during
acceleration must read exactly.
(A) 0 kmph
(C) 75 kmph
(B) 8 kmph
(D) 126 kmph

The best approximation of the minimum


value attained by
(100x) for
is _______

th

th

th

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Page 77

GATE QUESTION BANK

CE 2006
3.
What is the area common to the circles
o
2
(A) 0.524 a
(C) 1.014 a2
(B) 0.614 a2
(D) 1.228 a2
4.

The directional derivative of


f(x, y, z) = 2 + 3 + at the point
P (2, 1, 3) in the direction of the vector
a=
k is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

CE 2007
5.
Potential function is given as
=
. When will be the stream
function () with the condition
= 0 at x = y = 0?
(A) 2xy
(C)
(B)
+
(D) 2
6.

Evaluate
(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
7.

10.

12.

transformed to
(A)
(B)

9.

(C)
(D) 18

parabola is y = 4h

(A)

(D)

(C)

= 0 by substituting
(C)

where x is the

horizontal coordinate and y is the vertical


coordinate with the origin at the centre of
the cable. The expression for the total
length of the cable is

= 0 can be

(D)

14.

The

is

(A) 2/3
(B) 1

The inner (dot) product of two vectors


and is zero. The angle (degrees)
between in two vectors is
(A) 0
(C) 90
(B) 30
(D) 120

(C) 40.5
(D) 54.0

(B) 2

is

CE 2010
13. A parabolic cable is held between two
supports at the same level. The horizontal
span between the supports is L. The sag at
the mid-span is h. The equation of the

CE 2008
+

For a scalar function


f(x, y, z) =
the directional
derivative at the point P(1, 2, 1) in the
is
direction of a vector
(A)
(B)

A velocity is given as
= 5xy + 2 y2 + 3yz2 . The divergence

The equation

The value of (
(A) 13.5
(B) 27.0

CE 2009
11. For a scalar function
f(x, y, z) = + 3 + 2 the gradient at
the point P (1, 2, 1) is
(A) 2 + 6 + 4
(C) 2 + 12 + 4
(D)
(B) 2 + 12 4

of this velocity vector at (1 1 1) is


(A) 9
(C) 14
(B) 10
(D) 15

8.

Mathematics

15.

th

(C) 3/2
(D)

Given a function
( )
The optimal value of f(x, y)
th

th

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Page 78

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) Is a minimum equal to 10/3


(B) Is a maximum equal to 10/3
(C) Is a minimum equal to 8/3
(D) Is a maximum equal to 8/3

CE 2013
21.

CE 2011
16.

22.

(C) a
(D) 2a

magnitudes a and b respectively. | |


will be equal to
(A)
( )
(C)
+ ( )
(B) ab
(D) ab +
CE 2012
19. For the parallelogram OPQR shown in the
sketch,

and
R

.
The area of the parallelogram is
Q

(C) 1
(D)

24.

A particle moves along a curve whose


parametric equation are :
and z = 2 sin (5t), where x, y
and z show variations of the distance
covered by the particle (in cm) with time
t (in s). The magnitude of the acceleration
of the particle (in cm ) at t = 0 is
___________

25.

If {x} is a continuous, real valued random


variable defined over the interval
(
) and its occurrence is defined
by the density function given as:

(C) 1
(D)

If and are two arbitrary vectors with

R
P

( )

wh

the statistical attributes of the random


variable {x}. The value of the integral

(A) ad bc
(B) ac+bd

With reference to the conventional


Cartesian (x, y) coordinate system, the
vertices of a triangle have the following
coordinates:
(
)
( ) (
)
( )
(
)
( ). The area of the
triangle is equal to
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

(A) 0
(B)

(C) ad + bc
(D) ab cd

dx is

(A) 1
(B) 0.5

The infinity series

(A) sec
(B)

(C) 1
(D) 8/3

23.

20.

(A)
(B)

Wh ho
h
o such that
the function defined below is continuous
?
f(x)={

18.

The value of
(A) 0
(B) 1/15

CE 2014

(A) 0
(B) a/2
17.

Mathematics

26.

(C) o
(D)

(C)
(D)

The expression

(A) log x
(B) 0
th

th

(C) x log x
(D)
th

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Page 79

GATE QUESTION BANK

CS 2005
1.

Let G(x)

CS 2010

1
g(i)xi where |x|<1.
2
(1 x) i0

What is g(i)?
(A) i
(B) i+1

(C) 2i
(D) 2i

CS 2007
2.
Consider the following two statements
about the function f(x) =|x|:
P: f(x) is continuous for all real values of x
Q: f(x) is differentiable for all real values
of x
Which of the following is true?
(A) P is true Q is false
(B) P is false Q is true
(C) Both P and Q are true
(D) Both P and Q are false
CS 2008
3.

4.

x sinx
equals
Lim
x x cosx
(A) 1
(B) 1

(C)
(D)

Let
P=

7.

What is the value of


(A) 0
(B)

(A) 0
(B) 1

(C)
(D) 1

(A) 0
(B) 2

(C) i
(D) i

CS 2012
9.
Consider the function f(x)= sin(x) in the
interval x , -. The number and
location(s) of the local minima of this
function are
(A) One , at
(B) One , at
(C) Two , at and
(D) Two , at and
CS 2013
10. Which one the following function is
continuous at x =3?
(A) ( )

(B) ( )

(C) ( )

(D) ( )
CS 2014
11. Let the function
( )

CS 2009
6.

/ ?

A point on a curve is said to be extreme if


it is a local minimum or a local maximum.
The number of distinct extrema for the
4
3
2
curve 3x 16x 24x 37 is
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D) 3

CS 2011
8.
Given i = , what will be the
evaluation of the definite integral

where k is a positive integer. Then


(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
5.

Mathematics

(
(

Where
evaluates to

o
o (
o (

)
)

)
)

(
(

)|
)

1 and ( ) denote the

derivation of f with respect to . Which of


the following statements is/are TRUE?
(I) There exists

(C) ln2
(D)
ln 2

.
th

th

h h
th

( )

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Page 80

GATE QUESTION BANK

(II) There exists


.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
12.

13.

14.

(A)
h h

( )

I only
II only
Both I and II
Neither I nor II

(B)

A function f (x) is continuous in the


interval [0, 2]. It is known that
f(0) = f(2) = 1 and f(x) = 1. Which one
of the following statements must be true?
(A) There exists a y in the interval (0,1)
such that f(y) = f(y + 1)
(B) For every y in the interval (0, 1),
f(y) = f(2 y)
(C) The maximum value of the function
in the interval (0, 2) is 1
(D) There exists a y in the interval (0, 1)
such that f(y)
(
)

(C)

(D)

ECE 2006
2.
As x is increased from
function f x

If and are 4 dimensional subspace


of a 6 dimensional vector space V, then
the smallest possible dimension of
is ____________.
If

dx = , then the value of k

e
1 ex

3
The integral sin d is given by

3.

1
2
2
(B )
3

(A)

(B)

, the

The value of the integral given below is

to

(A) monotonically increases


(B) monotonically decreases
(C) increases to a maximum value and
then decreases
(D) decreases to a minimum value and
then increases

is equal to_______.
15.

Mathematics

4
3
8
(D)
3

(A)
(C)
(D)

ECE 2005
1.
The derivative of the symmetric function
drawn in given figure will look like

(C)

P ds , where P is a vector, is

4.

equal to
(A) P dl

(C) P dl

(B) P dl

(D)

Pdv

P , where P is a vector, is equal to

5.

th

2
(A) P P P

(C) 2P P

2
(B) P P

(D) P 2P

th

th

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Page 81

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2007
6.
For the function
, the linear
approximation around = 2 is
(A) (3 x)
(B) 1 x

ECE 2008
12. Consider points P and Q in the x y plane,
with P=(1,0) and Q=(0,1). The line
Q

integral 2 xdx ydy along the

(C) 3 2 2 1 2 x e

semicircle with the line segment PQ as its


diameter
(A) is 1
(B) is 0
(C) is 1
(D) depends on the direction (clockwise
or anticlockwise) of the semicircle

(D)
7.

8.

9.

10.

For x <<1, coth(x) can be


approximated as
(A) x
(C)
(B) x2
(D)

In the Taylor series expansion of


exp(x)+sin(x) about the point x= the
coefficient of (x )2 is
()
(A)
()
(C)
()
()
(B)
(D)

14.

Which of the following functions would


have only odd powers of x in its Taylor
series expansion about the point x=0?
(A) sin(x3)
(C) cos(x3)
2
(B) sin(x )
(D) cos(x2)

15.

The value of the integral of the function


g(x, y)=4x3+10y4 along the straight line
segment from the point (0,0) to the point
(1,2) in the x y plane is
(A) 33
(C) 40
(B) 35
(D) 56

16.

For real values of x, the minimum value of


the function f(x)=exp(x)+ exp( x) is
(A) 2
(C) 0.5
(B) 1
(D) 00

17.

Consider points P and Q in the x-y plane,


with P=(1, 0) and Q= (0, 1).

Which one of the following function is


strictly bounded?
2
(A)
(C) x
x
(B) e
(D)

(A) 0.5
(B) 1
11.

13.
Consider the function f(x) =
x 2.
The maximum value of f(x) in the closed
interval [ 4,4] is
(A) 18
(C) 2.25
(B) 10
(D) Indeterminate

sin /2
lim
is
0

(C) 2
(D) not defined

The following Plot shows a function y


which varies linearly with x. The value of
2

the integral I ydx is


1

Y
3
2

) along
(
the semicircle with the line segment PQ as
its diameter
(A) Is
(B) Is 0
(C) Is 1
h

1
1

Mathematics

(A) 1.0
(B) 2.5

(C) 4.0
(D) 5.0

th

th

th

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Page 82

GATE QUESTION BANK

(D) Depends on the direction


(clockwise or anti-clockwise) of the
semicircle

21.

ECE 2009
18. The Taylor series expansion of

sinx
at x is given by
x
(A) 1

x 2 .....
3!

(B)

2
x

1
.....

(C)

2
x

1
.....

the value of the integral


(A) 3V
(B) 5V

3!

19.

3!

.....

If a vector field is related to another


, which
vector field through =
of the following is true? Note: C and
refer to any closed contour and any
surface whose boundary is C.
(A) =
(B) =

(C)

(D)

ECE 2010
20. If

, then over the


path shown in the figure is

(A) 0
(B)

is

(C) 10V
(D) 15V

ECE\IN 2012
23. The direction of vector A is radially
outward from the origin, with
where
and K is
constant. The value of n for which
. A = 0 is
(A) 2
(C) 1
(B) 2
(D) 0
ECE\EE 2012
24. The maximum value of
( )
in the interval
[1,6] is
(A) 21
(C) 41
(B) 25
(D) 46
ECE 2013
25. The maximum value of unit which the
approximation
holds to within
10% error is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
26.

, then has a
maximum at
minimum at
maximum at
minimum at

ECE 2011
22. Consider a closed surface S surrounding a
volume V. If is the position vector of a
point inside S, with the unit normal of S,

3!

(D) 1

If
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Mathematics

The divergence of the vector field

is
(A) 0
(B) 1/3

(C) 1
(D) 3

(C) 1
(D) 2

th

th

th

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Page 83

GATE QUESTION BANK

27.

Consider a vector field ( ) The closed


loop line integral can be expressed
as
) over the closed
(A) (
surface boundary by the loop
(B) ( )dv over the closed volume
bounded by the loop
(C) ( )dv over the open volume
bounded by the loop
) over the closed surface
(D) (
bounded by the loop

Mathematics

34.

The magnitude of the gradient for the


function (
)
at the
point (1,1,1) is_______.

35.

The directional derivative of


( )
(
) ( )in the direction

of the unit vector at an angle of with


y axis, is given by ________________.
EE 2005
1.

For the scalar field u =

, magnitude

of the gradient at the point (1, 3) is


ECE 2014
28. The volume under the surface
z(x, y) = x+y and above the triangle in
the x-y plane defined by
{0 y x and 0 x 12} is______
29.

30.

For
function ( )
(A)
o
(B)
o
The value of

the maximum value of the


occurs at
(C)
(D)
o
.

(A)
(B)

(B)
2.

For the function f(x) =


, the
maximum occurs when x is equal to
(A) 2
(C) 0
(B) 1
(D) 1

3.

If S =

/ is

31.

The maximum value of the function


( )
(
)
(wh
)
occurs at x =____.

32.

The maximum value of


( )
0 x 3 is ______.

in the interval

EE 2006
4.
A surface S(x, y) = 2x + 5y 3 is
integrated once over a path consisting of
the points that satisfy
(x+1)2+ (y 1)2 = . The integral
evaluates to
(A) 17
(C) /17
(D) 0
(B) 17/
5.

33.

, then S has the value


(C)
(D) 1

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

(C)
(D)

(A)

The expression V = R (

for the volume of a cone is equal to

For a right angled triangle, if the sum of


the lengths of the hypotenuse and a side
is kept constant, in order to have
maximum area of the triangle, the angle
between the hypotenuse and the side is
(A) 12
(C) 60
(B) 36
(D) 45

th

(A) R (

(B) R (

(C)

(D)

th

R) h
R )

th

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Page 84

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE 2007
6.

EE 2010

The integral
equals
(A)
(B) 0

) o

EE 2009
8.
f(x, y) is a continuous function defined
over (x, y) [0, 1] [0, 1]. Given the two
constraints, x > and y > , the
volume under f(x, y) is
(A)

(B)

(C)

9.

10.

11.

a minimum
a discontinuity
a point of inflection
a maximum

Divergence of the three-dimensional


radial vector field is
(A) 3
(C)
(B) 1/r
(D)
(
)

13.

The value of the quantity P, where

(A) 0
(B) 1

, is equal to
(C) e
(D) 1/e

EE 2011
14. The two vectors [1, 1, 1] and [1, a,
where a = .
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

A cubic polynomial with real coefficients


(A) can possibly have no extrema and no
zero crossings
(B) may have up to three extrema and
upto 2 zero crossings
(C) cannot have more than two extrema
and more than three zero crossings
(D) will always have an equal number of
extrema and zero crossings

has

12.

)
(

At t = 0, the function ( )
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(C) (1/2) o
(D) (1/2)

EE 2008
7.
Consider function f(x)= (
) where
x is a real number. Then the function has
(A) only one minimum
(B) only two minima
(C) three minima
(D) three maxima

(D)

Mathematics

15.

],

/, are

orthonormal
orthogonal
parallel
collinear

The function f(x) = 2x


has
(A) a maxima at x = 1 and a minima at
x=5
(B) a maxima at x = 1 and a minima at
x= 5
(C) only a maxima at x = 1
(D) only a minima at x = 1

EE 2013
16. Given a vector field
, the line integral

F(x, y) = (
)
(
)

line integral over the straight line from


(
) = (0, 2) to (
) = (2, 0)
evaluates to
(A) 8
(C) 8
(B) 4
(D) 0

evaluated along a segment on the x


axis from x = 1 to x = 2 is
(A) 2.33
(C) 2.33
(B) 0
(D) 7
17.

th

The curl of the gradient of the scalar field


defined by
(A)
th

th

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Page 85

GATE QUESTION BANK

(B)
(C) (
(
(D)

19.

20.

21.

23.

( )
Where f and
v are scalar and vector fields respectively.
If
h
is
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

24.

The minimum value of the function


( )
0 in the
interval ,
- is
(A) 20
(C) 16
(B) 28
(D) 32

EE 2014
18. Let ( )
. The maximum value of
the function in the interval (
) is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
The line integral of function
, in the
counterclockwise direction, along the
circle
is
(A)

(C)
(B)
(D)
Minimum of the real valued function
(
) occurs at x equal to
( )
(A)
(C) 1
(B)
(D)

IN 2005
1.
A scalar field is given by f = x2/3 + y2/3,
where x and y are the Cartesian
coordinates. The derivative of f along the
line y = x directed away from the origin,
at the point (8, 8) is

To evaluate the double integral


.

( )

substitution u = (

/ dy, we make the


) and

2.

( ) (

( ) (

( ) (

(A)

(B)

(A)
(B) 0
3.

( )

is

(C) f(1)
(D) f(0)

The value of the integral


(A) 2
(B) does not exist

(C)
(D)

is
2

(t) has a constant magnitude,


If a vector R
then

4.

A particle, starting from origin at t = 0 s,


is traveling along x-axis with velocity

o . /

(D)

f(t) defined over [0,1],

(A) R
22.

(C)

Given a real-valued continuous function

. The

integral will reduce to


( ) (

Mathematics

(B) R
5.

(C) R

(D) R

If f =
+

+
where ai (i = 0 to n) are constants,

At t = 3 s, the difference between the


distance covered by the particle and the
magnitude of displacement from the
origin is _________

then

is

(A)
(B)

th

th

(C) nf
(D) n

th

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Page 86

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

The plot of a function f(x) is shown in the


following figure. A possible expression for
the function f(x) is
f(x)

(B) once differentiable but not twice


(C) twice differentiable but not thrice
(D) thrice differentiable
11.

0
(A)

(C)

(B)

. /

(D)

. /

IN 2006
7.
The function
(
) is
approximated as
where is in
radian. The maximum value of for
which the error due to the approximation
is within
(A) 0.1 rad
(C) 0.3 rad
(B) 0.2 rad
(D) 0.4 rad

()

( )

(A) (

()

))

(B) (

()

))

()

))

()

))

()

(D) (

) ( )

( ))
( ))

13.

The expression
(A)
(B) x

14.

Given y =

(A)
(B)
10.

(C)
(D)

Consider the function f(x) =


, where x
is real. Then the function f(x) at x = 0 is
(A) continuous but not differentiable

+ 2x + 10, the value of

(C) 12
(D) 13

15.
(A) Indeterminate
(B) 0

(C) 1
(D)

IN 2009
16. A sphere of unit radius is centered at the
origin. The unit normal at a point (x, y, z)
on the surface of the sphere is
(A) (x, y, z)
(C) .
/

IN 2007
9.
The value of the integral
dx dy is.

for x > 0 is equal to


(C)
(D)

is equal to
(A) 0
(B) 4

(B) .

(C)
(D)

is.

IN 2008
12. Consider the function y = x2 6x + 9. The
maximum value of y obtained when x
varies over the interval 2 to 5 is
(A) 1
(C) 4
(B) 3
(D) 9

The solution of the integral equation


()

(C)

For real x, the maximum value of


(A) 1
(B) e 1

8.

Mathematics

(D) .

IN 2010
17. The electric charge density in the region
R:
is given as
( )
, where x and y are in
meters. The total charge (in coulomb)
contained in the region R is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D) 0
th

th

th

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Page 87

GATE QUESTION BANK

18.

The integral

evaluates to
(A) 6
(B) 3
19.

/ sin(t) dt

23.

A scalar valued function is defined


as ( )
, where A is a
symmetric positive definite matrix with
dimension n n ; b and x are vectors of
dimension n1. The minimum value of
( ) will occur when x equals
)
(A) (
(C) .
/
)
(B) (
(D)

24.

Given
()

()

o .

(C) 1.5
(D) 0

The infinite series


( )

converges to
(A) cos (x)
(B) sin(x)

(C) sinh(x)
(D)

IN 2011
20.

The series
for
(A)
(B)

Mathematics

The
o w
(A) A circle
(B) A multi-loop closed curve
(C) Hyperbola
(D) An ellipse

converges

(C)
(D)

IN 2013
21. For a vector E, which one the following
statement is NOT TRUE?
(A)
E
E
o o
(B) If
E
E is called conservative
(C) If
E
E is called irrotational
(D)
E
E
-rotational
IN 2014
22. A vector is defined as

are unit vectors in


Where
Cartesian (
) coordinate system.
The surface integral f.ds over the
closed surface S of a cube with vertices
having the following coordinates:
(0,0,0),(1,0,0),(1,1,0),(0,1,0),(0,0,1),
(1,0,1),(1,1,1),(0,1,1) is________

th

th

th

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Page 88

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

=
=

Since, potential function of is xyz


(
) (
)
(
)
2.

0 o

[Ans. A]

[Ans. D]
o

9.

[Ans. B]

10.

[Ans. B]
(

For V to be max

This is of the form . /

Hence, h

Applying L hospital rule


(

3.

[Ans. A]

. /

=
(

=
=
11.

4.

[Ans. A]
(

After changing order


5.

[Ans. A]
I= (

=2

[Ans. B]
Let the vectors be

)
( )( )( )

= 2
6.

[Ans. A]
A Line integral and a surface integral is
connected by stokes theorem

7.

[Ans. B]

Now Area vector will be perpendicular to


plane of
i.e.
will be the required unit vector.
And option (A), (D) cannot give a vector
product
)|
|( ) (
12.

[Ans. B]

Applying Hospital rule, we get


I=
8.

[Ans. A]

Given:

I=

For
0 1

]
th

th

th

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Page 89

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

14.

But y is always greater than x.


Hence y= 4 only.

[Ans. B]
Since interval given is bounded, so
minimum value of functions is 1.

= 0

Now by partial fractions,


(a3 8) = (a 2)(a2+2a+4)

) |

L=

[Ans. D]
To see whether the integrals are bounded
or unbounded, we need to see that the
o
h
h
interval of integration. Let us write down
the range of the integrands in the 4
options,
Thus, (D) , i.e.,
[Ans. B]
h

19.

o
(

). (

( )

( )

( )

( )

Coefficient of (x- )
Now f(x)= ex

(x)= ex

(a)= ea
( )

Hence for a=2,


20.

[Ans. D]
div {(
(

Hence directional derivative is


(grad (x2+2y2+z)).

[Ans. C]
Taylor series expansion of f(x) about a is
given by
( )

dx is unbounded.

along a vector

(2x

(
(

A (0,1); B (0,1); C (0, ); D (0, )

16.

[Ans. B]

Let x= a3 a=2

=1.22
15.

).dx

= (

L=

L = (

=
18.

= (

[Ans. D]
h

Mathematics

)
(

)}

(
)

=3

21.

[Ans. C]

=
Hence at (1,1,2),

Directional derivative =
17.

[Ans. A]
I = .dx dy
The limit of y is form 0 to

and limit

of x from 0 to 2
I =

( )

(
(

)(

)
)

/
th

th

th

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Page 90

GATE QUESTION BANK

22.

[Ans. A]
Given:

23.

y2 4x
x2 4y

Mathematics

[Ans. A]
Short method:
Take a point on the curve z = 1, x = 0,
y=0
Length between origin and this point
)
(
)
(
) =1
(
This is minimum length because all
options have length greater than 1.

(4,4)
(0,0)

24.

x4
4x
16

[Ans. B]
Y

or x4 64x

or x(x 64) 0
3

or x3 64
or x 4

x = cos
y=sin

y 4
Required area = .

Path is x2 y2 1

R e
(x y)2 1 2sin cos

2 x3
2 x3 2
3 120

4
64
(4)3 2
3
12
32 16 16

3 3 3

cos2
(1 sin2)d
2 0

0
=

Alternately
For point where both parabolas cut each
other

1 1
1
2 2 2 2

Alternately
Given: x2 y2 1
Put x=cos , and y=sin

y2 4x, x2 4y

x y 2 cos2 sin2 2sincos

x 4 4x
2

= 1 sin2

or x2 8 x
or x4 64x

or x3 64

x 4,0 ,(4,0)

x2
dx
0 4


1
2

4x
0

cos2
1 1

2 0 2 2 2

Required area
4

2 x3 16
2 x3 2
3 120 3

25.

[Ans. C]

F 3xzi 2xyj yz2k


th

th

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Page 91

GATE QUESTION BANK

3z 2x 2yz

At point (1, 1, 1), divergence =3+2 2=3


26.

30.

||

31.
(

27.

( )

[Ans. D]
Standard limit formulae

32.

[Ans. B]

33.

[Ans. C]
The function is continuous in [ 1, 1]
It is also differentiable in [ 1, 1] except at
x = 0.
Since Left derivative = 1 and
Right derivative = 1 at x = 0

34.

[Ans. B]

[Ans. C]

y is continuous for all x


differentiable for all x
since at

R, and
R, except at

Using this standard limit, here a = 1 then


= ( ) /2 =1/2

value towards the left and right side of

35.

[Ans. D]
( )
( )
( )
( )
f(x) has a point of inflection at x =0.

36.

[Ans. A]

[Ans. D]
,

29.

( )

28.

[Ans. D]
If f(x) even function

||

* +

[Ans. D]

Mathematics

[Ans. D]

Volume from x = 1 to x = 2,

th

th

)
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Page 92

GATE QUESTION BANK

38.

37.

[Ans. A]
By Gauss Divergence theorem,
( )

The unit outward normal vector at point


P is
(

Mathematics

(Surface Integral is transformed to


volume Integral)

( )

( )

( )

[Ans. A]
The area enclosed is shown below as
shaded

( )

( )
(

The coordinates of point P and Q is


obtained by solving
y = x and y = simultaneously,
i.e. x =
)
(

Now, x = 0
which is point Q(0,0)
and x = 1
which is point
P(1,1)
So required area is

39.

[Ans. C]
( ) ( )
Using Integration by parts

Here,
f=ln(x) and dg=
and g=

* +

o
( ) ( )

* +
[

th

th

( )
]
)

th

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Page 93

GATE QUESTION BANK

40.

[Ans. A]
o

So the minimum value is

[Differentiating both
o
o
Hospital method]

o w

. /

45.

41.

Mathematics

[Ans. D]
o
o
o
( )
( )

( )

otherwise it is said to be discontinuous.


So the most appropriate option is D.

[Ans. B]
G

o
46.

[Ans. C]

Div

Vectors are linearly dependent


42.

[Ans. B]
(

)
)
( )
,
o ( )( )
( )
o ( )( )
43.

47.
-

ho

[Ans. B]
Let

(
o (

[Ans. A]

[
[

]
)

48.

)]

()

[
,
(
44.

)
(

(
)
)

)]
(

,
(

[Ans. B]

)]
,

)
[

[Ans. *] Range 1.00 to 0.94


h
o

th

th

]
-

th

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Page 94

GATE QUESTION BANK

CE
1.

a =2a cos i.e, cos


[Ans C]
G
theorem is

((

( )

= y and

)-

( )

. /

. /

[Ans. D]
Since the position of rail engine S(t) is
continuous and differentiable function
according to Lagranges mean value
theorem more
)

o )
o

(t) = v(t) =

*
(

( )

)+

m/sec
kmph

4.

[Ans. C]
f = 2 +3

= 126 kmph
Where v(t) is the velocity of the rail
engine.
3.

= 2y

h o
I=

= xy

Here I = (

2.

Mathematics

[Ans. D]
h
o h
r=2acos
(i) r = a represents a circle with centre
(
)

(ii) r = 2acos represents a circle
symmetric about OX with centre at
( )

The circles are shown in figure below. At
h
o o
o

P
y Q
3

= 4xi + 6yj + 2zk


At P (2, 1, 3)
Directional derivation

(
)
(
)
( )

( )
( )
( )

5.

[Ans. A]
Potential function,

th

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Page 95

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.
Integrating

[Ans. D]
Put

wh

Mathematics

( )

Now given equation is


.. (ii)
6.

[Ans. B]
Let I()
= (

dx ( )
=

) [ from eqn(i)]

Then Integrating by parts we get,


=

o )1

=
dI =
Integrating, I =
( )

() ( )

+C=0
C=
()
( )

Now substitute in eqn (ii) we get


h
h

I(0) =
But from equation (i), I(0) =

dx

dx =

h
h

Which is the desired form


7.

[Ans. D]
=5 +2

+ 3y

( )

9.

[Ans. C]
=0

If = 0

= 5y + 4y + 6yz
At(1, 1, 1)
div ( ) = 5.1 + 4.1 + 6.1.1
= 15

is the correct transformation.

o
Since P and Q are non-zero vectors
o
0

th

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Page 96

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

[Ans. A]
Since the limit is a function of x. We first
integrate w.r.t. y and then w.r.t. x
)

[Ans. D]
Length of curve f(x) between x = a and
x = b is given by

13.

Mathematics

+
Here,

4h ( )

= 8h

Since
(

and y = h at x =

* ( )
*

(As can be seen from equation (i), by


substituting x = 0 and x = L/2)

( )+

(Length of cable)

ho
11.

[Ans. B]
f = + 3 +2
f = grad f = i

+j

[Ans. A]

15.

[Ans. A]
( )

+k

= i(2x) + j(6y) + k(4z)


The gradient at P(1, 2, 1) is
= i(21) + j(62) + k(4 ( ))
= 2i + 12j 4k
12.

14.

[Ans. B]
(

Putting,

o
(

Given,

/ is the only stationary point.

+
.

th

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Page 97

GATE QUESTION BANK

Since the limit is in form of

+
.

ho
and get

+
.

Since,
We have either a maxima or minima at

o ()

18.

Also since, r=0


)

[Ans. A]

= 8 > 0, the point

19.

o -

[Ans. A]
Area = | |

R (

So the optimal value of f(x, y) is a

)
o

The minimum value is


(

, we can use

Since,

Mathematics

minimum equal to
16.


R

R

[Ans. B]
Let I =

Since ( )
I=

( )

20.

[Ans. B]

21.

[Ans. B]

( )

( )

( )

(i) + (ii) 2I =

2I =

2I = |

I = a/2
17.

[Ans. C]
For a function f(x) to be continuous,
at x=a
( )
( )

o
(

If f(x) is continuous at x=

. /

th

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Page 98

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Substituting the values we get


(
)
(
)
(
)
|
|
24.

[Ans. 12]

o )
( )

o ( )

( )

[
22.

Magnitude of acceleration

[Ans. C]
(

)
(

25.

[Ans. B]
We have

)
( )

, ow

( )

=1+0=1
Hence correct option is (C)
23.

( )

( )

[Ans. A]
(4, 3)
a
(2, 2)
b

( )

0.5

(1, 0)

0.5

o wh
o ordinate points are
given is given by

th

th

th

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Page 99

GATE QUESTION BANK

26.

[Ans. A]

Use L hospital Rule

=
4.

=1

[Ans. A]
P=

= log x

1
n 1 r

Cr xr

n
1 x r0

r 0

r 0

r 0

i 0

5.

= 12

g(i) =i+1

24
48

+ 37

48 x = 0

x=
=2

[Ans. A]
f(x)= |x|
Continuity: In other words,
f(x) = x o

x for x< 0
Since,
=
=0 ,
f (x) is continuous for all real values of x
Differentiability:

96x

48

= 36

Now at x = 0
=

48

At 2 also

0 (using

calculator)
There are 3 extrema in this function

( )

6.

( )

[Ans. D]
Since ( )

R h
So |x| is continuous but not differentiable
at x=0
3.

x (12 48x 48 ) = 0
x = 0 or 12 48x 48 = 0
4x 4 = 0

()

[Ans. D]
y = 3 16

(since r is a dummy variable, r can be


replaced by i)

r 1 xr i 1 xi

1)

w h
(

r1 Cr xr r1 C1xr

1
21 r

Cr xr

1 x 2 r0

Putting n=2,

2.

=
Q=

[Ans. B]

w h a =1, l=2k 1

P= (
CS
1.

Mathematics

I =
=

= (

)
(

Since tan (A B) =

[Ans. A]
=

th

th

th

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Page 100

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

9.

[Ans. B]
f(x) = sin x
( )
o
( )
o

(
(

)
)

(
(

)
)

( )

At

. /

gives maximum

value
=,

)-

At

= ln ( sec ) ln (sec 0)
= ln ( )
= ln (

. /

value

( )
10.

)0=

[Ans. A]
For x =

7.

[Ans. B]
(

8.

) [

*(

) +

) +
.

11.

[Ans. C]
By Mean value theorem

12.

[Ans. A]
Define g(x) = f(x) f(x + 1) in [0, 1]. g(0)
is negative and g(1) is positive. By
intermediate value theorem there is
(
)
h h g(y) = 0
That is f(y) = f(y + 1)
Thus Answer is (A)

13.

[Ans. 2]
*
w
+
*
w +
For min
maximum non common
elements must be there

*
+
must be common to any 2 elements
of V1
(
)minimum value = 2

o
o

+
[

-(

, f(x) =

For x = , f(x) = 3 1 = 2
For x = 3, f(x) = 2
(
) (
) = f(3)

[Ans. D]

gives minimum

th

th

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Page 101

GATE QUESTION BANK

14.

Mathematics

[Ans. 4]

(
)
o
o ()

Hence option (A) is correct

o
o

)
ECE
1.

[Ans. C]

dy
0 for x< 0
dx
dy
0 for x> 0
dx

o
Substituting the limits
o ()
o ( )

2.

[Ans. A]
Given,

f x

f ' x

1 e .e e
1 e

3.

= x cos

x 2

2x

ex

1 ex

Let cos = t
At
o

o
o

[Ans. A]

[Ans. C]

= o ( ) o
=
LHS = I + II =

15.

ex
1 ex

th

th

th

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Page 102

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

Mathematics

[Ans. A]

Given, f x x2 x 2

df x
0
dx
4.

2x 1=0

[Ans. A]
o h o
)

1
2

d2f x
= 2 ve
dx2
So it shows only minima for interval
[ 4, 4], it contains a maximum value that
will be at x= 4 or x=4
f( 4)=18 and f(+4)=10

5.

6.

[Ans. D]
From vector triple product
(
)
(
)
(
)
Here,
(
)
(
)

(
)
(
)
( )

[Ans. D]

y f x ; x 0,

[Ans. A]
( )

f x0

For strictly bounded, 0 limy

2
x x0 f' x0 x x0 f'' x0

......

e (x 2)(e
2

x0

or 0 lim y

x 2
)

x
2

So, y e x is strictly bounded

e ......
2

x 22 ......
e2 3 x

(Neglecting higher power of x)

7.

9.

10.

lim
0

ex e x
ex ex

x x2 x3
e 1 ..........
1 2 3

11.

ex 1

[Ans. B]
Two points on line are ( 1, 0) and (0, 1)
Hence line equation is,

y y
y 2 1 x c
x2 x1
y x c
y x 1 ( )

x x2 x3
..........
1 2 3

x2 x4
..........
ex ex
2 4
x x
e e
x3 x5
x ..........
3 5
1

or cot h (x)=

sin /2
1 sin /2
lim

0 2

/2

1 sin /2 1
= lim

2 0 /2 2

[Ans. C]
coth (x)=

[Ans. A]

2
2
5
I ydx x 1dx 2.5
2
1
1

1
x

(Since at x=1,y=2)

(Neglecting x2 and higher order)

th

th

th

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Page 103

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

[Ans. B]
Taking f(x, y)= xy, we can show that,
xdx+ydy, is exact. So, the value of the
integral is independent of path

15.

Mathematics

[Ans. A]

Given : g x,y 4x3 10y 4


The straight line can be expressed as
y=2x
Then g(x,y)=4x3+ 10 (2x)4

(0, 1)

4
I 4x3 10 2x dx 4x3 160x4 dx

0
0
1

4x4 160 5
=

x 33
5 0
4

(1, 0)

[Ans. A]
f(x)= +
(x)=
=0 x=0
(x)= +
>0 x R.
Hence minimum at x=0
f(0)=1+1=2
Alternatively:
For any even function the maxima &
minima can be found by
A.M. >= GM
=> exp(x) + exp( x) 2
Hence minimum value = 2

17.

[Ans. B]

[ |

13.

16.

| ]

[Ans. B]
Let f(x) ex sinx
o
2
x a

f x f a x a f'a
f''a
2!

where, a=
2
x

f x f x f'
f''
2!

Coefficient of (x )2 is

f ''
2

f'' ex sinx |at x e

Coefficient of (x )2=0.5 exp ()


14.

[Ans. A]

o
Thus, (
( )w
o ( )w
o ( )w

)w
h
h
h

[ |

| ]

o
ow
ow
ow
ow
th

th

th

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Page 104

GATE QUESTION BANK

18.

21.

[Ans. D]
sinx = x
= (x )

y=

or

19.

sin x = (x )

or

=1

)
(

= 1

)
(

....
(
)

...

....

( )

....

Therefore, at

22.

( )
and is the position vector)

23.

has a maximum.

[Ans. D]
Apply the divergence theorem

[Ans. C]

[Ans. A]

. /

* +

)
)

25.

[Ans. B]

( )

)]

(
(

)]

[Ans. C]
( )
, ( )
( )
( )

are the stationary points


( )
( )
( )
and f(2) = 25 and f(4)=21
M
o ( ) , f(6)=41

. /

24.
]

]
. /

along PQ y =1 dy =0]

= [

Since

[Ans. D]
o h o
=

According Stokes Theorem



=

20.

[Ans. A]

....

sin (x )

or

Mathematics

th

th

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Page 105

GATE QUESTION BANK

30.

[Ans. C]

E o

E o

31.

[Ans. *] Range
( )
(
)

( )

=1+1+1
=3
[Ans. D]
o h o
h
integral of a

vector around a closed path L is equal


to the integral of curl of over the open

32.

33.

)
)
)
)

[Ans. C]
Let x (opposite side), y (adjacent side)
and z (hypotenuse side) of a right angled
triangle

29.

[Ans. *] Range 5.9 to 6.1


Maximum value is 6
( )
( )
(
(
(
(

[Ans. *] Range 862 to 866


Volume under the surface

(
)
( )
h

28.

to 0.01

( )

[Ans. D]

27.

26.

Mathematics

Given

)(

[Ans. A]
o
( )
( )

( )
Since ( ) is negative, maximum value of
f(x) will be where ( )

o
0(

o
( )

( )

( )

oh

( (
(

th

th

)(

))

)
th

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Page 106

GATE QUESTION BANK

By trial and error method using options

34.

Now at x = 2
(2) =
(
)
=
(
)
= 2
<0
At x = 2 we have a maxima.

[Ans. *] Range 6.8 to 7.2

3.

[Ans. *] Range 2.99 to 3.01

At (1, 1),

Given unit vector,

[Ans. D]

5.

[Ans. D]
We consider options (A) and (D) only
because which contains variable r.
By integrating (D), we get

, which is volume of cone.

6.

[Ans. D]
By property of definite integral

)
)

=3

)
( )
(
On simplification we get option (D)

[Ans. C]
Grad u =

At (1, 3) Grad u =

,( )

7.

[Ans. B]
f(x) = (
)
(x) = 2(
)
=4x(
) =0
x = 0, x = 2 and x = 2 are the stationary
points.
(x) = 4[x(2x) +(
) ]
= 4[2
= 4 [3
= 12
(0) =
< 0, maxima at x = 0
(2) =(12)
= 32 > 0, minima at x =
( 2) =12(
)
= 32 > 0; minima at x =
There is only one maxima and only two
minima for this function.

=
2.

4.

So, directional derivative



(
)
(

EE
1.

[Ans. C]

At (1, 1, 1)
| |

35.

Mathematics

[Ans. A]
f(x) =
(x) =
( )
=
(
)
Putting ( (x) = 0
(
)=0
(
)=0
x = 0 or x = 2 are the stationary points.
Now,
(
) (
(x) =
)(
)
=
(
(
))
=
(
)
(
)=2
At x = 0,
(0) =
Since (x) = 2 is > 0 at x = 0 we have a
minima.
th

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Page 107

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

Mathematics

= ,
=, (
= (

[Ans. A]

))

) =1

14.

[Ans. B]
Dot product of two vectors
=1+a+ =0
So orthogonal

15.

[Ans. C]
f(x) =
( )
( )
So the equation f(x) having only maxima
at x = 1

16.

[Ans. B]

9.

10.

[Ans. C]
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

[Ans. D]
=(
)
(
(
) = (0, 2)
(
) = (2, 0)
Equation of starting line

11.

)
y = 2 x and dy = dx

17.

o
( )

.(

||

(
(
=0

||

) /

is undefined

[Ans. A]

Div ( )
=.

Discontinuous

/(

18.

= 1+1+1= 3
13.

[Ans. D]

But at

12.

[Ans. B]
(

Along x axis ,y=0,z=0


The integral reduces to zero.

y = 2 x , dy = dx
=(
(
)
Putting

[Ans. B]
P=
th

[Ans. A]
( )
o

M
th

) (
) (

(
( )

th

) (
) (

)
(

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Page 108

)
)

GATE QUESTION BANK

19.

Mathematics

[Ans. B]

/1

)( )(

23.

[Ans. A]
( )

( )
( )

24.

[Ans. B]
( )
( )

)(
(

( )
( )
( )

)
)

20.

[Ans. C]
( )

( )

(
)
For number of values of
)
o
( ) (
( ) (
( )

( )

)
( )
( )

M
21.

[Ans. B]

IN
1.

G
o

[Ans. A]

Unit vector along y = x is


G

(
(

22.

[Ans. 2]
(

o .

/.

2.

[Ans. D]
Using L Hospital Rule., numerator
becomes =

From the graph, distance at

th

th

()

= ( )

th

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Page 109

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

[Ans. B]

Mathematics

When

Given integral is, I=

( )

Let f(x) = so curve of 1/

will be

And when

f(x)

( )

The possible expression for f(x) is


1

.
7.

-1

[Ans. B]

Error,

This curve will be discontinuous at x=0


o
w
o

For error to be minimum


(

4.

[Ans. A]
(t) =x (t) +y (t) +
Let R
z (t)
( ) =K (constant)
|R
i.e., (t) + (t) + (t) = constant.
On analyzing the given (A) option, we find
(t)
that R

( )

[Ans. C]
Given :
f=
+
where,

will give constant magnitude,

+
(i=0 to n) are constant.

+(n 1)

+
and

so first differentiation of the integration will


be zero.
5.

=0+

(n 1)

+n

+
= ,
= nf
6.

[Ans. B]
( )

8.

[Ans. B]
()

When
( )

( )

( )

Differentiating the above equation

When
( )

th

th

th

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Page 110

GATE QUESTION BANK

()

14.

()

Mathematics

[Ans. B]
Given y = x2 + 2x + 10
= 2x + 2

( ) -

|
From equation (i)
()
()

()

()

This is Leibnitz linear equation


Integrating factor I.F =
the solution is
()

15.

[Ans. C]
By definition

16.

[Ans. A]

()

Unit vector=

=xi+yj+zk

and
17.

[Ans. C]
R:
Y

( )
1
1

,
[Ans. D]

10.

[Ans. A]
This is a standard question of
differentiability & continuity

Area =

[Ans. C]
y=
=(

- o

9.

11.

+1

( )

Total charge =
=
=
18.

).(cos x + sin x) = 0

tan x = 1
Or x =

coulomb.

[Ans. B]
We know that

() (

( )wh

. /

y will be maximum at x =
y=

19.

=
12.

13.

[Ans. C]
y(2) =
y(5) =

[Ans. B]
Expansion of sin x
........

( )
( )

20.

[Ans. B]
In a G.P

For a G.P to converge

[Ans. C]
y=
y=

th

th

th

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Page 111

GATE QUESTION BANK

21.

[Ans. D]
.E=0 is not irrational (it is solenoidal)

22.

[Ans. 1]
From Gauss divergence theorem, we have

/dxdydz

Mathematics

[Ans. C]

24.

[Ans. D]

o .

23.

th

th

th

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Page 112

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Differential Equations
ME 2005
1.

If x

xy

n y

what is y
(A) e
(B) 1

then

(C)
(D)

(B) degree 1 order 1


(C) degree 2 order 1
(D) degree 2 order 2
ME 2007
7.

2.

3.

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2


and 3.
The complete solution of the ordinary
differential equation
y
y
p
qy
s
x
x
y
Then, p and q are
(A) p =3, q = 3
(C) p =4, q = 3
(B) p =3, q = 4
(D) p =4, q = 4
Which of the following is a solution of the
differential equation
y
y
p
q
y
x
x
(A)
(C) x
(B) x
(D) x

The solution of

For

ME 2008
8.
It is given that
+ 2y + y = 0, y (0) = 0,
y(1) = 0. What is y (0.5)?
(A) 0
(C) 0.62
(B) 0.37
(D) 1.13
9.

Given that x + 3x = 0, and x(0) = 1,


x (0) = 0, what is x(1)?
(A) 0.99
(C) 0.16
(B) 0.16
(D) 0.99

ME 2009
10.

+ 3y =

, the particular

integral is:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
5.

The solution of x

with the

(A) y

(C) y

(B) y

(D) y

ME 2010
11.
+

The solution of the differential equation

(A) (1+ x)

(C) (1 x)

(B) (1+ x)

(D) (1

The Blasius equation,

, is a

(A) second order non-linear ordinary


differential equation
(B) third order non-linear ordinary
differential equation
(C) third order linear ordinary
differential equation
(D) mixed order non-linear ordinary
differential equation

2
dy
2xy ex with y (0) = 1 is:
dx

6.

(D) 2 x 2

(B) x 1

condition y
+4

with initial value

y (0) = 1 is bounded in the interval


(C) x 1,x 1
(A) x

ME 2006
4.

x)

The partial differential equation


(

)= 0 has

(A) degree 1 order 2


th

th

th

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Page 113

GATE QUESTION BANK

ME 2011
12. Consider

the

differential

x
,yt
x
,yt

equation

y x. The general solution with


constant c is
(A) y

t n

(B) y

t n (

(C) y

t n ( )

(D) y

t n(

17.

18.

differential
y

equation

with the boundary

(B) s n ( )

(D)

partial
u

15.

19.

s n( )

differential

equation

is a

linear equation of order 2


non linear equation of order 1
linear equation of order 1
non linear equation of order 2

subjected to the boundary conditions


u(0) = 0 and u(L) = U, is
(A) u
(C) u
(
)
(

(D) u

y and

x
,y-

x
+ ,y-

x
+ ,y-

y is

20.

with
t
__________

The general solution of the differential


os x

constant, is
(A) y s n x

(B) t n (

(C)

os (

(D) t n (

y with c as a
x

Consider two solution x(t) = x t and


x t
x t of the differential equation
x t
x t
t
su t t
t
x t
x
|
t
x t
|
t

t
s
(A) 1
(B) 1

x t

x t

| t

(C) 0
(D)

The solution of the initial value problem


xy y

ME 2014
16. The matrix form of the linear system

x
,yt

at x

The wronskian W(t) =|

where k is a constant,

x
+ ,y-

If y = f(x) is the solution of

The solution to the differential equation

(B) u

conditions of y(0) =0 and y(1) = 1. The


complete solution of the differential
equation is
(A) x
(C)
s n( )

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

x
+ ,y-

the boundary conditions y

the

ME 2013
14. The

equation

ME 2012
13. Consider
x

t n

Mathematics

is

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

CE 2005
1.
Transformation to
substituting v = y

linear form by
of the equation

+ p(t)y = q(t)y ; n > 0 will be


(A)
th

+ (1 n)pv = (1 n)q
th

th

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Page 114

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

(B)

+ (1 n)pv = (1+n)q

(C)

+ (1+n)pv = (1 n)q

(D)

+ (1+n)pv = (1+n)q

CE 2007
6.
The degree of the differential equation
+ 2x = 0 is
(A) 0
(B) 1

in the range
(A)
(B)

y
x

( os x
( os x

(C)

( os x

(D)

( os x

( )

7.

The solution for the differential equation


= x y with the condition that y = 1 at

is given by

x = 0 is

s n x)

(B) In(y) =

s n x)
s n x)

8.

xy

+4

(D) y =

A body originally at 600C cools down to


C in 15 minutes when kept in air at a
temperature of 250C. What will be the
temperature of the body at the end of 30
minutes?
(A) 35.20C
(C) 28.70C
0
(B) 31.5 C
(D) 150C

CE 2008
9.

The general solution of


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

The solution of the differential equation


x

(C) In(y) =

(A) y =

s n x)

CE 2006
3.
A spherical naphthalene ball expanded to
the atmosphere losses volume at a rate
proportional to its instantaneous surface
area due to evaporation. If the initial
diameter of the ball is 2 cm and the
diameter reduces to 1 cm after 3 months,
the ball completely evaporates in
(A) 6 months
(C) 12 months
(B) 9 months
(D) Infinite time

+ y = 0 is

y = P cos x + Q sin x
y = P cos x
y = P sin x
y=Psn x

given that at x = 1,
10.

y = 0 is

5.

(C) 2
(D) 3

The solution of
y

4.

Mathematics

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

The differential equation

= 0.25 y is to be

solv us ng t b w r
mpl t Eul rs
method with the boundary condition y = 1 at
x = 0 and with a step size of 1. What would
be the value of y at x = 1?
(A) 1.33
(C) 2.00
(B) 1.67
(D) 2.33

Solution of
(A) x
(B) x

at x = 1 and y = is

y
y

(C) x
(D) x

y
y

CE 2009
11. Solution of the differential equation
3y

+ 2x = 0 represents a family of

(A) Ellipses
(B) Parabolas

(C) circles
(D) hyperbolas

CE 2010
12. The order and degree of the differential
equation

+ 4 ( )

respectively
(A) 3 and 2
(B) 2 and 3
th

th

= 0 are

(C) 3 and 3
(D) 3 and 1
th

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Page 115

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

The solution to the ordinary differential


equation
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

14.

y=
y=
y=
y=

The following differential equation has


3

d2y dy
4 y2 2 x
dt2
dt
(A) degree=2, order=1
(B) degree=1, order=2
(C) degree=4, order=3
(D) degree=2, order=3

6y = 0 is

+
+
+
+

The partial differential equation that can


be formed from z = ax + by + ab has the
form (w t p
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

2.

n q

Mathematics

ECE 2006

3.

For the differential equation

z = px + qy
z = px + pq
z = px + qy + pq
z = qx + pq

the boundary conditions are


(i) y=0 for x=0 and
(ii) y=0 for x=a
The form of non-zero solutions of y
(where m varies over all integers) are
m x
y

sn

CE 2011
15. The solution of the differential equation
+ = x, with the condition that y = 1 at
x = 1, is
(A) y =

(D) y =

CE 2012
16. The solution of the ordinary differential
y=0 for the boundary

condition, y=5 at x = 1 is
(A) y
(C) y
(B) y
(D) y
CE 2014
17. The

os

m x

(C) y = +

(B) y = +

equation

d2y
k2y 0
2
dx

integrating

for

the

equation
(A)
(B)

ECE 2007
4.
The solution of the differential equation

d2y
y y 2 under the boundary
dx2
conditions
(i) y=y1 at x=0 and
(ii) y=y2 at x=, where k, y1 and y2 are
constants, is
(A) y
y
y
xp( x ) y
(B) y
y
y
xp x
y
(C) y
y
y s n x
y
(D) y
y
y
xp x
y
k2

differential
s

(C)
(D)

ECE 2005
1.
A solution of the following differential
equation is given by

d2y
dy
5 6y 0
dx
dx2

ECE 2008
5.
Which of the following is a solution to the
differential equation

2x
3x
(A) y e e

2x
3x
(C) y e e

2x
3x
(B) y e e

2x
3x
(D) y e e

(A)
t
(B) x t

th

th

x t

x t

(C) x t
(D) x t

th

t
t

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Page 116

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2009
6.
The order of the differential equation

ECE 2011
10. The solution of the differential equation

d2y dy

y4 et is
dt 2 dt
(A) 1
(C) 3
(B) 2
(D) 4

7.

Match each differential equation in Group


I to its family of solution curves from
Group II.
Group I
Group II
1. Circles
dy y

P.

dx x
dy
y

Q.
dx
x

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

3. Hyperbolas

dy
x

dx
y

y x

(C) y
(D) y

ECE\EE\IN 2012
11. With initial condition x(1) = 0.5, the
solution of the differential equation,
t

t is

(A) x

(C) xt

(B) x

(D) x

ECE\IN 2012
12. Consider the differential equation
y t
y t
y t
t
t
t
wt y t |
n
|
num r

l v lu o

(A)
(B)

x with the initial condition

y
s ng Eul rs rst or r m t o
with a step size of 0.1, the value of y
is
(A) 0.01
(C) 0.0631
(B) 0.031
(D) 0.1
A function n x satisfies the differential
equation

is

(A) x
(B) x

P-2, Q-3, R-3, S-1


P-1, Q-3, R-2, S-1
P-2, Q-1, R-3, S-3
P-3, Q-2, R-1, S-2

ECE 2010
8.
Consider a differential equation

9.

y y

2. Straight Lines

dy x
R.

dx y
S.

Mathematics

where L is a

constant. The boundary conditions are:


n
and n
. The solution to
this equation is
(A) n x
xp x
(B) n x
xp x
(C) n x
xp x
(D) n x
xp x

y
|
t
(C)
(D) 1

ECE 2013
13. A system described by a linear, constant
coefficient,
ordinary,
first
order
differential equation has an exact solution
given by y t or t
when the forcing
function is x(t) and the initial condition is
y(0). If one wishes to modify the system
so that the solution becomes 2y(t) for
t > 0, we need to
(A) Change the initial condition to y(0)
and the forcing function to 2x(t)
(B) Change the initial condition to 2y(0)
and the forcing function to x(t)
(C) Change the initial condition to
j y(0) and the forcing function to
j x(t)
(D) Change the initial condition to
2y (0) and the forcing function to
2x(t)

th

th

th

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Page 117

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2014
14. If the characteristic equation of the
differential equation
y
t

15.

has two equal roots,

n t v lu s o
(A) 1
(B) 0,0

r
(C) j
(D) 1/2

xy

(C)

(B)

xy

(D)

(B) x t
(C) x t
(D) x t
EE 2011
3.
With K as a constant, the possible solution
for the first order differential equation
is

Which ONE of the following is a linear


non-homogeneous differential equation,
where x and y are the independent and
dependent variables respectively?
(A)

Mathematics

xy

(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)

EE 2013
4.
A function y
x
x is defined over
an open interval x = (1,2). At least at one
point in this interval ,

16.

17.

18.

If z

xy ln xy then

(A) x

(C) x

(B) y

(D) y

If a and b are constants, the most general


solution of the differential equation
x
x
x
s
t
t
(A)
(C)
bt
(B)
bt
(D)

(A) 20
(B) 25

tx

6.

x
x
(A) x t

with initial conditions


|
t

, the solution is

(B) s n t

os t

(C) s n t

os t

(D) os t

Consider

the

EE 2005
1.
The solution of the first order differential
qu t on x t
3x(t), x (0) = x is
(A) x (t) = x
(C) x (t) = x
(B) x (t) = x
(D) x (t) = x
EE 2010
2.
For the differential equation

(C) 30
(D) 35

EE 2014
5.
The solution for the differential equation
x
x w t n t l on t ons x
t
x
n
|
s
t
(A) t
t

With initial values y(0) = y (0) = 1, the


solution of the differential equation
y

is exactly

differential

equation

Which of the following is a solution to this


differential equation for x > 0?
(A)
(C) x
(D) ln x
(B) x
IN 2005
1.
The general solution of the differential
equation (D2 4D +4)y = 0, is of the form
(given D = d/dx), and C1 and C2 are
constants
(A) C1e2x
(C) C1e2x + C2 e2x
2x
(B) C1e + C2
(D) C1e2x + C2x
th

th

th

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Page 118

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

urv s or w
t
urv tur t
3
any point is equal to cos w r s t
angle made by the tangent at that point
with the positive direction of the x-axis,
r

gv n

, where y and y

are the first and second derivatives of y


with respect to x)
(A) circles
(C) ellipses
(B) parabolas
(D) hyperbolas
IN 2006
3.
For an initial value problem
y
y
y
y
n y
various solutions are written in the
following groups. Match the type of
solution with the correct expression.
Group 1
Group 2
P. General solution
1. 0.1ex
of homogeneous
equations
Q. Particular integral 2.
(A cos 10 x
+ B sin 10 x)
R. Total solution
3.
cos 10 x +
x
satisfying boundary 0.1e
conditions
(A) P-2, Q-1, R-3
(C) P-1, Q-2, R-3
(B) P-1, Q-3, R-2
(D) P-3, Q-2, R-1
4.

A linear ordinary differential equation is


given as

d2y
dy
3 2y (t)
2
dt
dt
Where (t) is an impulse input. The
solut on s oun by Eul rs orw r difference method that uses an
integration step h. What is a suitable
value of h?
(A) 2.0
(C) 1.0
(B) 1.5
(D) 0.2

Mathematics

IN 2007
5.
The boundary-value problem y
y
y
y
w ll
v non-zero
solut on
n only t v lu s o r
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

IN 2008
6.
Consider the differential equation
= 1 + y2. Which one of the following
can be a particular solution of this
differential equation?
(A) y = tan (x + 3) (C) x = tan (y + 3)
(B) y = tan x + 3
(D) x = tan y + 3
IN 2010
7.
Consider
y

the

differential

equation

with y(0)=1. The value of

y(1) is
(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

IN 2011
8.
Consider the differential equation
y
y y
with boundary conditions
y(0) = 1, y(1) = 0. The value of y(2) is
(A) 1
(C)
(B)
(D)
IN 2013
9.
The type of the partial differential
equation

is

(A) Parabolic
(B) Elliptic
10.

th

(C) Hyperbolic
(D) Nonlinear

The maximum value of the solution y(t) of


the differential equation y t
y t
with initial conditions y
and
y
, for t
is
(A) 1
(C)
(B) 2
(D)

th

th

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Page 119

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

IN 2014
11. The figure shows the plot of y as a
function of x

The function shown is the solution of the


differential equation (assuming all initial
conditions to be zero) is :
(A)
(B)

(C)

(D)

|x|

th

th

th

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Page 120

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

4.
[Ans. D]
x y
y

lnx
x

xy
x

lnx
x

omp r ng w g t
ow
y(I.F.) =
x y

olv ng bov
utt ng x
x
2.

3.

[Ans. B]
The given differential equation may be
written as
y
y
y
ux l ry qu t on s

lnx
x

Substituting D=2, we get

x
x

n t v lu o
t n n t v lu o y t

5.

[Ans. B]
First order equation,

sy

dy
Py Q,
dx

Where P = 2x and Q =
Since P and Q are functions of x, then
Integrating factor,

[Ans. C]
Given equation is
y
p
qy
x
x
p
q y
p
q
ts solut on s
y
um o roots p
p
ro u t o roots q
q
[Ans. C]
Given equation is
y
y
p
q
x
x
p
q
ut p
n q
y

I.F. = e Pdx e x
Solution is
y

yex x c
,c=1

Since, y

x2

(1 + x) e

y
6.

[Ans. A]
Order: The order of a differential equation
is the order of the highest derivative
appears in the equation
Degree: The degree of a differential
equation is the degree of the highest
order differential coefficient or derivative,
when the differential coefficients are free
from radicals and fraction.
The general solution of differential
qu t on o or r n must nvolv n
arbitrary constant.

th

th

th

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Page 121

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

y
( )y x

x
x
Standard form
y
y

x
Where P and Q function of x only and
solution is given by

[Ans. C]
y
x

v n
y

y
x

nt gr t ng
y

x
nx

olut on y x
x

and x

Given condition
y
m ns t x

r or yx

y
[Ans. D]
x
x
Auxiliary equation is
m2 + 3 = 0
i.e. m =
x
os t
sn t
x
os t
s n t

At t = 0
1=A
0=B
x = os t
x

11.

[Ans. B]
is third order (
is linear, since the product

) and it
is not

allowed in linear differential equation


12.

os t

[Ans. D]
y
x
y

y
t n

10.

y
9.

x x x

yx
[Ans. A]
y
y y
A.E is, D2+2D+1 =0
2=0
m 1
The C.F. is (C1+C2x)e-x
P.I. = 0
ow y

n y

x
x

8.

Where, integrating factor (I.F)


r

Mathematics

[Ans. A]
Given differential equation is
y
x
y x
x

th

y
t n.

th

y x
x
x
x

th

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Page 122

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

[Ans. A]
17.
y
y
x
x
y
x
x
y
n y
Choice (A) satisfies the initial condition as
well as equation as shown below
y x
y
n y
y
lso
x
x
y
x
18.
y
y
x
x
y
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
o y x is the solution to this equation with
given boundary conditions

14.

[Ans. D]

15.

[Ans. B]
m
m
u
u
At x=0,
At x=L,
(

[Ans. *] Range 34 to 36
y
x
y
x
y
x
tx
y
y
tx
x
y
x
tx
y
[Ans. D]
y
os x y
x
Let x y z
y
z
x
x
z
os z
x
z
os z
x
z
s
( ) z
x

z
os ( )

Integrating
z
t n( )
x
z
t n( )
x
x
t n(

)
n

19.

u x

Solving we get u = U(
16.

Mathematics

[Ans. A]
x
x
y
t
y
x
y
t
So by observation it is understood that,
x
x
,y- *
+ ,yt

y
)

[Ans. A]
Since the determinant of wronskian
matrix is constant values for, therefore it
is same for both t=0 and t=
t

20.

x t

x t
t

[Ans. B]
y

x x
y
y
ln ( )
x
y

x t
t

x t

ln y

ln

v ny
n
th

y
th

th

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Page 123

GATE QUESTION BANK

CE
1.

y
tx
x

[Ans. A]
Given

+ p(t)y = q(t) y

n
y

3.

Multiplying by (1 n) y we get
v
p t
n y
q t
t
Now since y
= v we get
v
n pv
n q
t
Where p is p (t) and q is q(t)

t
Where, V =

4 r

sn x
os
x
sn
x
os x
sn x

os x

r )

t
utt ng r

r
t
dr = kdt
Integration we get
r = kt + C
At t = 0, r = 1
1= k0+C
C=1
r = kt + 1
Now at t = 3 months r = 0.5 cm
0.5 = k 3 + 1

r
r
t
t
Substituting in (i) we get

os x

sn x)

y
(

( os x

[Ans. A]

[Ans. A]
y
y
y
x
x
y
y
( )
x
This is a linear differential equation

+ p(t) y = q(t) y ; n > 0

Given, v = y
v
y
n y
t
t
y
v
t
n y
t
Substitution in the differential equation
we get

2.

Mathematics

n solv ng g v s
t

sn x

t = 6 months

y
os

sn

4.
sn x
os x

[Ans. A]
Given
y
x
xy x
x
y
x
xy x
x
Dividing by x

os x

sn x
sn x
os x

th

th

th

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Page 124

GATE QUESTION BANK

y
x
( )y (
)
x
x
x
Which is a linear first order differential of
the form
y
y
x
Integrating factor = I.F =
=
y I.F = .(I.F)dx
x
yx
(
)x x
x
Now at x = 1, y = 0

Hence, here the degree is 1, which is


power of

7.

[Ans. D]
y
x y
x
This is variable separable form

= x dx

y
y

tx
log y

C
x y

5.

x
x

[Ans. B]
=

0C

=
Now at t = 30 minutes

y =2

6.

ln = kt +

C.

C.
Given = 250C
Now t t

60 = 25 + C.e0
C = 35

At t
m nut s
40 = 25 + 35

y +1=0

t
=

y
y
y
0.25hy
y
+y =0
Putting k = 0 in above equation
0.25h y
y +y =0
Since, y = 1 and h = 1
0.25 y

0) (Newtons law of cooling)

[Ans. C]
y
y y
tx
x
h=1
Iterative equation for backward (implicit)
Euler methods for above equation would
be
y

y
x

8.
y

log y

i.e. 0

Mathematics

= 25 + 35 (

= 25 + 35 ( ) (s n

[Ans. B]
Degree of a differential equation is the
power of its highest order derivative after
the differential equation is made free of
radicals and fractions if any, in derivative
power.

= 31.

th

th

th

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Page 125

GATE QUESTION BANK

9.

12.

[Ans. A]
+y=0

10.

13.

x x

C=2
Solution is
y
x

[Ans. D]
y y
x n y
x x
This is a linear differential equation of the
form
y
y
wt
n
x
x
x
IF = Integrations factor

x x

y
x

( )

( )

x
(

x x

Solution is
y (IF) =
x
y. x = xx x
yx = x x

y
)

15.

x
x
y

[Ans. C]
y
y
x
x
Auxiliary equation is
+D6=0
(D 2) = 0
D = 3 or D = 2
Solution is y =

[Ans. C]
Z = ax + by + ab
z
p
x
z
q
b
y
Substituting a and b in (i) in terms of p
and q we get z = px + qy + pq

[Ans. A]

y y

y
y
/
0( )
y 1
x
x
The order is 3 since highest differential

14.

x +y =4

y
x
y y

is

3y

y
)
x

Removing radicals we get

At x = 1, y =

11.

The degree is 2 since power of highest


differential is 2

[Ans. D]
y
x
x
y
y dy = x dx
y y

[Ans. A]
y
x

+1=0
E sm
m

General solution is
y=
[ cos (1 x) + sin (1 x)]
= cosx + sinx
= P cosx + Q sinx
Where P and Q are some constants

Mathematics

Which is the equation of a family of ellipses

yx =

th

th

+C

th

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Page 126

GATE QUESTION BANK

y=

sin ka=0
m x

Now y(1) = 1

ot

solut on s y

17.

m x

[Ans. D]
k2D2y= y

y2

y2
2 1
D k2 y k2

1
m1 =
k
x/k
x/k
C.F. = C1e C2 e

[Ans. D]

x/k
x/k
y2
y= C1e C2 e

At y=y1, x=0
y1 = C1+ C2+y2
At y=y2 , x= Hence C1 must be zero
y1 = C2+y2
C2 =y1 - y2

[Ans. B]

d2y
dy
5 6y 0
dx
dx2
A.E. is D2 5D 6 0
D=2,3
2x
3x
Hence, solution is y e e

2.

sn

[Ans. D]
y
y
x
y
y
y

Particular integral (P.I) =


=
ECE
1.

x
4.

16.

Mathematics

x
y=(y1 y2) exp + y2
k
5.

[Ans. B]
x t
x t
t
(D +3) x(t) = 0

[Ans. B]
3

d2y dy
4 y2 2 x
dt2
dt
Order of highest derivative=2
Hence, most appropriate answer is (B)
3

3.

[Ans. A]
Given, Differential equation,

d2y
k2y 0
dx2
Auxilary equation is
y

Let y
os x
sn x
At x=0, y = 0 A=0
y
sn x
At x=a, y=0 B sin ka=0
B0 otherwise y=0 always

So, x t ke3t ,
Hence x t 2e3t is one solution (for
some boundary / initial condition)
6.

[Ans. B]
The order of a differential equation is the
order of the highest derivative involving
in equation, so answer is 2.
The degree of a differential equation is
the degree of the highest derivative
involving in equation, so answer is 1.

7.

[Ans. A]
P.

log y log x log


y
xw
s qu t on o str g t l n
th

th

th

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Page 127

GATE QUESTION BANK

Q.

log y
y

log x

y y
y

8.

yp rbol

x x

9.

t
t t

xt

xt
12.

[Ans. D]
Approach 1:
y t
y t
y t
t
t
t
Converting to s-domain
s y s
sy
y
sy s
y s
s
s
y s
s
s
y s
s
s
n nv rs
pl
tr ns orm
y t
t
u t
y t
t
t
y t
|
t

[Ans. D]
Approach 2:
y t
y t
y t
t
t
t
Applying Laplace Transform on both
sides
y
s y s
sy
|
t
(sy s
y
) y s
s y s
s
sy s
y s
s
s
y s
s
s
s
s

n x
m

Auxiliary equation m
olut on n x
Since, n

Since, n

must be zero)
Therefore

(hence

The solution is, n x


10.

r l

y
old y +0.1 ( ) new
x
y
x y
0 0
0+0
0+0.10=0
=0
0. 0
0.1+0
0+0.10.1=0.01
1 =0.1
0. 0.0 0.2+0.01 0.01+0.210.1
2 =0.21
1
=0.031
The value of y at x= 0.3 is 0.031.
x

x=1

Using initial condition, at t = 1, x = 0.5

ypr bol

Equ t on o

[Ans. B]
y x
y x
x

x y

ol s xt

qu t on o

y y
x

x x

S.

[Ans. C]
t

log

qu t on o

R.

11.

Mathematics

[Ans. C]
Given y
ln y
When
y
y

and
x

y t

y t
y t
t

t
t
t
t

th

th

th

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Page 128

GATE QUESTION BANK

z
y

x ln xy

ox

z
x

y t
|
t
13.

[Ans. D]
Let the differential equation be
y t
y t
x t
t
Apply Laplace transform on both sides
y t
{x t }
2
y t 3
t
sy s
y
y s
x s
s
y s
x s
y
x s
y
y s
s
s
Taking inverse Laplace on both sides
x s
{y s }
2
3 y
{
}
s
s
y t
x t
y
So if we want
y t as a solution both
x(t) and y(0) has to be multiplied by
.
Hence change x(t) by
x t and y(0) by
y

14.

[Ans. A]
y
y
y
x
x
The auxiliary equation is
m
m
then either
m
or m
i.e., roots of the equation are equal to
or

z
y

18.

EE
1.

xy ln xy

xy

[Ans. C]
z xy ln xy
z
y ln xy
x

y ln xy

x (t)
x

t
x
lnx =
t
x
Putting
x
Now putting initial condition x(0) = x
x
x
Solution is x = x
i.e. x(t) = x

0 is a first order linear

xy

omog n ous

xy

xy

equation (homogeneous)
r non l n r qu t ons
16.

xy

[Ans. *] Range 0.53 to 0.55


E m
m
m
olut ons s y
bx
y
bx
b

s ng y
y
n
gv s
n b
y
x
tx
y

[Ans. A]
v n x t

is a first order linear

equation non

x ln xy

[Ans. B]
x
x
x
t
t
Pre auxiliary equation is
m
m
Pre roots of AE are m
Repeated roots are present.
So, most general solution in
n t
bt

[Ans. A]
xy

xy

z
y

i.e.
15.

xy

xy ln xy

z
x

ox
17.

Mathematics

th

th

th

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Page 129

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

[Ans. B]
x
x
x
t
t
Auxiliary equation m
m
m
m
(m+4)(m+2)=0
m= 2, 4
x(t) =

6.

[Ans. C]
x y
xy
y
y
x

nx

On solving (1) & (2), we get

IN
1.

x(
s ts

[Ans. C]
y

and

x(t)= 2
3.

(1)

y
y
x

w subst tut y

n
x(0) = 1 1=

Mathematics

Since there is double root at 2, so general


solution of the given differential equation
would be
+

[Ans. A]
y

Integrate on both sides


2.

y
4.

5.

[Ans. B]
v n

os

y
n

y
now y t n

Equating equations (i) and (ii) and using


equation (iii) in equation (ii), we get
y os = os

[Ans. B]
y
x
x
p n nt rv l
x
y
x
x
y
x
x
Value is in between 20 and 30
So it is 25
[Ans. C]
x
x
gv n
t
x
os t
sn t
x
n
x
sn t
os t
t
x
|
t
x

os t

y= .x
Which is equation of a parabola.
3.

[Ans. A]
A.E.
D= 1+ 10i
C.F =
(A cos10 x + B sin 10 x)
x

4.

[Ans. C]

5.

[Ans. C]

sn t

th

th

th

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Page 130

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

[Ans. A]
Given

Hyperbolic if
El ps
Compare the given differential equation
with standard from A = 1, B = 0, C = 0

= 1 + y2

Integrating

= x

Or t n y = x + c
Or y = t n x
7.

Parabolic

[Ans. C]
y
y
x
Auxiliary equation, m + 1 = 0
m= 1
C.F =

10.

[Ans. C]

The solution for the differential equation


is
y
x
Now, y
and y
, placing these
values
We get,
and
y

s nx

s nx

os x

So, y
os x s n x
or m x m
y
s nx
os x
s nx
os x
x
y
os x s n x
y
or x
m xm
y m x
os
sn

11.

[Ans. A]
Given partial differential equation is
x

os x

y
y

9.

[Ans. D]
y t
y t

y
y

y=

8.

Mathematics

[Ans. D]
By back tracking, from option (D)
y
|x| x or x
x
= x or x
Integrating
y

x x or x
x

x x or x

x
t
We know that

y
(x y

or
x

or x

is said to be
Parabolic if

th

th

th

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Page 131

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Complex Variables
ME 2007
1.
If
x y and (x, y) are functions with
continuous second derivatives, then
x y + i (x, y)
can be expressed as an analytic function
of x + i (i = ), when
(A)

ME 2014
6.

The argument of the complex number


where i =

7.
+

(D)

(A) 2i
(B) 4i

An analytic function of a complex variable


z x + i y is expressed as
z
u x y +iv x y
where i
f u(x,y)= 2xy, then
v(x,y) must be
(A) x + y + onst nt
(B) x
y + onst nt
(C) x + y + onst nt
(D) x
y + onst nt

9.

An analytic function of a complex variable


z = x + i y is expressed as
f(z) = u(x, y) + i v(x, y),
where i =
. If u (x, y) = x y , then
expression for v(x, y) in terms of x, y and
a general constant c would be
(A) xy +
(C) 2xy +

ME 2009
3.
An analytic function of a complex variable
z = x + iy is expressed as
f(z) = u(x, y) +iv(x, y) where i = 1 .
If u = xy, the expression of v should be

y
2

y
(C)
(D)

x2
2

x y 2 k
2

ME 2010
4.
The modulus of the complex number

(B)

) is

(A) 5
(B)

(C) 1/
(D) 1/5

traversed in

8.

(C) 2i
(D) 0

x y 2 k

is evaluate

counter clock wise direction. The integral


is equal to

(A) 0

4
4

ME 2008
2.
The integral z z evaluated around
the unit circle on the complex plane for
z
is

x y

along the circle x + y

(C)

(B)

The integral y x

(B)

(A)

, is

10.

(D)

If z is a complex variable, the value of


is

(A)
i
(B)
0.511+1.57i
(C)
i
(D) 0.511+1.57i

ME 2011
5.
The product of two complex numbers
1 + i and 2 5i is
(A) 7 3i
(C) 3 4i
(B) 3 4i
(D) 7 + 3i
th

th

th

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Page 132

GATE QUESTION BANK

CE 2005
1.
Which one of the following is NOT true for
complex number and ?
(A)
(B) |
(C) |
(D) |

2.

=|

|| |+| |
|| | | |
| +|
|
2| | + 2| |

+
+

CE 2011
6.
For an analytic function,
f(x + iy) = u(x, y)+iv(x, y), u is given by
u = 3x 3y . The expression for v
considering K to be a constant is
(C) 6x 6y+k
(A) 3y
3x + k
(D) 6xy +k
(B) 6y 6x + k
CE 2014

Consider likely applicable of


u hys
integral theorem to evaluate the following
integral counter clockwise around the
unit circle c.
s

z z

7.

i
i

ECE 2006
1.
The value

of

2.

/2: singul riti s s t


{ n n
2
}
(D) None of the above

dz is

(A)

4i

(C)

(B)

(D) 1

(C)
(D)

the

contour

i
i

integral

z in positive sense is

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

For the function of a complex variable


W = In Z (where, W = u + jv and
Z = x + jy), the u = constant lines get
mapped in Z-plane as
(A) set of radial straight line
(B) set of concentric circles
(C) set of confocal hyperbolas
(D) set of confocal ellipses

(C) I

CE 2006
3.
Using Cauchys is integral theorem, the
value of the integral (integration being
taken in counter clockwise direction)

can be expressed as

(A)
(B)

z being a complex variable. The value of I


will be
(A) I = 0: singularities set =
(B) I = 0: singularities set
=,

Mathematics

ECE 2007
3.
If the semi-circular contour D of radius 2
is as shown in the figure, then the value of
the integral

is

CE 2009
4.

The analytic function f(z) =


singularities at
(A) 1 and 1
(B) 1 and i

5.

has

j2

(C) 1 and i
(D) i and i

The value of the integral

j2

dz
(A) j
(B) j

(where C is a closed curve given by


|z| = 1) is
(A) i
(C)
(B)
(D) i
th

th

(C)
(D)

th

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Page 133

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE 2008
4.
The residue of the function

f z

5.

z 2 z 22
2

(A)
(B)

at z=2 is

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(C)
(D) 2

) z is

(A) 4
(B) 4

The equation sin(z)=10 has


(A) no real or complex solution
(B) exactly two distinct complex
solutions
(C) a unique solution
(D) an infinite number of complex
solutions

12.

+ j2
j2

(C) 4
(D) 4

+ j2
j2

The real part of an analytic function z


where z x + jy is given by
cos().
The imaginary part of z is
(A)
os x
(C)
sin x
(B)
sin x
(D)
sin x

EE 2007

If f(z) =

is given by
(A) 2
(B) 2 +

, then

(C) 2j
(D) 2j

z
and 1
and

(C)
(D)

The value of

at its poles are

(A)

1.

where C is the

contour |z-i/2| = 1 is
(A) 2i
(C) t n z
(B)
(D) i t n z

ECE 2010
7.
The residues of a complex function

(B)

ECE 2014
11. C is a closed path in the z-plane given by
|z|=3. The value of the integral

ECE 2009
6.

Mathematics

EE 2011
2.
A point z has been plotted in the complex
plane, as shown in figure below.
nit ir l

and
z

and

ECE 2011
8.

The value of the integral

ECE\EE\IN 2012
9.
If x =
then the value of x is

(C) x
(A)

(D) 1
(B)
10.

Given f (z)

nit ir l

lm

where is the circle |z|


is given by
(A) 0
(C) 4/5
(B) 1/10
(D) 1

lm

nit ir l

lm

nit ir l

y
y
lmlm

. If C is a

nit ir l

counterclockwise path in the z plane


such that |z+1| =1, the value of

z z is
th

th

th

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Page 134

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE 2013
3.

z evaluated anticlockwise around

the circle |z
(A) 4
(B)
4.

i|

2 where i
(C) 2 +
(D) 2 +2i

Square roots of i, where i =


(A) i, i
(B)

os (

) + i sin (

, is

, are

IN 2005
1.
Consider the circle |
| 2 in the
complex plane (x, y) with z = x + iy. The
minimum distant form the origin to the
circle is
(C) 4
(A) 2 2
(B) 4
(D) 2
2.

Let
, where z is a complex number
not equal to zero. The z is a solution of
(C) z
(A) z
(D) z
(B) z

os ( ) + i sin ( )
(C)

os ( ) + i sin ( )
os ( ) + i sin ( )

(D) os ( ) + i sin (
os (

) + i sin ( )

EE 2014
5.
Let S be the set of points in the complex
plane corresponding to the unit circle.
{z: |z|
} . Consider the
(That is,
function f(z)=zz* where z* denotes the
complex conjugate of z. The f(z) maps S to
which one of the following in the complex
plane
(A) unit circle
(B) horizontal axis line segment from
origin to (1, 0)
(C) the point (1, 0)
(D) the entire horizontal axis

IN 2006
3.
The value of the integral of the complex
function
3s 4
f(s)
(s 1)(s 2)
Along the path s 3is
(A) 2j
(B) 4j

7.

All the values of the multi-valued complex


function , where i
are
(A) purely imaginary.
(B) real and non-negative.
(C) on the unit circle.
(D) equal in real and imaginary parts.
Integration of the complex function
z

, in the counter clockwise

(C) 6j
(D) 8j

IN 2007
4.

For the function

of a complex variable

z, the point z=0 is


(A) a pole of order 3
(B) a pole of order 2
(C) a pole of order 1
(D) not a singularity
5.

6.

Mathematics

Let j =
(A) j
(B) 1

.Then one value of


(C)

is

(D)

IN 2008
6.
A complex variable
x+j
has its
real part x varying in the range
to + . Which one of the following is
the locus (shown in thick lines) of 1/Z in
the complex plane?

direction, around |z 1| = 1, is
(A) i
(C) i
(B)
(D) 2i

th

th

th

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Page 135

l xis

(Note:

j
m gin ry
xis

m gin ry
xis

l xis

IN 2009
The value of

where the contour

of integration is a simple closed curve


around the origin, is
(A) 0
(C)
(D)
(B) 2j
8.

If z = x+jy, where x and y are real. The


value of | | is
(A) 1
(C)
(D)
(B)

9.

One of the roots of the equation =j,


where j is positive square root of 1, is

(A) j
(C)
j
+j

(D)

pl n

l xis

(B)

z is.

l xis

7.

Mathematics

IN 2010
10. The contour C in the adjoining figure is
described by x + y
. The value of

m gin ry
xis

m gin ry
xis

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) 2j
(B) 2j

(C) 4j
(D) 4j

IN 2011
11. The contour integral /
with C as
the counter-clockwise unit circle in the zplane is equal to
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 2
(D)

th

th

th

THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11
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Page 136

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

2.

4.
[Ans. B]
By definition C-R equation holds
[Ans. A]
f(z)=

has simple pole at z = 0

Residue of f(z) at z = 0
lim
z z
lim
os z
z z 2i (residue at z = 0)
2i
2i
3.

[Ans. B]
+ 4i
+ 2i
2i
+ 2i
+ i + 4i
+4
Modulus =

[Ans. C]
Given u=xy
For analytic function
u v

x y
and

[Ans. A]
+i
2
2
i + 2i

6.

dw u v
i
dz x x

7.

y x

Replacing x by z and y by 0, we get

8.

+ 2i + i
i

r os
x

r sin

r sin

r os

[Ans. C]
u
v
x
y
v
2y
y
2y
+ x
v
2
y + x
v
u
v
y
x
2x
x
2x
+
x
2
x
x

z2
C
2
Where C is a constant,
z
v
m0 i + 1
2
Integrating, w i

(x2 y2 2ixy)
mi

or v

x y

y = r sin x
y r os

dw
y ix
dz

Where, z = x + iy
dw = izdz

[Ans. C]

u u
i
x y

dw
0 iz
dz

[Ans. C]
+i
+i
i
i
+i
2i
i
+ i
2
+i
rg (
) t n ( )
i

u
v

y
x

By Milne Thomson method


Let w = u + iv

or

5.

+ 2i

y 2 x2
2

th

th

th

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Page 137

GATE QUESTION BANK

y
y

9.

10.

[Ans. B]
z

ln z|
z

[Ans. B]
s

z
os z
The poles are at z = n + /2
=
/2 /2 + /2
None of these poles lie inside the unit
circle |z| =1
Hence, sum of residues at poles = 0
Singularities set = and
2i [sum o r si u s o t z t th
poles]
2 i

[Ans. C]
iv n u x
y
v
v
v
x+
y
x
y
v
u v
u
y
x x
y
u
u
v
x+
y
y
x
2y x + 2x y
rm ont ing y t rms only llow
v 2 xy +

3.

z z

ln i

ln

ln + ln i
ln
ln
z
os
z i
z
i
ln i ln z

i
(
2

ln
+ ln i
+ i sin
i sin /2

=|

z=

pplying
z
z

u hys int gr l th or m, using


i
.2i ( )/

2i

Now,

ln

i.e.

[Ans. C]
(A) is true since

[Ans. A]
u hys int gr l th or m is
f(a) =

CE
1.

2.

x
x + onst nt

Mathematics

i
.2i 0( )

1/

i
.2i 0( )

1/

4i

(B) is true by triangle inequality of


complex number
(C) is not true since |
|| | | |
(D) is true since
| + |2 = ( + )
+
= ( + ) (z + z )
= z + z + z + z
i

And |
|2 = ( + )

4.

4i

[Ans. D]
z
z
z
z + z
z i z+i
The singularities are at z = i and i

5.

[Ans. C]

= ( + ) (z z )
= z + z
z + z
ii
Adding (i) and (ii) we get
| + |2 + |
|2 = 2 z + 2 z
= 2| | + 2| |

os 2z
2z
z
*

th

th

+
*z

th

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Page 138

GATE QUESTION BANK

in

is point with in |z|=1(the

los
urv
w
n us
integral theorem and say that

7.

[Ans. B]
2
i
z
+i
Multiplying by conjugates
2
i
i
+i
i
2i + i
2 +
+ i
2
+
i

u hys

os 2z
[2i ( )] wh r z
2
2
z
[Notice that f(z) is analytic on all points
inside |z|
]
2

[2i

os 2

/2
)

Mathematics

2i

6.

[Ans. D]
f = u + iv
u = 3x2 3y2
For f to be analysis, we have CauchyRiemann conditions,
u
v
i
x
y
u
v
ii
y
x
From (i) we have
u
v
x
x
y
v

ECE
1.

Given ,

2.

x +

z +4
j| 2

|z

2j

2j 2j 2

[Ans. B]
iv n

log

1
y
u iv loge x iy log x2 y2 i tan1
2
x
Since, u is constant, therefore

x
v
+ x
2
i.e. v = 3x2 + f(x) iii
Now applying equation (iii) we get
u
v
y
x
[ x+

1
1

z 4 z 2jz 2j
2

Pole (0, 2) lies inside the circle |z j|=2


y u hys nt gr l ormul

x y

[Ans. D]

1
log x2 y2 c
2

x +y
Which is represented set
of concentric circles.

3.

[Ans. A]
s

y
x
x
By integrating,
f(x) = 6yx 3x2 + K
Substitute in equation (iii)
v= 3x2 + 6yx 3x2 + K
v
yx + K

2j sum o r si u

Singular points are s =


Only s= +1 lies inside the given contour
lims 1 f s
Residues at s= +1 = S1

lims 1
S1

th

th

1
1

S 1 2

th

2j ( )
2

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Page 139

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

[Ans. A]
Residue of z=2 is

Mathematics

d
2
z 2 f z

z2 dz
d 1
2
1
lim
lim

2
3
z2 dz
z

z 2 32
z 2

z+

lim

5.

(z

+
F(z
2j
7.

[Ans. C]
X(z) =

[Ans. D]
sin z

Poles are Z= 0, Z =1, Z=2


Residue at Z=0 is lim

2i

Residue at Z =1 is lim

2 i

Residue z =2 is lim

2 i
(

2 i

ut m
m

8.

[Ans. A]
z+4

z + 4z +

2 im
2 i

m
2 i

iz

log

2
2 i + i
2

2 i

9.

log i + log(

iz log + i (
2n)
2
+log

iz i (
2n) + log
2

z (
2n) ilog(
2

[Ans. D]
f(z) = +
+ z
z
z

log y
i log i

i i
2

x log x
i log

10.

z+

z
F z
2 j r si u o
Residue at z = 0 ( 2- order )

[Ans. C]
z z

2j

z+

z+

where f (z) =1

11.
+
z

log y

z
+

ty

log y

(
2
infinite number of complex solutions
sin z
has infinite no. of complex
solutions
6.

z + 4z +
z+2 +
2 j will be outside the unit circle
o th t int gr tion v lu is z ro

[Ans. A]

iz

[Ans. C]
s z
lim

2j
z + 2j

4+ j

2j[ 4 + j

th

th

th

+ 2j

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Page 140

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

EE
1.

[Ans. B]
Suppose that z
u x y + iv x y is
analytic then, u and v satisfy the Cauchy
Riemann equation
u
v
u
v
n
x
y
y
x
r u xy
os x
u
v
sin x
x
y
u
v
os x
y
x
v
sin x

z +

2 i
2.

+
o / is outside the unit circle is IV
quadrant
3.

[Ans. A]
z
4

z +4
|z i| 2
z +4
z
4
z
2i
For z
2i
Residue at z +2i
4 4
+2i
z + 2i
+4i
t z 2i li insi
tz
2i li outsi
z
4
o
2i sum o r si u
z +4
2i 2i
4

4.

[Ans. B]
Let + i
i
Squaring both sides we get
+2 i
i
Equating real and imaginary parts

[Ans. B]
Pole (z=i) lies inside the circle. |z-i/2|=1.
Hence

z+i z

2 i i , wh r

z
z

2i

[Ans. D]
Let
+ i
Since Z is shown inside the unit circle in I
quadrant, a and B are both +ve and
+

ow

+ i
i

+
Since

Mathematics

wh n

i
2

wh n

+
o

+i
in

qu

r nt
wh n

| |

in

) +(

2
2
i
i
+i ( )
2
2
i
i

i
2

2
2
i
i
i
+i
+ i( )
+
2
2
2 2
i
+( )
2
2

os ( ) + i sin ( )
4
4

th

th

th

THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11
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Page 141

GATE QUESTION BANK

or

os ( ) + i sin ( )
4
4

5.

[Ans. C]
z
zz

}
n s {z: |z|
z
All point of s will be mapped on the
point (1, 0)
6.

[Ans. B]
z
log z i log
z
r l n Non-negative

7.

[Ans. C]
x x

lim z

IN
1.

2.

int gr tion

2i

z+

2
2

o |z |
king
z |z|
|z|
z

uis o th ir l
y
4

[Ans. C]
z
z
Multiply both the side by z, we get
z
z z
|z|
z
|z|
|z| wh r is ngl o z
|z|
since
is a real quantity so in order to
satisfy above equation
has to be real
quantity = 1 and
, (where n =
+2 )

z
z

r
+

2 x

z
lim
z+
quir

2i r s (f(a)) where a is a

singularity in contour c
|z
|
r
n
pol s o z
z
nly z
li s insi |z
s(

y
x
x

|z|

Mathematics

/2

z
3.

[Ans. C]

X X
-2 -1
Cx y y
(Cx (
-3

[Ans. A]
|
+ i | 2
Radius of the circle is 2 and centre is at
+ i

3
Cx

y(n) n n
y(n)
)y(n))
3s

4
1
2
C3 =
F(s)
C3
.
CC3
(sC 1)(s 2) s 1 s 2
y(n) 3 3
y(n)
dz y(n)

2
+ i

By Formula,
y y
( (
Since, both
n n
contour,
) )

xy

z a 2j

the poles are enclosed by

therefore
Value of integral=2j + 2 2j
For distance to be min. The point P will be
on the line passes through origin and
centre of the circle.
Slope of line OP = Slope of line OC

4.

[Ans. B]
Expand by Laurent series

th

th

th

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Page 142

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

[Ans. D]

10.

tx

log

log

2j
11.

2j

[sum o r si

2
o pol

4j

x +

x +

( + +
+
+ ) z
z 2z
z
The only pole of z is at z
, which lies
within |z|
z z 2i (residue)
Note: Residue of z at z
is coefficient

of z i.e. 1, here.

x j
x +
x

j
j
x +

lim {
x +

j
ption

z
j
j 2[ j

[Ans. C]
z

x+j

[Ans. B]
x+j

7.

log (

j
2

j j
2

log

6.

log (

z=

Pole z
j
Residue at z

log x

[Ans. D]

Mathematics

s tis y th

ov

on itions

[Ans. A]
u hys int gr l ormul is

Here a = 0, then f(0) = sin 0 = 0

8.

[Ans. D]
z x + iy
p | |= |
= |

9.

|
|=

|=

[Ans. B]
Given x3 = j = e+j/2
x

os

+ j sin

+j
2
2

th

th

th

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Page 143

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

Laplace Transform
ME 2007
1.
If F (s) is the Laplace transform of
function f (t), then Laplace transform of
t

f (t) dt is
0

(A)

F (s)

(C) sF (s) f (0)

(B)

F (s) f (0)

(D)
CE 2009
1.
Laplace transfrm of the function
f(x) = cosh(ax) is
(A)
(C)

ME 2009
2.

The inverse Laplace transform of


is
(A)
(B)

1
s s
2

(B)
(C) 1
(D)

ME 2010
3.
The Laplace transform of a function
. The function

is

is

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

ME 2012
4.
The inverse Laplace transform of the
function F(s)

is given by

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

(D)

ECE - 2005
1.
In what range should Re(s) remain so
that the Laplace transform of the function
exists.
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
ECE 2006
2.
A solution for the differential equation
x(t)+2x(t)= (t) with initial condition
x( )=0 is
(C)
(A)
(D)
(B)
ECE 2008

ME 2013
5.
The function
equation

3.

Consider the matrix P = *

satisfies the differential

value of eP is

and the auxiliary

conditions,

+ . The

(A) *

(B) [

. The

Laplace transform of

is given by

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ME 2014
6.
Laplace transform of
The Laplace transform of

(C) [

(D) [
is

ECE - 2010
4.
The trigonometric Fourier series for the
waveform f(t) shown below contains
th

th

th

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Page 144

GATE QUESTION BANK

Mathematics

ECE 2013
9.
A system is described by the differential
equation

=x(t). Let x(t)

be a rectangular pulse given by


,
Assuming that y(0) = 0 and
(A) Only cosine terms and zero value for
the dc component
(B) Only cosine terms and a positive
value for the dc component
(C) Only cosine terms and a negative
value for the dc component
(D) Only sine terms and a negative value
for the dc component.
5.

the Laplace transform of y(t) is

Given
[

10.

then the value of K is


(A) 1
(C) 3
(B) 2
(D) 4
ECE 2011
6.

If

then the initial

and final values of f(t) are respectively


(A) 0, 2
(C) 0, 2/7
(B) 2, 0
(D) 2/7, 0

The maximum value of the solution y(t) of


the differential equation y(t) +
with initial condition
and

(A) 1
(C)
(B) 2
(D)

ECE 2014
11. The unilateral Laplace transform of
. Which one of the following
is the unilateral Laplace transform of
?

ECE/EE/IN 2012
7.
The unilateral Laplace transform of f(t) is
. The unilateral Laplace transform

8.

of t f(t) is
(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

Consider the differential equation

The numerical value of


(A)
(B)

EE 2005
12. For the equation
(t) + 3 (t) + 2x(t) = 5, the solution
x(t) approaches which of the following
values as t
?
(A) 0
(C) 5
(D) 10
(B)
EE 2014

is

13.

(C)
(D)

Let

be

the

transform of signal x(t). Then,


(A) 0
(C) 5
(B) 3
(D) 21
th

th

th

Laplace
is

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Page 145

GATE QUESTION BANK

14.

Mathematics

[
Let g: [
be a function
[ ] where [x]
defined by g(x)
represents the integer part of x. (That is,
it is the largest integer which is less than
or equal to x). The value of the constant
term in the Fourier series expansion of
g(x) is_______

Answer Keys and Explanations


ME
1.

5.

[Ans. C]

[Ans. A]
From definition,
We know

2.

Taking Laplace transformation on both


sides
[
]
[ ]
( )
( )

[Ans. C]

1
1
1
1


(s s) s(s 1) s (s 1)
2

3.

( )

)
(

[Ans. A]
[

6.

4.

s and constant

[Ans. B]
It is the standard result that
L (cosh at) =

ECE
1.

[Ans. A]
[

[Ans. D]
{

[Ans. D]

CE
1.

Matching coefficient of
in numerator we get,

}
2.
{

[Ans. A]
(t) + 2x (t) = (t)
Taking Laplace transform of both sides ,
we get

th

th

th

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Page 146

GATE QUESTION BANK

sX(s) X(0) + 2X(s) = 1


1
X(s) =
s2
From Inverse Laplace transform gives, we
get
[
]
3.

[Ans. D ]
eP=
[

Mathematics

cosine terms and a negative value of the


dc component.
5.

[Ans. D]

]
[

0 1
and P=

2 3
s 1
Where
=

2 s+3
s 3 1
1

s 1s 2 2 s
s 3

s 1 s 2
=

1
s 2

1
s

s
s 1s 2

6.

[Ans. B]

Using initial value theorem:

eP

2
1
s 1 s 2

2 2
s 1 s 2

1
1

s 1 s 2

2
1

s 2 s 1

=[

]
=2

4.

[Ans. C]
Since f(t) is an even function, its
trigonometric Fourier series contains
only cosine terms

7.

[Ans. D]

+
t

)]
8.

[Ans. D]

Therefore, the trigonometric Fourier


series for the waveform f(t) contains only

Taking Laplace transform on both the


sides. We have,
th

th

th

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Page 147

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

Mathematics

[Ans. D]

By Laplace transform property,


[

]
[

]
12.

9.

[Ans. B]
=5
By taking Laplace transform

[Ans. B]
Writing in terms of Laplace transform

X(s) =
(

)
13.

[Ans. B]

(
(
10.

[Ans. D]
14.

[Ans. 0.5]

For t =

Value of constant term = 0.5


+ sin

th

th

th

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Page 148

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Network Solution Methodology


ECE - 2006
1.
A negative resistance R
is connected to
a passive network N having driving point
impedance
(s) as shown below. For
(s) to be positive real,
Rneg

4.

In the interconnection of ideal source


shown in the figure, it is known that the
60V source is absorbing power.
20 V
+
I

60 V
12 A

Z2(s)

Which of the following can be the value of


the current source I?
(A) 10 A
(C) 15A
(B) 13A
(D) 18A

Z1(s)

(j )

(A) |R

Re

(B) |R

| (j )|

(C) |R

(D) |R

ECE - 2010
5.
In the circuit shown, the power supplied
by the voltage source is

(j )
(j )

ECE - 2007
2.
For the circuit shown in the figure, the
Thevenin voltage and resistance looking
into X Y are

1
1

10V
1

i
2i 1

(A) 4/3 V 2
(B) 4V 2/3

(C) 4/3 V 2/3


(D) 4V 2

ECE - 2009
3.
In the circuit shown, what value of RL
maximizes the power delivered to RL?
V
4

4
V

(A) 0 W
(B) 5 W

(C) 10 W
(D) 100 W

ECE - 2011
6.
In the circuit shown below, the value of
R such that the power transferred to R
is maximum is
10

10

10

V
100V

(A) 2.4
(B) 83

5V

(C) 4
(D) 6

2V

(A) 5
(B) 10
th

th

(C) 15
(D) 20
th

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Page 149

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

In the circuit shown below, the current I


is equal to

11.

VB =6 V, then VC
R

j4

j4

If VA

Network Theory

VD is
R

14 0 V

R
V

5V

(C) 2.8 0 A
(D) 3.2 0 A

In the circuit shown below, the Norton


equivalent current in amperes with
respect to the terminals P and Q is

25

(A) 6.4 j4.8


(B) 6.56 j7.87

ECE/IN - 2012
9.
The average power delivered to an
impedance (4 j3) by a current
5cos (100t+100) A is
(A) 44.2 W
(C) 62.5 W
(B) 50 W
(D) 125 W

RC

RB
RA

(C) 1/k

(A) k
(B) k
13.

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
10. The impedance looking into nodes 1 and
2 in the given circuit is
i

9k

Rc

Rb

(C) 10 + j0
(D) 16 + j0

99i

1k

(C) 3 V
(D) 6 V

Ra

j50

15

ECE/EE/IN - 2013
12. Consider a delta connection of resistors
and its equivalent star connection as
shown. If all elements of the delta
connection are scaled by a factor k, k>0,
the elements of the corresponding star
equivalent will be scaled by a factor of

j30
16 0

(A) 5 V
(B) 2 V

(A) 1.4 0 A
(B) 2.0 0 A
8.

10V

(D) k

Three capacitors C1, C2 and C3 whose


values are 10F 5F and 2F
+respectively, have breakdown voltages
of 10V, 5V and 2V respectively. For the
interconnection shown below , the
maximum safe voltage in Volts that can be
applied across the combination, and the
corresponding total charge in C stored in
the effective capacitance across the
terminals are respectively,
C2
C3

1
100
2

(A) 50
(B) 100

C1

(C) 5 k
(D) 10.1 k

(A) 2.8 and 36


(B) 7 and 119
th

th

(C) 2.8 and 32


(D) 7 and 80
th

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Page 150

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2014
14. For maximum power transfer between
two cascaded sections of an electrical
network, the relationship between the
output impedance of the first section to
the input impedance
of the second
section is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

18.

15.

19.

Consider the configuration shown in the


figure which is a portion of a larger
electrical network

Network Theory

In the figure shown, the value of the


current I (in Amperes) is______.
5
5

5V

10

In the circuit shown in the figure, the


value of node voltage V is
10 0

i
i

V
4

R R

For R 1 and currents i =2 i


1
i
4 which one of the following is
TRUE?
(A) i
5
(B) i
4
(C) Data is sufficient to conclude that the
supposed currents are impossible
(D) Data is insufficient to identify the
currents i i and i

17.

j6

j3

16.

4 0

A Y-network has resistances of 10 each


in two of its arms, while the third arm has
a resistance of 11 . In the equivalent
-network, the lowest value (in .)
among the three resistances is ________

(A) 22 + j 2 V
(B) 2 + j 22 V
20.

(C) 22 j 2 V
(D) 2 j 22 V

The circuit shown in the figure, the


angular frequency (in rad/s) at which
the Norton equivalent impedance as seen
from terminals b-b is purely resistive
is_____________.
1

1F
b

10 cos t
(volts)

0.5

21.

Nortons theorem states that a complex


network connected to a load can be
replaced with an equivalent impedance
(A) in series with a current source
(B) in parallel with a voltage source
(C) in series with a voltage source
(D) in parallel with a current source

For the Y-network shown in the figure,


the value of R (in ) in the equivalent
-network is ____.
R

3
7.5

th

th

th

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Page 151

GATE QUESTION BANK

22.

The magnitude of current (in mA)


through the resistor R in the figure
shown is__________
R
1k
R

10 m

2k

23.

2m

4k

3k

The equivalent resistance in the infinite


ladder network shown in the figure, is R .
2R
R

(A) Very low


(B) L/3

(C) 3L
(D) Very high

EE - 2007
2.
A 3V dc supply with an internal resistance
of 2 supplies a passive non-linear
resistance characterized by the relation
VNL = . The power dissipated in the
non-linear resistance is
(A) 1.0 W
(C) 2.5 W
(B) 1.5 W
(D) 3.0 W
EE - 2008
3.
In the circuit shown in the figure, the
value of the current i will be given by
1
1

The value of R /R is________


24.

Network Theory

5V

a
+ V

1
1

3
1

4V

1
1

The circuit shown in the figure represents a


(A) 0.31 A
(B) 1.25 A

4.

Assuming ideal elements in the circuit


shown below, the voltage Vab will be
2

(A) voltage controlled voltage source


(B) voltage controlled current source
(C) current controlled current source
(D) current controlled voltage source
EE - 2006
1.
The three limbed non ideal core shown in
the figure has three winding with nominal
inductances L each when measured
individually with a signal phase AC
source. The inductance of the winding as
connected will be
R

(C) 1.75 A
(D) 2.5 A

+
1A

Vab

5V

(A) 3 V
(B) 0 V

(C) 3 V
(D) 5 V

EE - 2009
Statements for Linked Answer Questions 5
& 6:
2k
5V

3VAB
A

2k

1k
B

th

th

th

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Page 152

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

For the circuit given above,


Thevenins
resistance across
terminals A and B is
(A) 0.5k
(C) 1k
(B) 0.2k
(D) 0.11k

the
the

Network Theory

EE - 2010
10. If the 12 resistor draws a current of 1A
as shown in the figure, the value of
resistance R is
1

6.

7.

8.

For the circuit given above, the


Thevenins voltage across the terminals
and B is
(A) 1.25V
(C) 1V
(B) 0.25V
(D) 0.5V
How many 200W/220V incandescent
lamps connected in series would consume
the same total power as a single
100W/220V incandescent lamp?
(A) not possible
(C) 3
(B) 4
(D) 2

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Is = 5A

4V

(5A; Put Vs=20V)


(2A; Put Vs =8V)
(5A; Put Is = 10A)
(7A; Put Is= 12A)

11.

1k
6V

(A) 0mA
(B) 1mA

(C) 2mA
(D) 6mA

6V

(C) 8
(D) 18

As shown in the figure, a 1 resistance is


connected across a source that has a load
line v + i = 100. The current through the
resistance is
i
Source

(A) 25A
(B) 50A

(C) 100A
(D) 200A

EE - 2011
12. In the circuit given below, the value of R
required for the transfer of maximum
power to the load having a resistance of
3 is
R

10 V

The current through the 2 k resistance


in the circuit shown is
C
1k
1k
2k
1k

12

(A) 4
(B) 6

For the circuit shown, find out the current


flowing through the 2 resistance. Also
identify the changes to be made to double
the current through the 2 resistance.

9.

(A) Zero
(B) 6

oad

(C) 3
(D) Inifnity

EC/EE/IN - 2012
13. Assuming both the voltage sources are in
phase the value of R for which maximum
power is transferred from circuit A to
circuit B is

th

th

th

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Page 153

GATE QUESTION BANK


2

16.

j1

10V

Circuit

3V

In the figure, the value of resistor R is


(25 + I/2) ohms, where I is the current in
amperes. The current I is______

Circuit

(A) 0.8
(B) 1.4

Network Theory

300V

(C) 2
(D) 2.8

EC/IN/EE - 2013
14. The following arrangement consists of an
ideal transformer and an attenuator
which attenuates by a factor of 0.8. An ac
voltage V
100V is applied across
WX to get an open circuit voltage V
across YZ. Next , an ac voltage
V = 100V is applied across YZ to get an
open circuit voltage V
across WX.
Then,V /V
V
/V are
respectively.
W

17.

Two identical coupled inductors are


connected in series. The measured
inductances for the two possible series
connections are 380 H and 240 H. Their
mutual inductance in H is_______

18.

The total power dissipated in the circuit,


shown in the figure, is 1 kW.
10

ac source

oad
200V

1:1.25

The voltmeter, across the load, reads 200


V. The value of
is__________

19.

The line A to neutral voltage is 10 15 V


for a balanced three phase star-connected
load with phase sequence ABC. The
voltage of line B with respect to line C is
given by
(A) 103 105 V
(C) 103
75 V
(B) 10 105 V
(D) 103 90 V

20.

The Nortons equivalent source in


amperes as seen into the terminals X and
Y is _______

(A) 125/100 and 80/100


(B) 100/100 and 80/100
(C) 100/100 and 100/100
(D) 80/100 and 80/100
EE - 2014
15. The three circuit elements shown in the
figure are part of an electric circuit. The
total power absorbed by the three circuit
elements in watts is ___________
10

2.5V

2.5
100V

80V

5
15V

5V

th

th

th

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Page 154

GATE QUESTION BANK

21.

The power delivered by the current


source, in the figure, is_____________

3.

Which one of the following equations is


valid for the circuit shown below?
1
1
I3
I1

1V

I2

1V

Network Theory

5V

I5

I6

22.

An incandescent lamp is marked 40 W,


240V. If resistance at room temperature
(26C) is 120 , and temperature
coefficient of resistance is 4.5 10 /C,
then its ON state filament temperature in
C is approximately___________

IN - 2006
1.
The root mean square value of a
voltage waveform consisting of a
superimposition of 2V dc and a 4V peak
to peak square wave is
(A) 2 V
(C) 8 V
(B) 6 V
(D) 12 V

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
4.

1V

5.

1A

(C) 1A
(D) 2A

In the circuit shown below the maximum


power that can be transferred to the load
is
102 sin(1000t)

(C) 2.5W
(D) 3.0W

10

10 m

i(t)

(A) 0W
(B) 1.0W

(A) 0A
(B) 0.5A

3
3

0
0
0
0

The current I supplied by the dc voltage


source in the circuit shown below is

IN - 2008
2.
The power supplied by the dc voltage
source in the circuit shown below is

3V

I4
I7

(A) 250 W
(B) 500 W

th

th

(C) 1000 W
(D) 2000 W

th

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Page 155

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2009
6.
The source network S is connected to the
load network L as shown by dashed lines.
RL

+
10 V

3V

Source Network S

Network Theory

IN - 2014
9.
The circuit shown in the figure contains a
dependent current source between A and
terminals. The Thevenins equivalent
resistance in k between the terminals C
and D is ___________.
5k
5k
C

10 V

10 V

Load Network L

The power transferred from S to L would


be maximum when RL is
(A) 0
(C) 0.8
(B) 0.6
(D) 2

IN - 2010
7.
A 100 , 1W resistor and a 800 , 2W
resistor are connected in series. The
maximum dc voltage that can be applied
continuously to the series circuit without
exceeding the power limit of any of the
resistors is
(A) 90V
(C) 45 V
(B) 50 V
(D) 40V
IN - 2011
8.
The current I shown in the circuit given
below is equal to
10

10 V

(A) 3 A
(B) 3.67 A

10

10

10

(C) 6 A
(D) 9 A

th

th

th

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Page 156

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

4.
[Ans. A]
(s) =
(s)

(S)

R ( (s))

60V

V
x

2i

i
1

For V
Apply nodal analysis,
V
V
2i
2 V
0 V
i
2
1
V
V
2 2V
2i 0
2
2
2
V
V
4V
Similarly,
2
V
V
4V R
2
3.

[Ans. C]
For maximum power transfer, R
V
4

5.

12 A

[Ans. A]
3
1
1

1
(

3)

3
10V

2)

2
(

2)

1
Fig .1

The current through all the branches are


marked as shown in Fig. 1.
Apply KVL to outer loop
2(
3) 2(
2) 10
4
10 10
0
Power supplied by 10 V 10 0 0

V
100V
100V
100 (100 V )
8
4
Also V
50V
12.5 12.5 25
V
R
4 R

12 A

In the given circuit, the current through


the branch of 60 V source is (12 I) as
shown in Fig. The source of 60 V absorbs
power, only if
P =(12 I)60 is +ve. i.e., I<12.
The value of the current source, I can only
be 10A given in option (a), as the currents
given in other options are more than 12 A.

[Ans. D]
1

(12 I)A

0
|R

20 V

12 A

(R

m( (s)) R
For (s)to be +ve & real,
Re ( (s))
R
|Re( (s))|
2.

[Ans. A]

6.

[Ans. C]
10

10
10

15

4
Fig. 2

For Maximum power transfer to RL


th

th

th

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Page 157

GATE QUESTION BANK

R
R
R
Thevenins resistance seen across
the terminals of R into the rest of the
network. The relevant circuit is shown in
Fig.2, where the independent current
source is open circuited and the voltage
sources are short circuited.
R
10 (10 10)
R
R
15
7.

Network Theory

8.

[Ans. A]
The Norton equivalent current is
25
16 0
(40 30)
3
8
tan ( ) 8
36.86
4
(6.4 j4.8)

9.

[Ans. B]
The load consists of a resistance and a
capacitance of this, only R is passive and
consumes power
So P
=
R

[Ans. B]
To find the current I in the given circuit in
Fig. (1), the delta network with 6 each is
converted to a star as shown in Fig. (2)

=( )

14 0 V

*Note rms value of

j4

j4

10.

50
cos t

+.

[Ans. A]
i

6
Fig. 1

99i

1k

6
2

9k

100
6

6
2

99i )

Fig. 2

Then the given circuit reduces to Fig. (3),


(4) and (5)
(2 j4)||(2 j4) 5 and
Where
14 0
2 0
7

14 0
2

2
2

Fig. 3

5
14 0

14 0

100

99i

After connecting a voltage source of V


V
V
(10k)( i ) 100(
99i
i )
10000i
100(
100 i )
100
10000i
20000i
100
100
i
(
)
[
]
20000
200
V 100
99i
i

j4

j4

10k

100 [

50
V

100 (
50

200

)]

50

Fig. 4
th

th

th

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Page 158

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

[Ans. A]
R

14.

[Ans. C]
For maximum power transfer
Load impedance = complex conjugate of
source impedance

15.

[Ans. A]

R
R

Network Theory

10V

1
R
V

5V

From the given circuit,V


V
V
V
3
2
KC at gives
V
V
2 3 0V
V
1
12.

13.

[Ans. B]
Consider R
k R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
k

k R
k
3k

6V
R R

5F

5V

(Safe voltage)

V
C

5V

10V

k.

2F

(Safe voltage)
(Safe voltage)

For safe warping voltage across


should
not increased from 2V
C V
V
C
C
V Total safe voltage across C and C
5V
2
5 2
5V
2
7
14
[V
2.8V]
5
C
C
(C C )
80
C
10F (5 2)
F
7
80
Total charge C . V
2.8 32C
7

2
4
1

KC at node
i
i
i
KCL at node B
i
i
i
KCL at node C
i
i
i
Put the value of i and i in equation
2 ( 1) i
i
1
Put i and i in equation
1 ( 4) i
i
3
Put the value of i and i in equation
3 i
2
i
5

2V

10F

[Ans. C]
C

i
i
i

16.

[Ans. *] Range 29.08 to 29.10


R
10

10

11

R
29.09
R

32

32

So lowest value is 29.09


th

th

th

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Page 159

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

[Ans. D]
Nortons theorem: Here for a complex
network, after isolating the element, we
short circuit the two ends and find the
current
.
is the current of the
independent current source with the
equivalent resistance in parallel

10 0 V
V1

4 0

20.
10

5V

3j

[Ans. *] Range 1.9 to 2.1


The Nortons equivalent circuit is
1

1F

Voltage
source
shorted

5
0.25 mp
20
For current
5

In

0.5

doiman
1
j
j

(1||0.5j )
1

5
20

0.5j
1 0.5j
0.5j (1 0.5j ) j
1 0.25
0.5j (1 0.5j ) j(1 0.25 )
(1 0.25 )
Equating the imaginary part to zero, we
get
0.5
1 0.25
0
0.25
1
2rad/sec

10

0.25 mp

(0.25 0.25)
0.50 mp
19.

6j

Applying KCL to the super node we have


V
V
V
4 0
0
.
3j 6 6j
From super node we get
V
V
10 0
.
Solving
and
for V we get
V
2 22j V

[Ans. *] Range 0.49 to 0.51


Apply superposition theorem
For voltage
5

V2
4

18.

Network Theory

[Ans. D]
Using super node concept, we can treat
nodes 1 and 2 to gather as a super node
as shown in the figure by the dotted lines

th

th

th

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Page 160

GATE QUESTION BANK

21.

R
R

[Ans. *] Range 9 to 11
R

24.

Network Theory

2.618

[Ans. C ]

7.5

22.

In the above circuit in the output side


there is a dependent current source
which is controlled by the input current
and hence it is a current control current
source.

7.5 3 7.5
7.5
7.5 2 5 3
10
7.5

EE
1.

[Ans. *] Range 2.79 to 2.81


By source transformation theorem
2k
1k
4k

20V

[Ans. A]
The inductance of all three coils are
and they are connected to same line
carrying the same current and set up the
flux in the same direction

8V
2 2

by KV 20
28
10k
23.

10k

3k
8 0

2.8 m
All these fluxes linked with each other
and they will balance each other. So net
flux will reduce drastically. Thus net L
will be very low

[Ans. *] Range 2.60 to 2.64


We know that in a infinite ladder network
if all resistance are comprises of same
value R then the equivalent resistance is
(

. Then the above given network

2.

[Ans. A]

can be redrawn as R series with R


equivalent as follows
R
R
R

1.618R

(1

2
3V

5)R
2

+
I

3 2
1
Power delivered by source = 31=3W.

2.618R

th

th

th

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Page 161

GATE QUESTION BANK

Power dissipated by 2 resistor


2 2 .
Power dissipated in non-linear element
= 3-2=1W

6.

Network Theory

[Ans. D]
2k

3V

1k

[Ans. B]
5 1
V
2
Also, 4 V
Also, V
V

2.5V
4i

V
2

To calculate thevenins voltage terminals


A-B are kept open.
Applying source transformation into
correct source

4i . (1)

1.25 V

4i (From (1))

3V

3V

2k

2k

2k

1k

Applying source transformation current


source is transformed into voltage source.

[Ans. B]
Thevenins resistance is calculated using
the circuit shown in fig. (1) and (2),
where independent voltage source is
short circuited

1k

3V

5
V
2

1k

I
A

2k

Applying KVL, {I is assumed to be in mA}


5
1k
3V
1k
0
2
5
2k
3V
0
(1)
2
V
(2)
1k
Put the value of in quation (1)
5
2V
3V
0
2
V
0.5V

1k

B
Fig. 1
Fig. 1
3 V
10 )

I
V

10

1k

1k

5.

[Ans. A]
V
2i

V)

4(V

4V

4(2.5 1.25)
i 1.25
4.

2k

5V

3.

Fig. 2

7.

[Ans. D]
For a lamp, P KV
For 200 220V lamp, K 200
220
Consider n lamps connected in series,
Total power consumed n K 110

Write the loop equation :


(
V
3V
V
10 )10
10
V
5V
10
V
10
R
0.2k
5

100

th

th

110

th

100

n 2

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Page 162

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

[Ans. B]
The relevant circuit is shown in fig.
As the voltage across 2 4V
4
2
2
In order to double the current through 2
resistance, V is to be doubled (Put
V
8V) ]
Note that the 5 A source has no effect on
the answer. However it gives 3A current
through the voltage source as shown in
fig.

4V

R
6R
6 R
6

3
R
13.

Network Theory

[Ans. A]
2

j1

10V

Circuit

[Ans. A]
As the ABCD bridge is balanced,

[Ans. B]
Current through R =1A
By KVL, 1.R +6=12
R=6

[Ans. B]
V i 100 and V i .1(by ohms law)
2i 100 i 50
[Ans. B]
To calculated
circuited
R

5V

10
2.5
4
So in our circuit

10V

12.

Circuit

2
10V

11.

3V

5V

Fig.

10.

For maximum power transfer


Source impedance = Load impedance
z R

9.

2.5

5V

3V

pply KV in loop
5 2.5R 3 0
2
[R
0.8]
2.5

voltage source is short


14.

[Ans. B]
W

1:1.25
100 V

125 V

Y
V

R
X

V
6R
R
6||R
6 R
According to maximum power transfer
theorem

100

V
0.8
when V

th

th

turns ratio
125
V
100V
100V

th

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Page 163

GATE QUESTION BANK


2

18.

[Ans. *] Range 17.3 to 17.4


(10)

200

Thevenins circuit seen by 2 2 will be


as follow
V
100V
nd R
0.2||0.8 negligible
V
100V
V
V
turns ratio
100V 1
1.25
80V

R
(2) (1)

Power dissipated
4 10R
1000
996
R
10
400
R
400 99.6
17.33

100V

0.8

Network Theory

19.

10

[Ans. C]
C

120
120

15.

16.

[Ans. 330]
Power absorbed by battery 100V = 100
10 1000
Power supplied by battery
80V 80 8 640
Current through 15V battery
10 8
2
Power supplied by battery
15V 15 2 30
Total power absorbed
1000 640 30
330 att

120

lags voltage A by 90

V
90
3 10
Angle 90 with respect to A
Hence
V

20.

3 10 ( 90
103
75

[Ans. 2]
2.5V

[Ans. 10]
300

(25

600

(50
10

15)

2.5

2
)

)
i
5

5
5V

17.

[Ans. 35]
Total flux linkage =
total

Terminal x y shorted
Applying superposition
i due to 5V
(5)
5
(5
) 7.5

380m
240m
4

140m
35

5
20
7.5
i due to 2.5V

th

th

5
10

th

0.5

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Page 164

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.5
1
0.5
(2.5 2.5) 2
Total i 0.5 0.5 1 (NOTE: Option
not matching with IIT website)
21.

2.

Network Theory

[Ans. D]
The given circuit in Fig. 1 is simplified as
shown in Fig. 2 and Fig.3

[Ans. 3]

V1=3
V

1V

V1

Fig.1

1
1V

3.
Power delivered by current source
Applying nodal at V
(

)
( )

[Ans. D]
The circuit is shown in Fig. marking the
nodes: P,Q,R and S
Apply KCL at nodes,

3
3
v
2
Power delivered

2v

22.

I1

I2

[Ans. *] Range 2470 to 2471

I5

I3

I6

I4

I7

At node, P
. (1)
At nodeQ ,
. . (2)
At nodeR ,
. (3)
At nodeS ,
. (4)
From (3) and (4)
0
4.

[Ans. A]
I

P
I1

[Ans. C]
For d.c voltage of 2 V, M.S.V = 4
For square wave voltage with peak to
peak value of 4 V or amplitude = 2V,
M.S.V = 4 + 4 = 8
R. . S. V

5V

40
R
(240)
R
40
R R (1
T)
R is resistance of room temperature
(240)
120(1 4.5 10
T)
40
11 4.5 10
T
11 1000
T T
4.5
11 1000
T 26
2470.44
4.5
IN
1.

Fig.3

Fig.2

2
O

( )

V1

From Fig.3, I = 1 A, power supplied by 3 V


d.c source = P = V1 I = 3 1 3 W

1V

1A

The circuit is shown in Fig.


Voltage across 1 =1V
1 = 1A
Apply KCL at node, P

8 V

th

th

th

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Page 165

GATE QUESTION BANK

I+1= I1,
or I+1=1 ,
0
5.

I
+

Source Network S

10

3V +

Load Network L

7
2 R
Power supplied by the 10V source,

10 m

P
Power dissipated in 2 resistance,
98
P
2
(2 R )
Power transferred to the network,

102 Sin (1000 t)


10 /

Phasor of i(t)
R j

102
10 j10
10 10
10 j 10
The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown
in Fig. 2

P (R )

P would be maximum, if

70
2
98
0
(2 R )
(2 R )
196
196 98
70 2 R
2 R
70
35
98
28
R
2
0.8
35
35

V
7.

[Ans. C]
Resistor 1 : 100 1
Resistor 2 : 800 , 2 W
Maximum current that
withstand

Fig. 2
10 j 10

V
102
102(10 j 10)
200 e
For maximum power transfer to load,
10 j 10 R
10

10 e
20
i (t) 10 sin(
45 )
10
(rms)
10
2
Power transferred to load,
100
(rms) R
P
10 500
2
6.

+
10 V

10

i(t)

RL

[Ans. B]
The circuit is shown in Fig. 1

i(t)

Network Theory

1
100

resistor can

1
10

Similarly,

2
800

1
20

If these two resistors are connected in


series.
100

800

[Ans. C]
The circuit is shown in Fig.

Then maximum value of


th

th

th

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Page 166

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

(100 800)
1
(900) 45Volts
20

9.

[Ans. 20]
5k

[Ans. A]
The given circuit is Fig. 1
Convert the (10 V, 10 ) voltage source
across A, B to the left into a current
source, (1 A, 10 ). The resultant circuit is
shown in Fig. 2

5k

10 V

10 V

For R calculation
Independent
voltage source should be short circuited
So

10

10 V

10

10

10

5k

Fig. 1

Network Theory

10

10

5K

10

10 V
1V( ssume)
so V
1

10
R

So *R

Fig. 2

Apply KCL at Node A


10 V
1 V
V
10
5k
5K
1 V
.5 V
2V
1.5
V
0.75V
1 V
1 0.75
So
5k
5k
0.25
5k
5 10
0.05m
1
[R
20k]
0.05m

The circuit is further simplified as shown


in Fig. 3 and 4
1

10

10

Fig. 3

10

Fig. 4

5
15

th

th

th

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Page 167

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Transient/Steady State Analysis of RLC Circuits to DC Input


Q

ECE - 2006
1.
In the figure shown, assume that all the
capacitors are initially uncharged.
If Vi(t) =10u(t) Volts, then V0(t) is given
by

Q2 P2
+

S2

(t)
F

1K
+

+
Vi(t)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

4 F

4K

1F

Assume that the capacitor has zero initial


charge. Given that u(t) is a unit step
(t) across the
function, the voltage
capacitor is given by
(A) ( ) tu(t nT)
(B) u(t) + 2 ( ) u(t nT)
(C) tu(t) + 2 ( ) (t nT)
u(t nT)
)
)
(D)
0
e (
+0 e (
]

Vo(t)

8e
Volts
8(
e
) Volts
8 u(t) Volts
8 Volts

ECE - 2007
2.
In the circuit shown, Vc is 0 volts at t = 0
sec. For t>0, the capacitor current iC (t),
where t is in seconds, is given by
20k

Common Data for Questions 4 and 5:


The following series RLC circuit with zero
initial condition is excited by a unit
impulse function (t)

1H

20k
10V

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

0.50 exp (
0.25 exp (
0.50 exp (
0.25 exp (

+
4 F
-

VC

25t)mA
25t)mA
12.5 t)mA
6.25 t)mA

ECE - 2008
3.
The circuit shown in the figure is used to
charge the capacitor C alternately from
two current sources as indicated. The
switches S1 and S2 are mechanically
coupled and connected as follows
For 2nT t< (2n+ )T,
(n = 0, , 2) S to P and S2 to P2
For (2n+ )T t< (2n+2)T,
(n = 0, , 2) S to Q and S2 to Q2

(t)

4.

+
1F

For t > 0, the output voltage


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5.

(e

VC(t)

(t) is

te
e
e

cos (

t)

t)

sin (

For t > 0, the voltage across the resistor


is
(A)

(e

(B) e
(C)
(D)
th

th

*cos (

)
)

sin (

cos (

th

sin (

)+

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Page 168

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

Network Theory
0

In the following circuit, the switch S is


closed at t=0. The rate of change of
current

1.5A

(0 ) is given by

15mH

i(t)

(A) 0

(C)

(B)

(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Rs

ECE - 2009
7.
The time domain behavior of an RL circuit
is represented by
L + Ri =

t=0
0

IS

S
i(t)

( + e

i(t) = 0
i(t) =
i(t) = 0
i(t) = 0

ECE - 2011
10. In the circuit shown below, the initial
charge on the capacitor is 2.5 mC, with
the voltage polarity as indicated. The
switch is closed at time t = 0. The current
i(t) at a time t after the switch is closed is
i(t)

sint) u(t)

For an initial current of i(0) =

0 2 e
0 2 e
0 e
e

, the

steady state value of the current is given


by

00
0 F

(A) i(t)

(B) i(t)

8.

(C) i(t)

(1+B)

(D) i(t)

(1+B)

The switch in the circuit shown was on


position a for a long time and is moved
to position b at time t = 0. The current
i(t) for t > 0 is given by
0 k a

b
i(t)

100 V

0.2 F

0.2e
20e
0.2e
20e

i(t) =
exp( 2
0 t)
i(t) = exp( 2
0 t)
i(t) = 0 exp( 2
0 t)
i(t) =
exp( 2
0 t)

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
11. In the following figure, C1 and C2 are ideal
capacitors.
has been charged to 12 V
before the ideal switch S is closed at t = 0.
The current i(t) for all t is.
S

t=0

0.3 F

0.5 F

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

u(t)m
u(t)m
u(t)m
u(t)m

i(t)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

ECE - 2010
9.
In the circuit shown, the switch S is open
for a long time and is closed at t = 0. The
current i(t) for t 0 is
th

Zero
a step function
an exponentially decaying function
an impulse function

th

th

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Page 169

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

ECE - 2013
Common Data for Questions 12 and 13:
Consider the following figure

R
k
+

1
10V

13.

), =

), =

( ) (t) = (

), =

msec

( ) (t) = (
2

), =

msec

( ) (t) =

The current Is in Amps in the voltage


source, and voltage Vs is Volts across the
current source respectively , are
(A)
, 20
(C)
, 20
(B) ,
0
(D)
, 20
The current in the 1 resistor in Amps is
(A) 2
(C) 10
(B) 3.33
(D) 12

17.

ECE - 2014
14. In the figure shown, the ideal switch has
been open for a long time. If it is closed at
t = 0, then the magnitude of the current
(in m ) through the 4 k resistor at
t = 0 is _______.
k

4k

( ) (t) =

2A

12.

2k

Is

Vs

msec
msec

A series RC circuit is connected to a DC


voltage source at time t = 0. The relation
between the source voltage
, the
resistance R, the capacitance C, and the
current i(t) is given below:
= R i(t) + i(u)du
Which one of the following represents the
current i(t)?
( )

()
0

15.

16.

+
0 F

mH

A series LCR circuit is operated at a


frequency different from its resonant
frequency. The operating frequency is
such that the current leads the supply
voltage. The magnitude of current is half
the value at resonance. If the values of L, C
and R are H, F and
, respectively,
the operating angular frequency (in
rad/s) is ________.

( )
i(t)

In the figure shown, the capacitor is


initially uncharged. Which one of the
following expressions describes the
current I(t) (in mA) for t >0?

th

th

th

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Page 170

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

( )
R

R
L1

i(t)

+
I

(A) 1,4
(B) 5,1

(C) 5,2
(D) 5,4

( )

2.

An ideal capacitor is charged to a voltage


Vo and connected at t = 0 across an ideal
inductor L. (The circuit now consists of a
capacitor and inductor alone). If we let

i(t)

18.

In the circuit shown in the figure, the


(t) (in volts )for t
value of
is
________
i

0u(t)

2H
2i

, the voltage across the capacitor

at time t > 0 is given by


(A) Vo
(B) Vocos ( t)
(C) Vosin ( t)
(D) Voe
cos ( t)

+
(t)

EE - 2007
3.
In the circuit shown in figure switch
is initially CLOSED and Sw is OPEN. The
inductor L carries a current of 10 A and
the capacitor is charged to 10 V with
polarities as indicated. Sw is initially
caps at t = 0 and Sw is OPENED at t = 0.
The current through C and the voltage
across L at t = 0 + is
SW2
R2 0

EE - 2006
1.
In the circuit shown in the figure, the
current source I = 1A, voltage source
V = 5V, R = R = R = 1,
= =
= 1H, = = 1F.
The currents (in A) through R3 and the
voltage source V respectively will be

R1= 0

SW1

L 10A

(A) 55 A, 4.5 V
(B) 5.5 A, 45 V
4.

+
_10V

(C) 45 A, 5.5 V
(D) 4.5 A, 55 V

The state equation for the current I1


shown in the network shown below in
terms of the voltage Vx and the

th

th

th

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Page 171

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

independent source V, is given by


0 2H

1F
+

1F
0 H

1F

3A

02

s
4 s

(A)
(B)
(A)

= 1.4 Vx 3.75I1 + V

(B)

= +1.4 Vx 3.75I1

(C)

= 1.4 Vx + 3.75I1 + V

(D)

= 1.4 Vx + 3.75I1

EE - 2008
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 5
and 6
The current i(t) sketched in the figure
flows through an initially uncharged
0.3 nF capacitor.

(C) 4 s
(D) 9s

EE - 2009
8.
In the figure shown, all elements used are
ideal. For time t<0, S remained closed
and S open. At t = 0, S is opened and S
is closed. If the voltage Vc2 across the
capacitor
at t = 0 is zero, the
voltage
across
the
capacitor
combination at t=0+ will be
S1
S2

3V

C1

1F

C2

2F

6
i(t) mA5
4
3
2
1

(A) 1V
(B) 2 V

0 1
9

5.

5 6
t ( s)

7 8

The charge stored in the capacitor at


t = 5 s, will be
(A) 8nC
(C) 13nC
(B) 10nC
(D) 16nC

(C) 1.5 V
(D) 3 V

EE - 2010
Linked Answer Questions 9 and 10
The L-C circuit shown in the figure has an
inductance L = 1mH and a capacitance
C = 10F.
L
i

6.

7.

The capacitor charged upto 5 ms, as per


the current profile given in the figure, is
connected across an inductor of 0.6 mH.
Then the value of voltage across the
capacitor after 1s will approximately be
(A) 18.8 V
(C) 23.5 V
(B) 23.5 V
(D) 30.6 V

t=0

9.

100 V
100+V

The initial current through the inductor is


zero, while the initial capacitor voltage is
100 V. The switch is closed at t = 0. The
current i through the circuit is:
(A) 5 cos(
0 t) A
(B) 5 sin( 0 t) A
(C) 10cos(
0 t) A
(D) 10 sin( 0 t) A

The time constant for the given circuit


will be

th

th

th

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Page 172

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

The L C circuit of Q.9 is used to


commutate a thyristor. Which is initially
carrying a current of 5 A as shown in the
figure below. The values and initial
conditions of L and C are the same as in
Q.9. The switch is closed at t=0. If the
forward drop is negligible, the time taken
for the device to turn off is

EE/IN - 2012
Statement for Linked answer question 14
and 15:
In the circuit shown, the three voltmeter
reading = 220V, = 122 V, =136 V
R
R

L
I
C

t=0

100V

(A)
(B)
11.

The switch in the circuit has been closed


for a long time. It is opened at t = 0.
At t = 0 , the current through the 1F
capacitor is

t =0
1F

(A) 0A
(B) 1A

14.

The power factor of the load is


(A) 0.45
(C) 0.55
(B) 0.50
(D) 0.60

15.

If RL = 5, the approximate power


consumption in the load is
(A) 700W
(C) 800W
(B) 750W
(D) 850W

20

(C)
2 s
(D) 26 s

5V

oad

100V

5A

2 s
6 s

Network Theory

(C) 1.25A
(D) 5A

EE - 2014
16. The switch SW shown in the circuit is
kept at position for a long duration t
t = 0 the switch is moved to position 2
Assuming
, the voltage (t)
across the capacitor is
R

EE - 2011
Common Data For Q.No 12 & Q.No 13
An RLC circuit with relevant data is given
below
=

= 2
= 2

12.

13.

4
4

The power dissipated in the resistor R is


(A) 0.5 W
(C) 2
(B) 1 W
(D) 2
The current
(A)
2
(B)

17.

in the figure above is


(C) +

(D) +j2A

th

(A)

(t) =

(B)

(t) =

)+

(C)

(t) =

(D)

(t) =

)(

)(

)+

The voltage across the capacitor, as


shown in the figure, is expressed as
(t) =
)
sin( t
)
+
sin ( t
The values of
and
respectively, are

th

th

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Page 173

GATE QUESTION BANK


H

20 sin 0t

(A) 2.0 and 1.98


(B) 2.0 and 4.20

(B) P = 0 and Q = 3/

(t)

Network Theory

(C) P = 5 and Q = 6/
(D) P = 5 and Q = 3

0 sin t

(C) 2.5 and 3.50


(D) 5.0 and 6.40

IN - 2006
1.
In the circuit shown in the following
figure, the input voltage vi(t) is constant
at 2V for time t
s and then it changes
to 1 V. The output voltage, v0(t), 2 s after
the change will be

IN - 2008
Statement for Linked Answer Question 3
and 4:
In the circuit shown below the steadystate is reached with the switch K open
subsequently the switch is closed at time
t=0.

t=0

Vi(t)

+
+

3.

1
t

At time t=0 , current I is


(A) ( )
(C)
(B) 0A
(D)

1F

Vi(t)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

4.

At time t =0 , is
(A)
(B)

Vo(t)

5A / s
( 0 )

is
(C) 0A / s
(D) 5A / s

IN - 2010
5.
In the dc circuit shown in the adjoining
figure, the node voltage V2 at steady state
is

exp ( 2) V
1 + exp ( 2) V
exp ( 2) V
1 exp ( 2) V

2k

IN - 2007
2.
In the circuit shown in the figure, the
input signal is ( ) = + cos

+
(t)

The steady state output is expressed as


(t) = P + Q cos( t
). If
R = 2,
the values of P and Q are

20 F

(A) 0V
(B) 1V

(t)

Fig.

0 F

(C) 2V
(D) 3V

IN - 2011
6.
In the circuit shown below, the switch,
initially at position 1 for a long time, is
changed to position 2 at t = 0.

(A) P = 0 and Q = 6/
th

th

th

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Page 174

GATE QUESTION BANK

1H

4A

10.

2 t=0

10V

The current i through the inductor for


t 0 is
(A)
e
(C) + 2e
(B) + e
(D) 2 e

Network Theory

In the circuit shown in the figure, initially


the capacitor is uncharged. The switch S
is closed at = 0. Two milliseconds after
the switch is closed, the current through
the capacitor (in mA) is _____________
S

2k

i (t)
t =0
4 F

2k

IN - 2012
7.
In the circuit shown below, the current
through the inductor is
11.
j
0
0

~+

+ ~

0
j

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D) 0 A

IN - 2014
8.
The circuit shown in figure was at steady
state for t < 0 with the switch at position
The switch is thrown to position at
time = 0, . The voltage V (volts) across
the 0 resistor at time
t = 0 is _________________
2

t=0

analog
interface

P
Sense harge
control

If T = kT

12.

+
0

In
the
microprocessor
controlled
measurement scheme shown in the
figure, R is the unknown resistance to be
measured, while R and
known.
is charged from voltage
to
(by
a constant DC voltage source ), once
through R in T
seconds and then
discharged to . It is again charged from
voltage to
through R in T seconds.

Sense
ischarge

then

(A) R = kR

(B) R = kR

ln ( )

(C) R = kR
(D) R = R

capacitor is to be connected across


the terminals and as shown in the
figure so that the power factor of the
parallel combination becomes unity. The
value of the capacitance required in F
is___________.

9.

The average real power in watts delivered


to a load impedance
= (4 j2) by an
ideal current source
i (t) = 4 sin ( t + 20 ) is ______________

th

60
0 Hz
0 Hz
0 Hz

th

th

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Page 175

lnk

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

Vc(t)

[Ans. D]
The transform circuit is shown below

(s)
+

(s)

( )

For the given circuit


Where

( )

(S) =

( )

( )

Where, R = 4
(S) =

In mathematical form,
(t) = tu(t) 2(t T)u(t 2T) +
2(t 2T)u(t 2T)

( )

( )

v (S) =

2.

4.

( )
( )

(t) = (t)

(S) =

(S + 2) + ( )
(t) =

(S) , v (t) = 0 v (t)


0, v (t) =

=(

(S) =

5.

Sin (

[Ans. B]
(S) = R (S) =

(t) = e
6.

( S

(S)

=S

=0 m

( )=0
Time constant of the circuit = R
= 4 F 20 k 20
= 40 ms
Using direct formula
(t) = ( )
( )
(0)]e
(t) = 0 (0 0 )e
(t) = 0 e
m
3.

nT)

[Ans. D]

[Ans. A]
At t = 0 Capacitor is short circuit and at t
=
apacitor is open circuit
So (0 ) =

nT)u(t

for v (t) = 0 for t

) (t

= tu(t) + 2 (

Where, R =
,
=4 F
R
=R
= 0
4
0 sec
=4
0 sec
For t 0u(t) = s = 0 (for dc signal)
( )

-1

(s)

(s)

2
T

t)

(s))

(S) =

S
(S + S + )

)
( )

os (

t)

[Ans. B]
In the circuit shown,
R
=0
=
R
(R + R )

Sin (

= (R + R )

T = R

[Ans. C]
The waveform of voltage Vc(t) is shown
below.

= (R + R )
R
(R + R )
= =
=
T
(R + R )

di
|
dt

th

th

th

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Page 176

t)

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

Network Theory
0

[Ans. A]
Take L.T of given differential equation
with i(0)=

and use the L.T pairs:


1.5 A

sin(t) u(t)
e

+ Ri =

( + e

(0 ) =
t t = , the status of the circuit is shown
in Fig. 3

sin t) u(t)

Take Laplace on both side


[s (s)

,
(s + ) +

i(0 )

s +

sin(t) u(t)
()

i (0 )

] + R (s) =

r ( s + R) (s) = +

0.5 A

+
(s + ) +
+

+
(

0.5 A

0.5 A
1.5 A

i ( )

S
0

i( )
0

(s) = [

]
(

i( ) = 0
The given circuit is a first order circuit

According to final value theorem,


Steady state value of
i(t) = i(t) =

8.

s (s)] =

R= 0+( 0
=
mH =

[Ans. B]
hen S is in position a, (0 ) = 00
fter S is moved to b, (for t 0)
= 00
=0 R=
0
02
=
=0 6 F
(t) = 00 e
(t)
i(t) =
= 20e

9.

with time constant, =

0.75 A

i(t) =
=0
10.

1.5 A

0
0

15mH

i (0 ) = 0
, i(0 ) = 0
S is closed for 0 t <
At t = 0 , i (0 ) = i (0 ) = 0
The status of the circuit is shown in Fig. 2

)(

+(
)(
2
0 2 e

[Ans. A]
Q(0 ) =

e ),t
e
,t

11.

th

)
0

2 m
(

For t 0, =
0
= 00
= R
= 0 m sec
(t) = ( 00
)u(t)
0e
d
i (t) =
dt
= 0
0
0 2000 e
= e
u(t)

i (0 )

i(0 )

+ (F

(0 ) =

0.75 A
S

= 0 sec, = 0 sec

i(t) =

[Ans. A]
S is open for
< 0
At t = 0 the status of the circuit is shown
in Fig. 1
0.75 A

General formula:

= 00e
u(t)m

0) = 0 +
0 H

u(t)

[Ans. D]
When the switch in closed at t = 0
Capacitor C1 will discharge and C2 will get
charge since both C1 and C2 are ideal and
there is no-resistance in the circuit
th

th

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Page 177

GATE QUESTION BANK

charging and discharging time constant


will be zero.
Thus current will exist like an impulse
function.

15.

Network Theory

[Ans. *] Range 0.45 to 0.47


A series LCR circuit operating frequency
is such that current leads the supply
voltage so
The current at resonance =

12.

[Ans. D]

R=

= H

= amp

= F

The magnitude of current is

the value at

resonance

0
+

10V

+
v

= 0

=0

0+2=

as

=0
+ +4
=
2
= 0 4 rad/sec
(omitting the negative value)

= 0

[Ans. *] Range 1.2 to 1.3


k

4k

16.

0
urrent after long time =
= m
0k
At t = 0 the voltage across the capacitor
is 10
Where,
=
= 0
=
Now at t= 0

i
i(t)

i
F

2k

= 2000i(t)
dv
di
i =c
= 0 002
dt
dt
di
i
= [0 002 + i(t)] amp
dt
di
= 2 + 000i(t)
dt
+ =
di
2 + 000i(t) + 2000i(t) =
dt
s
di
2 + 000i(t) + 2000i(t) =
dt
s
000
2 [s (s) +
(s)] =
2
s

4k

The current is m =
4

[Ans. A]

mH

0 F

+(

) =

13A

[Ans. C]

x )

2=

R + (x

2= +(

current through
14.

Across AB voltage drop is 10V


= 13A, = 20V
=
13.

0
2 =

2A

20

2 m

th

th

th

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Page 178

GATE QUESTION BANK

000
]=
2
s

2 (s) [s +
(s) =

2s(s +

= [
2 s
=

600 s

= [

i(t) =

17.

By Nodal analysis at node A


0+

00

s+
s+
e

+i =0

0+

00)

s+

Network Theory

00

= 0

00

00

i =

(t) = i =

] amp
EE
1.

]m

= *

+ where is in m sec

= [

], =

[Ans. D]
At steady state, inductor acts as short
circuit & capacitor acts open circuit
2

+i =0

msec

_+ 5V

[Ans. A]
= Ri(t) + i(u)du
=R +
=

S
=

Current through R = 5/1 =5A


Current delivered by 5V source = 5 1
= 4A

aplace transform ]
2.

is a D.C voltage source,


so

where

depends on

S k
=
=
s(RS + ) R (s +
i(t) =

[Ans. B]
The relevant circuit is shown in fig.
+

(t)

k
e
R

Fig.

()

It is a standard LC circuit.
With v (t) = cos( t)
or
sin( t + 0 )
3.
18.

[Ans. D]
Equivalent circuit at t = 0 is,

[Ans. *] Range 31.24 to 31.26

i
+
0u(t)

2H
2i

I
0
10A

10V

(t)

By nodal analysis,
0+
Since we have to evaluate (t) in steady
state the inductor will behave as a short
circuit and hence
= i

th

th

=0
=

th

2
(

0 = 00
)

= 4

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Page 179

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

[Ans. A]

8.

V-3( +

[Ans. A]
The status of the circuit at t = 0
shown in fig. 1.

= 0 (1)

= 0.2

+02

Network Theory

= 0 (2)
+
3V

Eliminating I2 for eq(1) and (2) we get


=
5.

3V

Fig. 1
The status of the circuit at t = 0
shown in Fig. 2.
S
S
A

2
A1

Charged stored in the capacitor = area


under i t curve
Q=
+
= (2
2

0 )

(4
0
0

= [4 +

6
2

0 ) + (4 + 2)
2
(
2)
=

=
9.

(0 )
00
=
s
s
1/s
C

I(s
)

(s) =

cos

06
7.

sL

(s +
00

(
s +

[Ans. C]
= F;R

= 6

T=R

Fig. 2

[Ans. D]
Initial current through the inductor is
zero and capacitor voltage is charged
upto to voltage
(0 ) = 00
As current through inductor and voltage
across cannot change abrupty.
So, after closing the switch
i (0 ) = i (0 ) = 0
And (0 ) = (0 ) = 00
The circuit is s domain

[Ans. D]
apacitor charged upto
s, so total
charge stored in capacitor = Q = 13nC
Voltage across the capacitor before
connecting to indictor
Q
0
= =
=4
0
0
Voltage across the capacitor at time t
(t)at t =
s
(t)
=
cos t]
= 2.357 rad =
(t)
=4

is

+
V

+
3V

3V

A2

2 s

t=

2F

1F
B

[Ans. C]
i(t)
mA
4

6.

is

= 00 (

= 4sec

s + (
th

th

th

)
)

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Page 180

GATE QUESTION BANK

Taking inverse Laplace transform


(s)]
i(t) =

= 2
13.

= 00 sin

=
00

sin (

t)

i(t) = 10sin (104t)A


10.

14.

[Ans. A]
i
iT

Network Theory

VC(t)

[Ans. D]
Using KCL,
+
+
=
= 2

=0
2

=2 0
=+ 2
[Ans. A]
Pharor diagram
= 220
= 122 V
= 136V
= +

20

100V

5A

When the switch is closed, I flows through


thyristor.
Load current = =
Net current through thyrostor
i =
i
i =
sin 0
Let at t=T, circuit get turned off and
current i becomes zero
i =
0 sin 0 T = 0
0 sin T =
sin 0 T = 0
0 T = 0 or 0 2 rad
T
2 s
11.

[Ans. B]
(0 ) = 4
i (0 ) =

12.

(0 ) = 4
)

By parallelogram law of addition of


vectors
=
+
+2
cos
by using options, cos = 0.45
15.

P
16.

= A

[Ans. B]
Power supplied by the source =
cos
Where = angle between
= 4 inductor and capacitor do not
consume power.
Therefore, power dissipated in R = Power
supplied by the source
P =
cos
=

cos

[Ans. B]
:R =
= cos = 136 x 0.45 [From Q 4]
= 61.2V
=

= 749W = 750W

[Ans. D]
At t = 0
Voltage across capacitor =
tt 0
+i R+i R+ =0
d
+ 2c
R+ =0
dt
Taking Laplace
s
s

+ (2Rc) s
+ 2Rcs

(0)] +
2R

( + 2Rcs) = 2R

th

=0
s

th

=0

th

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Page 181

GATE QUESTION BANK

2R
+ 2Rcs S( + 2Rcs)
2R
2Rc
(s) =
+
+ 2Rcs
+ 2Rcs
s

1F

(s) =

(t)
+

(e) =

* (t) =
17.

)(

Network Theory

Vi(t)

Vo(t)

)+

Input is 2V for t 1s.


Time constant ( ) =

=
=

So (0 ) = 2
Laplace Equivalent circuit after the change
2/s
1/sc

[Ans. A]
Applying superposition theorem
Resolving 0 sin t source

(t) =

sin ( 0t + tan

( )

0)

( )

Removing 20 sin 0t voltage source

1/s

I(s)

(s) =

R+

2 s

(s) =

Rsc +
c
(s) =
= ce
+s
Now voltage across Resister at t = 2s
(t) = (t) R
ce R
( ) =
= Rc e
e
]
( ) =

+ j
( )

= 0 sin( t)

= 0 sin( t)
0

+2
(t) =

+ j

sin t

tan ( )]
2.

20
00 +

( 0 tan
+

IN
1.

[Ans. A]
The circuit is shown in Fig.

sin( 0t

0
+2
tan
)

))
+

sin( t

+
(t)

(t)

Fig.

[Ans. A]

(t) = + cos( t)
Due to 5V d.c alone , C is open and no
current flows through R,
= 0 and
=0
ue to cos ( t) alone, with

Vi(t)

2
1
0

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Page 182
th

th

th

GATE QUESTION BANK

H( ) =
For

R+

j R
+j R

iL (t) andv (t) cannot change


instantaneously.
i (0 ) = (0 ) = (0 ) = 0
v (0 ) = v (0 ) = 0
At t =0 , the state of the circuit is shown
in Fig. 4

R=2
R

H( ) =

R
+

H( ) = 0
tan (2)
v (t) =

cos

t+ 0

I1(0 )

After a long time, at t = 0 L behaves as


short circuit and C behaves as open
circuit. The relevant circuit is shown in
Fig.2.
IL(0 )
L

2k

At t = 0 , I1(0 )=0, iL(0 )= I2(0 )=0 and


v (0 ) = 0
For t > 0, the switch, K is closed and the
relevant circuit is shown in Fig. 3
1

V2

R2

20 F

Fig. 1
2k

C1

V1

V2

R1

I2

1k

9V

I1
5V

0 F

V1

1k

9V

Fig. 2(at t = 0 )

R1

10 V

(0 )

= (0 ) =

[Ans. B]
The given circuit is shown in Fig. 1
t steady state i e , as t , capacitor
behaves as open circuit. The circuit at
steady state is shown in Fig.2

I2(0 )
I1(0 )

5.

10 V

I=0

10 V

[Ans. B]
From Fig. 3: Write the Outer loop
equation:
d (t)
(t)
]+
+ 0=
dt
At t = 0
d
(0 ) =
(0 ) =
+
dt
=
/sec

Fig. 1(for t <0)

0
= v (0 )

4.

1H

1F

i (0 ) = 0

Fig. 4

I1
2

5V

I2

I=0

I(0 ) I2(0 ) = 0

5V

[Ans. A]
For t < 0, the circuit is shown in Fig. 1
1

tan(2)]

According to Superposition Theorem


v (t) = v (t) + v (t)
v (t) = P + Q cos( t
)
6
P = 0, Q =
, =
0 + tan (2)

3.

Network Theory

C2

1H
Fig. 2

1
F
Fig. 3(t >0)

10 V

Apply voltage division across R1 = 2k


and R2 = 1k

th

th

th

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Page 183

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

Node voltage, V1=


=

[Ans. C]
(

0
0

From the given circuit,


=
j
= (
)

10 V

=0

=
8.

=
10

0
+
0

[Ans. D]
For t < 0, the status of the circuit is
shown in Fig. 1 inductor behaves as short
circuit after a long time.
i(0 ) =

)
j

V1 is divided between C1 = 0 F and


C2 = 20 F
Apply, again voltage division across C1
and C2
0
=
=
=
+
0
6.

Network Theory

[Ans.
tt=0

1H
Fig. 1

for t 0, the status of the circuit is shown


in Fig. 2
Current through the inductor cannot
change instantaneously.
i(0 ) = i(0 ) =
initial value (I.V)
After a long time inductor behaves as
short circuit.
i( ) = 2 = final value (F. V)
Time constant =

6
=
2
At t= 0
T =

, = 20

+
0

10

10

(0 )

10
4A

(inductor
in steady
state)

+
0

1H

0 ]

Fig. 2

i(t) =

+ (F

for t 0
= + (2
=2 e

)(
)(

( )

9.

[Ans. 32]
Load impedance =
= (4
Ideal current source
i(t) = 4 sin ( t + 20 )
Average real power = i

=( )

Power =

th

th

6
2

j2)

4= 2

th

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Page 184

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

[Ans. *]Range 1.5 to 1.6


at t = 0 , switch is open so
(0 ) =
at (t = )so capacitor is in steady state

11.

[Ans. C]
Time constant of RC Circuit is = R
In case I
Time constant T = R
In case II
Time constant (T ) = R
Given T = k T
So R
=k R
R =k R ]

12.

[Ans. *] Range 186 to 188

2k

2k

( ) = 2k

4k

Network Theory

( )

=2

We know that
(t) =
(0 ) v ( )]e
= 0 2 ]e
+2

( )
60

= (2k

2k
= k 4 =
0
4
0
=4
0 s
000
=
=2 0
4
(t) = 2 e
+2
(t) = 2
2 e
we know that
dv (t)
i (t) =
dt
d
i (t) = c
2
2 e
]
dt
= 2 c( 2 0)e
=4 F
i (t) = +2
4
0
2 0e
i (t)
= 2
0 e
(t)
]
i
=
m

0 Hz

0 Hz
H
0

0 Hz

This is a tank circuit configuration of a


Parallel R-L-C circuit.
Resonant frequency of tank circuit

f =

=4

f =

+(

R=4 ,
f= 0H
+

( )

=
=

th

th

th

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Page 185

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Sinusoidal Steady State Analysis


ECE - 2007
1.
The RC circuit shown in the figure is
R

C
+

ECE - 2008
4.
The Thevenin equivalent impedance ZTh
between the nodes P and Q in the
following circuit is
1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

a low-pass filter
a high-pass filter
a band-pass filter
a band-reject filter

(A) 1

(C) 2 + s +

(B) 1 + s+
2.

3.

An independent voltage source in series


with an independence ZS =RS + jXS
delivers a maximum average power to a
load impedance ZL when
(A)
j
(C)
j
(B)
(D)
j
In the AC network shown in the figure,
the phasor voltage VAB (in Volts) is

(D)

ECE - 2009
5.
An AC source of RMS voltage 20V with
internal impedance Zs (1 2j) feeds a
load of impedance ZL (7 4j) in the
figure below. The reactive power
consumed by the load is
(1

2j)

53
j3

(A) 0
(B) 53

(7

(C) 12.53
(D) 173

(A) 8VAR
(B) 16 VAR

j3

4j)

(C) 28 VAR
(D) 32 VAR

ECE - 2010
6.
The current I in the circuit shown is
2 m

1
1

(C) 0 A
(D) 20 A

(A) j1 A
(B) j1 A

th

th

rad s

th

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Page 186

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

For the parallel RLC circuit, which one of


the following statements is NOT correct?
(A) The bandwidth of the circuit
decreases if R is increased
(B) The bandwidth of the circuit remains
same if L is increased
(C) At resonance, input impedance is a
real quantity
(D) At resonance, the magnitude of input
impedance attains its minimum
value

ECE/EE - 2013
8.
A source v (t)
cos 1
t has an
internal impedance of (4 + j3) . If a
purely resistive load connected to this
source has to extract the maximum power
out of the source , its value in should be
(A) 3
(C) 5
(B) 4
(D) 7
ECE/EE/IN - 2013
9.
In the circuit shown below, if the source
voltage Vs= 10053.130 V then the
Thevenins equivalent voltage in volts as
seen by the load resistance RL is
3

j4

(A) 100900
(B) 80000
10.

j6

j4

Network Theory

ECE - 2014
11. A 230 V rms source supplies power to
two loads connected in parallel. The first
load draws 10 kW at 0.8 leading power
factor and the second one draws 10 kVA
at 0.8 lagging power factor. The complex
power delivered by the source is
(A) (18 j 1.5) k
(B) (18 j 1.5) k
(C) (2
j 1.5) k
(D) (2
j 1.5) k
12.

A periodic variable x is shown in the


figure as a function of time. The rootmean-square (rms) value of x is ______.
x
1

t
T 2

13.

T 2

The circuit shown in the figure, the value


of capacitor C (in mF) needed to have
critically damped response i(t) is ________.
4

5
i(t)

RL= 10

(C) 800900
(D) 100600

Two magnetically uncoupled inductive


coils have Q factors q1 and q2 at the
chosen operating frequency. Their
respective resistances are R1 and R2.
When connected in series, their effective
Q factor at the same operating frequency
is
(A) q
q
(B) (1q ) (1 q )
) (
(C) (q
q
)
) (
(D) (q
q
)

14.

In the magnetically coupled circuit shown


in the figure, 56 % of the total flux
emanating from one coil links the other
coil. The value of the mutual inductance
(in H) is ______ .
1
6 cos
(4t 3 )

15.

th

(116)

The steady state output of the circuit


shown in the figure is given by

th

th

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Page 187

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

V1 at a frequency which causes resonance


with a current of I.

( )). If the
y(t) = A( )sin( t
amplitude | ( )| 0.25, then the
frequency is

y(t)
sin t

~
( )
( )

( )

3
2

( )

The phasor diagram which is applicable


to this circuit is

(A)

EE - 2006
1.
In the figure the current source is 1 0 A,
R = 1, the impedances are Zc =
j ,
and ZL = 2j. The Thevenin equivalent
looking into the circuit across X-Y is

(B)

(C)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

20 V, (1 + 2j)
2 450 V, (1 2j)
2 450 V, (1 + j)
2450 V, (1 + j)

(D)

2.

3.

An energy meter connected to an


immersion heater (resistive) operating on
an AC 230 V, 50 Hz, AC single phase
source reads 2.3 units (kWh) in 1 hour.
The heater is removed from the supply
and now connected to a 400 V peak to
peak square wave source of 150 Hz. The
power in kW dissipated by the heater will
be
(A) 3.478
(C) 1.540
(B) 1.739
(D) 0.870
The circuit shown in the figure is
energized by a sinusoidal voltage source

EE - 2007
4.
In the figure transformer T1 has two
secondaries, all three windings having the
same number of turns and with polarities
as indicated. One secondary is shorted by
a 1 resistor , and the other by a 15m
th

th

th

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Page 188

GATE QUESTION BANK

capacitor. The switch SW is opened (t =0)


when the capacitor is charged to 5 V with
left plate as positive At (t =0+) the
voltage VP and Current IR are

T1

R
B

+
+

Vp

Im

(A) 25 V, 0.0A
(B) Very large voltage, very large
current
(C) 5.0 V, 0.5 A
(D) 5.0 V, 0.5 A
5.

(A)

25V

IR
SW

Network Theory

Re

(B)

In the figure given below all phasors are


with reference to the potential at point
O. The locus of voltage phasor YX as R is
varied from zero to infinity is shown by

Im

Re

(C)
C

XY

Im

O
2V

(A) 0

(C)

2V
0

VYX

VYX
Locus of VYX

Re

Locus of VYX

(D)
Im

(B)

Locus of VYX

(D)

Locus of VYX

VYX
0

VYX
2V

2V
Re

6.

The R-L-C series circuit shown is supplied


from a variable frequency voltage source.
The admittance locus of the
network at terminals AB for increasing
frequency is

EE - 2008
7.
The Thevenin's equivalent of a circuit
operating at = 5rad/s, has
= 3.71 15.90 V and
ZO =2.38 j 0.667. At this frequency,
the minimal realization of the Thevenin's
impedance will have a
th

th

th

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Page 189

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) resistor and a capacitor and an


inductor
(B) resistor and a capacitor
(C) resistor and an inductor
(D) capacitor and an inductor

Network Theory

EE - 2011
10. The r.m.s value of the current i(t) in the
circuit shown below is
1

1
1

8.

The resonant frequency for the given


circuit will be

i(t)

0.1H

~
(1. sin t)

(C) 1
(D) 2

(A)
(B)
1

Common Data Q. 11 and Q. 12


The input voltage given to a converter is
(A) 1 rad /s
(B) 2 rad /s

(C) 3 rad /s
(D) 4 rad /s

EE - 2010
9.
If the electrical circuit of figure (b) is an
equivalent of the coupled tank system of
figure (a), then

v
1 2 sin(1
t)
The input drawn by the converter is
i

11.

(a) oupled tank


B
A

)
t

22 sin(5
t
The input power of the converter is
(A) 0.31
(C) 0.5
(B) 0.44
(D) 0.71

)
6)

The active power drawn by the convert is


(A) 181 W
(C) 707 W
(B) 500 W
(D) 887 W

and C, D

EE - 2012
13. A twophase load draws the following
phase currents:
),
i (t)
sin( t
i (t)
cos( t
).
These currents are balanced if 1 is equal
to
)
(A)
(C) ( 2
)
(B)
(D) ( 2

and B, D

14.

D
C

(b) Electrical equivalent

(A) A, B are resistances


capacitances
(B) A, C are resistances
capacitances
(C) A, B are capacitances
resistances
(D) A, C are capacitances
resistances

52 sin(3

12.

(1 2 sin (1

and C, D
and B, D

th

The average power delivered to an


impedance (4 j3) by a current
5 cos (100t+100) A is
(A) 44.2 W
(C) 62.5 W
(B) 50 W
(D) 125 W

th

th

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Page 190

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2014
15. A combination of 1 F capacitor with an
initial voltage ( )
2 in series with
a 100 resistor is connected to a 20 mA
ideal dc current source by operating both
switches at t = 0s as shown. Which of the
following graphs shown in the options
approximates the voltage
across the
current source over the next few seconds?

Network Theory

16.

A non-ideal voltage source


has an
internal impedance of
. If a purely
resistive load is to be chosen that
maximizes the power transferred to the
load, its value must be
(A) 0
(B) real part of
(C) magnitude of
(D) complex conjugate of

17.

A series RLC circuit is observed at two


frequencies. At
= 1 krad/s, we note
that source voltage
1
results
in a current
. 331 A. At
= 2krad/s, the source voltage
1
results in a current
2 A. The closest values for R,L,C
out of the following options are
(A)
5
25 m
1
(B)
5
1 m
25
(C)
5
5 m
5
(D)
5
5m
5

t
t

( )

t
2

IN - 2006
1.
Consider the AC bridge shown below. If

( )

RC = 1 and

V
C
<0.01, then ratio 0 is
C
Vs

approximately equal to

( )

( )

(C)

(A) 1

(D)

(B)

t
2

IN - 2007
2.
In the circuit shown in the following
figure, the current through the 1
resistor is
th

th

th

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Page 191

GATE QUESTION BANK

(B)

j
j

L=1H
C = 0.25F

V = 1V

3.

I = (5cos2t)A

(A) (1 + 5 cos 2t) A


(B) (5 + cos 2t) A

(C) (1 5 cos 2t) A


(D) 6A

Consider the AC bridge shown in the


figure below, with R, L and C having
positive finite values
Then

if

(B)

if

(C)

if

(D)

j (
j (
j

)
)

(D)

j (
j (
j (

)
)
)

1 2 sin (1

t)

1 2 cos (3

t)

1 mH

(A) 50 W
(B) 1050 W

(C) 5000 W
(D) 10100 W

cannot be made zero

6.

For the circuit shown below the voltage


across the capacitor is

Consider the coupled circuit shown


below.

j1

(10+j0)V

j1

ig a

At angular frequency , this circuit can be


represented by the equivalent
T network shown below.

(A) (10 + j 0)V


(C) (0 + j100)V
(B) (100+j0)V
(D) (0 j100)V
For the circuit shown below the steadystate current I is

7.

cos(1000t)V

ig b

Indicate the correct set of expressions for


the impedances of the T network
(A)
j (
)
j (
)
j

V(t)= 52

4.

(C)

IN - 2008
5.
In the circuit below the average power
consumed by the 1 resistor is

sin t

(A)

Network Theory

th

1mH

th

th

1000 F

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Page 192

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

(A) 0A
(B) 52 cos (1000t)A
(C) 52 cos (1

(D) 52A
IN - 2010
Statement for Linked Answer Questions: 8
&9
A coil having an inductance (L) of 10mH
and resistance R is connected in series
with an ideal 100 F capacitor (C). When
excited by a voltage source of value
102 cos (1000t)V, the series RLC circuit
draws 20W of power.
8.

The value of the coil resistance R is


(A) 1
(C) 4
(B) 2
(D) 5

9.

The Q factor of the coil at an angular


frequency of 1000rad/s is
(A) 1
(C) 4
(B) 2
(D) 5

IN - 2011
Common Data for Question 10 & 11
Consider the circuit shown below:

2 sin(5t)

cos(5t)

.1
i(t)

10.

The current i(t) through the capacitor is


(A) sin (5t) A
(C) sin (5t 45) A
(B) cos (5t) A
(D) 1 A

11.

The average total power delivered by the


sources is
(A) 0 W
(C) 2 W
(B) 0.5 W
(D) 4 W

th

th

th

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Page 193

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

6.

[Ans. A]

[Ans. C]

( || 1 )

( )
( )

J ,

1)

(J )
(J )

,
,

J
1
3
3J
Filter is band-pass filter.
1

2.

power

, (J )

[Ans. D]
For
maximum
J

(L = 20 mH, C = 50 )
Nodal analysis at node A
2
j
1 1 j

(J )
s
s

( )
( )
ut

( || 1 ))

j1
j
[
1
2
j1

transfer,

2
2

j1

1
j
]
2

j1

1
3.

[Ans. D]
current
53
5 3

4.

j1
impedance
((5 3J)||(5
34
173
1

3J))

[Ans. A]
Replace 10V by short circuit and 1A by
open circuit
(
1). (1 1 )
1
1
2

7.

[Ans. D]
This is standard concept of parallel
resonant circuit

8.

[Ans. C]
|

9.

[Ans. B]
The RMS current in the load is given by

tan ( )
2

tan

j4

53 13
553 13
j4 2
4
2
8 9
8 9
j4

( )

2 , reactive power
4 4
16
Also note that the active power consumed
by the load
4 7 28

[Ans. C]
1
j4

5.

10.

[Ans. C]

fter series connection


th

th

th

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Page 194

GATE QUESTION BANK

1
2

)
1

11.

[Ans. B]
Total ower (s)
1
cos
.8
.8
18 1.5j

1
cos
.8

4
c

.8

[Ans. *] Range 0.39 to 0.42


x

1
2

1 4

c
12.

Network Theory

14.

(T2 , 1)

1
2

4
4
4

[Ans. *] Range 2.49 to 2.52


oupling coefficient given is
e know,

t
T 2

iven

T 2

Equation of line
1
(t
T 2
2t
T
1
*
T

15.

4
3

[Ans. B]

2t
( ) dt
T

y(t)
sin t

+
( ) sin[ t
( )]
y(t)
| ( )|
.25
By nodal analysis
x 1
x
x

1 cj
2 cj
1
cj
1
x[
cj
]
2
2 3 cj
1
x[
]
x
2
x
1
y
2 2 3 cj
1
1
| ( )|
4 4 9
9
12
2

1
8

6
.4 8
[Ans. *] Range 9.99 to 10.01
4

13.

1 4t
*
+
T 3T

.56

.56 4
2.5 4

1
x dt
T

1 m

i(t)

For critically damped


1 1 2

2
3 cj

3 c

th

th

th

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Page 195

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE
1.

[Ans. D]
To calculate Thevenins impedance,
current source is open circuited
x
R=1

200
V
2

T/2

Zth

ZL=2j

ZC= j

z
z
1 2j j
= 1 j
Open circuit voltage at terminals X Y
z
(1 j)
1

1
*
T

1
15

dt+

1
2
dt ( 2
T
[ {
2
2
1
k
23
1.739 k

245 volts
[Ans. B]
Assuming resistance of the heater = R
(i) When heater connected to 230 V.
50 Hz source, energy consumed by
the heater = 2.3 units or 2.3 kWh in
1 hour
Power consumed by the heater

1
f

Vrms value of the input voltage

2.

Network Theory

3.

) dt
}]

[Ans. A]

2.3k h
1 hour
2.3 k
rms value of the input voltage
23

j(

At resonance,

2.3

23

so
Therefore, input impedance is purely
resistive, is minimum and the input
voltage and output current are in phase

23

(ii) When heater connected to 400 V


(peak to peak ) square wave source
of 150 Hz

j(

)]

phase

with

but

Therefore,

is

in

Voltage across the capacitor

th

th

th

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Page 196

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

Network Theory

[Ans. A]

j
l

So,
lags the current by 9 . The phasor
diagram on the basis of above analysis

y
C

Let capacitive reactance

4.

[Ans. D]
R
T1

using

IR

,.

s1
Vs
s2

P1
25V

VP

)
)

C
P2

T1
T2

VT

Method -1

All the three windings has same number


of turns, so magnitude of induced emfs in
all the three windings will be same i.e.
| | | | | |
Polarity of the windings is decided on the
basis of dot convention.
As capacitor is charged to 5 V with left
plate as positive.
So, T1 is positive wrt T2
5
As T2 has negative polarity. So, P1 has
negative polarity
Therefore, VP =
5
Similarly, S1 has negative polarity
So,
5
5
.5
1

when

when
Method-2

18
(18

(
2 tan

(
(

( ))

Magnitude of
So, option (c) and (d) can not be correct,
as magnitude is 2V in these two options.

th

Angle of

1 8

When

18
18
when

2tan ( )
2 9
36

th

th

2 tan

( )

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Page 197

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

18
2 tan ( ) 18
On the basic of above analysis, the locus
of
is drawn below:
2V

O
when

Ref
when
R=0

6.

[Ans. B]
Admittance of the series connected RLC
(

7.

[Ans. B]
Thevenins mpedance
2.38 j .667
as real part is not zero , so has resistor
m[ ]
j .667
Case I
Z0 has capacitor (as Im[Z0]is negative )
Case II
Z0 has both capacitor and inductor, but
inductive
reactance

capacitive
reactances
at = 5 rad / sec
For minimal realization case (i) is
considered
Therefore, Z0 will have a resistor and a
capacitor.

8.

[Ans. C]
Input impedance
1
z j

*By rationlization}
Separating, real and imaginary part of
admittance.
e[ ]
(

For any value of


positive.
When
At

, the real part is always


or
(resonance)

e[ ]

(maximum value)
(

( )

(
(

)
(

At

(resonance)

Imaginary part of zero


m( )
For

Therefore Im [Y] > 0


For

j
0.1H

1F

j .1
j .1

Therefore, [ ]
On the basis of above analysis, the
admittance locus is

1
j ( .1
)
1
1
At resonance, imaginary part must be
zero.
.1

th

1
th

th

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Page 198

GATE QUESTION BANK

.1

11.

1
1

1
9
3 rad/sec

9.

C=

10.

[Ans. B]
rms value of input voltage
1 2
1
2
rms value of current
1 2
52
22
(
)
(
)
(
)
2
2
2
11.358
Let input power factor cos
l
cos =active power drawn by
the converter
1
11.358 cos
5
cos
.44

[Ans. D]
In such system, volumetric flow rate C is
analogous to current and pressure is
analogous to voltage.
The hydraulic capacitance due to storage
in gravity field is defined as
Where A = Area of the tank

ensity of the fluid


g = Acceleration due to gravity
The hydraulic capacitance is represented
by A & C.
Liquid trying to flow out of a container,
can meet with resistance in several ways.
If the outlet is a pipe, the friction between
the liquid and the pipe walls produces
resistance to flow.
Such resistance is represented by B & D.

Network Theory

12.

[Ans. B]
1
i

2 sin(1

t)

1 2 sin (1

52 sin (3

)
4
22sin(5
t
4)
Fundamental component of input voltage
( )
1 2 sin(1
t)
1

( )

(i )

1
2
Fundamental component of current
(i )
1 2 sin(1
t
3)

[Ans. B]
1 sint
sin t
1 and
1 rad sec
Impedance of the branch containing
inductor & capacitor
j(
)
1
j(
)
1
1
j (1 1
)
1 1
So, this branch is short circuit and the
whole current flow through it
1. sin t
i(t)
1. sint
1
rms values of the current
1

1 2

2
Phase difference
components

1
between

these

two

, cos
cos
.5
3
3
Active power due to fundamental
components
( ),
(i ) ,
cos
1
1
.5 5
Since, 3rd & 5th harmonics are absent in
input voltage, there is no active power due
to the these components.
Hence, active power drawn by the converter
=Active power due to fundamental
components = 500 W

th

th

th

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Page 199

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

[Ans. D]
i
sin( t
i
cos( t

17.

[Ans. B]

)
)

j(

sin (

t
)
2
As these two currents are balanced.
i
i
sin

sin

2. sin (
)

sin( t
2 sin ( t

14.

1k rad s
1
. 331
1
. 331
j(
)

j (1

)
t

1
1

2
(2

IN
1.

1
and
25

)
)

d
dt

1
dt
(

At t = 0,
k
2
t
t

16.

1
1

1
2

1
1
2
1

1
2

[Ans. D]

[Ans. C]
tt

On solving equation
5 ,
1 m ,

[Ans. B]
Z = 4 j3 = RL jXc; RL=4;
5cos(1
t 1 )
mcos(cot

5
2

1
. 331

)
1 c
2k rad s

j (2

)
)

) . cos (
t

P=
15.

sin (

1
cos (
2 2
1
(
2 2

Network Theory

[Ans. C]
Magnitude of
| | (using
transfer theorem)

1
1
2
maximum

1
2

power

th

th

1
1
1
2
1
2
1

1
2

1
2

2
1
2

( )
1

th

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Page 200

GATE QUESTION BANK

2 (2

i
3.

Network Theory

(1

5 cos 2t)

[Ans. D]
The A.C bridge is shown in Fig

. 1,
it can neglected in comparison to
2
[Ans. A]
The circuit is shown in the figure 1

Let

.25

(5 cos 2t)

Fig. 1

Superposition theorem can be used to


find i
Due to 1 V d.c source alone, the circuit is
shown in Fig. 2, where the current source
is open circuited (I = 0). Also, in steady
state, L behave as short circuit and C
behave as open circuit

With R, L and C having positive finite


value, becomes imaginary which is not
possible.
cannot be made zero
4.

j ,
of the vridge is balanced if product
of the impedances of opposite arms is
same i.e.,
j
or
j

[Ans. A]
The coupled circuit is shown in Fig. 1

1
i
Fig. 2

From figure 2, i
1
Due to AC source (5 cos 2t) alone, the
circuit is shown in figure 3, where the
voltage source is short circuited (V = 0)

ig 1

Write the mesh equations:


j
j
(1)
j
j
(2)
The equivalent T network is shown in Fig .2

1
.25

(5 cos 2t)

2.

Fig. 3

For
As

2,
2 1

.25

.5,

2
ig 2

, the parallel RLC circuit is

Write the mesh equations:


(
)

under resonance
i
5 cos 2t
th

th

th

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Page 201

GATE QUESTION BANK

or

. (3)

For C = 1000
1
1
l

(
)
(
)
or
. (4)
omparig (1)with (3)and (2)with (4, )
j
,
j
,
j (
)
j
,
j (
)
5.

[Ans. D]
Let v (t)
v (t)

1 2 in (1
1 2 cos(7

RMS value of v (t)

j(

t)
)

MSV of v (t) 1
1
Similarly M.S.V of v (t) 1
Let v(t) = v (t) v (t)
. . of v(t) 1
1
1
1 1
1 ,1
Power is consumed or dissipated only in
1 . if it is ,
. . of v(t)
1 ,1

8.

= 10

circuit it under

( )

Q=

[Ans. B]

[Ans. D]
Circuit is under resonance
I=

[Ans. D]
= 1000 1
resonance
1
1
1
1

9.
6.

The circuit is open for the excitation


frequency
1 r s
steady state current,
It may also be noted that in steady state,
as t
v(t) = 0 because of the exponential,

t) and

Network Theory

10.

100JV

[Ans. A]
The given circuit is shown in fig. 1
2

cos(1

52e

( )
2 sin(5t)

[Ans. A]
The circuit is shown in the figure

1m

Given:

For the given input,


v(t) 5 2e cos(1
1 r s
Z=1+
For L = l mH
1
1
1

.1
i(t)

i( )
cos(5t)

Fig. 1
1

R=2 ,

5 rad sec
.1 ,

Taking cos (5t) = Re[1e e ]


1 cos (5t)
e[1 e e ]

hasor,
1e
for (t) 2 sin(5t) 2 cos(5t
hasor, 2 e

v(t)

7.

t)

The phasor equivalent circuit is shown in


fig 2

th

th

th

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Page 202

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

9
j2

j2

Fig. 2

The circuit is further simplified to the


circuit in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4
j1

j2

Fig. 3

(1

j)

j2

Fig. 4
From Fig 4
(1 j)2
(1 j)
245

2 j2
1 j
2 45
19
1 9
j

i(t)
e[ e ]
e[1e
e ]

e[e (
sin(5t)
11.

cos(5t

[Ans. C]
Phasor current through 2

1
1
1

j
j

i (t) 1 cos(5 t)
Power is dissipated in the resistance, 2 .
Assuming that the source values are given
in RMS value
Power delivered by the 2 sources
= Power dissipated in the equivalent 2
of Fig. 4
(1)
2 2
Note: Assuming Peak value for the
sources,
Power delivered by the 2 sources
=( )

th

th

th

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Page 203

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Laplace Transform
ECE - 2006
1.
The first and the last critical frequencies
(singularities) of a driving point
impedance function of a passive network
having two kinds of elements, are a pole
and a zero respectively. The above
property will be satisfied by
(A) RL network only
(B) RC network only
(C) LC network only
(D) RC as well as RL networks
2.

A 2 mH inductor with some initial current


can be represented as shown below,
where s is the Laplace Transform
variable. The value of initial current is
I(s)

ECE - 2009
4.
If the transfer function of the following
network is

=
R

+
RL

Vi

V0

The value of the load resistance RL is


(A) R/4
(C) R
(B) R/2
(D) 2R
ECE - 2011
5.
The circuit shown below is driven by a
sinusoidal input
. The
steady state output is
R

0.002

1mV
+

(A) 0.5 A
(B) 2.0A

(C) 1.0 A
(D) 0.0A

ECE - 2007
3.
Two series resonant filters are as shown
in the figure. Let the 3-dB bandwidth of
Filter 1 be B1 and that of Filter 2 be B2.
The Value of
C1

is

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

ECE/EE/IN - 2013
6.

The transfer function

of the circuit

shown below is

L1

00F

+
Vi

+
R

Vo

10k
V1(s)

Filter 1

V2(s)
00F

+
Vi

+
R

Vo

Filter 2

(A) 4
(B) 1

(C)
(D)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

th

th

th

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Page 204

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

EE 2014
1.
The driving point impedance Z(s) for the
circuit shown below is

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. B]

2.

[Ans. A]

5.

[Ans. A]
Redrawing the circuit s domain

I(S)
+

( )

LS
V(S)

Li (0 )

3.

So here,
Now,

[Ans. D]

4.

Put ,

[Ans. C]
(

So,

))

I(s) =

Now ,

( )

Satisfies above equation


th

th

th

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Page 205

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

In time domain,

( )

6.

[Ans. D]
100 F
0
100 F

Substituting the values we get

EE
1.

Ans. A]

peda e f

du a e

peda e f apa

f F

th

th

th

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Page 206

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Two-Port Networks
ECE - 2006
1.
In the two port network shown in the
figure below, Z12 and Z21are, respectively

(A) r n
(B)
n

(C)
n r
(D) r n

The z-parameter matrix for this network


is

4.

3.

+[

(C) *

(B) *

(D) *

(A) *

(C) *

(B) *

(D) *

Z(s)

. The component values are

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2008
Statement for linked Answer Questions 3
and 4
A two port network shown below is
excited by external dc sources. The
voltages and currents are measured with
voltmeters
and ammeters
(All assumed to be ideal) as indicated.
Under following switch conditions, the
readings obtained are:
(i)
open ,
- closed
closed ,

The driving point impedance of the


following network is given by

If port-2 is terminated by RL, then input


impedance seen at port-1 is given by

(ii)

A two-port network is represented by


ABCD parameters given by
[ ]

The h-parameter matrix for this network


is

5.
2.

(A) *

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

L
H R

L
H R

L = 0.1H, R = 2
L
H R 2

F
F
0.1F
F

ECE - 2010
6.
For the two-port network shown below,
the short circuit admittance parameter
matrix is

(A) *

open

(B) *

2
2

+S

(C) *
+S

(D) *

+S
2
2

+S

2
wo port
n twork

ECE - 2011
7.
In the circuit shown below, the network N
is described by the following Y matrix:

*
th

th

+.
th

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Page 207

GATE QUESTION BANK

The voltage gain

is

Network Theory

s s

s s
s

s s

s s

s s

s s
s

s s
s
s s
s

(A) 1/90
(B) 1/90

(C)
(D)

1/99
1/11

11.

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
Common Data for questions 8 and 9
With 10 V dc connected at port A in the
linear nonreciprocal two-port network
shown below, the following were
observed:
(i) 1 connected at port B draws a
current of 3 A
(ii) 2.5 connected at port B draws a
current of 2 A

2
2

12.

8.

9.

In the h-parameter model of the 2-port


network given in the figure shown, the
value of h (in S) is ______ .

Consider the building block


N twork N shown in th figur
L t
F n R
k
N twork N

With 10 V dc connected at port A, the


current drawn by 7 connected at port B
is
(A) 3/7 A
(C) 1 A
(B) 5/7 A
(D) 9/7 A

called

Two such blocks are connected in


cascade, as shown in the figure.

For the same network, with 6 V dc


connected at port A, 1 connected at port
B draws 7/3 A. If 8 V dc is connected to
port A, the open circuit voltage at port B
is
(A) 6 V
(C) 8 V
(B) 7 V
(D) 9 V

N twork N

N twork N

h tr nsf r fun tion


ECE - 2014
10. A two-port

network

has scattering
s
s
parameters given by [ ] *s
s + If
the port-2 of the two- port is short
circuited, the s
parameter for the
resultant one-port network is
th

of the cascaded

network is
(A)

(C) (

(B)

(D)

th

th

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Page 208

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

For the two-port network shown in the


figure, the impedance (Z) matrix (in ) is

I1

Network Theory
k

49i1

Input loop
F
F

(A) *
(B) *

2
2

(C) *

(D) *

2
2

(A) 2 F
(B)
F

+
+

EE - 2006
1.
The parameters of the circuit shown in
the figure are R
M R = 10 ,
A =
V/V.If
= 1 V, then output
voltage, input impedance and output
impedance respectively are
R

R
+

(C) 2
F
(D)
Fs

EE - 2010
4.
The two-port network P shown in the
figure has ports 1 and 2, denoted by
terminals (a, b) and (c, d), respectively. It
has an impedance matrix Z with
parameters denoted by . A 1 resistor
is connected in series with the network at
port 1 as shown in the figure. The
impedance matrix of the modified twoport network (shown as a dashed box) is

+
_

(A) 1V, , 10
(B) 1 V,0, 10
2.

(C) 1 V, 0,
(D) 10 V, ,10

The parameter type and the matrix


representation of the relevant two port
parameters that describe the circuit
shown are

(A) [

(B) [

(C) [

(D) [

IN - 2007
(A) z parameters,*

(B) h parameters,*

(C) h parameters,*

1.

The DC voltage gain


circuit is given by.
R

(D) z parameters,*

in the following
R

EE - 2009
3.
The equivalent capacitance of the input
loop of the circuit shown is

th

(A) AV

(C) AV

(B) AV

(D) AV

th

th

+R

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Page 209

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2008
2.
For the circuit shown below the input
resistance R11 =

3I2

2V3

I2
V3

V1

+I
1
V1

IN - 2013
3.
Considering the transformer to be ideal,
th tr nsmission p r m t r of th
2 port network shown in the figure
below is

is
+

Network Theory

1:2

I1

V2

(C)
(D)

I2

V2
2

(A) 1.3
(B) 1.4
(A)

(B) 2

(C) 0.5
(D) 2.0

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

3.

[Ans. C]
=
=

[Ans. B]
|

current source will be

s (1)

open)

=0

|
|

2.

=0

s (2)
|

[Ans .D]
The ABCD parameter equations are given
by,

=*
4.

wh n th n twork is t rmin l
R
R
R

= 1.5
+

[Ans. A]
=h
h
=h
h
From giv n
p r m t rs
2

fig

R
R

= 1.5
H=*

RL

= 3
+

Fig. 1

th

th

th

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Page 210

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

Network Theory

[Ans. D]
R

L
R L

(R L

Note:

R
R L

R L

is Independent of

L )
8.

[Ans. C]
As per the given conditions, we can draw
the following two figures.

RL
R L

R
L )
2
s 2
Comparing (1) and (2)
2

R
L

10
V

F
R

2A

B
A

6.

3A

10V

2.5

[Ans. A]
|
|
|
[ ]

7.

Let Vth and Rth be the Thevenin voltage &


resistance as seen from part B.

2
2
2

[Ans. D]
iv n

+
2

2
From the circuit shown in Fig. 1

R
2

Vth = 3Rth + 3
(1)
&
Vth = 2Rth + 5
(2)
Solving (1) & (2)
Rth 2
So, Vth = 3 x 2 + 3 = 9V
Now,

Fig

From eqn (2)

th

th

th

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Page 211

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

i=
9.

The y parameter of the parallel network is


equal to the sum of the individual
network y parameter
For network A

[Ans. B]
R

So, Vth = 7/3 x 2 +


=

= 7V.

The open circuit voltage at port B is 7V.


10.

[Ans. B]

p r m t rs

ort

ort 2

Lo

2
For network B

s
s
s
Port 2 is short circuited
h n ws

2
2

From
s

s
[

s ]
s

s
s

From
s

s
[

s
s
11.

s ]
s s
[
s
s s
s s
s

s
s

[Ans. *] Range 1.24 to 1.26


In the figure two port networks in parallel

th

th

th

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Page 212

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE
1.

Network Theory

[Ans. A]
= 1V
=

=
12.

2.

[Ans. C]
h
h

V1

Apply mesh analysis to determine the


current s
)

(2R

s
)

R
s

Since port 1 is open circuit , I1=0


Port 2 is short circuit, V2 =0

[from

R]

R +

) (2R
s R
) (R
*(2R

s R
s
s

(2R

) (R

R s
Rs

2Rs

k
F
s
s

R s

o h p r m t rs

R
3.

}R

h
h

h
]
h

s
s

[Ans. A]
Assume a 1A current source at input
terminals,
= 1A

R s
sr
s R
R

V2

(2R

[(R

om ining

I2

s
s

(R

h
h

I1

R
s

13.

R = 10

[Ans. B]

F
F

[Ans. C]

Applying KVL
i
i [2

+
*

j
]

Input impedance

As imaginary part is negative, input


impedance has equivalent capacitive
reactance
.
th

th

th

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Page 213

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

2
h r

put it in qu tion

2
2 F
4.

o[

[Ans. C]
The impedance matrix
of the modified
network is calculated from fig. given
below:

3.

[Ans. A]
2

1 I1

[ ][ ]

[ ]

V1

V2

2
[

[ ]

][ ]

[ ]

2
2
From qu tion

From qu tion

Fig.

2
IN
1.

From qu tion

2
n

[Ans. A]
V=
=

2.

[Ans. D]
2
2V3

+ I1

+ +

V1

3I2
I2

c
2

V3

Apply KVL on abcdef

th

th

th

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Page 214

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Network Topology
ECE - 2008
1.
In the following graph, the number of
trees (P) and the number of cut-sets (Q)
are

Which of the following statements is true?


(A) The equations v1 v2+v3 = 0,
v3 +v4 v5 =0 are KVL equations for
the network for some loops
(B) The equations v1-v3-v6 = 0,
v4 +v5 v6 =0 are KVL equations for
the network for some loops
(C) E = AV
(D) AV = 0 are KVL equations for the
network

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

(A) P = 2, Q = 2
(B) P = 2, Q = 6

(C) P = 4, Q = 6
(D) P = 4, Q = 10

EE - 2007
1.
The matrix A given below is the node
incidence matrix of a network. The
columns correspond to branches of the
network while the rows correspond to
nodes. Let V = [v1 v2 v6]T denote the
vector of branch voltages.
While I = [i1 i2 i6]T that of branch
currents. The vector E=[e1 e2 e3 e4]T
denotes the vector of node voltages
relative to a common ground.
[

EE - 2008
2.
The number of chords in the graph of the
given circuit will be

(A) 3
(B) 4

(C) 5
(D) 6

th

th

th

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Page 215

GATE QUESTION BANK

Network Theory

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

The graph of the network is shown in fig.


Where
From the graph it can be observed that
(i)
are not KVL equations as set of
branches (1, 2, 3) and (3, 4, 5) do not
form closed paths.
(ii)
and
are KVL equations for the loops
(1, 3, 6) and (4,5, 6)
From the matrix, A it can be
concluded that
(i) E
(ii) AV = 0 are not KVL equations
Statement in option (b) is true.

[Ans. C]
Different trees (P) are shown below.

Different cut sets (Q are shown below

(1)

(2)

(3)

(5)

(6) (4)

So P = 4, Q = 6
2.
EE
1.

[Ans. A]
The graph of the given circuit is shown in
Fig.
Number of nodes = N = 4
Number of branches = B = 6
Number of tree branches = (N 1) = 3
Number of links = L = B (N 1) = 3

[Ans. B]
For the given node to branch
incidence matrix
[

]
1
5

III

II

Fig.
4

IV

Fig.

th

th

th

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Page 216

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Introduction to Signals & Systems


ECE - 2006
1.
The Dirac delta function t is defined as
t
(A)
t
,
t rw s
t
(B)
t
,
t rw s
t
(C)
t
,
t rw s

(D)

t t
t
t

rw s

t t

ECE - 2007
2.
The 3-dB bandwidth of the low-pass
signal
u t , where u(t) is the unit step
function, is given by
(C)
(A)
z
(D)
z

(B)
z
ECE - 2009
3.
A function is given by f(t) = sin2t +cos2t .
Which of the following is true?
(A) f has frequency components at 0 and
/ z
(B) f has frequency components at 0 and
/ z
(C) f s fr qu cy c mp
ts t /
/ z
(D) f has frequency components at 0,
/
/ z
ECE - 2011
4.
If the unit step response of a network is
, then its unit impulse response
is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

ECE /EE/IN- 2013


5.
Two systems with impulse responses
(t) and (t) are connected in cascade.
Then the overall impulse response of the
cascaded system is given by
(A) Product of h1(t) and h2(t)
(B) Sum of h1(t) and h2(t)
(C) Convolution of h1(t) and h2(t)
(D) Subtraction of h2(t) from h1(t)
ECE - 2014
6.
A discrete-time signal
x[n] s
t
(A) Periodic with period
(B) Periodic with period
(C) Periodic with period /
(D) t p r
c

r s

7.

A system is described by the following


differential equation, where u(t) is the
input to the system and y(t) is the output
of the system. y t
y t
u t
When y (0) = 1 and u(t) is a unit step
function, y(t) is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

8.

The sequence x[n] =


u[n] , where
u[n] is the unit step sequence, is
convolved with itself to obtain y[n]. Then

y is___________

EE - 2006
1.
Which of the following is true:
(A) A finite signal is always bounded
(B) A bounded signal always possesses
finite energy
(C) A bounded signal is always zero
outside the interval [ t , t ] for
some t
(D) A bounded signal is always finite

th

th

th

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Page 217

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2007
2.
If u(t), r(t) denote unit the unit step and
unit ramp functions respectively and
u(t) * r(t) their convolution, then the
function u (t+1) * r(t 2) is given by
(A) (1/2) (t 1) (t+2)
(B) (1/2) (t 1) (t 2)
(C) (1/2) (t 1)2 u(t 1)
(D) none of the above

Signals and Systems

EE - 2014
5.
The function shown in the figure can be
represented as

EE - 2008
3.
Given a sequence x[n], to generate the
sequence y[n] = x[3 4n], which one of
the following procedures would be
correct?.
(A) First delay x[n] by 3 samples to
generate z [n], then pick every 4th
sample of z1[n] to generate z2[n], and
then finally time reverse z2[n] to
obtain y[n]
(B) First advance x[n] by 3 samples to
generate Z1[n], and then pick every
4th samples of z1[n] to generate z2 [n]
and then finally time reverse Z2[n] to
obtain y[n]
(C) First pick every fourth sample of x[n]
to generate v
time-reverse
v
to obtain v
& finally
advance v
by 3 sample to obtain
y[n]
(D) First pick every fourth sample of x[n]
to generate V1[n], time-reverse V1[n]
to obtain V2[n], and finally delay
V2[n] by 3 samples to obtain Y[n]
EE - 2011
4.
A zero mean random signal is uniformly
distributed between limits
and its mean square value is equal to its
variance. Then the r. m. s. value of the
signal is
(A)
(C)

(D)
(B)

(A) u t

u t

u t

u t
(B) u t
(C) u t

u t

u t

u t

u t

u t
(D) u t

u t

u t

6.

An input signal x t
s
t is
sampled with a sampling frequency of
400 Hz and applied to the system whose
transfer function is represented by
z
z
(
)
z
Where, N represents the number of
samples per cycle. The output y(n) of the
system under steady state is
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D) 5

7.

For the signal


f t
s
t
s
t s
t
the minimum sampling frequency (in Hz)
satisfying the Nyquist criterion is ________

IN - 2007
1.
Consider the periodic signal
x t
c s t c s
t
where t is in seconds. Its fundamental
frequency, in Hz, is
(A) 20
(C) 100
(B) 40
(D) 200
th

th

th

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Page 218

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2008
2.
The fundamental period of the discretetime signal x[n] =
(A)

(B)
3.

The integral

is
(C) 6
(D) 12

The step response of a linear time


invariant system is y t
u t ,
where u(t) is the unit step function. If the
output of system corresponding to an
impulse input t is h(t), then h(t) is
(A)
u t
(B)
t
(C) u t
u t
(D)
t
u t

) s

(t

IN - 2009
4.
The fundamental period of
x(t) = 2sin2t +3sin3t , with t
expressed in seconds, is
(A) 1s
(C) 2s
(B) 0.67s
(D) 3s
5.

7.

Signals and Systems

t v u t t

(A) 6
(B) 3

(C) 1.5
(D) 0

IN - 2011
8.
Consider a system with input x(t) and
output y(t) related as follows
y(t) =

x t }

Which one of the following statements is


TRUE?
(A) The system is nonlinear
(B) The system is time-invariant
(C) The system is stable
(D) The system has memory
9.

The continuous-time signal x(t) = s


t
is a periodic signal. However, for its
discrete-time counterpart x[n] = s
to be periodic, the necessary condition is
(A)

For input x(t), an ideal impulse sampling


system produces the output

(B)

to be an integer

(C)

to be a ratio of integers

y t

(D) none

Where t is the dirac delta function.


The system is
(A) Non-linear and time invariant
(B) Non-linear and time varying
(C) Linear and time invariant
(D) Linear and time varying
IN - 2010
6.
The input x(t) and the corresponding
output y(t) of a system are related by .
y(t) =
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

. The system is

EC/IN - 2013
10. If the A-matrix of the state space model of
a SISO linear time invariant system is
rank deficient, the transfer function of the
system must have
(A) A pole with a positive real part
(B) A pole with a negative real part
(C) A pole with a positive imaginary part
(D) A pole at the origin
11.

time invariant and causal


time invariant and non-causal
time variant and non-causal
time variant and causal

th

The impulse response of a continuous


time system is given by
h(t) = t
t
. The value of
the step response at t = 2 is
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D) 3

th

th

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Page 219

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2014
12. Time domain expressions for the
voltage
t
t r v
s
t
s
t
t =
c s
t
Which one of
the following statement is TRUE?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Signals and Systems

t
t
t
t

t y
t y
t y
t y

s
s
s

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

s
Every
after
s

[Ans. D]

s
trigonometric function repeats
t rv

S c s
y
teger, there is no
p ss
v u f f rw c c
an integer, thus non-periodic

t
2.

[Ans. A]
f
m

tu

7.

s
t

fr qu

cy

[Ans. A]
y t
y t
I.F. =

y t

r
f

3.

u t

8.
c s t

c s t

Here x

[Ans. A]
t

6.

[Ans. *] Range 3.9 to 4.1


We know, if y
x

Frequency components are


f

5.

u t , P = 5, Q = u t ,

y t

f t

4.

[Ans. B]

y t

[Ans. C ]
Cascade means convolution
[Ans. D]
Assume x
N)
x
x

EE
1.

[Ans. D]
If the amplitude of a signal have some
finite boundaries for all values of time
then it is called as bounded signal.

to be periodic, (with period

th

th

th

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Page 220

GATE QUESTION BANK

|f t |
}f r t
r |f t |
f tt
v v u
So a bounded signal may possess finite
energy or infinite energy.
For example u (t) is bounded signal but it
possess infinite energy because it is a
power signal.
It can be zero or nonzero outside a finite
interval ( t t
But it is always true that it will be always
finite for any value of time t.

Signals and Systems

i.e, z
z
x
Now reverse (time reverse) z
give y[n] = z
x
4.

will

[Ans. A]
Variance

Mean square value


2.

[Ans. C]
u t

RMS value

r t
r

z t

5.

u t

[Ans. A]
Result graph

r p
r p

r p

r p
u

z t

u t

For (t

r p

z t

u t

r p

f r t
t
z t

For

z t

u t

For

z t
3.

u t

6.

[Ans. C]
x t
t
ft

[Ans. B]
Y[n] = x[3 4n] = x[ 4n+ 3]
So to obtain y[n] we first advance x[n] by
3 unit.
i.e, z
x
Now we will take every fourth sample of
z

m p r

s
t

t
f

fx t
ms

s mp
um
th

th

p r

r f s mp s
th

ms
c cyc

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Page 221

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Now, fundamental period of x(t) is the


LCM of T1, T2 and T3 , which is
x z

So, fundamental frequency = 20 Hz

s mp
p r
r st
y st t
my
m
m
[

2.
z

y z

IN
1.

[Ans. D]

z x z

x
Fundamental period

z
t
t

3.

[Ans. D]
Step response s(t)

u t

Impulse response h(t)

zs
zc s

z
+
z
(Using L Hospital rule)
m*

z
z
zs
zc s

z
z
z

m*

7.

t
t
z
m
z

t
+

[Ans. 14]
r qu cy f s
t
z
r qu cy f s
t
z
r qu cy f s
t
z
By Nyquist theorem, sampling frequency
f
z
x mum fr qu cy f
z

u t
u t
4.

u t / t
t t

[Ans. C]
x t
S
t
S
P r
f S
t s
P r

t s

P r
of final original is LCM of
= LMC
/
= 2 sec.
5.

[Ans. D]
Given signal is
y t

[Ans. A]
X(t) = (1+0.5 cos t c s
t
c s
t
c s t c s
t
c s
t
c s
t
c s
t
x t
x t
x t
w r
x
c s
t
x
c s
t
x
c s
t
Now,
tm p r
fx t

This is the representation of a signal x(t)


in weighted and sum form and it obeys
the principle of superposition and
homogeneity. So, this is linear but it is
time varying as for x(t t ),
y t
x
t
t
And y t t
x
t t
Therefore
y t t
y t s t m v ry
6.

[Ans. C]
x t

y t

s
Value of y t t depends on values of x for
times from
t t
As output is depending on future values
of input, the system is Non casual

th

th

th

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Page 222

GATE QUESTION BANK

For the input x t


y t

y t

x t

As y(t) depends only on x(t), the system


has no memory.
9.

[Ans. C]
If x(n) is periodic with period N, then the
condition to be satisfied is x(n) = x(n+N).
If x(n) = s
then the necessary
condition is
s
s
Or
N= m m 1, 2,

From (1),
y(t-t

Let
From (3),

Or

y t

As (4) & (5) are not same, the system is


Time variant.
syst m s m v r t
causal.
7.

r t

Or

[Ans. D]

11.

[Ans. B]
Y(s)

(t

rs

(step response)

u t
) s

should be expressible as ( )

10.

[Ans. B]
Given signal is
x t

Signals and Systems

u t

u t

u t

By shifting property of unit impulse


function
x t

t
(t

x t
{

) s

t
t
s w r
s

u t

u t

At t = 2 value is 1

Hence, correct option is (B)


8.

12.

[Ans. C]

[Ans. A]
t

Given the system, y(t) =


y t

x t

x t }

x t

x t
x t ]
t
As y(t) is obtained from linear operation
on x(t), the system is linear .
As the input x(t) is multiplied by a time
varying function
, the system is
Time varying.
For a bounded input x(t) ,
x(t) is
bounded, y(t) is also bounded. Therefore
the system is stable.
th

v
t
t
t

c s
c s
c s

th

s
t
t
t

t y

th

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Page 223

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems


ECE - 2006
1.
A system with input x
given

as

(s

5.
and output y
)x

Let x(t) be the input and y(t) be the


output of a continuous time system.
Match the system properties P1, P2 and P3
with system relations R1, R2, R3, R4.
Properties
Relations
P1: Linear but NOT
: y(t) = t x (t)
time-invariant
P2: Time-invariant
: y(t) = t |x (t)|
but NOT linear
P3: Linear and
: y(t) = |x (t)|
time-invariant
:y t
x t
5)
(A) (P1, R1), (P2, R3), (P3, R4)
(B) (P1, R2), (P2, R3), (P3, R4)
(C) (P1, R3), (P2, R1), (P3, R2)
(D) (P1, R1), (P2, R2), (P3, R3)

is
The

system is
(A) linear, stable and invertible
(B) non-linear, stable and non-invertible
(C) linear, stable and non-invertible
(D) linear, unstable and invertible
ECE - 2008
2.
A discrete time linear shift-invariant
system has an impulse response h[n] with
, and zero
otherwise. The system is given an input
sequence x[n] with x[0] = x[2] =1, and
zero otherwise. The number of nonzero
samples in the output sequence y[n] and
the value of y[2] are, respectively
(A) 5, 2
(C) 6, 1
(B) 6, 2
(D) 5, 3
3.

4.

ECE - 2009
6.
Consider a system whose input x and
output y are related by the equation :

The impulse response h(t) of a linear


time-invariant continuous time system is
described by
h(t) = exp( t)u(t) + exp( t)u( t), where
u(t) denotes the unit step function, and
and are real constants. This system is
stable if
(A) is positive and is positive
(B) is negative and is negative
(C) is positive and is negative
(D) is negative and is positive

y t

x t
H(t)

(t)

Where h(t) is shown in the graph.


Which of the following four properties are
possessed by the system?
BIBO: Bounded input gives a bounded
output
Causal: The system is casual
LP : The system is low pass
LTI : The system is linear and timeinvariant
(A) Casual ,LP
(B) BIBO ,LTI
(C) BIBO, Casual, LTI
(D) LP , LTI

The input and output of a continuous time


system are respectively denoted by x(t)
and y(t). Which of the following
description corresponds to a causal
system?
(A) y(t) = x(t 2) + x (t + 4)
(B) y(t) = (t 4) x (t + 1)
(C) y(t) = (t + 4) x (t 1)
(D) y(t) = (t + 5) x (t + 5)

th

th

th

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Page 224

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

ECE - 2010
7.
Two discrete time systems with impulse
responses
and
are connected in
cascade. The overall impulse response of
the cascaded system is
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

ECE - 2013
12. The DFT of a vector
c is the vector
. Consider the product
c
c
pqrs
c [
].
c
c
The DFT of the vector p q r s is a scaled
version of
(A)

ECE - 2011
8.
A system is defined by its impulse
response
u
. The system
is
(A) Stable and causal
(B) Causal but not stable
(C) Stable but not causal
(D) Unstable and noncausal

ECE - 2014
13. The
value
of
the
s c t t is ________.

9.

An input
is applied
response
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

x t
xp
t u t
t
to an LTI system with impulse
t
u t The output is
xp
t u t
u t
xp
t u t
u t
xp
t u t
u t
xp
t u t
u t

(B) [ ]
(C)
(D)

14.

A continuous, linear time-invariant filter


has an impulse response h(t) described
f r t
by t
,
t rw s
When a constant input of value 5 is
applied to this filter, the steady state
output is_____.

15.

Consider a discrete-time signal


f r
x
,
t rw s
If y[n] is the convolution of x[n] with
itself, the value of y[4] is _________.

16.

The input-output relationship of a causal


stable LTI system is given as
y
y
x
If the impulse response
of this
system
satisfies
the
condition

, the relationship between


and is
(A)
/
(C)
(B)
/
(D)

17.

Let h(t) denote the impulse response of a

ECE /EE/IN- 2012


10. The input x(t) and output y(t) of a system
are related as y(t) = x c s
The system is
(A) time-invariant and stable
(B) stable and not time-invariant
(C) time-invariant and not stable
(D) not time-invariant and not stable
11.

Let y[n] denote the convolution of h[n]


and g[n], where h[n]= (1/2)n u[n] and
g[n] is causal sequence. If y[0]=1 and
y[1]=1/2, then g[1] equals
(A) 0
(C) 1
(B) 1/2
(D) 3/2

integral

causal system with transfer function

Consider the following three statements.


S1: The system is stable.
th

th

th

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Page 225

GATE QUESTION BANK

S2:

y [ 0 ] = 3, y[ 2 ] = 2 is the output of a
discrete time LTI system. The system
impulse response h [ n ] will be
(A) h [ n ] = 0; n < 0, n > 2, h[ 0 ] = 1,
h[1]=h[2]= 1
(B) h [ n ] = 0; n < 1, n > 1, h[ 1 ] = 1,
h[0]=h[1]=2
(C) h [ n ] = 0; n < 0, n > 3, h[ 0 ] = 1,
h [ 1 ] =2, h [ 2 ] = 1
(D) h [ n ] = 0; n < 2, n > 1,
h[ 2 ] = h [ 1 ] =h [ 1]
= h[0]=3

is independent of t for t > 0.

S3: A non-causal system with the same


transfer function is stable.
For the above system,
(A) only S1 and S2 are true
(B) only S2 and S3 are true
(C) only S1 and S3 are true
(D) S1, S2 and S3 are true
18.

A real-valued signal x(t) limited to the


frequency band |f| is passed through
a linear time invariant system whose
frequency response is
|f|
f

{
|f|

The output of the system is


(A) x t
(C) x t
(B) x t
(D) x t
19.

A stable linear time invariant (LTI)


system
has
a
transfer
function
H(s)

. To make this system causal

it needs to be cascaded with another LTI


system having a transfer function
s .
A correct choice for
s among the
following options is
(A) s
(C) s
(B) s
(D) s
EE - 2006
1.
A continuous time system is described
by y(t) = | | , where y(t) is the output
and x(t) is the input. y(t) is bounded
(A) only when x(t) is bounded
(B) only when x(t) is non negative
(C) only for t 0 if x(t) is bounded for
t0
(D) even when x(t) is not bounded
2.

x[n] = 0; n < 1, n > 0, x [ 1] = 1,


x[ 0 ] = 2 is the input and
y[ n ] = 0;
n < 1, n > 2, y [ 1 ] = 1 = y [1],

Signals and Systems

EE - 2007
3.
X(z) = 1 z , Y(z)= 1+ z are
Z transforms of two signals x[n], y[n]
respectively. A linear time invariant
system has the impulse response h[n]
defined by these two signals as
h[n] = x[n 1] y[n] where
denotes
discrete time convolution. Then the
output of the syst m f r t
put
-1]
(A) Has Z-transform
X(z) Y(z)
(B) qu s
2]
4]
5]
(C)
s
tr sf rm
z
z
z
(D) Does not satisfy any of the above
three.
EE - 2008
4.
A signal
sin ( t) is the input to a
Linear Time Invariant system. Given K
and
are constants, the output of the
system will be of the form
sin
(vt
) where
(A)
t
qu t
; but equal
to
(B) v need not be equal to
ut
qu
to
(C)
qu t
and equal to
(D)
t
qual to and need
not be equal to

th

th

th

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Page 226

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

6.

The impulse response of a causal linear


time-invariant system is given as h(t).
Now consider the following two
statements
Statement (i): Principle of superposition
holds
Statement (ii) : h(t) = 0 for t < 0
Which one of the following statements is
correct?
(A) Statement (i) is correct and
Statement (ii) is wrong
(B) Statement (ii) is correct and
Statement (i) is wrong
(C) Both Statement (i) and Statement (ii)
are wrong
(D) Both Statement (i) and Statement (ii)
are correct
A system with input x(t) and output y(t)
is defined by the input-output relation,
y (t) =

The system will be

(A) causal, time-invariant and unstable


(B) causal, time-invariant and stable
(C) non causal, time-invariant and
unstable
(D) non - causal, time-variant and
unstable
EE - 2009
7.
A Linear Time Invariant system with
an impulse response h(t) produces
output y(t) when input x(t) is applied.
When the input x (t
s pp
t
system with impulse response h(
),
the output will be
(A) y(t)
(C) y(t
(B) y(2(t
(D) y(t
8.

The z transform of a signal x[n] is given


by z + z + 2 6z2 + 2z3. It is
applied to a system, with a transfer
function H(z) = z
2. Let the output
be y[n]. Which of the following is true?
(A) y[n] is non causal with finite support
(B) y[n] is causal with infinite support

Signals and Systems

(C) y[n] = 0;|n|>3


(D) Re[Y[z]
= Re[Y[z]
Im[Y[z]
= Im[Y[z]

9.

A cascade of 3 Linear Time Invariant


systems is causal and unstable. From this,
we conclude that
(A) Each system in the cascade is
individually causal and unstable
(B) At least one system is unstable and at
least one system is causal
(C) At least one system is causal and all
systems are unstable
(D) The majority are unstable and the
majority are causal

EE - 2010
10. Given the finite length input x[n] and the
corresponding finite length output y[n] of
an LTI system as shown below, the
impulse response h[n] of the system is
h[n]
y[n] = {1, 0, 0, 0, 1}

x[n] = {1, 1}

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)
11.

The system represented by the inputoutput relationship


y t
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

t
is
x
Linear and causal
Linear but not causal
Causal but not linear
Neither linear nor causal

EE - 2011
12. The response h(t) of a linear time
v r t syst m t
mpu s
t
under initially relaxed condition is
th

th

th

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Page 227

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

h(t) =
. The response of this
system for a unit step input u(t) is
(A) u(t) +
(B)
u t
(C)
u t
(D)
t
u t
Given two continuous time signals
x(t) =
and y(t) =
which exist for
t > 0 the convolution z(t) = x(t) * y(t) is
(A)
u t
(B)
u t
(C)
(D)

EE - 2013
14. Which one of the following statement is
NOT TRUE for a continuous time causal
and stable LTI system?
(A) All the poles of the system must lie on
the left side of the j axis.
(B) Zeros of the system can lie anywhere
in the s-plane
(C) All the poles must lie within |s|
(D) All the root of the characteristic
equation must be located on the left
side of the j axis.

If the input to the system is cos(3t) and


the steady state output is A sin(3t + ),
then the value of A is
(A) 1/30
(C) 3/4
(B) 1/15
(D) 4/3
17.

Consider an LTI system with impulse


response h(t) =
u t . If the output of
the system is y t
u t
u t
then the input, x(t), is given by
(A)
u t
(B)
u t
(C)
u t
(D)
u t

18.

A 10 kHz even-symmetric square wave is


passed through a bandpass filter with
centre frequency at 30 kHz and 3 dB
passband of 6 kHz. The filter output is
(A) a highly attenuated square wave at 10
kHz.
(B) nearly zero.
(C) a nearly perfect cosine wave at 30
kHz.
(D) a nearly perfect sine wave at 30 kHz.

19.

A continuous-time LTI system with


system function H( ) has the following
pole-zero plot. For this system, which of
the alternatives is TRUE?

EE - 2014
15. x(t) is nonzero only for
t
, and
similarly, y(t) is nonzero only for
t
. Let z(t) be convolution of x(t)
and y(t). Which one of the following
statements is TRUE?
(A) z(t) can be nonzero over an
unbounded interval.
(B) z(t) is nonzero for t
(C) z(t) is zero outside of
t
(D) z(t) is nonzero for t
.
16.

(A) |
(B) |
(C) |
(D) |

Consider an LTI system with transfer


function
s

Signals and Systems

|
|
|
|

|
| | |
s mu t p m x m
|
| | |
c st t

s s

th

th

th

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Page 228

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2007
1.
The signals x(t) and h(t) shown in the
figures are convolved to yield y(t) .

3.

Consider a discrete-time LTI system with


input x [n] = [n] + [n 1] and impulse
response h[n] = [n] [n 1]. The
output of the system will be given by
(A) [n] [n 2]
(B) [n] [n 1]
(C) [n 1]+ [n 2]
(D) [n]+ [n 1]+ [n 2]

x(t)
1

1
1

1
h(t)

1
0

Which one of the following figures


presents the output y(t)?
(A)
y(t)

IN - 2009
4.
A linear time-invariant casual system has
frequency response given in polar form
as:

For input x(t) = sint, the output is

(A)
(B)

(B)
y(t)

(C)

1
4

(C)

(D)

y(t)

1
1

Signals and Systems

c st
c s (t
s t
s

(t

IN - 2011
5.
Consider the signal
t
x(t) = {
t
Let X( ) denote the Fourier transform of
this signal. The integral
is

(D)

(A) 0
(B)

y t)
1
3
1

(C) 1
(D)

IN - 2013
6.
The impulse response of a system is
h(t) = t u(t). for an input u(t 1), the
output is
(A)

IN - 2008
2.
Which one of the following discrete-time
systems is time invariant?
(A) y [n] = nx [n]
(C) y[n] = x[ n]
(B) y [n] = x [3n]
(D) y [n] = x[n 3]

u t

(B)

u t

(C)

u t

(D)

th

u t

th

th

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Page 229

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

IN - 2014
7.
The impulse response of an LTI system is
given as :
{s

It represents an ideal
(A) non-causal, low-pass filter
(B) causal, low-pass filter
(C) non-causal, high-pass filter
(D) causal, high-pass filter

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. C]
x

x[k]

[s

( )] x

The system is linear as y(n) is


proportional to the input x(n)
Times varying as x(n) is multiplied not by
a constant but by a function of n.
Stable as bounded input, x(n) gives
bounded output , y(n) :
|s ( )|

and |y

| |x

2
1

0
1

h[k]

+1
2

Not invertible as several inputs: k (n) ,


where k is any arbitrary integer, give the
same output equal to zero.
The system is Linear, stable and
non invertible
(It is also Time varying).
2.

[Ans. D]
y

x
y
y
y
y
y
y
y

3.

[Ans. D]
h(t) = u t
u t
For the system to be stable ,

t t

For the above condition, h(t) should be as


shown below.

th

th

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Page 230

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

u t

u t

9.

syst m s

[Ans. D]

s
y(s) = X(s).H(s)

Therefore
Graph for

s s

y t
[Ans. C]
A system is casual if the output at any
time depends only on values of the input
at the present time and in the past.

5.

[Ans. A]

6.

[Ans. B]
y t

10.

x t

y t

c s

check for time invariant


x

y t
f r

x t

c s

t
y

utput

c s

For delayed input

y t

It is not low pass filter.


But the system is LTI and BIBO.

8.

u t

[Ans. D]

y t

x
t

c s

P
p

[Ans. C]
H(z) =

u t

h(t)

7.

s
s
taking inverse
w
t

4.

t st

where
t
P t t
When
P
Also
P t

z =

[Ans. B]
u
For causal system h(n) = 0 for n < 0.
Hence given system is casual.
For stability:

y t

x P c s

s c y t
y t t
It is not time invariant for a bounded
input, x (t) = cos (3t) u(t)
th

th

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Page 231

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

x
y t

c s

{x

} { c um v ct r }

su

11.

{x
x
Designing the
sequence
x
x
x
x

c s
u
syst m s

st
t stable.

[Ans. A]

g(1)
g(0)

1[- k]
1/2

1/4
k

0 1 0 1
c
c
y

x
x
x
x
x
[ x
]
Now circular convolutions given by
x
x
x
c
c
[
]
c
c
Now circular convolution of
c with
it self
c
c
c
c
[
]0 1
c
c
c
Taking transpose both side
c
c
0 1 0 1
c
[
]
c
c
c
c
Let

( ) u

} { c um v ct r }
x
matrix using same

Take DFT both side

y
P

0 1 0 1
c
c

y
h[1 k] will be zero for k > 1 and g[k] will
be zero for k<0 as it is causal sequence.

P
13.

g [1] = 0
12.

[Ans. *] Range 0.19 to 0.21


f
s c t
r ct ( )
| |
s c

[Ans. A]
Matrix method

| |
th

th

f
|r ct ( )|

th

P rs v

st

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Page 232

r m

GATE QUESTION BANK


f
tr ( )

Signals and Systems

( tr ( ) f)

f
tr ( ) f

| |

17.

[Ans. A]
t

14.

[Ans. *] Range 44 to 46
f r t
t
,
t rw s
t
u t
u t
s

y s

r st

s
y st t

s
S : Syst m s st
c us
t s ut y
t
S :
s
p
t

t
s

utput

m sy s

s
c s t f rm f % s
Hospital Rule?

pp y


18.

t ftm
t ftm

x t

[Ans. *] Range 9.9 to 10.1


f r
x
,
t rw s
x z
z
z
z
z
Convolution in time domain is
multiplication z domain
z
x z x z
f rf
y
,we have to find
coefficient of z
fy z
S t s

t (a non-causal system)

[Ans. D]
t

y t

[Ans. A]
y
y
y z
y z z
y z
x z
z

t r

but this is not absolutely integrable thus


unstable
Only S and S are TRUE

16.

u t

S : A non-causal system with same


transfer function is stable

15.

x t
f
x f
f
y t
x t

19.

y t

t c v ut
f
f

[Ans. B]
s

s
s
s
s
For a stable causal LTI systems, all system
poles should lie on LHP of s-plane.
So to make H(s) causal, we need to cancel
out the pole at s = 2
So,
s
s

x
x z

th

th

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Page 233

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE
1.

2.

= output of the LTI system due to


the input =
output due to the input

[Ans. D]
y(t) = | | ,
|x t | is always positive for positive as
well as negative values of x(t).
When x(t) is bounded, y (t) is bounded.
Even when x(t) is not bounded
i.e, x(t) = f r y t
Y(t) =
y t s u
v w
x t s t
bounded.
[Ans. A]
For finite duration convolution
x[n] have M terms
h[n] have N terms
then, y[n] should have terms (M+N 1)
Here, x[n] = { 1, 2}

Note that the following definitions and


properties are used:
z

y[n] = { 1, 3, 1, 2}
so option (A) is correct .
3.

If the input to an LTI system is shifted by


units, the output is also shifted by
units.
4.

[Ans. A]
If the input x(t) = s
t to a real Linear
Time Invariant system with frequency
response
, then the output
y(t) = s
t
If the input is a damped sinusoid
need not equal to alpha but frequency
v

5.

[Ans. D]
An LTI system is causal if the impulse
response , h(t) =0 for t< 0
The principle of superposition holds for a
linear system.
t st t m ts
r c rr ct

6.

[Ans. D]

y[n] = { 1, 3, 1, 2}
So, h[n] should have only 3 terms and
h[n] have value starting from origin of
[n=0] only because y[n] have start from
[n = 1]
s r pt
1
-1
1
1
1
1
1

Signals and Systems

Given y(t) =

y at time t is depending on values of x(t)


in the range of t = 0 to ( 2t).
i.e., y for negative values of time is
depending on x at positive values of time.
Hence System is non causal
For a bounded input like a step function
the output is not bounded , as the input is
integrated.

[Ans. B]
For (x) = 1 3z
x(n)
delaying by 1
x
For Y(z) =
z
y
x
y

put x t

For x t
th

th

utput y t

x t

t
th

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Page 234

GATE QUESTION BANK

utput

x t

x t

greater than zero even so atleast one of


them must be causal. Similarly even if one
(alteast) of the system become unstable
then overall system will become unstable.

t
10.

Where t
But y t

x t t

As equations (1) and (2) are not equal ,


System is Time variant
Syst m s
causal , Time variant ,
and unstable.
It may be noted that the system is Linear.
7.

8.

[Ans. D]
Case 1: Y(s) = H(s). X(s)
Case 2: input = x(t
s
Impulse response = h(t
Output: Y(s) = X(s).
. H(s)
= X(s). H(s).
y(t 2
[Ans. A]
y[n] = x[n] *H[n]
y[z]=x[z] H[z]
y[z] = z
z

Since output has

z
z

z
z

comparing with
y[n] = [1, 0, 0, 0, - 1]
z

z
z

y
f r
Therefore it is not causal with finite
support
9.

no. of elements

Where N is number of elements in


impulse response h[n]
1
N=4
Let it be
Then X(z)=
z
z
z
z
y z
x z z
y z
z
z
z
z
So,
y

[Ans. C]
x[n] = {1,-1} , M=2
y[N] = { 1,0,0,0, - 1} . N1 =5

z
z

Signals and Systems

[Ans. B]
Since in cascade overall impulse response
h(t) = h1(t)* h2(t)* h3(t)
h1(t), h2(t), h3(t) are impulse responses of
individual systems.
Since initial point where h(t) is nonzero is
t 0 and since in convolution initial point
t
t
t
Where t t t are initial points of
t
t
t respectively.
So for it to be greater than zero atleast
one of them
t t
t must be +ve

11.

[Ans. B]
Integrator is always a linear support
Since y(t) =

For t = 1
y t

Here value at t = 1 depends on future


v u s
tt
f put x t
So it is a non-causal system.

th

th

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Page 235

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

[Ans. C]
For given LTI system with input
response h(t) =
t

15.
t

Signals and Systems

[Ans. C]

,
x t

Note that u(t) =


t t. For an LTI
system, if the input is integrated, the
output is also integrated.
r u t st p
put
u t
t
response, s(t) is given
s t

s t

y t

t t

Thus z t is zero outside


t
by
convolution

f r t
s t

[Ans. B]

[Ans. A]

X(s) =
s

s s

s
s

Z(s) = taking partial fraction


z t
14.

of

u t
16.

13.

property

u t

17.

[Ans. C]
Since it is a stable system all poles should
lie in the left half of s-plane
|S|
s This implies one pole lie
in RHS

[Ans. B]
t
s

u t
s

y s

y s
s

x s

s
s

th

s
s

18.

s
s

u t

[Ans. C]
10 kHz even symmetric square wave have
frequency component present
th

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Page 236

GATE QUESTION BANK

19.

Signals and Systems

10kHz, 30kHz, 50kHz, 70kHz


[Only odd harmonics due to half wave
symmetry]
Since bandpass filter is centered at
30kHz, 30kHz component will pass
through
filter output is nearly perfect cosine
wave at 30 kHz
Cosine in due to reason that signal in even
signal.

y(t)

[Ans. D]

-1

h(t+1)

1
1
1

21

h(t 1)
Fig. 3
y(t)

1
2
2

-1

Fig. 4

x(t) = 1 t
t
y t
t
* t
t
* t
using the properties of convolution:
t * t
t
t
* t
t
y t
t
t
The resultant of the triangles in Fig. 3 is
shown in Fig. 4

s
(

)(

(
(
(

su st tut
w
t|
IN
1.

)(

)(

)(

)(

)(

)(

s
|

st

2.

[Ans. D]
y(n) =x(n 3) represents a time delay
system with delay = 3 secs.
It is a Time invariant system as can be
confirmed from the following Test.
Test for time invariance:
If y1(n) = y(n-n0), then the system is time
invariant
rt
v syst m x
y
x -3)

[Ans. D]
y(t) = x(t) * h(t)
x(t) and h(t) are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig.2
x(t)
1
1
1
1

x
x
From (1) y

Fig. 1

y
x
x

h(t)

1
0

3.

[Ans. A]
z
z
y

Fig. 2

th

th

z
z

z
z

z
z

th

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Page 237

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

Signals and Systems

[Ans. D]

T/F

x t

y t

Given,
Transfer function

And input x(t) = sint


t

y t
5.

[Ans. C]
Given x (t) =

t
t

x t
f
r pr p rty:

6.

f f

[Ans. C]
t

tu t

s
y s
y t
7.

x t |

s
s
*

u t
s

s
+

ut

[Ans. A]
For a system to be non-causal its impulse
response h(n) should depends upon
future value of n and if h(n) is
independent of the past value it never
means that system is non-causal
And it is the equation of LPF with cutoff
frequency

th

th

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Page 238

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Fourier Representation of Signals


ECE - 2006
1.
t x t
) be Fourier Transform
pair. The Fourier Transform of the signals
x(5t 3) in terms of X(j ) is given as

(A)
(B)

X( )
X( )

(C)

X( )

(D)

X( )

ECE - 2012
6.
The Fourier transform of a signal h(t) is
H{j) = (2 cos) (sin 2 ) /. The value
of h(0) is
(A) 1/4
(C) 1
(B) 1/2
(D) 2
ECE- 2013

ECE - 2007
2.
A 5-point sequence x[n] is given as
x[ 3]=1, x[ 2]=1, x[ 1]=0, x[0]=5,
x[1]=1. Let X(
denote the discretetime Fourier transform of x[n]. The value
of
( )
s

(A) 5
(B) 10

(C) 16
(D) 5+j10

ECE - 2008
3.
The signal x(t) is described by
f r
t
x(t) =,
.
t rw s
Two of the angular frequencies at which
its Fourier transform becomes zero are
(A)
(C) 0,
(B)

(D)
ECE - 2009
4.
The Fourier series of a real periodic
function has only
P. cosine terms if it is even
Q. sine terms if it is even
R. cosine terms if it odd
S. sine terms if it is odd
Which of the above statement are
correct?
(A) P and S
(C) Q and S
(B) P and R
(D) Q and R
ECE - 2011
5.
The trigonometric Fourier series of an
even function does not have the
(A) dc term
(B) cosine terms
(C) sine terms
(D) odd harmonic terms

7.

Let g(t) =
and h(t) is a filter
matched to g(t). If g(t) is applied as input
to h(t) , then the Fourier transform of the
output is
||
(C)
(A)

(B)

(D)

ECE- 2014
8.
For a function g(t), it is given that
t

value if

y(t) =

for any real


t

(A) 0
(B)
9.

y t t s

(C)
(D)

Consider a discrete time periodic signal


x[n] = s

( ) Let

be the complex

Fourier series coefficients of x[n]. The


coefficients { } are non-zero when
k = Bm 1, where m is any integer. The
value of B is ______.
10.

A Fourier transform pair is given by


( ) u

( )

Where u[n] denotes the unit


sequence. The values of A is _______.

step

EE- 2006
1.
x(t) is a real valued function of a real
variable with period T. Its trigonometric
Fourier Series expansion contains no
terms of frequency = 2 (2k) / T;

th

th

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Page 239

GATE QUESTION BANK

k = 1,
s
s
t rms r
present. Then x(t) satisfies the equation
(A) x(t) = x (t T)
(B) x(t) = x (T t) = x ( t)
(C) x(t) = x (T t) = x (t T / 2)
(D) x(t) = x (t T) = x(t T / 2)

EE- 2008
4.
Let x(t) = rect(t

x t

the Fourier Transform of x(t) + x( t) will


be given by

5.

c s(

(C)

s (

(B)

c s(

(D)

s (

The frequency spectrum of a signal is


shown in the figure. If this signal is ideally
sampled at intervals of 1 ms, then the
frequency spectrum of the sampled signal
will be
|U |

(A) sinc( )

(C) 2sinc( )cos( )

(B) 2sinc ( )

(D) sinc( )sin( )

Let x (t) be a periodic signal with time


period T. Let y(t) = x(t t0) + x(t + t0)
for some t0. The Fourier Series
coefficients of y (t) are denoted by .
If = 0 for all odd k, then t0 can be equal
to
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D) 2T

EE- 2009
6.
The Fourier Series coefficient, of a
periodic signal x(t), expressed as

x(t) =
are given by
=
j1;
= 0.5 + j0.2;
= j2;
=0.5 j0.2;
= 2 + j1; and = 0; for
| |> 2.Which of the following is true?
(A) x(t) has finite energy because only
finitely many coefficients are nonzero
(B) x(t) has zero average value because
it is periodic
(C) The imaginary part of x(t) is constant
(D) The real part of x(t) is even

1 KHz
|U

and

(A)

(A)

zero otherwise). Then if sinc(x) =

x t
{
Which among the following gives the
fundamental Fourier term of x(t)?

3.

(where rect (x) = 1) for

EE- 2007
2.
A single x(t) is given by
t

Signals and Systems

(B)

EE- 2010
7.
x t is a positive rectangular pulse from
t
t t
with unit height as
shown in the figure. The value of
|
{ where
is the Fourier
|

(C)

(D)

transform of x t } is

th

th

th

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Page 240

GATE QUESTION BANK


x(t)

(A) 2
(B)
8.

(C) 4
(D)

The second harmonic component of the


periodic waveform given in the figure has
an amplitude of

EE- 2014
11. For a periodic square wave, which one of
the following statements is TRUE?
(A) The Fourier series coefficients do not
exist.
(B) The Fourier series coefficients exist
but the reconstruction converges at
no point.
(C) The Fourier series coefficients exist
and the reconstruction converges at
most points.
(D) The Fourier series coefficients exist
and the reconstruction converges at
every point.
12.

+1

Let f(t) be a continuous time signal and


let F( ) be its Fourier Transform defined
by

0
T

T/2

Signals and Systems

f t

Define g(t) by
-1

t
(A) 0
(B) 1
9.

(C) 2/

The period of the signal


t

) is

(A) 0.4s
(B) 0.8s

(C) 1.25s
(D) 2.5s

EE- 2011
10. The Fourier series expansion

f(t) =
c s t
s
t of
the periodic signal shown below will
contain the following nonzero terms

13.

f(t)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

and ,
and ,
and
and ,

What is the relationship between f(t) and


g(t) ?
(A) g(t) would always be proportional to
f(t).
(B) g(t) would be proportional to f(t) if
f(t) is an even function.
(C) g(t) would be proportional to f(t)
only if f(t) is a sinusoidal function.
(D) g(t) would never be proportional to
f(t).

(D)

x(t) = 8 s (

A discrete system is represented by the


difference equation
[

+[

It has initial conditions


. The pole locations
of the system for a = 1, are
(A)
(C)
(B)

(D)

th

th

th

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Page 241

GATE QUESTION BANK

14.

A function f(t) is shown in the figure.

2.

If the waveform, shown in the following


figure, corresponds to the second
derivative of a given function f(t), then
the Fourier transform of f(t) is

f t
/

f t
t

/
/

Signals and Systems

/
1

The Fourier transform


f f t is
(A) real and even function of .
(B) real and odd function of .
(C) imaginary and odd function of .
(D) imaginary and even function of .
15.

A signal is represented by
|t|
x t
{
|t|
The Fourier transform of the convolved
signal y t
x t x t is

4.

The magnitude of fourier transform


of a function x(t) is shown below in figure
(a). The magnitude of fourier transform
of another function y(t) is shown
below in figure(b). The phases of
and
are zero for all
. The
magnitude frequency units are identical
in both the figures. The function y(t) can
be expressed in terms of x(t) as
|
|
|
|

A differentiable non constant even


function x(t) has a derivative y(t), and
their respective Fourier Transforms are
X( ) and Y( ). Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
(A) X( ) and Y( ) are both real.
(B) X( ) is real and Y( ) is imaginary.
(C) X( ) and Y( ) are both imaginary.
(D) X( ) is imaginary and Y( ) is real.

IN- 2006
1.
The Fourier transform of a function g(t) is
s

Then the function

g(t) is given as,


(A)
t
xp( 3|t|)
(B) c s t
xp( 3t)
(C) s
t
c s t
(D) s
t
xp( 3t)

(D)

The Fourier series for a periodic signal is


v
s x t
c s
t
c s t
cos
t
fu
m t
fr qu cy
of the signal is
(A) 0.2 Hz
(C) 1.0 Hz
(B) 0.6 Hz
(D) 1.4 Hz

(C)

3.

16.

(A) 1 + sin
(B) 1 + cos

s ( )s
s ( )

+1

(A)

x( )

(C)

x t

(B)

x t

(D)

x( )

IN- 2007
5.
Consider the discrete-time signal
x[n] =( )

, where u

=,

Define the signal y[n] as y[n] = x[ n],

th

th

th

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Page 242

GATE QUESTION BANK

y
(A)
(B)

IN- 2011
9.
Consider a periodic signal x(t) as shown
below

qu s

(C)
(D) 3

Signals and Systems

x(t)
1

6.

Let the signal x(t) have the Fourier


tr sf rm
s rt s
y(t) =

x t

where t

0 1

2 3

4 5 6

is an
It has a Fourier series representation

arbitrary delay. The magnitude of the


Fourier transform of y(t) is given by the
expression
| | |
(A) |
|
(B) |
|
(C)
.|
|.
(D) | |.|
IN- 2008
7.
The fourier transform x(t) =
u t
when u(t) is unit step function,
(A) Exist for any real value of a
(B) Does not exist for any real value of a
(C) Exists if any real value of a is strictly
negative
(D) Exists if the real value of a is strictly
positive

x t

Which one of the following statements is


TRUE?
(A)
for k odd integer and T = 3
(B)
, for k even integer and T = 3
(C)
for k even integer and T = 6
(D)
, for k odd integer and T = 6
IN- 2014
10. x(k)is the Discrete Fourier Transform of a
6-point real sequence ().
If X(0)= 9 + j0, X(2)= 2 + j2, X(3)=
3 j0, X(5)= 1 j1,x(0) is
(A) 3
(C) 15
(B) 9
(D) 18

IN- 2010
8.
f(x), shown in the adjoining figure is
represented by
f x

The value of

c s x

x }

is
f x

(A) 0
(B)

(C)
(D)

th

th

th

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Page 243

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

6.

[Ans. C]
c s

[Ans. A]
x t
x [ (t

)]

c s s c
s c

[Ans. B]
( )

[Ans. A]

t
r ct ( )

{
t { t
t
{r c (

t }
}

t
)

r ct (

)}

-1

+1

)
7.

[Ans. D]
The concept of matched filter assumes
that the input signal is of the same form
g(t) as the transmitted signal(except
difference in amplitude ). This requires
that the shape of the transmitted signal
not change on reflection.
h(t) = g( t f
(f)
G f
f
f sr


[Ans. A ]
P & S are correct
[Ans. C]
S xp s
f
have sine terms.

t
r ct ( )

-3

5.

s c(

x t

4.

)
ys c

3.

Now r ct ( )
s c(

c s

Using scaling and shifting property.


2.

g(t) =

(fourier transform)

y t
h(t)

g(t)

fu ct

g(t)

s t
y(t)= h(t) * g(t) [convolution]
th

th

th

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Page 244

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

[Ans. B]
Given

9.

x(t T) = x( t+T)
but signal is periodic with period T.
therefore x(t T) = x(t)
therefore x(t) = x(T t
Now since signal contains only odd
harmonics i.e no terms of frequency

y t

y t t

y
i.e. no even harmonics. This means signal
contains half wave symmetry this implies
that
x(t) = x(t /
From (i) and (ii)
x(t) = x(T t)
= x(t T/2)

[Ans. *] Range 9.99 to 10.01

x
s * +
/

P r
S

fx

Signals and Systems

2.

[Ans. A]
The given signal x(t) is a periodic
waveform with period T0 =2 T and
satisfies half wave symmetry:

So is non-zero for k = 1 and


.
Fourier co-efficient are periodic with N
N= 10
So the value of k for which
are

x(t) =

x (t

x t

as shown

in Fig.1
Comparing
We see m x
10.

x(t)
1

[Ans. *] Range 3.36 to 3.39


( ) u

( )

( ) u
( )
( )

( )

0
-1

u
u

Fig . 1
Fundamental frequency =

x t

( )

EE
1.

m is any integer

x (t

shown

/
= /
in

Fig.

possesses Even symmetry and also half


wave symmetry.
Fundamental Fourier term of

( )

x t

( )

c st ( t)

Where M = peak to peak value of


x t

[Ans. C]
Since trigonometric fourier series has no
sine terms and has only cosine terms
therefore this will be an even signal i.e. it
will satisfy
x(t) =x( t)
or we can write
th

th

th

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Page 245

GATE QUESTION BANK


x1(t)

4.

[Ans. C]

x t
r ct t
x t
t
= 0 otherwise

1
t

Signals and Systems

x t

x t

Fig. 2

)
As x(t)= x (t
Fundamental component of

x t
c s [ (t
)]

c s* t
+

3.

x t

f(in kHz)

Sampling interval ,
ms f
z
f
f . Therefore Aliasing or overlap of
the adjacent spectra in the sampled
spectrum because f
f .
The sampled spectrum ,
U*
f
f
f
f
as shown in Fig. 2.
The resultant spectrum, U*
is
c st t f r
f s s w
w c
is the same figure given in option(b)
|

x t

s c(

c s

5.

)c s( )

[Ans. B]
y t
x t t
x t t
Since y(t) is periodic with period T.
Therefore x t t
x t t will also
be periodic with period T.

fs
M
f

0
Fig. 3
|

is fourier series coefficient of signal


x(t) therefore
[
]
c s
t
s c
f r

f |

-2

Fig. 1

+x

w r x t
0, otherwise

[Ans. B]
Highest frequency of the input signal,
fh = 1kHz as shown in its spectrum of
Fig. 1
|
| r| f |

-1 0 1
Fig. 2

f(in kHz)

th

th

th

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Page 246

GATE QUESTION BANK

i.e.

r
t

t
6.
I.

Signals and Systems

]x t t

[Ans. C]
A periodic signal x(t) has always
infinite energy

III.

x t t

x t t

For a0 to be purely imaginary = 2j


The first integral should be zero and
the second integral should not be
zero.
i.e. xR(t) should be either 0 or an odd
function.
option (D) is not true.
And xI(t) should be a constant or an
even function so that the integral is
not zero.
option (C) is true.
7.

]x t t

option (A) is not true.


The average value a0 of a periodic
signal need not be zero.
Infact a0 = j2 as given in this
question
option (B) is not true.
The complex value of a0 indicates
that x(t) should be complex.
Let x(t) = xR(t) +jxI(t)
Where xR(t) and xI(t) are the real and
imaginary parts of x(t).

II.

x t x t t

|x t |
|x t |

8.

[Ans. A]
f(t) is odd no cosine terms and no dc.
Also, by inspection, half wave symmetry
no sine even harmonics no second
harmonics amplitude = 0.

9.

[Ans. D]
From the given signal x(t)
rad/sec

s c

10.

[Ans. D]
Observe the given periodic f(t) shown in
Fig. 1
f(t)
A

[Ans. D]

Fig. 1

(1) Its

t]

average

value

f t t

(2) It has even symmetry. i.e; f(t) = f(-t)


th

th

th

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Page 247

GATE QUESTION BANK

s
t rms r
s t f t
(3) The function f1(t) = [f(t)-a0] has half
wave symmetry or odd harmonic
symmetry:
i.e., f t

f (

Signals and Systems

14.

[Ans. C]
Given function is odd
is imaginary and odd in

15.

[Ans. A]

Even harmonics are absent


From observations (2) and (3)
above,
bn
f r v u s f
an
f r v v u s f
an
f r

x t

x t

f1(t)

12.

16.

*
*

|S
P

s
s

sr

(x t ) t

f ur r tr

sf rm

ry

IN
1.

[Ans. A]
t
Given ,

Use the F.T. pairs:


t
u t

|
s

( )s

[Ans. B]
x t v fu ct

+ putt
s

( )

[Ans. A]
Poles of the system are the roots of the
|
equation |S
r

y t

f t ff t s v
t is proportional to f(t) if f(t) is even.
13.

( )

[Ans. B]
Since F( ) is FT of f(t) hence

[Ans. C]
Fourier series exists for periodic waves.
Since it is a square wave, convergence
occurs at most points

/ s

Convolution in time domain


= multiplication of Fourier transforms
t
y t
x t x( )

Fig. 2

11.

/
/

t
x( )

If t replaced by ( t),
(

is replaced by

u t

th

th

th

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Page 248

GATE QUESTION BANK

u t

Signals and Systems

t
So, y t

||

||

5.
In general, K
t
2.

t/

[Ans. C]

||

Given x(n) = ( ) u
||

[Ans. C]
From the given plot,
t

y
t

( )

( )

Take F.T on both sides


Use the following pairs and properties:
Let f(t)

rst t rm
mm r t

f t
t
t

6.

[Ans. A]
{x t t }

c s
c s

4.

7.

[Ans. A]
f
z; f
z f
z
u
m t fr qu cy f x t
f0=0.2
Hz (HCF of are the frequency)
f
f
rm c f
f
harmonic

x t

| ||

[Ans. C]
The fourier transform of
u

t s

s >0
f

u t will exist

If
a<0
8.

[Ans. A]
The given function f(x) is periodic
function with period, T =
F(x) is shown over one period from 0 to
in Fig.

[Ans. D]

c s
3.

The d.c value of f(x) =


r
We know that expansion in frequency
domain result in compression in time
domain and vice-versa.
Here compression is done in frequency
domain, So there will be expansion in
time domain by same amount.

f x x

rf x

As can be seen from Fig.

So for x ( )
th

th

th

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Page 249

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

f(x)

1.5
1.0
x

0
-1.0
-1.5

Fig.

9.

[Ans. B]
Clearly, period of the signal x(t) is 3.
So, T = 3
And

x t t
x t t

so, ak=0 for k even integer.


10.

[Ans. A]
Given 6 point DFT of x[n] with

y symm try pr p rt s

th

th

th

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Page 250

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Z-Transform
ECE - 2006
1.
If the region of convergence of
x [n] +x [n] is 1/3 < |z|<2/3, then the
region of convergence of x [n] x [n]
includes

(A) < |z|< 3

(C) < |z|< 3

(B) < |z|< 3

(D) < |z|<

ECE - 2009
5.
The ROC of Z-Transform of the discrete
time sequence ,
x[n] = ( ) u

region of convergence of x[z] includes the


unit circle. The value of x[0] is
(A) 0.5
(C) 0.25
(B) 0
(D) 0.5
ECE - 2008
Statement for linked question 3 and 4:
In the following network, the switch is
closed at t =
and the sampling starts
from t = 0. The sampling frequency is 10Hz.

(D)

|z|

ECE - 2010
6.
Consider the z-transform
|z|
z
z
z
;
inverse z-transform x[n] is
(A) 5
(B) 5
(C) 5 u
u
u
(D) 5 u
u
u
7.

The

The transfer function of a discrete time LTI


system is given by

Consider the following statements:


S1: The system is stable and causal for ROC:
|z|

x z
x
S mp r
f
z

is

(C) |z|

(B) |z|

. It is given that the

|z|

(A)

ECE - 2007
2.
The z-transform x[z] of a sequence x[n] is
given by x[z] =

( ) u

S2: The system is stable but not causal for


z

tr

sf rm

ROC: |z|
S3: The system is neither stable nor causal
|z|

for ROC:
3.

The samples x [n] (n = 0, 1, 2, ...) are given


by
(A) 5 (1
)
(C) 5 (1
)
(B) 5
(D) 5

4.

The expression and the region of


convergence of the z-transform of the
sampled signal are

(A)

, |z| < e-5

(B)
(C)
(D)

, | z | < e-0.05
-

, | z | > e-0.05

Which one of the following statements is


valid?
(A) Both S1 and S2 are true
(B) Both S2 and S3 are true
(C) Both S1 and S3 are true
(D) S1, S2 and S3 are all true
ECE - 2011
8.
Two systems
z and
z are connected
in cascade as shown below. The overall
output y(n) is the same as the input x(n)
with a one unit delay. The transfer function
of the second system
z is

, |z| > e-5

th

th

th

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Page 251

GATE QUESTION BANK

=
(C) y [ n ]
(D) y [ n ]

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

2.

(A)

| |

(C)

| |

(B)

| |

(D)

| |

of X(z) z
(A) an-1
(B) an
3.

) u

+ z

z
+1

) u

The region of convergence (ROC) of the ztransform of x[n]


(C) s

(B) s |z|

(D) Does not exist

)H(z)

is

the

entire

Z-plane

(Except z = 0). It can then be inferred that H


(z) can have a minimum of
(A) one pole and one zero
(B) one pole and two zero
(C) two poles and one zero
(D) two poles and two zeros

(A) s |z|

at z = a for n 0 will be
(C) nan
(D) nan-1

H (z) is a transfer function of a real system.


(When a signal x[n] = (1 + j)n is the input to
such a system, the output is zero. Further,
the region of convergence (ROC) of

ECE - 2014
(

| |

with | |> a, the residue

Given X (z) =

(
tx

z
y (z)=
y (z)= z

EE - 2008

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
| |
u
9.
If x
then the
region of convergence (ROC) of its Ztransform in the Z-plane will be

10.

Signals and Systems

|z|

EE - 2014
11.

12.

Let x[] = ]. Let


z be the
-transform of []. If 0.5+j0.25 is a zero of
z which one of the following must also
be a zero of z
(A)
(B) /
(C) /
(D)
The z-transform of the sequence x[n] is
given by

with the region of

convergence|z|

. . Then, x [2] is_______.

EE - 2007
1.
The discrete time signal
x[n]

X (Z) =

4.

Let

causal signal x[n]. Then, the values of x[2]


and x[3] are
(A) 0 and 0
(C) 1 and 0
(B) 0 and 1
(D) 1 and 1
IN - 2008
1.
The region of convergence of the ztransform of the discrete-time signal
x[n] = 2nu[n] will be
(A) | |>2
(C) | |>
(B) | |< 2
(D) | |<

y[n]

Where
denotes a transform pair
relationship, is orthogonal to the signal
y (z)=

(B) y [ n ]

y (z)

be the Z-transform of a

IN - 2011
2.
Consider the difference equation

z ,

(A) y [ n ]

x[n] = ( ) u

. Assuming the condition of

initial rest, th s ut

( ) z

(A) 3 ( )
th

th

and suppose that

f ry

( )
th

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Page 252

GATE QUESTION BANK

(B)

( )

( )

(C)

( )

( )

(D)

( )

( )

4.

Signals and Systems

(A) | |<

(C) | |>

(B) | |<

(D) | |<

The transfer function of a digital system is


given by:

IN - 2014
3.
The system function of an LTI system is
given by

; where

is real.

The transfer function is BIBO stable if the


value of is:
(A) 1.5
(C) 0.5
(B) 0.75
(D) 1.5

z
z
The above system can have stable inverse if
the region of convergence of H(z)is defined
as

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

r|
[Ans. D]
ROC {x
x }
{x
x }(if
are no pole-zero cancellation)

5.
2.

3.

[Ans. B]
ROC is |z|
x
0.5

[Ans. A]
Recall the z transform pairs:
For
the
Right
sided
sequence:
|z| | |
u

For Left sided sequence:


|z|
u

[Ans. B]
s

r |z|

there

( ) u

|z|

z
z

( )

| |

|z|

For x(n) containing both the above


terms the ROC is the overlapping region:

t
Therefore samples

|z|

6.
4.

[Ans. A]
For the given X(z) , note that the ROC is
the entire z plane except
z
z
Recall the z transform pair:
Recall the time shifting property:
If g(n) G(z)
z
z

[Ans. C]
z

z
z

th

th

th

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Page 253

GATE QUESTION BANK

z
For given X(z) ,
x(n)=5
7.

8.

[Ans. B]
y
x
Taking z transform of both sides
z
z
z
z
z
z
For cascaded system
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z

9.

[Ans. C]

[Ans. C]
Given : H(z)=
Express H(z) in +ve powers of z and find
the zeros and poles.
z

z(

z)

(z

z (z
(z

) (z

)
)

Poles are at z = and z = lying inside


the unit circle in the z plane.
Consi r t t r p ss
s:

Signals and Systems

| |

(i)|z|
For a casual system h(n) =0, n< 0 and
h(n) is a Right sided sequence and ROC is
the region outside the circle passing
through the right most pole z =
syst m s us
For stability of LTI system unit circle
should be inside the ROC
syst m s st
S sv
st t m t

( )

( ) u

s y

z
| |

x ( )

x ( )

(ii)|z|

x ( ) z

H(n) is a Left sided sequence and the


system is not causal.
t s t c us :
f r
As unit circle is not inside the ROC , the
system is unstable.
S s t valid statement.
(iii)

x ( z)
, z

( z)
,( z

|z|

( z

The ROC is the annular region between


two circles bounded by the poles:
At z

( z

| z|

| z

z
|z|

H(n) is a two sided signal existing for


sw
sf r
Syst m s
not causal. As unit circle is not inside the
ROC , the system is unstable.
S s v
st t m t
t S
S r tru
S s t tru

|z|

| |

( ) u

x
s| z

r|z|
th

th

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Page 254

GATE QUESTION BANK

We draw the three ROC on the Z plane


So,
The over lapping region is given by

EE
1.

[Ans. B]
Two discrete time signals x(n) and y (n)
are said to be orthogonal, if

x
y
whose * denotes
complex conjugatio
Or

x
y
for real x(n) and
y

|z|
10.

[Ans. C]
v x
(

) u

r(

) u

s qu

xt r r f c rc

fr

us

From the option given , according to the


definition of Z.T:

|z|

[Ans. B]
x
x
x z
x z

12.

fx z s

| |

z
z
y

is a zero of x(z)

x z

( ) u

y
For

s s z r

us v r
11.

For the given x(n) , X(z) =

|z|

) u
ts

Signals and Systems

It can be seen that equation (2) is


satisfied only when y(n) = y

x z

[Ans. *] Range 11.9 to 12.1


2.

x z

[Ans. D]
For the given X(z) =

z
(

Let Y(z) = z

taking Inverse z-transform using


Frequency domain multiplication
=time domain convolution
x
u
u
u
u

Residue of Y(z)=

z
z

with |z|>a

z |

z |

Note that the Question asked is to find


x(n) given
X(z) =
with |z|>a , for which the

answer is known through the following


fundamental ZT pairs and properties.
z
|z|
u
z
z
z
u
z (
)
z z
z
|z|

x
S x

th

th

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Page 255

GATE QUESTION BANK

z
z

|z|

| |

2.

|z|

| |

[Ans. A]
(1

z
z

put x

z
( ) u

(z

|z|
)

[Ans. B]
z

z
z
z
z
z

z
z

z
z
z

x z
x
x

) (z

(z

z
z

3.

( )

( ) +u

[Ans. C]
For a system to be stable, it should
contain Z=1 circle in its ROC
r

x
u

z
4.

( )
z

) (z

}
x

) (z

[Ans. A]
Given,
x[n] = u
x z

z
z

IN
1.

|z|

z has ROC as entire Z-plane

which implies that it is polynomial.


z
s
p
4.

[Ans. B]
y

u
3.

| z

z
| |

Signals and Systems

[Ans. C]
Only this option gives poles inside unit
circle.

th

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Page 256

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Laplace Transform
ECE - 2006
1.
Consider the function f(t) having Laplace
transform F(s) =
; Re[s]>0. The final
value of f(t) would be
(A) 0
(C)
(B) 1
(D)

1<f

<1

ECE - 2007
2.
If the Laplace transform of a signal y(t) is
Y(s)=

; then its final value is

(A) 1
(B) 0

ECE - 2011
6.

If

(C) 1
(D) Unbounded

ECE - 2009
3.
An LTI system having transfer function
and input x(t) = sin(t+1) is in
steady state. The output is sampled at a
rate
rad/s to obtain the final output
{y(k)}. Which of the following is true ?
(A)
s z r
f r
s mp
frequency
(B)
s
z r f r
s mp
frequency
(C)
s
z r f r
> 2 , but zero
for < 2
(D)
sz r f r
> 2 , but nonzero
for < 2
4.

Assuming zero initial conditions, the


response y(t) of the above system for the
input
x t
u t s v
y
(A)
u t
(B)
u t
(C)
u t
(D)
u t

Given that F(s) is the one-sided Laplace


transform of f(t), the Laplace transform of
s
f
(A) sF(s) f(0)

(C)

(B)

(D) [F(s) f(0)]

ECE - 2010
5.
A continuous
described by
y t
y t
t
t

time
y t

LTI

system
x t
t

f t

then the initial

and final values of f t are respectively


(A) 0, 2
(C) 0, 2/7
(B) 2, 0
(D) 2/7, 0
ECE - 2013
7.
A system is described by the differential
equation

y t

x t .

Let x(t) be a rectangular pulse given by


t
x t
,
t rw s
Assuming that y (0) =0 and
at
t =0, the Laplace transform of y(t) is
(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

EE 2006
1.
The running integrator, given by
y t

x t

(A) has no finite singularities in its


double sided Laplace Transform Y(s)
(B) produces a bounded output for every
casual bounded input
(C) produces bounded output for every
anticasual bounded input
(D) has no finite zeros in its double sided
Laplace Transform Y (s)

is
x t

th

th

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Page 257

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2010
Common Data for Questions 2 and 3
Given f t and t as shown below:

f(t)
1

(A)
(B)

g(t)
1
0

3.

EE - 2012
5.
Consider the differential equation
y t
y t
y t
t
t
t
y
wt y t |
|
t
um r c v u

2.

Signals and Systems

t can be expressed as
(A) t
f t
(B)

f(

(C)

f( t

(D)

f(

2
1

(C) 0
(D) 1

IN - 2006
1. Given, x t x t
t xp
the function x(t) is
(A) xp
t u t
(B) xp t u t
(C) t xp t u t
(D)
xp t u t

t u t

)
IN - 2010
2. u(t) represents the unit step function. The
Laplace transform of u(t- is

)
)

The Laplace transform of

t is

(A)
(B)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

IN - 2013
3. The

(C)

discrete-time

transfer

function

is

(D)
EE - 2011
4.
Let the Laplace transform of a function
f(t) which exists for t > 0 be
s and the
Laplace transform of its delayed version
f t
be
s . Let (s) be the complex
conjugate of
s with the Laplace
v r
s t s s
. If
G(s) =

, then the inverse Laplace

transform of G(s) is
(A)
mpu s
t
(B)
y
mpu s
t
(C) an ideal step function u(t)
(D) an ideal delayed step function u(t

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Non minimum phase and unstable.


Minimum phase and unstable.
Minimum phase and stable.
Non-minimum phase and stable.

IN - 2014
4. The transfer function of a system is given
by
/
s
s
The input to the system is ( )=sin100 t .
In periodic steady state the output of the
system s f u
t
y t
s
t
). The phase angle ( ) in degree is
___________.

th

th

th

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Page 258

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. C]

s}
s
sF(s) has poles , which lie on the
imaginary axis.
v u t
r mc
t
pp
For the given F(s) , f(t) = s
t u t
f

Hence the final value can be taken as :


f

2.

3.

s
s
t

[Ans. D]
poles of S.Y(s) lie on right half of Splane)
s = 1 is right s plane pole
Unbounded.

s
tx t

u t

s
s

s
s
Taking inverse Laplace transform on both
side
y t
u t
6.

[Ans. B]
s

f t

Initial value

[Ans. A]
For the given LTI system

mf t

H(s) =
mf t

The frequency response is given by

ms s

s (

s (

s
s

t
For the input x(t) = sin (t +1) with
|
| s (t
y t
)
t
r /s c
Y(.) is zero for all sampling frequencies
sy t
4.

[Ans. B]
0 f

5.

Final value theorem


mf t
ms s
ms

7.
1

[Ans. B]
x t
u t

s
s

s s
s

u t

x s

With zero initial condition.

s
s
Now taking Laplace transform

[Ans. B]
y t
y t
x t
y t
x t
t
t
t
Taking Laplace transform on both side
(assuming zero initial conditions).
s s
s s
s
s s
s

s y s
y s
y s

th

th

sy s

y s

s s

s s

th

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Page 259

GATE QUESTION BANK

s s

Signals and Systems

f(

f(

Time shifting (delay by 2)

EE
1.

[Ans. B]
y t

x t

u t

3.

[Ans. C]
Form Fig. 3 in the above question,
g(t) = u(t 3) u(t 5)
Use L.T pair and property:

u t

u t
*

Fig. 3

if we take x(t) as casual input


ut
x t
u t
y t

s
f

s
*

f r

t s

4.

[Ans. B]
f t t

2.

[Ans. D]
Time scaling (Expansion by 2) and Time
shifting by 3 get g(t) from f(t)
f(t) , f(t/2) and g(t) = f (

f t

) are shown

1
t

5.

s
s |

|
s |
| s | ,

[Ans. D]
+

Fig.1

Time scaling (expansion by 2)

y t

Converting to s domain,
s2y(s) sy(0) y (0) + 2[sy(s) y(0)] +
y(s) = 1
[s2 + 2s + 1] y (s) + 2s + 4 = 1

f(t/2)
1

|
s

s
G(s)
t
t
)
The inverse LT of G(s) is a unit ideal
impulse delayed by .

f(t)

fig. 1,2 and 3

y(s) =
1

find inverse lapalce transform


y(t) [ 2 et tet] u(t)

Fig. 2

= 2et + tet et
|
th

th

=21=1
th

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Page 260

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN
1.

Signals and Systems

[Ans. A]
Given,
x t x t
t xp
t u t
taking Laplace transform on both sides
we get,
s

s
Taking inverse Laplace transform of X(s)
is
x t
xp
t u t
2.

[Ans. C]
Laplace transform of u(t) =1/s
Use Time shifting property:
If the L.T of f(t) is F(s),
Then L.T of x(t) = f(t
s s
f u t-

3.

[Ans. D]
Transfer function is
Clearly all the zeros are on the RHS of
imaginary axis so the system is nonminimum phase.
Also, the poles z = 0.5 is inside the unity
circle thus the system is stable.

4.

[Ans. *]Range 67 to 69
P s
s
t
(
)
c s
t

th

th

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Page 261

GATE QUESTION BANK

Signals and Systems

Frequency Response of LTI systems and Diversified Topics


ECE - 2006
1.
A signal m(t) with bandwidth 500 Hz is
first multiplied by a signal g(t) where
t

A uniformly distributed random variable


X with probability density function
y
1

2.5

f x

If S(f) is the power spectral density of a


real, wide-sense stationary random
process, then which of the following is
ALWAYS true?
(A) S
S f
(B) S f
(C) S f
s f
(D) S f f

The resulting signal is then passed


through an ideal low pass filter with
bandwidth 1 kHz. The output of the low
pass filter would be
(A)
t
(C) 0
(B) m t
(D) m t t
2.

4.

2.5

(u x

u x

Where u(.) is the unit step function is


passed through a transformation given in
the figure below. The probability density
function of the transformed random
variable Y would be
(A) f y

(u y

(B) f y
(C) f y

ECE - 2008
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 5
&6
The impulse response h(t) of a linear
time-invariant continuous time system is
given by h(t) = exp( 2t) u(t), where u(t)
denotes the unit step function.
5.
fr qu cy r sp s
f t s
system in terms of angular frequency is
v
y

u y

(B)

(D)

The output of this system to the


sinusoidal input x (t) = 2cos (2t) for all
time t, is
(A) 0
(B)
c s t

(C)
c s t

(D)
c s t

7.

{x[n]} is a real-valued periodic sequence


with a period N. x[n] and X[k] form Npoint Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
pairs. The DFT Y[k] of the sequence

(D) f y

(C)

6.

y
y

(A)

y
/

y
(u y

u y

ECE - 2007
3.
If
is the autocorrelation function of a
real, wide-sense stationary random
process, then which of the following is
NOT true?
(A)
|
(B) |
(C)
(D) The mean square value of the
process is R(O)

y[n]=

xrx

r is

(A) |X [k]|2
(B)

r x

(C)

x r x

(D) 0

th

th

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Page 262

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

The probability density function (PDF) of


a random variable X is as shown below.

(B)

(B)
(C)
(D)

The
corresponding
cumulative
distribution function (CDF) has the form
(A)
CDF
1

(A)

PDF

ECE - 2009
10. The 4 point discrete Fourier transform
(DFT) of a discrete time sequence
{ 1, 0 ,2, 3} is
(A) [ 0 , 2 +2j , 2 , 2 2j]
(B) [2, 2 +2j , 6,2, 2j]
(C) [ 6 , 1 3j , 2 , 1 + 3j]
(D) [ 6 , 1 +3j , 0 , 1 3j]
11.

A system with transfer function H(z) has


impulse response h(.) defined as h[2]=1 ,
h[3] = 1 and h[k] = 0 otherwise.
Consider the following statements.
S1: H(z) is a low-pass filter
S2: H(z) is an FIR filter.
Which of the following is correct?
(A) Only S2 is true
(B) Both S1 and S2 are false
(C) Both S1 and S2 are true, and S2 is a
reason for S1
(D) Both S1 and S2 are true, but S2 is not a
reason for S1

12.

A white noise process X(t) with two-sided


power spectral density
/ z is
input to a filter whose magnitude squared
response is shown below

1 x

CDF
1

1
(C)

1 x
CDF

1
(D)

Signals and Systems

1 x

CDF
1

|
X(t)

10kHz

1 x

f |
Y(t)

10kHz

The power of the output process Y(t) is


given by
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

9.

|x|
|x|
P x
xp
xp
is
the probability density function for the
real random variable X, over the entire x
axis. M and N are both positive real
numbers. The Equation relating M and N
is
th

th

th

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Page 263

GATE QUESTION BANK

13.

If the power spectral density of stationary


random process in a sinc-squared
function of frequency, the shape of its
autocorrelation is
(A)

Signals and Systems

(B)
t

(C)

(D)

ECE - 2010
14. The Nyquist sampling rate for the signal
s t

is given by

(A) 400 Hz
(B) 600 Hz
15.

16.

(C) 1200 Hz
(D) 1400 Hz

For an N-point FFT algorithm with


, which one of the following
statements is TRUE?
(A) It is not possible to construct a signal
flow graph with both input and
output in normal order
(B) The number of butterflies in the m
stage in N/m
(C) In place
computation
requires
storage of only 2N node data
(D) Computation of a butterfly requires
only one complex multiplication
Consider the pulse shape s t as shown.
The impulse response t of the filter
matched to this pulse is

ECE - 2011
17. The first six points of the 8-point DFT of a
real valued sequence are 5, 1 j3, 0, 3 j4,
0 and 3+j4. The last two points of the DFT
are respectively
(A) 0, 1 j3
(C) 1+j3, 5
(B) 0, 1+j3
(D) 1 j3, 5
ECE - 2013
18. The impulse response of a system is
h(t)=tu(t). For an input u(t 1), the
output is
(A)

u t

(B)

u t

(C)

u t

(D)

u t

EC/EE/IN - 2013
19. For a periodic signal
v(t)=30sin100t+10cos300t+6sin
(500t / , the fundamental frequency
in rad/s is
(A) 100
(C) 500
(B) 300
(D) 1500

s t

ECE - 2014
20. Consider two real valued signals, x(t)
band-limited to [ 500 Hz, 500 Hz] and
y(t) band-limited to [ 1 kHz, 1 kHz]. For
z(t) = x(t).y(t), the Nyquist sampling
frequency (in kHz) is ______.

21.

An FIR system is described by the system


function
z

The system is
th

th

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Page 264

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) maximum phase


(B) minimum phase
(C) mixed phase
(D) zero phase
22.

through the linear constant-coefficient


differential equation
y t
y t
y t
x t
t
t
Let another signal g(t) be defined as
t
t

t
t
If G(s) is the Laplace transform of g(t),
then the number of poles of G(s) is________

Consider the periodic square wave in the


figure shown.
x

27.
t

Let

z
qz
z
z
r
z . The quantities p,
q, r are real numbers.
|r|

(A) also has a pole at

all .
If
(A)
(B)

w
m

r | (

)|

for

, then b equals
(C) /
(D) /

25.

A
modulated
signal
is
y t
m t c s
t
where the
baseband signal m(t) has frequency
components less than 5 kHz only. The
minimum required rate (in kHz) at which
y(t) should be sampled to recover m(t) is
_____

26.

A causal LTI system has zero initial


conditions and impulse response h(t). Its
input x(t) and output y(t) are related

300

(B) has a constant phase response over


the z-plane: arg| z | = constant
(C) is stable only, if it is anticausal
(D) Has a constant phase response over
the unit circle: arg|
| =
constant

For an all-pass system


z

EE - 2006
1.
A discrete real all pass system has a pole
at z = 2 300 it, therefore

. If the

zero of H(z) lies on the unit circle then


r = _____
24.

Denote this relation as


DFT(x). For
, which one of the following
sequences satisfies DFT (DFT (x)) = x ?
(A) x = [1 2 3 4]
(B) x = [1 2 3 2]
(C) x = [1 3 2 2]
(D) x = [1 2 2 3]

pz

Consider P

The N-point DFT X of a sequence x[n],



is given by

The ratio of the power in the 7th


harmonic to the power in the 5th
harmonic for this waveform is closest in
value to _______.
23.

Signals and Systems

EE - 2007
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2
& 3:
2.
A signal is processed by a causal filter
with transfer function G(s). For a
distortion free output signal waveform,
G(s) must
(A) Provide zero phase shift for all
frequency
(B) Provide constant phase shift for all
frequency

th

th

th

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Page 265

GATE QUESTION BANK

(C) Provide linear phase shift that is


proportional to frequency
(D) Provide a phase shift that is
inversely proportional to frequency
3.

4.

G(z) = z + z is a low-pass digital


filter with a phase characteristics same as
that of the above question if
(1/3)
(A)
(C)
/
(B)
(D)
Consider the discrete-time system shown
in the figure where the impulse response
of G(z) is g[0] = 0, g[1] = g[2] = 1,
+
+

G(z)

The system is stable for range of values of


K
(A) [ 1, ]
(C) [ 1/2, 1]
(B) [ 1, 1]
(D) [ 1/2, 2]
EE - 2008
5.
A signal x (t) = sinc( t) where
constant (s c x

filter with a cut-off frequency of 20 Hz.


The resultant system of filters will
function as
(A) An all-pass filter
(B) An all-stop filter
(C) A band stop (band-reject) filter
(D) A band-pass filter
EE - 2014
7.
A sinusoid x(t) of unknown frequency is
sampled by an impulse train of period 20
ms. The resulting sample train is next
applied to an ideal lowpass filter with a
cutoff at 25 Hz. The filter output is seen to
be a sinusoid of frequency 20 Hz. This
means that x(t) has a frequency of
(A) 10 Hz
(C) 30 Hz
(B) 60 Hz
(D) 90 Hz
IN - 2006
1.
A digital filter has the transfer function
H(z) =

If this filter has to reject a

50 Hz interference from
the sampling frequency
signal should be
(A) 50 Hz
(C)
(B) 100 Hz
(D)

is a real

) is the input

to a Linear time invariant system whose


impulse response h(t) = sinc ( t) where
s real constant. If min (
t s
the minimum of
and
and similarly
max (
) denotes the maximum of
and and K is a constant, which one of
the following statements is true about the
output of the system?
(A) It will be of the form K sinc( t)
where = min (
)
(B) It will be of the form K sinc( t)
where = max (
)
(C) It will be of the form K sinc( t)
(D) It cannot be a sinc type of signal

Signals and Systems

2.

the input, then


for the input
150 Hz
200 Hz

The spectrum of a band limited signal


after sampling is shown below. The value
of the sampling interval is

f(Hz)
100 0

100 150

350 400

(A) 1 ms
(B) 4 ms
3.

600

(C) 2 ms
(D) 8ms

A digital measuring instrument employs a


sampling rate of 100 samples/second.
The sampled input x(n) is averaged using
the difference equation
y
x
x
x
x
/

EE - 2011
6.
A low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency
of 30 Hz is cascaded with a high-pass
th

th

th

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Page 266

GATE QUESTION BANK

For a step input, the maximum time taken


for the output to reach the final value
after the input transition is
(A) 20ms
(C) 80ms
(B) 40ms
(D)
IN - 2007
4.
Let x(t) be a continuous-time, real-valued
signal band-limited to F Hz. The Nyquist
sampling rate, in Hz,
for y(t) = x (0.5t) + x(t) x(2t) is.
(A) F
(C) 4F
(B) 2F
(D) 8F

IN - 2010
8.
4-point DFT of a real discrete-time signal
x[n] of length 4 is given by X[k ], n= 0,1 2,
3, and k =0, 1, 2 ,3.It is given that
X[0] =5,X[1]=1+ j1, X[2]=0.5. X[3] and
x[0] respectively are
(A) 1 j, 1.875
(B) 1 j, 1.500
(C) 1+j, 1.875
(D) 0.1 j0.1, 1.500
9.

A digital filter having a transfer function


H(z) =

y[n 1].

If y[n] = 0 for n < 0 and x[n] = [n], then


y [n] can be expressed in terms of the unit
step u[n] as
(C)
u
(A) ( ) u
(D)
u
(B) ( ) u

10.

IN - 2009
6.
An analog signal is sampled at 9kHz. The
sequence so obtained is filtered by an FIR
filter with transfer function
H[z]
z . One of the analog
frequencies for which the magnitude
response of the filter is zero is
(A) 0.75kHz
(C) 1.5kHz
(B) 1kHz
(D) 2kHz
7.

The transfer function H(z) of a fourth


order linear phase FIR system is given by
z
z
z
z .
Then G(z) is
(A)
z
z
(B)

(C)

(D)

z
z
z

is implemented

using Direct Form I and Direct Form II


realizations of IIR structure. The number
of delay units required in Direct Form I
and Direct Form II realizations are,
respectively
(A) 6 and 6
(C) 3 and 3
(B) 6 and 3
(D) 3 and 2

IN - 2008
5.
Consider a discrete-time system for which
the input x[n] and the output y[n] are
related as y[n] = x[n]

Signals and Systems

H(z) is a discrete rational transfer


function. To ensure that both H(z) and its
inverse are stable its
(A) poles must be inside the unit circle
and zeros must be outside the unit
circle
(B) poles and zeros must be inside the
unit circle
(C) poles and zeros must be outside the
unit circle
(D) poles must be outside the unit circle
and zeros should be inside the unit
circle

IN - 2011
11. The continuous time signal
x(t) = c s
t
s
t is
sampled at the rate 100 Hz to get the

signal x t
x
t
,
= sampling period
The signal x t is passed through an ideal
low pass filter with cutoff frequency 100
Hz. The output of the filter is proportional
to
th

th

th

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Page 267

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
12.

c s
c s
c s
s

t
t
t
t

s
s

Which one of the following statements is


TRUE?
(A) This is a low pass filter
(B) This is a high pass filter
(C) This is an IIR filter
(D) This is an FIR filter

t
t

Shown below is the pole-zero plot of a


digital filter
Im
Z plane

Re

6th order pole


at the origin

Signals and Systems

IN - 2014
13. A discrete-time signal x[] is obtained by
sampling an analog signal at 10 kHz. The
signal x is filtered by a system with
impulse response
[] = 0.5{ []+ [ 1]}. The 3dB cutoff
frequency of the filter is:
(A) 1.25 kHz
(C) 4 .00 kHz
(B) 2.50 kHz
(D) 5.00 kHz

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. B]
m(f)

500
500

20kHz

= m(t) in time domain.

500

2.

m(t)*g(t)=m(F) G(f)
G(f)

20kHz

500

[Ans. B]
Sample

of

random

variable

After transformation smaple space of


random variable Y=(0, 1)
Hence f y
y
y
pt
s t sf s

m f

space

3.

[Ans. C]
Autocorrelation function is an even
function

4.

[Ans. B]
PSD is always a positive quantity

500
500 20kHz
20kH
z pass filtering with f
After low
z

th

th

th

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Page 268

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

[Ans. C]

9.

[Ans. A]
P
P x

u t H(s) =

h(t) =

Signals and Systems

|x|

xp

xp

|x|

P x x
6.

[Ans. D]
Input x(t) = 2cos(2t)
Frequency response

| |

Output

} x

10.

x t t

| |

r {

[Ans. D]
4-point DFT of sequence {1,0,2,3} is given
as
[

][ ]

{
}

11.
c s t

[ c s t

c s t

[Ans. A]

8.

[Ans. A]
P
f x

t]

h[n] is high pass filter & FIR filter.

c s t
7.

12.

t
t

u t
u t

[Ans. A]
h[2] =1 and h[3]= 1
}
h [n] = {

[Ans. B]
PSD of white noise
/ z
PSD of output
| f |
f
f
| f |
utput
s p w r

tu t

f x x

f f
r

Integral of increasing ramp signal is


increasing parabola and integral of
decreasing ramp signal is decreasing
parabola.

r|

f | curv

f
th

th

th

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Page 269

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

13.

[Ans. B]
PS
18.

Signals and Systems

[Ans. B]
For 8-points DFT;
x
x
x
x
x
x
it is conjugate symmetric about x[4]
x
x
[Ans. C]

= FT

tu t
s

c s

s t

[c s

c s

t ]

[Ans. A]
t

[Ans. D]
(A), (B) and (C) are wrong

c s

t
]

are rational

20.

[Ans. C]
Impulse response h(t) of the filter
matched to the input pulse s(t) existing
from t =0 to t= T is given by
h(t) =s[-(t-T)]
the operation of time reversal and then
time delay of T should be performed on
s(t) , to get h(t). This is equivalent to the
following statement;
scan the sketch of s(t) backward from t =T
to t =0 and draw the sketch of h(t)
forward from t=0 to t =T.
s(t) & h(t) are shown below in Fig.

21.

fu

p r

fu

t fr qu

cy

p r

[Ans. *] Range 2.99 to 3.01


f
z
z
f
f
z

[Ans. C]
z

z
z

z
z

z
z

z
z

So, zeros are at

ut

s [

Maximum frequency in s t is 600Hz


(
s t )
SO,
Nyquist sampling rate 2 +
z

16.

c s
19.

15.

y t

y s
[Ans. C]

u t

s c fu ct
14.

and

th

and

When all the zeroes are inside the unit


circle minimum phase
th

th

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Page 270

GATE QUESTION BANK

When all the zeros are outside the unit


circle Maximum phase
When some zeros are inside unit circle
some outside unit circle
mixed
phase

22.

[Ans. *] Range 0.50 to 0.52


Consider one period from t
t
s c
x
t
t
t
t

|
S
|
23.

Pz

(P

z
z

qz

z
rz

z
z

z sz

r
25.

[Ans. *] Range 9.5 to 10.5


u t s
y t
m t c s
t
to recover m(t) minimum required rate
should be twice the minimum frequency of
m(t)
f
f
z

26.

[Ans. *] Range 0.99 to 1.01


y
y
y t
x t
t
t
y
y
*
y t +
t
t
s
s
s
s
s
t
t
t
t

z
s

rz
(z

) (z

z*

z
)

r z

(z

) (z

s *

r
Since, this zero lies on unit circle |z|
z
z
S c

|r|

27.

r
r

s
s

+
s
s

[Ans. B]
x

s
s
s
s

x t

s
s
s
s
So number of poles G(s) = 1

One zero is at origin. The other zero lies at


z

z
w

Poles of H(z) is
z
r
p ss syst m w

(q

[Ans. *] Range
z

|
|

[Ans. B]

c s
c s

m rm c | |
c s
|
|

P w r f

24.

Signals and Systems

th

th

th

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Page 271

GATE QUESTION BANK

] x

] x

z
z

z
z
S t syst m w
st
f ts ut r
most pole will lie inside the unit circle.
Location of poles

[Ans. C]
For causal system, if all poles are inside
the unit circle then system is stable, and
converse is true for anti-causal system.
2

z
z

Now check for each Options


EE
1.

Signals and Systems

If anti-causal, ROC is |z|


Syst m s st
.
2.

3.

4.

[Ans. C]
For distortion free output phase shift must
be linear function of frequency i.e.
proportional to frequency this is because
delay to all frequency component will be
equal.

sc

s s t sf

y pt

(A)
5.

[Ans. A]
x(t) = sinc( t
h(t) =s
t
x(t) = s t

[Ans. A]
For distortion free output phase shift must
be linear function of
as will as all the
frequency component must be amplified
by
same
amount
so
z
corresponds to frequency
. While
z
corresponds to frequency 3 .
In order to have same amplification of
frequency component at
,

s t
s t
1/

h(t)= s t
1/

[Ans. A]
Given
g(1) =g(2) =1. Otherwise 0
i.e. g[n] =
therefore
G(z) = z
z
Therefore overall transfer function of
closed loop system
z
z
z

y(t) = h(t) * x(t)


1/

if
y

th

th

th

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Page 272

GATE QUESTION BANK


1/

or

[Ans. C]
Sinusoid x(t) frequency say f .Hz
s mp

Or Y(j

So

7.

if

y(t) = s t
c

y(t) = s

z utput
z u t frqu
IN
1.

[Ans. D]
The frequency response,
f of LPF with
cutoff frequency, 30 Hz is shown in Fig. 1.
The frequency response
f of HPF with
cutoff frequency, 20 Hz is shown in Fig. 2
If these two filters are cascaded, the
overall frequency response of the
resultant system H(f) = H1(f) H2(f), shown
in Fig. 3, represents a BPF with
Bandwidth, B = 10 Hz
H1(f)

0 10 20 30 40

2.

ms=4ms

[Ans. B]
Since output y depends on input, such as
no delay, delay by 1 unit, delay by 2 unit,
delay by 4 unit, so it will sum all the
sample after 4Ts (maximum delay), to get
one sample of y[n].

t
4.

20

30

s t

Where fs is the sampling frequency i.e.,


X(f) is repeated at
f f f
tc
From the given spectrum of Xs(f) in the
question, fs = 250 s/sec
S mp
t rv

Fig. 2
H(f)

20

Ts=

20 30

cy tr

[Ans. B]
Let X(f) be the spectrum of the
bandlimited signal, x(t). let Xs(f) be the
spectrum of the sampled signal xs(t)

3.

20

[Ans. A]
In order to reject the 50 Hz interference,
sampling frequency must be as low as the
noise frequency (so that they are
separated in time domain and has less
interference)
So, f
z

Fig. 1
H2(f)

30

cy

y(t) = s

30

fr qu

So output is of the form k sinc( t


Where
m
6.

Signals and Systems

ms c

[Ans. C]
x(t) band limited to FHz
i.e., fm = FHz
y(t) = x(0.5t) + x(t) x(2t) is
x(t) maximum frequency =

Fig. 3
th

th

th

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Page 273

GATE QUESTION BANK

x(0.5t) maximum frequency =

Signals and Systems

z
z

x(2t) maximum frequency = 2FHz.


Y(t) maximum frequency

z
z

= max (F,
Nyquist rate =
=2
5.

m x frequency
z

we know that for linear phase filter

[Ans. A]

for
where M is the number of points filter
here,
Now,

Given y(n) = x(n) y


y
y

Take z transform:
z [

H(z) =
For the given x(n) =
z

So,
: :
: :
This is only in option (a).

Use the standard Z.T. pair:


z
|z| | |
u
z
y

8.

[Ans. A]
As signal is real,
X[3] = 1 J and

|z|

) u

6.

[Ans. B]
z
( )

z
c s

| (

| (

)|

7.

c s

9.

[Ans. B]

c s

Given H(z) =

This T.F corresponds to a 3rd order digital


filter
D F I realization requires 2N delays
D F II realization or canonic realization
with minimum number of delay elements
requires N delays.
Where N is the order of the order of the
filter
I requires 6 delays
D F II requires 3 delays

)|

so, | ( )|
w r

, if

f r

[Ans. A]
z
Let, z
then,

z
z

z
z

th

th

th

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Page 274

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

11.

12.

[Ans. B]
The discrete time system with rational
transfer function , H(z) is stable if the
poles of H(z) lie inside the unit circle in
the z plane.
r
z
ts v rs
/ z t
stable , both the poles and zeros of H(z)
must lie inside the unit circle in the z
plane.
[Ans. B]
Highest frequency component in x(t) is
150 Hz. So, the Nyquist sampling rate is
300 Hz.
But, x(t) is sampled at 100 Hz. While
cos(100 t) with frequency 50 Hz will be
recovered satisfactorily after passing
through the low pass and sin(300t) will
get aliased resulting in filter output sin
(100 t).
Cos (100 t
s t c tribute to aliasing.

)(

[z

[(z

[ z

(z
z

) z

As the impulse response, h(n) = Inverse


Z.T of H(z) has only finite duration =7
samples, the given digital filter is an FIR
filter.
13.

[Ans. B]
Given that
( )

]
c s

| (

)|

cut ff

th

th

c s( )
|

s mp
r

c s

c s

c s

c s

) z

c s
z

z
]

[Ans. D]
From the given pole zero plot of the
digital filter, the system function
(

Signals and Systems

r
z

s mp

th

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Page 275

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Basics of Control System


ECE - 2008
1.
A signal flow graph of a system is given
below

ECE - 2010
2.
The transfer function Y(s)/R(s) of the
system shown is
(s)

(s)
s

1 1

1/s

u
s

1/s
1

1/s

(A) 0

(C)

(B)
The set of equations that correspond to
this signal flow graph is
x
x
(A) (x ) = [
] (x ) +
x
x
[

x
] (x )
x

tr ns r un t on

( )

+
4.

x
] (x )
x

(s)

( )
x
x
]( )
x

(s)

(s)

u
] .u /
x
[x ]
x

(D)

(s)

u
] .u /
x
x
( )
x

(C)

ECE - 2014
3.
For the following system,

u
] .u /
x
(x )
x

(B)

(D)

( )
( )

s
s(s
s
( )
s(s
( )

s
s

)
)

Consider the following block diagram in


the figure.
(s)

(s)

u
] .u /
(A)

(s)
s
(s)
(C)

(B)

(D)

tr ns r un t on

th

th

th

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Page 276

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2007
1.
The system shown in figure below.
c0

b0

b1

1/s

EE - 2010
3.
As shown in the figure, a negative
feedback system has an amplifier of gain
100 with 10% tolerance in the forward
path, and an attenuator of value 9/100 in
the feedback path. The overall system
gain is approximately:

C1

1/s

Control Systems

Can be reduced to the form


X

(A) 10 1%
(B) 10 2%

(C) 10 5%
(D) 10 10%

With
(A) X = s

EE - 2014
4.
The closed-loop transfer function of a

Y= (s

(B) X = 1, Y =

)
)
(s

s
( s

(C) X =

(D) X

s
(s

)
(s

The steady

The signal flow graph of a system is


shown below. (s) is the input and (s)is
the output.

( s

state error due to unit step input is________


5.

s
s

(s)

system is

)
s

(s)

EE - 2008
2.
A function y(t) satisfies the following
differential equation,

()

(s)

Assuming
n
the input-output transfer

+ y(t) = (t),

( )

(s)

where
(t) is the delta function.
Assuming zero initial condition and
denoting the unit step function by u(t),
y(t) can be of the form
(A)
(C) u(t)
(B)
(D)
u(t)

( )

( )

(s)

( )

(s)

( )

(s)

( )

th

(s)

th

,
function

of the system is given by


s
s

s
s

s
s

s
s

th

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Page 277

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

The block diagram of a system is shown in


the figure
(s)

(s)

(s)

IN - 2009
3.
A filter is represented by the signal flow
graph shown in the figure. Its input x(t)
and output is y(t).
The transfer function of the filter is

If the desired transfer function of the


system is
( )

Control Systems

X(s)

then G(s) is

( )

(A) 1
(B) s

Y(s)

(C) 1/s
(D)

1/s

1/s

(A)

1
s

(B)

s 1
s(s2 2)

s(s2 1)
s2 2

(A)
(B)

(D)

(C)

(C)

(D)

)
)

The transfer function (C/R) of the system


is

IN - 2007
2.
A feedback control system with high K, is
shown in the figure below:
R(s) +

Y(s)

(C)
2

IN - 2011
4.
The signal flow graph of a system is given
below.
R

1/s

(B)

(A)

IN - 2006
1.
The signal flow graph representation of a
control system is shown below. The
Y(s)
transfer function
is computed as
R(s)

R(s)

1/S

G(s)

C(s)

(D)

)
(

)
(

)
(

IN - 2012
5.
The transfer function of a Zero-orderHold system with sampling interval T is

H(s)

Then the closed loop transfer function is.


(A) sensitive to perturbations in G(s)
and H(s)
(B) sensitive to perturbations in G(s)
and but not to perturbations H(s)
(C) sensitive to perturbations in H(s)
and but not to perturbations G(s)
(D) insensitive to perturbations in G(s)
and H(s)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

IN - 2013
6.
The complex function tanh(s) is analytic
over a region of the imaginary axis of the
complex s- plane if the following is TRUE
everywhere in the region for all integers n
(A) Re(s) =0
(C) Im(s)
(

(B) Im (s) n

th

th

(D) Im(s)

th

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Page 278

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

The signal flow graph for a system is


given below. The transfer function

( )
( )

for

this system is given as

Control Systems

IN - 2014
8.
A plant has an open-loop transfer
function,
(s)

(s)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(s
)(s
)(s
)
The approximate model obtained by
retaining only one of the above poles,
which is closest to the frequency response
of the original transfer function at low
frequency is

(s)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.
[Ans. D]

2.

[Ans. B]
(s)

(s)
x

(s)

x
s
x

(s)

x
x

(s)

(s) [

s
(s)
(s)

o (s)
x
x
x
u
x
x
x
u
x
x
x
x
x
u
x
x
[ ] [
][ ] [
] 0u 1
x
x
One can denote any state by any name
So, that answer is
x
x
u
[x ] = [
] (x ) + [
] .u /
x
x

(s)

r or
3.

(s)
(s)
s

(s)
(s)

[Ans. D]
When x (s)
(s)

(s)
s
s
s

y(s)
x (s)

th

th

s
s(s

th

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Page 279

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

[Ans. C]

Control Systems

These are four individual loops

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

s
s
s

s
s
All the loops touch forward paths
(

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

s
s
s
s
s ng M sons g n ormul
(s)
(s)
s

(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)

(s)
(s)
EE
1.

)s (
s) (s
s) (s

(
(

)
s

)
s

()

(s)

[Ans. D]

(s)

(s)
xy
(s)
yz
Comparing eg. (I) and (ii), we get
s
xy
s
s
s
yz
s
s
Hence option (D) is correct

s
s

Signal flow graph of the block diagram

s
( )

2.

[Ans. D]
Take LT on both sides,

( )

s.Y(s)+Y(s) =1 Y(s) = (
y(t) =

There are forward paths


3.

u(t)

[Ans. A]
T.F =

th

th

=10

th

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Page 280

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

Also,

Control Systems

[Ans. B]

overall change in T.F for G = 10 is

(s)

(s)

= 1%

(s)

1%
4.

[Ans. 0]
(s)

(s)

s
( or un t st p)

(s)

s(s

y(t)

y st t

s(s

( )
( )
( )
( )
So put G(s) = s
( )
( )

( )

IN
1.

Loops:
(

(s)
(s)
n

( )
( ( )

( )

)
s

num

( )1

[Ans. A]

( )

( )

( )
s

1 C(s)

rror

G(s)

1/s

[Ans. C]
Using Masons gain formula
Paths:

R(s)

l m sy(s)

t
5.

Convert the given block diagram to signal


low gr p n us M sons rul
1

There individual loops with gains:


ro p t s

( )( )(
s s

) ( )( )(
s s

(s)
(s)

)( )(
s

s
(s)
(s)

(
.

2.
(

[Ans. C]
In this case, open loop gain sensitivity is
measured with respect to KG. Because
here open loop gain = KG

s
s
s

s
th

th

th

)(

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Page 281

GATE QUESTION BANK

)( ) (

s ount)

6.

Control Systems

[Ans. D]
t n (s)

)(

( or l rg
s

For analytical region there should be no


poles

os
sn
os
sn
os
( n
)

s n (s)
os (s)

So close loop transfer function is sensitive


to perturbation in H(s) but not to
perturbation in G(s) for large k values.

7.

[Ans. A]
u(s)

3.

y(s)

forward path =

. /;
(

( )

( )

4.

[Ans. A]

(
(

)
)

Loop =

[Ans. C]

(s)
=1 (

)
8.
(

(
5.

[Ans. A]
Writing the given open loop transfer in

)
)

form of

[Ans. A]
The transfer function of a Zero-orderHold system having a sampling interval T
is

g t

/.

/.

So, at low frequencies, the approximate


model equivalent to original transfer
function will

th

th

th

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Page 282

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Time Domain Analysis


ECE - 2006
1.
In the system shown below,
x(t) = (sin t) u(t). In steady-state, the
response y(t) will be

x(t)
(A)
(B)
2.

3.

y(t)

sin .t

(C)

sin .t

(D) sin t cos t

ECE - 2008
6.
Step responses of a set of three secondorders underdamped systems all have the
same percentage overshoot. Which of the
following diagrams represents the poles
of three systems?
(A)
j

sin t

The unit impulse response of a system is


(t)
t
For this system, the
steady-state value of the output for unit
step input is equal to
(A) 1
(C) 1
(B) 0
(D)

(B)
j

The unit-step response of a system


starting from rest is given by
(t)

or t
. The transfer
function of the system is
(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(C)
j

ECE - 2007
4.
The frequency response of a linear, timeinvariant system is given by H(f)=

5.

(D)

. The step response of the system is


(A) 5 (1
)u(t)
(C) (1

)u(t)

(B) 5 (1

)u(t)

)u(t)

(D)

(1

The transfer function of a plant is


(s)

)(

The

second-order

approximation of T(s) using dominant


pole concept is
(A)
(B)

(
(

)(
)(

)
)

(C)
(D)

(
(

7.

A
linear,
time-invariant,
causal
continuous time system has a rational
transfer function with simple poles at
s
and s
, and one simple zero
at s
. A unit step u(t) is applied at
the input of the system. At steady state,

)
)

th

th

th

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Page 283

GATE QUESTION BANK

the output has constant value of 1. The


impulse response of this system is
(A) , xp ( t)
xp ( t)- u(t)
(B) ,
xp ( t)
xp ( t)
xp
( t)- u(t)
(C) ,
xp ( t)
xp ( t)- u(t)
(D) ,
xp ( t)
xp ( t)- u(t)
8.

Group I lists a set of four transfer


functions. Group II gives a list of possible
step responses y(t). Match the step
responses with the corresponding
transfer functions
Group I

Control Systems

4.
y(t)
1

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
9.

P-3, Q-1, R-4, S-2


P-3, Q-2, R-4, S-1
P-2, Q-1, R-4, S-3
P-3, Q-4, R-1, S-2

The magnitude of frequency response of


an underdamped second order system is
5 at 0 rad/sec and peaks to

s
s

s
Group II
1.

at

rad/sec. The transfer function of the


system is,

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2009
10. The unit step response of an underdamped second order system has steady
state value of 2. Which one of the
following transfer function has these
properties?

y(t)

2.
y(t)

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2010
11. A system with the transfer function

( )

has an output

( )

3.
y(t)

1
t

y(t)

os . t

x(t)

p os . t

/ for the input signal


/.Then, the system

p r m t r p s
(A)

(C) 1

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2011
12. The differential equation
y

x(t)

describes

system with an input x(t) and an output


th

th

th

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Page 284

GATE QUESTION BANK

y(t). The system, which is initially


relaxed, is excited by a unit step input.
The output y(t) can be represented by the
waveform

Control Systems

(s)

(s)

Which one of the following compensators


C(s) achieves this?
(C) (s
)
(A) . /

(A)
y(t)

(B)
t

(D)

15.

The natural frequency of an undamped


second-order system is 40 rad/s. If the
system is damped with a damping ratio
0.3, the damped natural frequency in
rad/s is ________.

16.

The input
u(t) where u(t) is the
unit step function, is applied to a system

(B)
y(t)

(C)

with transfer function

y(t)

. If the initial

v lu o t output s
t n t v lu
of the output at steady state is _______.
t

17.

(D)
y(t)

The steady state error of the system


shown in the figure for a unit step input is
_________
(s)
r(t)

(s)

(s)
(t)

(t)

t
s

ECE - 2012
13. A system with transfer function
)
(s
)(s
(s)
(s
)(s
)(s
)
is excited
y s n( t). The steady-state
output of the system is zero at
(A)
r
s
(C)
r
s
(B)
r
s
(D)
r
s
ECE - 2014
14. For the
(s)

following
)(

feedback

18.

(s)

(s)
s(s

(A) 16
(B) 4

system

. The 2%-settling time of

the step response is required to be less


than 2 seconds.

For the second order closed-loop system


shown in the figure, the natural frequency
(in rad/s) is
)

(C) 2
(D) 1

EE - 2007
1.
Consider the feedback control system
shown below which is subjected to a unit
step input. The system is stable and has
th

th

th

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Page 285

GATE QUESTION BANK

the following parameters kp = 4, ki = 10,


n
1

The transfer function of a system is given


as

s
+

5.

KP

The steady state value of z is


(A) 1
(C) 0.1
(B) 0.25
(D) 0

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Control Systems

. The system is ___________

An over damped system


An underdamped system
A critically damped system
An unstable system

EE - 2009
6.
The unit-step response
feedback system with

of a unity
open loop

transfer function G(s) =

Statement for Linked Answer Question Q.2


& Q.3
R-L-C circuit shown in figure,

)(

is

shown in the figure. The value of K is


1

0.75
0.5
0.25
0
0

2.

3.

For a step- input


overshoot in the
output will be
(A) 0,Since the system is not under
damped
(B) 5%
(C) 16%
(D) 48%
If the above step response is to be
observed on the non-storage CRO, then it
would be best have the as a
(A) Step function
(B) Square wave of frequency 50 Hz
(C) Square wave of frequency 300 Hz
(D) Square wave of frequency 2.0KHz

EE - 2008
4.
The transfer function of a linear time
invariant system is given as
G(s) =

2
Time

(A) 0.5
(B) 2

(C) 4
(D) 6

EE - 2010
7.

For the system

, the approximate

time taken for a step response to reach


98% of its final value is
(A) 1s
(C) 4s
(B) 2s
(D) 8s
EE - 2011
8.
The steady state error of a unity feedback
linear system for a unit step input is 0.1.
The steady state error of the same system,
for a pulse input r(t) having a magnitude
of 10 and a duration of one second, as
shown in the figure is
r(t)
10

. The steady state value of

the output of the system for a unit


impulse input applied at time instant t=1
will be
(A) 0
(C) 1
(B) 0.5
(D) 2

1s

(A) 0
(B) 0.1
th

th

(C) 1
(D) 10
th

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Page 286

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2007
Common Data for Questions 1 & 2
The following figure represents a
proportional control scheme of a first
order system with transportation lag.
R(s)

(s

1.

2.

at which the response to a unit step input


reaches its peak is seconds
4.

The damping coefficient for the closed


loop system is
(A) 0.4
(C) 0.8
(B) 0.6
(D) 1

5.

The value of p is
(A) 6
(B) 12

C(s)

Control Systems

The angular frequency


in
(s
)( sradians/s
)( at
) (s
s
which the loop phase lag becomes
is
(A) 0.408
(C) 1.56
(B) 0.818
(D) 2.03

IN - 2009
6.

A plant with a transfer function

is

controlled by a PI controller with


=1
and
n
un ty
configuration. The lowest value of that
ensures zero steady state error for a step
change in the reference input is
(A) 0
(C) 1/2
(B) 1/3
(D) 1

The steady state error for a unit step


input when the gain
= 1 is
(C)
1
(A)
(D) 2
(B)

IN - 2008
3.
If a first order system and its time
response to a unit step input are as
shown below, the gain K is

Statement for the Linked data Q.No.7 &


Q.No.8:
A disturbance input (t)is injected into
the unity feedback control loop shown in
the figure. Take the reference input r(t) to
be a unit step.

y(t)

r(t)

(C) 14
(D) 16

(s)

r(t)

d(t)

+
1

1
S(S+1)

y(t)

0.8

7.

If the disturbance is measurable, its effect on


the output can be minimized significantly
(s) To
using a feedforward controller
eliminate the component of the output due to
(t) s n t
( )
Should be
(C)
(A)

(D)
(B)

(A) 0.25
(B) 0.8

(C) 1
(D) 4

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 4


&5
A unity feedback system has open loop
transfer function G(s) =

Let (s)
ontroll r I (t) s n t
the amplitude of the frequency component of
y(t) due to d(t) is

8.

.The time

th

th

th

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Page 287

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

IN - 2011
11. The unit-step response of a negative unity
feedback system with the open-loop
transfer function G(s) =
(A)
(B)

IN - 2010
9.
A unity feedback system has an open loop
transfer function (s)

(s)
(

(A) 0
(B) 0.5

(C)
(D)

ECE/EE/IN - 2013
12. Assuming zero initial condition, the
response y(t) of the system given below
to a unit step input u(t) is

(A) u(t)
(B) t u(t)

(s)

Y(s)

U(s)

A unit ramp input is applied to the system


shown in the adjoining figure. The steady
state error in its output is
r(s)

is

.The value

of k that yields a damping ratio of 0.5 for


the closed loop system is
(A) 1
(C) 5
(B) 3
(D) 9
10.

Control Systems

(C)

u(t)

(D)

u(t)

(C) 1
(D) 2

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

(s
[Ans. A]
y(t) x(t)
(s)
(s)
(

x(t)

utput

s s
(
)u(t)
When t =
at steady state
output = 1

s n(t)u(t)

y(t)
2.

s
s

(t)
(s)

s n .t

3.

[Ans. B]
,st p r spons s

[Ans. C]
(t)
(s)
(s)

s
s

4.

[Ans. B]

()
(s) (s)

output
s(s

(s

)s

( )

s
th

th

.s
th

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Page 288

GATE QUESTION BANK

t p r spons

.s

ns

s .s
s

s
s
(t) (
)u(t)
Which is also the required impulse
response of the system.

/
(s

8.

When s =

[Ans. D]
Comparing the given transfer functions
with

(s)

5.

y(t)

-u(t)
s

)(s

ln

s
Therefore P is undamped

[Ans. D]
In dominant pole concept the factor that
has to be eliminated should be in time
constant form
(s

Control Systems

s ov r
/ (s

.
s

mp

s rt
6.

[Ans. C]
ov rs oot

p n s on s

r
os
Where is the angle made by pole from
negative real axis.
To make M same, should be the same.
7.

[Ans. C]
Transfer functions
(s
)
(s)
(s
)(s
)

mp

9.

[Ans. A]

10.

[Ans. B]
Steady state value = -2
Denominator

underdamped

11.

[Ans. B]
(s)

or

(s)

s un

s
(s) (s)
Output, (s)
v n l m s (s)
s (s
)
(s
)(s
)

mp

Input (s)

or l m

lly

1=

P=

(s
)
(s
)(s
)
th

th

th

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Page 289

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

[Ans. A]
y
y
y x(t)
t
t
Taking Laplace Transform of both sides
(s)
s (s)
s (s)
(s)
(s)
( s
)
(s)
s
s
ol s r

ts

[Ans. C]
(s)
x(s)

15.
(s

(s

)(s
)
)(s
)(s
)

Where
damped natural frequency
undamped natural frequency
damping ratio

y(s)

14.

16.

[Ans. C]

(s
s
s
pt on
o

(s)

(s)
y( )
17.

(s)

u(t)

(s)

So all poles of CLTP should lie on the left


of s =
line
The characteristic equation is
(s) (s)
. We have to check
whether are the roots this equation lies
on me left of s =
or not

[Ans. *] Range - 0.01 to 0.01


s
(s)
s
x(t)

s ttl ng t m

pt on

[Ans. *] Range 38.13 to 38.19


We know

(s
)(s
)
.
/
(s
)(s
)(s
)
s
For applying final value theorem system
must be stable, mean all poles should lie
in left half plane
) (s
So (s
)
r
s

s)

(s
)(s
)
(s+1)(s+2)+0.15+5s=0
s
s
s
s
(s)
pt on
(s
)
(s) (s)
o
(s
)
(s
)(s
)
(s
)(s
)
(s
)
s
s
s
Hence Option C is correct

As poles are on the right hand side of splane so given system is unstable system.
Only option (A) represents unstable
system.
13.

Control Systems

(s)

s
l m s y(s)

lm

s
s

[Ans. *] Range 0.49 to 0.51


(s)

(s)

(s)
s

( )

s
(s) (s)
)(s
)(s
s
s
(s)

(s)
(s)
(s) (s)
(s)
(s) (s)
(s) (s)
(s) *
+
(s) (s)

(s)
(s)

(s) (s)

(s)
th

th

(s) (s)
th

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Page 290

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

(s)
(s)
r

(s)

s
s

s
s

2.

[Ans. C]
m

l m s (s)

l ms

s
s s

s
s
+

18.

[Ans. C]
r ns r un t on
or

or

r un t

t
t
Taking Laplace transform

syst m

(s)

[Ans. A]
Step input

s
t

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)

(s)
(s)

t (s)

(s)
(s)
(s)

)(
s

Overshoot
/.

Comparing with
s
s

s
.

(s)

(s)
s
Steady state value of Z
t s (s)
t

(s)
s

.s

(s)

(s)

I(s)

Characteristic eq.

n (s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s) (s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s) [
]
(s)
(s)
(s)
(s) *
+
(s)
(s)
(s)

) I(s)

(s)

I(s)
EE
1.

= 0.163 or 16.3%
th

th

th

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Page 291

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

[Ans. C]

5.

Control Systems

[Ans. C]
M(s)

s
s
Comparing with standard form

M(s)

Setting time (t )

Square Wave

The system is critically damped


6.

[Ans. D]
t
y st t v lu o r spons
Input is unit step
So steady state error

For the square Wave should be

ms
For

(s)

(s)

w
t

z
ms

(s

Therefore, it would be best to have the


as a square wave of 300Hz.

(s)

(s) (s)

ppl

(s)

s (s)
(s) (s)
s

t
(

[Ans. A]
r(t) un t mplus
(t
)
R(s) = 1[r(t)] =
(s)
(s)
(s) s

)(s

s
Steady state error using final value
theorem
t s (s)

z
ms

(s)
(s) (s)

(s)

rror

greater than t
For
z

4.

ms

For

)(

tt

s
7.

[Ans. C]

s
s
Steady state value of output, using final
value theorem
t s (s)
s
t
s
s

] ( s s rst or
s
.c Gain=2, T=1 sec
For 98%
t
s

th

th

th

r syst m)

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Page 292

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

[Ans. A]

R(s)

Control Systems

Given

C(s)
+

G(s)

,
4.

[Ans. B]
(s)

n t
s (s)
|
(s)
x(t)

,u(t)

x(s)

s
(

u(t
s

)-

)
|
(s)

5.

[Ans. B]

6.

[Ans. A]

( )
( )

IN
1.

t n ( )
t n ( )
r
s -

d(t)= (t)

(s)

s
or r(t)
u(t)
os t on l rror onst nt
t (s)

8.

(s

]
)
( )

s(s
(

+
)
)

(s)

, (s)

(s)

y(s)-

ontroll r

So
s
s
s
(s) *
y(s) *
+
+
)
s(s
)
s(s
y(s)
s
(
)
(s)
s s
t

t (s)
[Ans. D]
lm

(s)

(s) wor s s
s
s

s(s

)
(

[Ans. B]

s
(s)

y(s)

OR
(s)
(s)

(
)

(t)

s nt *

(s)

3.

(t) [

[Ans. B]
or

)
(

( )

s
s
[Ans. D]
Output due to

7.

(
)

/
)

s
m

( )
Phase lag
It satisfy ,

(s)

/.

[Ans. D]
(s)

2.

y(s)
|
|
x(s)

th

th

th

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Page 293

GATE QUESTION BANK

9.

[Ans. D]
T(s) =

and

or
10.

Control Systems

or

K = 9.

[Ans. B]
(s)

s(s
)
For unit Ramp input, r(t)

t u(t)

lo ty rror onst nt
(s)
t

11.

[Ans. D]
(s)
(s) s
The unit step response is given by
(s)
(t)

12.

s(s
(

) u(t)

[Ans. B]

H(s)
u(s)

Y(s)

u(s)= s [unit step i/p]


s =
y(s) = H(s).U(s)= s
s
y(t)
0 s 1 t u(t)

th

th

th

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Page 294

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Stability & Routh Hurwitz Criterion


ECE - 2006
1.
The positive values of
and
so that
the system shown in the figure below
oscillates at a frequency of r
s
respectively are
R(s)
(s

(s
s

)
s

C(s)
)

4.

The number of open right half plane poles


of G (s) =

is

(A) 0
(B) 1

(C) 2
(D) 3

ECE - 2012
5.
The Feedback system shown below
oscillates at 2 rad/s when
(s)

(s
s

(s

(A) 1, 0.75
(B) 2, 0.75

(C) 1, 1
(D) 2, 2

ECE - 2007
2.
If the closed-loop transfer function of a
control system is given as,
(s)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

)(

, then it is

an unstable system
an uncontrollable system
a minimum phase system
a non-minimum phase system

, where

is a parameter.

Consider the standard negative unity


feedback configuration as shown below
+

ECE - 2014
6.
The forward path transfer function of a
unity negative feedback system is given
by
(s)

(s
)(s
)
The value of K which will place both the
poles of the closed-loop system at the
same location, is _______.
7.

Consider a transfer function


(s)

with p a positive

real parameter. The maximum value of p


until which
remains stable is __________

G(s)

Which of the following statements is true?


(A) The closed loop system in never
st l or ny v lu o
(B) or som pos t v v lu s o
t
closed loop system is stable, but not
for all positive values
(C) For all positive v lu s o
t
los
loop system is stable
(D) The closed loop system is stable for
ll v lu s o
ot pos t v
n
negative

(s)

(A) K=2 and a=0.75


(B) K=3 and a=0.75
(C) K=4 and a=0. 5
(D) K=2 and a=0.5

ECE - 2008
3.
A certain system has transfer function
G(s) =

)
s

EE - 2007
1.
The system shown in the figure is
U1 +

s
s

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

th

U2
+

stable
unstable
conditionally stable
stable for input u1, but unstable for
input u2
th

th

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Page 295

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

If the loop gain K of a negative feedback


system having a loop transfer function
(
(

)
)

(C) unstable and of the minimum phase


type
(D) unstable and of the non-minimum
phase type

to be adjusted to induce a sustained

oscillation then
(A) The frequency of this oscillation
must be
rad/s.

(B) The frequency of this oscillation


must be 4rad/s
(C) The frequency of this oscillation

6.

The frequency response of the linear


system ( ) is provided in the tabular
form below.
( )
( )
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.5
0.3
The gain margin and phase margin of the
system are
(A)
n
(B)
n
(C)
n
(D)
n

must be 4 or
rad/s

(D) Such a K does not exist


EE - 2008
3.
Figure shows a feedback system where
K > 0. The range of K for which the
system is stable will be given by
+

(A) 0 < K < 30


(B) 0 < K <39

s(s

)(s

(C) 0 < K < 390


(D) K > 390

EE - 2009
4.
The first two rows of Routh's tabulation
of a third order equation are as follows.
s3
2
2
2
s
4
4.
This means there are
(A) two roots at s= j and one root in
right half s-plane
(B) two roots at s = j2 and one root in
left half s-plane
(C) two roots at s= j2 and one root in
right half s-plane
(D) two roots at s = j and one root in
left half s-plane

Control Systems

EE - 2014
7.
In the formation of Routh-Hurwitz array
for a polynomial, all the elements of a row
have zero values. This premature
termination of the array indicates the
presence of
(A) only one root at the origin
(B) imaginary roots
(C) only positive real roots
(D) only negative real roots
8.

For the given system, it is desired that the


system be stable. The minimum value of
for this condition is __________
(s)

(s
s

)s

(s)

)
(

)s

EE - 2011
5.
An open loop system represented by the
transfer function G(s) = (

)
)(

is

9.

A system wth the open loop transfer


function

(A) stable and of the minimum phase


type
(B) stable and of the non-minimum
phase type

(s)

th

s(s

th

)(s

th

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Page 296

GATE QUESTION BANK

is connected in a negative feedback


configuration with a feedback gain of
unity. For the closed loop system to be
marginally stable, the value of K is_________
10.

A single-input single-output feedback


system has forward transfer function G(s)
and feedback transfer function H(s). It is
given that |G(s)H(s)| < 1. Which of the
following is true about the stability of the
system?
(A) The system is always stable
(B) The system is stable if all zeros of
G(s)H(s) are in left half of the s-plane
(C) The system is stable if all poles of
G(s)H(s) are in left half of the s-plane
(D) It is not possible to say whether or
not the system is stable from the
information given

IN - 2006
1.
The range of the controller gains (Kp, Ki)
that makes the closed loop control system
(shown in the following figure) stable is
given as
(s)

(s)
s

(s

Ki
20
12
K
(B) Ki < 0 and Kp i 20
12

(A) Ki < 0 and Kp <

(C) Ki 0 and Kp 0
(D) Ki 0 and Kp

Ki
20
12

)(s

Control Systems

IN - 2008
2.
A closed loop control system is shown
below. The range of the controller gain KC
which will make the real parts of all the
closed loop poles more negative than -1 is
+
s(s

(s) _

(A) KC> 4
(B) KC> 0

( )

(C) KC> 2
(D) KC< 2

IN - 2010
3.
The open loop transfer function of a unity
gain feedback system is given by:
G(s) =

(
(

)
)(

. The range of positive

values of k for which the closed loop


system will remain stable is:
(A) 1 <k <3
(C) 5 < k <
(B) 0 < k < 10
(D) 0 < k <
IN - 2011
4.
rst two rows o out s t l o
third-order characteristic equation are
s
3
3
s
4
4
It can be inferred that the system has
(A) one real pole in the right-half of splane
(B) a pair of complex conjugate poles in
the right-half of s-plane
(C) a pair of real poles symmetrically
placed around s = 0
(D) a pair of complex conjugate poles on
the imaginary axis of the s-plane

th

th

th

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Page 297

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

(
,

(s
(

(s
s
From Routh array, s
k =2 & a = 0.75

)
)

[Ans. D]
System is stable, controllable and nonminimum phase system.

3.

[Ans. C]
losed loop gain is
( )
(s) s
s
s
Characteristic equation
(s) s
(
)s
los loop system is stable only for
r or or ll pos t v o
the closed loop system is stable.
[Ans. C]
Perform Routh analysis to the polynomial
in denominator of G(S).
1
3
5
s
2
6
3
s
()
s
(

s
1
a

[Ans. *] Range 2.24 to 2.26


Using root locus

Calculation of break point


(s

)(s
)
(s
)(s
)
s

s
(s)
,
7.

[Ans. *] Range 1.9 to 2.1


(s) to remain stable, the poles of
For
(s) should lie in LHP of s-plane
1
2P
s
3+P
s
2P
s

[Ans. A]
Characteristic equation is 1+G(S)H(S)= 0
(

= k + 1;

3
Number of sign changes =2

1+

6.

)
(

(1+k)
(
)
s
s
s =
+ (k + 1) = 0; a
4a = k + 1;
From options, k = 2, a = 0.75

))

2.

5.

(s)

4.

o m x mum v lu o
EE
1.

[Ans. D]
u ( )

s
s

+ s (k + 2) + (k + 1) = 0
k+2
k+2

y ( )

s
th

th

th

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Page 298

GATE QUESTION BANK


(

( )

(s
(s
(

)
)

5.

[Ans. B]
For G(s), poles are at 2 and 3
Stable
Also, zeroes are to the right of S-plane
non-minimum phase type

6.

[Ans. A]
At gain across over frequency (
magnitude of ( ) is 1.
| (
)|

Pole is in LHS of s-plane, Hence stable.


u ( )

y ( )
s

s
s

( )
(

Phase of (

)s

)p

s o

log
log

7.

[Ans. B]
It is a special case under R-H stability
criteria. Imaginary roots are calculated
using auxiliary polynomial

8.

[Ans. *] Range 0.61 to 0.63


Characteristic equation
(
)s
(
)s (
s

64+3k

s
64+3k
(or)

for marginal stability

For K = 16,

[Ans. C]
(s)

( (
)(
)
Characteristics equation
s
s
s
s
s
s

s
s
s

(
)s
rt r
1

[Ans. D]
s
s
(s

s
)(s

1
(

1
)

s
(

(
(

)
)(

& k < 390 (for stability)


4.

)
( ) t

m gn tu o
| (
)|

Gain margin=

),

)
(

[Ans. B]
T(s) =

At phase cross frequency (

(s
)(s
)
Hence unstable as it has pole at right
hand side of S-plane

3.

Phase of margin =

2.

Control Systems

S=
th

th

th

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Page 299

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

[Ans. 5]
Characteristic equation
)(s
)
s(s
s
(s
)
s)(s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s

IN
1.

s
s
s
s

1
4
5

6
4
K

s
2.

[Ans. C]
)
s(s
s
s

k
0

[Ans. A]
Characteristic equation of system
(s) (s)
G(s) H(s) =
For system to be stable all the zeroes of
G(s) H(s) should lie in left of (
) plane
So for (s) (s)
The system will be always stable.

or

Put S = Z 1 and apply RH criterion for


the polynomial in z

Value of k to be marginally stable


K=5
10.

12

M n mum v lu
9.

3.

[Ans. D]
1 + G(s) H(s) = 0
(s + 1) (s + 2) + k(s+3) = 0
System is stable, for all positive K.(from
Routh Hurwitz criterion)
(or)

4.

[Ans. D]
3
4
S
0(
1
4

[Ans. D]
Characteristic equation is
s(s+2)(s+10)+(
)
s
s
s

3
4
)
s

)(

S=

th

th

th

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Page 300

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Root Locus Technique


ECE - 2007
1.
A unity feedback control system has an
open-loop transfer function
(s)

. The gain K for which

s= 1+j1 will lie on the root locus of this


system is
(A) 4
(C) 6.5
(B) 5.5
(D) 10
ECE - 2009
2.
The feedback configuration and the polezero locations of G(s) =

are shown

(A)

(s) (s)

(B)

(s) (s)

(C)

(s) (s)

)(

(
(

)(
(

(s) (s)

(D)

)
)(
)
(
)

)(

)
)

ECE - 2014
4.
Consider the feedback system shown in
the figure. The Nyquist plot of G(s) is also
shown. Which one of the following
conclusions is correct?
(s)

below. The root locus for negative values


of
k,
i.e.
for
s
breakaway/break-in points and angle of
departure at pole P (with respect to the
positive real axis) equal to

Im (

+
+

G(s)

Im(s)

(A) G (s) is an all-pass filter


(B) G (s) is a strictly proper transfer
function
(C) G (s) is a stable and minimum-phase
transfer function
(D) The closed-loop system is unstable
for sufficiently large and positive k

Re(s)
P

(A) and 00
(B) and 450

(C) and 00
(D) and 450

5.

In the root locus plot shown in the figure,


the pole/zero marks and the arrows have
been removed. Which one of the following
transfer functions has this root locus?

ECE - 2011
3.
The root locus plot for a system is given
below. The open loop transfer function
corresponding to this plot is given by

th

th

th

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Page 301

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
6.

)(

)(

)(

(
(

)(
)(

)(
)

)(

(C)

)(

Control Systems

)
)

The characteristic equation of a unity


negative feedback system is
(s)
. The open loop transfer
function G(s) has one pole at 0 and two
poles at 1. The root locus of the system
for varying K is shown in the figure.

+1

(D)

+2

+1

+2

The constant damping ratio line, for

nt rs ts t root lo us t po nt
The distance from the origin to point A is
given as 0.5. The value of K at point A
is__________
EE - 2006
1.
A Closed loop system has the
characteristic function
(s
)(s
) + K (s
) = 0. Its root
locus plot against K is
j
(A)

(B)

EE - 2010
2.
The characteristic equation of a closedloop system is
)(s
)
(s
)
s(s
.
Which of the following statements is true?
(A) Its roots are always real
(B) It cannot have a breakaway point in
,s- 0
the range
(C) Two of its roots tend to infinity along
the asymptotes Re, (D) It may have complex roots in the
right half plane.
EE - 2011
3.
The open loop transfer function G(s) of a
unity feedback control system is given as,
G(s) =

+1

From the root locus, it can be inferred


that when k tends to positive infinity.
(A) three roots with nearly equal real
parts exist on the left half of the splane
(B) one real root is found on the right
half of the s-plane
(C) the root loci cross the j axis for a
fin t v lu o

(D) three real roots are found on the


right half of the s-plane

+2

+1

+2

th

th

th

THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11
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Page 302

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2014
4.
The root locus of a unity feedback system
is shown in the figure

Control Systems

controller of gain K in the forward path, in


a unity feedback configuration.
The transfer function is
(A) ( )( )(
(C) ( )( )( )

2.

(B)

3.
The closed
system is
(s)
( )
(s)
(s)
( )
(s)
(s)
( )
(s)
(s)
( )
(s)

)(s

(s

)(s

(s

)(s

(s

)(s

)(

)(

(
(

)
)(

The root locus plot of the system has


(A) Two breakaway points located at s
= 0.59 and s = 3.41
(B) One breakaway point located at s
= 0.59
(C) One breakaway point located at s
= 3.41
(D) One breakaway point located at s
= 1.41

imaginary at =4 2 rad/s with gain


K=384. It is observed that the point
s= 1.5+j1.5 lies in the root locus. The
gain K at
+j1.5 is computed as

IN - 2009
5.
A unity feedback system has the transfer

1.5+j1.5

(A) 11.3
(B) 21.2

(D)

feedback system is G(s)=

X
4

)(

IN - 2008
4.
The open loop transfer function of a unity

IN - 2006
1.
The root locus of a plant is given in the
following figure. The root locus crosses

X
8

)(

If the root locus plot of the closed loop


system passes through the points j ,
the maximum value of K for stability of
the unity feedback closed loop system is
(C) 10
(A)
(B) 6
(D) 6

loop transfer function of the

(s

function

)
)

. The value of b for which

the loci of all the three roots of the closed


loop characteristic equation meet at a
single point is
(A) 10/9
(C) 30/9
(B) 20/9
(D) 40/9

(C) 41.25
(D) 61.2

IN - 2007
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2
and 3
A transfer function with unity DC gain has
three poles at
and
and no
finite zeros. A plant with this transfer
function is connected with a proportional

(
(

IN - 2011
6.
Consider the second-order system with
the characteristic equation
)
(s
)
s(s
. Based on the
properties of the root loci, it can be shown
that the complex portion of the root loci
of the given system for
is
described by a circle, and the two
breakaway points on the real axis are
th

th

th

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Page 303

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

IN - 2012
7.
The open loop transfer function of a unity
gain negative feedback control system is
given by G(s) =

)(

ngl

Control Systems

IN - 2014
8.
A loop transfer function is given by :
(s
)
(s) (s)
(
)
The point of intersection of the
asymptotes of G(s)H(s) on the real axis in
the s-plane is at ___________.

which the root locus approaches the zeros


of the system, satisfies
(A)

t n

. /

t n

. /

(B)

(C)

t n

. /

(D)

t n

. /

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. D]
ro u t o p sor r wn rom op n loop pol s to t t po nt
pro u t o p sor r wn rom op n loop z ro to t t po nt

2.

[Ans. B]
(
(

5.
)
)

[Ans. B]

Angle of departure is
Where
z
z

3.

4.

[Ans. B]
From plot we can observe that one pole
terminates at one zero at position
and
three poles terminates to
. It means
there are four poles and 1 zero. Pole at
goes on both sides. It means there are two
poles at

There are 4 poles/zeros at


s = 1,
There has to be one pole zero pair at
both cannot be poles or zeros
at the same time.
So option A and D are crossed out
There are 2 asymptotes. So number of
poles is two more than number of zeros.

[Ans. D]
For larger values of K, it will encircle the
critical point (
) which makes
closed-loop system unstable.
th

th

th

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Page 304

GATE QUESTION BANK

(s

Since there has to be one zero at either


s
or s
, the remaining break
frequencies are all poles
ons r
opt on
ntro

po nt w

r t

(s
)(s
)
Zero of OLTF s = 1: z = 1
Poles of OLTF s =

symptot s m t

The picture
forms to this
For option C, centroid is at 0 which is
wrong
Hence Option B is correct.
6.

Control Systems

l n

The root locus starts from open loop


poles and terminates either on open loop
zero or infinity.
Root locus exist on a section of real axis it
is the sum of the open loop poles and
zeros to the right of the section is odd.
Number of branches terminating on
infinity.

[Ans. *] Range 0.32 to 0.41

Angles of asymptotes
(
)
(
( )

or

Intersection of asymptotes on real axis


(centroid)
pol s z ros

So the co-ordinates of point A is

On the root locus, we know

( )

[Ans. B]
Characteristic function
(s
)(s
)
(s
)
(s
)
(s) (s)
(s
)(s
)
Open loop transfer function
(s) (s)

( )

1
Option (B) is correct on the basis of above
analysis.

( )
EE
1.

2.

[Ans. C]
Characteristic equation
)(s
)
(s
)
s(s
(s
)
s(s
)(s
)
Comparing with 1 + G(s) H(s) = 0
G(s)H(s) = open-loop transfer function
th

th

th

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Page 305

GATE QUESTION BANK

(s

)(s
)
s(s
Number of zeros = Z = 1, zero at
Number of poles = P = 3
Poles at 0,
&
Number of branches terminating at
infinity =
Angle of asymptotes
(
)
(

Control Systems

So all these roots have nearly equal real


parts on left half plane when
4.

[Ans. C]

n
pol s

ntr o

z ros

)
X

Im g n ry

Given root locus is complementary root


locus for which either k < 0 or loop gain
is +ve means +ve feedback, means G(s) is
always +ve
So for k > 0

G(s) H(s) =

Breakaway point lies in the range


,sand two branches
terminates at infinity along the
asymptotes Re(s)
3.

[Ans. A]
(s)

(s
s (s

(s)
(s)
IN
1.

)(

(s)

s)
)

(s

)(s

s(s
(s)

)(s
(s)

(s)

Angle of asymptotes

(s)
(s) (s)

[Ans. C]

ntro

(s)
(s)

s s

ts

( Z 1)

for poles at zero


,
-

so Rool locus is

th

th

th

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Page 306

GATE QUESTION BANK

Note that the data given at the


intersecting point with imaginary axis is
not necessary
2.

3.

(s

s )
(s
)
We need to find the breakaway point.
o

[Ans. B]
With unity DC gain, poles at
s
n
and no finite zeros
l nt

(s

)(s

)(s

s
)( s
s) (s
s )
s
s
s s
s
(
)s
s
s
ow s
is not the breakaway point
(
)s
o s
For all the three root loci to meet at a
single point, we need that this equation
has equal roots.
)
o(
(s
s

( )
(

( )

s
s
s
s

)(

)(

)
(

(
)
row has zero elements if 6k = 60 or
k = 10 then 2 roots lie on the imaginary axis
given by s
s
. If k > 10,
the root at s t to
o s pl n
4.

so

)
(

) (

(
)
or

st

r qu r

.(

)(

6.

[Ans. C]
K=

)
) (
(

7.

s
s(s
)(s
(s (
s(s

(s)

[Ans. B]
(s
)
s (s
)
For unity feedback,
equation is 1+ G(s) = 0
s
s
s

[Ans. D]

(s)
5.

) /

S=

v lu

=0

s
s
S=

RL exists at 3.41
(

But b = 20 is not the required value of b


because it will cancel out an open-loop
pole

)
(

)
)(

[Ans. C]
(s)

or

[Ans. C]
T(s)=

Control Systems

)
))(s (
)(s
)

))

(s)

characteristic

th

th

th

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Page 307

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Angle at which RLD approaches to zeros


is the angle of arrival for zeros.
,
(

. /1

t nt
[
* [

( )

t n
t nt
t n

8.

( )]
( )]+
( )

[Ans.
]
Int r s t on o symptot s
sum o pol s sum o z ros
num r o pol s num r o z ro
(
) ( )

th

th

th

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Page 308

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Frequency Response Analysis Using Nyquist plot


ECE - 2006
1.
The open-loop transfer function of a
unity-gain feedback control system is
given by, G(s) =

)(

. The gain

margin of the system in dB is given by


(A) 0
(C) 20
(B) 1
(D)
2.

Consider

two

(s)

and

transfer
(s)

G(s)

4.

Which of the following statement is true?


(A) G(s) is an all-pass filter
(B) G(s) has a zero in the right-half plane
(C) G(s) is the impedance of a passive
network
(D) G(s) is marginally stable

5.

The gain and phase margins of G(s) for


closed loop stability are
(A) 6 dB and
(C) 6 dB and
(B) 3 dB and
(D) 3 dB and

functions,
. The

3-dB bandwidths of their frequency


responses are, respectively

3.

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

The Nyquist plot of ( ) ( ) for a


closed loop control system, passes
through (
) point in the GH plane.
The gain margin of the system in dB is
equal to
(A) Infinite
(B) greater than zero
(C) less than zero
(D) zero

ECE - 2011
Common Data Question 6 and 7:
The input output transfer function of a
( )

plant

. The plant is placed

in a unity negative feedback configuration


as shown in the figure below.
r

(s)

y
s(s

l nt

ECE - 2009
Common Data for Question 4 and 5
The Nyquist plot of a stable transfer
function G(s) is shown in the figure. We
are interested in the stability of the closed
loop system in the feedback configuration
shown

6.

The signal flow graph that DOES NOT


model the plant transfer function ( ) is
(A)
1

1/s

1/s

1/s

100 y

Im

(B)

1/s

1/s

1/s

100

Re

th

th

th

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Page 309

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

(D)

(C)

1/s

1/s

1/s

100

(D)
1/s

1/s

7.

1/s

100

The gain margin of the system under


closed loop unity negative feedback is
(A) 0 dB
(C) 26 dB
(B) 20 dB
(D) 46 dB

EE - 2006
1.
Consider the following Nyquist plots of
loop transfer functions over = 0 to
= . Which of these plots represents a
stable closed loop system?
(1)

Im
R
=

8.

For the transfer function


( )
the corresponding Nyquist
plot for the positive frequency has the form
(A)

Re
1

Im

(2)

Re

(B)
(3)

Im

j5

=
Re

(C)

(4)

Im

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

th

Re

(1) only
all, except (1)
all, except (3)
(1) and (2) only

th

th

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Page 310

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2007
2.
If x = Re G(j ), and y = Im G(j ) then for
, the Nyquist plot for
G(s) = 1 / s(s+1) (s+2) becomes
asymptotic to the line
(A) x = 0
(C) x = y
(B) x =

Control Systems

(A)

Im
3/4
Re

(D) d = y /

EE - 2009
3.
The polar plot of an open loop stable
system is shown below. The closed loop
system is

=0
=0

(B)

Im

Imaginary

Real

Re
3/4

(A) Always stable


(B) Marginally stable
(C) Unstable with one pole on the RHS splane
(D) Unstable with two poles on the RHS
s-plane
4.

(C)

The open loop transfer function of a


unity feedback system is given by
(
)
G(s) =
s The gain margin of this
system is
(A) 11.95dB
(C) 21.33dB
(B) 17.67dB
(D) 23.9dB

=0

Im

Re

1/6

Im

(D)

EE - 2010
5.
The frequency response of
(s)
)(s
)- plotted in the
,s(s
complex ( ) plane (for
) is

Re

=0
1/6

th

th

th

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Page 311

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2011
6.
A two-loop position control system is
shown below.
Motor
s(s

IN - 2009
4.
A unity feedback control loop with an
open transfer function of the form

(s)

(s)

having a transfer function

s
Tacho-generator

by G(s) = (
5.

G(s) =
2.

3.

)(

6.

The gain margin of the system is


(A) 0.125
(C) 0.5
(B) 0.25
(D) 1

(C) 125
(D) 125

v lu o
or t
mp ng r t o to
be 0.5, corresponding to the dominant
closed-loop complex conjugate pole pair
is
(A) 250
(C) 75
(B) 125
(D) 50

IN - 2012
7.
The open loop transfer function of a unity
negative feedback control system is given
by
G(s) =

The phase crossover frequency of the


system in radians per second is
(A) 0.125
(C) 0.5
(B) 0.25
(D) 1

is inserted

(A) 250
(B) 250

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2


&3
Consider a unity feedback system with
open loop transfer function

The value of K for the phase margin of the


system to be 45 is

(s)

(C)
(D)

IN - 2011
Common Data for Questions 5 and 6
The open-loop transfer function of a unity
negative feedback control system is given

IN - 2008
1.
For the closed loop system shown below
to be stable, the value of time delay TD (in
seconds) should be less than

into the loop, the phase margin will


become
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

The gain k of the Tacho-generator


influences mainly the
(A) peak overshoot
(B) natural frequency of oscillation
(C) phase shift of the closed loop
transfer function at very low
)
frequencies (
(D) phase shift of the closed loop
transfer function at very high
)
frequencies (

(A)
(B)

has a gain crossover frequency of 1 rad/s


and a phase margin of
. If an element

(s)

Control Systems

)(

. The gain margin of the

system is
(A) 10.8 dB
(B) 22.3dB

(C) 34.1dB
(D) 45.6dB

IN - 2014
8.
The loop transfer function of a feedback
control system is given by
(s) (s)

)( s
)
s(s
Its phase crossover frequency (in rad/s),
approximated to two decimal places, is __.
th

th

th

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Page 312

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

6.

[Ans. D]
or option (D).

[Ans. D]

( )

(s)

(s
)(s
or g n m rg n
t n ( )
t n

( )

t n

. /

7.

[Ans. C]

(s) (s)

)
s(s
(
)
t n
phase
cross-over

=0
o (s)

For

[ ]

Gain margin =

log

t n (

0 1
r

Using Root locus of G(s)

) (

root locus will cut the


when k

) (

3.

= 0 axis only
0 1

8.

[Ans. D]
At
(
GM = 20 log

4.

[Ans. B]

5.

[Ans. C]
(
At
log

) (

(
) (

log

[Ans. A]
Assuming no.of open loop poles in the
RHS of s plane = P = 0
Complete nyquist plots

Im

) (

GM = 20

|
(

At

EE
1.

[Ans. A]
( )
=5
So ( ) is a straight line parallel to
axis.

) (

M n

[Ans. C]
BW depends only on denominator and is
equal to (

So gain margin =

frequency,

ut s
(

2.

(s)

s not tr ns r un t on o

) (

PM =
No.of encirclements = N = 0
th

th

th

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Page 313

GATE QUESTION BANK

N=PZ=0

Control Systems

Hence the system is unstable


So option (A) is correct

Hence system is stable.

2.

[Ans. B]

Imj

) (

(
(

)(

symptot to x =
3.

Two anti clockwise encirclement


N=2
PZ=N=2

)
)(

[Ans. D]
2 clockwise encirclement of 1 + j0
= 0; N = 2
=2
Z = number of closed loop ploes in RHS
Hence system is unstable

4.

[Ans. D]
Open loop transfer function, G(s) =
Put s =

Hence system is unstable.


Im

At phase crossover frequency (


phase of OLTF is
( )

Two clockwise encirclement of 1


Hence N = 2

| s lw ys
(

Im

or ny v lu o

)
n t

Hence the system is unstable

(p

ross r qu n y)

Gain margin = 20log

| (

)|

) )

((

log
5.

[Ans. A]
(

As

(
((

G(

)
)

))

s
( ) -0 +
Option (A) satisfies above

Two clockwise encirclement of 1


Hence N = 2
Z=2
th

th

th

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Page 314

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

[Ans. A]
T(s) =

2.
(

M is dependent on K
(A) is correct
is independent of K
(B) is not
correct
T(J ) = (

[Ans. C]
( )
t n ( )

( )

Control Systems

3.

[Ans. A]
( )

4.

[Ans. A]
M o (s)

t n

( )
( )

( ) n ( ) r p rt lly orr t

(
[Ans. C]

(s) =
s

(s)

t low r qu n s
t g r qu n s

IN
1.

t n (
)

t n (

(
(

PM of

y(s)

5.

t n
)
)

(s) =

[Ans. B]
PM = 45= 180
t n

(s)

. /)

t n

. /

rad/sec

( )

y(s)

. /

|(

G(s) =
For system to be stable G(s) should lie in
the left of ( 1, 0)
For finding the critical/ marginal value
apply phase condition
w

6.

[Ans. A]
r t r st

(s
)
s
s
s (
The dominant poles are given by
)
s
s (

or (s)
(s)
w

qu t on

s
|

So w

For stable system

or

7.

[Ans. C]
= 15 r/s

th

th

th

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Page 315

GATE QUESTION BANK

G.M in dB =
8.

log 0

Control Systems

[Ans. *]Range 0.30 to 0.34


(s) (s)

s(s

)( s

or
(s) (s)

t n

t n ( )

t n (

As t n
So

=1
r s
r s

th

th

th

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Page 316

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Frequency Response Analysis Using Bode Plot


ECE - 2006
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 1
&2
Consider a unity-gain feedback control
system whose open-loop transfer
function is

ECE - 2010
4.
For the asymptotic Bode magnitude plot
shown below, the system transfer
function can be
M gn tu

( )
1.

The value of 'a' so that the system has a


phase-margin equal to is approximately
equal to
(A) 2.40
(B) 1.40

2.

(C) 0.84
(D) 0.74

With the value of 'a' set for a phasemargin of


the value of unit-impulse
response of the open-loop system at
second is equal to
(A) 3.40
(C) 1.84
(B) 2.40
(D) 1.74

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2014
5.
The phase
( )

margin
)(

)(

in
)

degrees

calculated

of

using

the asymptotic Bode plot is ________.


ECE - 2007
3.
The asymptotic bode plot of a transfer
function is as shown in the figure. The
transfer function G(s) corresponds to this
Bode plot is
|G(

6.

In a Bode magnitude plot, which one of


the following slopes would be exhibited at
high frequencies by a 4th order all-pole
system
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

7.

The Bode asymptotic magnitude plot of a


minimum phase system is shown in the
figure.

)|(dB)

60
20 dB/decade
40
40 dB/decade
20

0.1

10

2
0

(
(

100

)
)

60 dB/decade

(A)
(B)

)(
(

)(

(C)

)
)

(D)

(r
(

)(

)(

s) n log s l

If the system is connected in a unity


negative feedback configuration, the
steady state error of the closed loop
system, to a unit ramp input, is_________.

th

th

th

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Page 317

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE - 2006
1.
The Bode magnitude plot of
(
)(

H (j ) = (
(

(A)

)
)

Control Systems

EE - 2008
2.
The asymptotic Bode magnitude plot of a
minimum phase transfer function is
shown in the figure.

is

(
40

40 dB/ decade

(dB)
20

20

20 dB/ decade
(r
s)
(log scale)

0.1
0

+1

+3

+2

Log ( )

20

0 dB/ decade

(B)

This transfer function has


(A) Three poles and one zero
(B) Two poles and one zero
(C) Two poles and two zeros
(D) One pole and two zeros

)
40
20

+1

+2

+3

Log ( )

EE - 2009
3.
The asymptotic approximation of the
log-magnitude vs frequency plot of a
system containing only real poles and
zeros is shown. Its transfer function is
40 dB / dec

(C)

60 dB / dec

80 dB
40

20

+1

+2

+3

Log ( )

0.1

(A)

(D)

(
)(

(B)
(

2 5

)
(
)(

(C)

)
)

(
)(
(

(D)

25

)
)
)
)(

)
40

EE - 2014
4.
The Bode magnitude plot of the transfer

20

function (s)
0
+1

+2

+3

(
.

)(
/(

)
).

is shown

below:
Note that -6 dB/octave = -20 dB/decade.
The value of is_______

Log ( )

th

th

th

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Page 318

GATE QUESTION BANK

The gain and phase margin of the system


are
(A) 0 dB, 180
(C) 0 dB, 10
(B) 3.88 dB, 170
(D) 3.88 dB, 10

t v
t v

Control Systems

t v
t v

t v

t v
(r

s )

IN - 2008
2.
The Bode asymptotic plot of a transfer
function is given below. In the frequency
range shown, the transfer function has
dB

5.

6.

For the transfer function


(s
)
( )
s(s
)(s
s
)
The values of the constant gain term and
the highest corner frequency of the Bode
plot respectively are
(A) 3.2, 5.0
(C) 3.2, 4.0
(B) 16.0, 4.0
(D) 16.0, 5.0

+ 20dB / decade
20dB / decade
0dB / decade

log

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

The magnitude Bode plot of a network is


shown in the figure
(

)
lop

log

The maximum phase angle


and the
corresponding gain
respectively, are
(A) 30 and 1.73dB
(B) 30 and 4.77dB
(C) + 30 and 4.77dB
(D) + 30 and 1.73dB
IN - 2006
1.
A unity feedback system has the following
open loop frequency response:
(r s )
( )
( )
2
7.5
3
4.8
4
3.15
5
2.25
6
1.7
8
1
10
0.64

3 poles and 1 zero


1 pole and 2 zeroes
2 poles and 1 zero
2 poles and 2 zeroes

IN - 2010
3.
The asymptotic Bode magnitude plot of a
lead network with its pole and zero on the
left half of the s-plane is shown in the
adjoining figure. The frequency at which
the phase angle of the network is
maximum (in rad/s) is

r
s
(log scale)

(A)
(B)

(C)

(D)

IN - 2013
4.
The Bode plot of a transfer function G(s)
is shown in the figure below.

th

th

th

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Page 319

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Gain (dB)

The gain (20 log|G(s)|) is 32 dB and -8 dB


at 1 rad/s and 10 rad/s respectively. The
phase is negative for all . Then G(s) is
40
32

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

20

5.

The discrete time transfer function


is

0
1

10

-8

(r

s)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

100

Non minimum phase and unstable.


Minimum phase and unstable.
Minimum phase and stable.
Non minimum phase and stable.

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

4.

[Ans. A]

[Ans. C]
| ( )|
M
w r

G(s) =
(
(

t n (

5.

[Ans. *] Range 42 to 48
(

M
t n (

2.

= 0.84

[Ans. C]
(s)

g(t)

u(t)

t u(t)

3.

[Ans. D]
(s)
o

s(s

)(

plot s (
r ts typ
log

)
) orm
syst m so

(
)(
)(
)
From the plot frequency at which gain is 0
dB is
r
s
( )
M

At t = 1, g(t)

6.

[Ans. A]
In a transfer function if all are poles if we
plot the BODE diagram, then an each and
every corner frequency we have to
introduce a line of slope
and hence on the 4th frequency the slope
of line will become 80 dB/sec and will
continue upto infinity

|
K = 100

th

th

th

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Page 320

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

[Ans. *] Range 0.49 to 0.51


From the Bode plot given, we can see that
there are 2 break frequencies at
= 2
and
= 10 rad/sec. Also it is a type 1
system.
So, the transfer function is
(
)
( )
(
)
( )
At
= 1 rad/sec,
(given)

2.

[Ans. C]
Initial slope is 40 dB/decade, it means
there are double pole at origin. Slope
changes from
dB/decade to
dB/decade. It means there is a zero.
Slope changes from
dB/decade to 0
dB/decade at some other frequency. It
means there is one more zero. Therefore
transfer function has two poles and zeros.

20 log | |

3.

[Ans. B]

log
(
(
In s domain,
(
(s)
(
(

)
)

l m s (s)
(

log

s)
s)

(s
s(s
(s
lm
s

)
)
)

)
)

[Ans. *] Range 0.7 to 0.8


For initial dotted slope

[Ans. A]
(

/.

(s
)(s

s (s

(
)(

log )

s .

(
.

4.

(
s )
s )(
s )

s (

So,

EE
1.

Control Systems

log

( )

log
(

( )(
)
Corner frequencies are 1, 10 & 100
rad/sec
( )
(
)

log

log
.

(s)
.

log

/.

/.

/.

log
(

5.

[Ans. A]
(s)

(s
)(s

s(s
(

log

)(

s(
log
log
log

log
log
log

)
s

s
)

s) .

n m x mum r qu n y
th

th

th

r s

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Page 321

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

Control Systems

[Ans. C]

(s)

has 2 poles and 1 zero


s
s

3.

t n

[Ans. B]
This condition is only for phase lead N/W

t n

=
(

4.

[Ans. B]
32 dB

10

t n

. /

g n

to
Is 1 dec are change & change is (G) is
40dB
lop s
r r pol s s or g n

. /

g n
IN
1.

t n

log

So, G(s)=
= 32 dB
(given)

[Ans. D]
M
r
s M

log

)
5.

[Ans. D]
z
z
For minimum phase system, all poles and
zeros must lie inside the unit circle. For
stable system, all poles must be inside the
unit circle. For the system, zero is at 2
pole is at 0.5. This system is stable but
non minimum phase.

[Ans. C]
Compare with Bode magnitude plot of
standard transfer function.
.
(

(z)

)
.

. /|

log

= 3.88 dB
2.

log

th

th

th

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Page 322

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Compensators & Controllers


ECE - 2006
1.
The transfer function of a phase-lead

Z
-

(s)

compensator is given by

where
. The maximum phase-shift
provided by such a compensator is
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

Group I

ECE - 2007
2.
A control system with PD controller is
shown in the figure. If the velocity error
constant Kv =1000 and the damping ratio

t n t v lu s o p and KD are
r

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
3.

s(s

Kp=100, KD=0.09
Kp=100, KD=0.9
Kp=10, KD=0.09
Kp=10, KD=0.9

The open-loop transfer function of a plant


is given as 0 (s)

1. If the plant is

operated
in
a
unity
feedback
configuration, Then the lead compensator
that can stabilize this control system is
(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

Group II
1. PID controller
2. Lead compensator
3. Lag compensator
(A) Q 1, R 2
(C) Q 2, R 3
(B) Q 1, R 3
(D) Q 3, R 2

ECE - 2009
5.
The magnitude plot of a rational transfer
function G(s) with real coefficients is
shown below. Which of the following
compensators has such a magnitude plot?
(

)
20dB

log

ECE - 2008
4.
Group 1 gives two possible choices for the
impedance Z in the diagram. The circuit
elements in Z satisfy the condition
R2C2 >R1C1. The transfer function
represents a kind of controller. Match the
impedances in Group I with the types of
controllers in Group II.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Lead compensator
Lag compensator
PID compensator
Lead lag Compensator

ECE - 2010
6.
A unity negative feedback closed loop
system has a plant with the transfer
function G(s) =

and a controller

(s) in the feed forward path. For a unit


step input, the transfer function of the

th

th

th

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Page 323

GATE QUESTION BANK

controller that gives minimum steady


state error is
(A)

(s)

(B)

(s)

(C)

(s)

(D)

(s)

)(

)(

ECE - 2012
Statement Linked answer Questions 7 and
8
The transfer function of a compensator is
given as
(s)
.
7.

8.

Gc(s)is a lead compensator if


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

Control Systems

(D) A lag-lead compensator that provides


an attenuation of 20 dB and phase
lead of 450 at the frequency of 3
rad/s
EE - 2008
2.
The
transfer
function
of
two
compensators are given below
(s
)
s
(s
)
(s
)
Which one of the following statements is
correct?
(A) C1 is a lead compensator and C2 is a
lag compensator
(B) C1 is a lag compensator and C2 is a
lead compensator
(C) Both C1 and C2 are lead
compensators
(D) Both C1 and C2 are lag compensators
IN - 2006
1.
The transfer function of a position servo

The phase of the above lead compensator


is maximum at
(C) r
s
(A) r
s
(D)
s
(B) r
s
r

system is given as G (s) =

1
. A first
s(s 1)

order compensator is designed in a unity


feedback configuration so that the poles
of the compensated system are placed at
1 j1 and 4. The transfer function of
the compensated system is

EE - 2007
1.
The system 900/s(s+1)(s+9) is to be
compensated such that its gain-crossover
frequency becomes same as its
uncompensated phase-crossover frequency and provides a 450 phase margin. To
achieve this, one may use
(A) A lag compensator that provides an
attenuation of 20 dB and a phase lag
of 450 at the frequency of rad/s
(B) A lead compensator that provides an
amplification of 20dB and a phase
lead of 450 at the frequency of 3
rad/s
(C) A lag-lead compensator that provides
an amplification of 20 dB and a phase
lag of 450 at the frequency of
rad/s.

(A)

(C)

(D)

(B)

Common Data Questions 2, 3, 4


The following figure describes the block
diagram of a closed loop process control
system. The unit of time is given in
minute
ontroll r
(s)

r(s)

th

th

th

stur

l nt

(s)

m(s)
s

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Page 324

(s)

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

The digital implementation of the


controller with a sampling time of 0.1
minute using velocity algorithm is
( ) m( )

* ( )

( )+

( ) m( )

* ( )

( ) m( )

m(

( ) m( )

m(

4.

motor is given as

( )
( )

. When

connected in feedback as shown below,


the approximate value of
that will
reduce the time constant of closed loop
system by one hundred times as
compared to that of the open loop
system is

)+

)-

)-

R(s)

(s)

(s)

)
( )

,
3.

ECE/EE/IN - 2013
6.
The open loop transfer function of a dc

)
, ( )

Control Systems

Suppose a disturbance signal


d(t)= sin 0.2t unit is applied. Then at
steady state, the amplitude of the output
e(t) due to the effect of disturbance alone
is
(A) 0.129 unit
(C) 0.529 unit
(B) 0.40 unit
(D) 2.102 unit

(A) 1
(B) 5

(C) 10
(D) 100

IN - 2014
7.
Consider the control system shown in
figure with feed forward action for
rejection of a measurable disturbance
d(t). The value of K, for which the
disturbance response at the output ( ) is
zero mean, is:

The control action recommended for


reducing the effect of disturbance at the
output(provided that the disturbance
signal is measurable) is
(A) cascade control
(B) P-D control
(C) ratio control
(D) feedback-feed forward control

(t)

y(t)

r(t)

(A) 1
(B) 1

IN - 2007
5.
A Cascade control system with
proportional controllers is shown below.

(C) 2
(D) 2

(s)
(

)(

( s

(s)

Theoretically, the largest values of the


gains
and
that can be set without
causing instability of the closed loop
system are:
(A) 10 and 100
(C) 10 and 10
(B) 100 and 10
(D)
n

th

th

th

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Page 325

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

4.

[Ans. B]

[Ans. D]
M xp s s t
(s)
t n
t n
From maximum phase shift

s
s
s

t
(
(

(
(

)
) -

(t )
)
s
(s)
(s
)(s
)
(s)
s
The above equation is a PID controller

or

t n ( )
2.

t n

s
( )
(
)
(
)
( )
The above equation is a lag compensator.
(
)

[Ans. B]
(s)

(
(s
m
m

s
(s) (s)
(

)
)
)

(s

comparing Eq.(1) with standard 2nd


order equation

5.

[Ans. D]
( ) plot shows presence of 2 poles &
2 zeroes in Bode equivalent plot

6.

[Ans. D]
m

3.

S.E(s)=
7.

[Ans. A]

(s
)(s
)
Only option (A) is satisfies.

t n

s
(s
)(s
)
The lead compensator C(s) should first

(s) (s)

m
s

for (D)

t n

for phase lead


t n

term

(s
(s

( ) ( ))

[Ans. A]

(s)

stabilize the plant i.e. remove

should be positive

t n

)
Option (A) & (C) satisfies, it may be
observed have be observed that option (C)
will have poles and zero in RHS of s plane,
thus not possible (not a practical system)
it can be concluded that option (A) is right

th

th

th

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Page 326

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

[Ans. A]
y ( )

t n

Control Systems

A lag lead compensator that provides an


attention of 20dB and phase lead of 45 at
the frequency of 3rad/sec is used.

t n

For maximum phase shift


t

2.

[Ans. A]
t n

t n

is always positive

t n

t n

is always negative

sl
IN
1.
r
EE
1.

)(s

)|

.
.

s(s

)(s

) (

)|

/
/

log

log (

| (

)
( )

(s
(s

(s)

Negative GM implies that the system is


unstable.
should become
gain
cross over frequency,
r
s ,
the magnitude should be 0dB.
o m
t
m gn tu

t
r
s a lag compensator which
gives an attenuation of 20dB(before
compensation the magnitude is 20dB)
and to obtain 45 phase margin at
r
s a lead compensator with
a phase lead of 45 is used.

(s)
) (s)
s(s
ol s o t
omp ns t syst m r g v n s s
s
(s
)
t (s)
(s
)
r t r st qu t on
)(s
)
(s
)
s(s
)
,(s
-(s
)
(
)s
(
)s
s
(s
)(s
)
s
s
s
s
(
)

) (

(
(

(s)

( )

(s) (s)
(s) (s)

| (

s l g omp ns tor

[Ans. C]
Let the T.F of the compensator be
o t
omp ns t syst m

[Ans. D]
s(s

2.

)
)

[Ans. A]
v n
(s) {

m(s)

)}
s

{ (s)
m( )
s

th

* ( )
pl

th

(s)}

( )+

tr ns orm o

th

(t) t

I(s)
s

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Page 327

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

(
)
0
s
For stable system all elements of first
column should be greater than zero. By
substituting all the given options in
o
nt o w ll g v n g t v v lu
except option D.

[Ans. B]
The given diagram can be reduced as
(s)

(s)

(s)

r ns r un t on (s)

( )

( )

( )

( )

Control Systems

6.

[Ans. C]
Open loop transfer function of a dc motor
as
( )
( )

( )

R(s)

( )

(s)

(s)

d(t)= sin 0.2t


or g tt ng mult ply ng
|

tor
Topic: P controller with unity feed back
Formula: For first order system loop

( )

transfer function is

with

o mpl tu o output (t)


n t l mpl tu

. Now for

( )

closed loop overall transfer function is


given by
.

[Ans. B]
(PD controller can be used)

( )

/
.

/
(

5.

Dividing numerator and denominator by


10

[Ans. D]
(s)
(

)(

( s

(s)

ow

)( s

((s

)( s

( )
( )

(s)

(s)

comparing

( )

( )

( )

4.

(s)

(s)

( y omp r ng rom ormul )


In Question given that time constant of
closed loop system is

times of

( )
( )

((

)(

)(

Characteristics equation is
(
)s
s
s
(
)
For stability, according to R-H array
6
(6+3k2)
s
(
11
s
(
)
0
s

so
.

approximate value

th

th

th

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Page 328

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

Control Systems

[Ans. D]
y(s)

(s)

(s)

y(s)) [

y(s)
(s)
(s) [

(s) [
s
s

(s) [

]
]

Zero means at

th

th

th

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Page 329

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

State Variable Analysis


ECE - 2006
1.
A linear system is described by the
following state equation
(t)

(t)

(t)

ECE - 2007
2.
The state space representation of a
separately excited DC servo motor
dynamics is given as,
+

10 1

The Eigen value and eigenvector pairs


( v ) for the system are

The state-transition matrix of the system


is
os t
s nt
(A) 0
1
s n t os t
s nt ]
(B) [ os t
s nt
os t

os
t
s
n t]
(C) [
s nt
os t
os t
s nt
(D) 0
1
s nt
os t

3.

4.

( )

(C)

(B)

(D)

x(0) = 0

1, then the system response is

x(t) = 0

1. If the initial state vector

of the system changes to x (0) = 0

1/

(B) .

1/ and .

1/

(C) .

1/ and . 0

1/

(D) .

1/ and . 0

1/

(B) 0

1
1

(C) 0

(D) 0

ECE - 2009
5.

Consider the system


A=0

= Ax + Bu with

1 and B = 0 1 , where p and q

are arbitrary real numbers. Which of the


following statements about the
controllability of the system is true?
(A) The system is completely state
controllable for any nonzero values
of p and q
(B) Only P = 0 and q = 0 result in
controllability
(C) The system is uncontrollable for all
values of p and q
(D) We
cannot
conclude
about
controllability from the given data

1 u;

Common Data Questions 3 and 4


Consider a linear system whose state
space representation is (t) = Ax (t). If
the initial state vector of the system is

1/ and .

(A) 0

of the motor is

(A)

The system matrix A is

Where is the speed of the motor,


is
the armature current and u is the
armature voltage. The transfer function
( )

(A) .

ECE - 2010
Common Data for Questions 6 and 7
The signal flow graph of a system is
shown below.

1,

(s)

(s)

then the system response becomes


x (t) = 0

1.

th

th

th

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Page 330

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

The state variable representation of the


system can be
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

7.

1x

-x

1x

-x

1x

0 1u
0 1u
0 1u

-x
1x

0 1u

-x

The transfer function of the system is


(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

ECE - 2011
8.
The block diagram of a system with one
input and two outputs and is given
below.
u

ECE - 2012
9.
The state variable description of an LTI
system is given by
x
x
x
[x ] [
][ ] [ ]u
x
x
x
- [x ]
y ,
x
Where y is the output and u is the input.
The system is controllable for
(A) a1 2 =0, a3
(B) a1 =0, a2
3
(C) a1=0, a2
3 =0
(D) a1 2
3 =0
ECE - 2013
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 10
and 11:
The state diagram of a system is shown
below. A system is described by the state
variable equations

u y
u
u

10.
y

A state space model of the above system


in terms of the state vector
and the
output vector , - is
, -x

(B) x

(C) x

(D) x

, -u y

-x

, -u
1x

1x

,
y

(C)
,

-x

0 1x
11.

1u

1u

1u

1u

u
1
-

u
1

u
1

The state transition matrix


of the
system shown in the figure above is
(A) 0
(B) 0

th

y
(D)

-x

0 1u y

0 1u y

(B)

0 1x

The state variable equation of the


system shown in the figure above are
(A)

(A) x

Control Systems

th

(C) 0

t
t

(D) 0

th

1
t

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Page 331

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2014
12. Consider the state space model of a
system, as given below
x
x
x
[x ] [
][ ] [ ]u
x
x
x
- [x ]
y ,
x
The system is
(A) controllable and observable
(B) uncontrollable and observable
(C) uncontrollable and unobservable
(D) controllable and unobservable
13.

or x

(B) [

(C) [

(D) [
16.

0 1 x(t) s

(A) 0

0 1 x(t)
nx

Consider the state space system


expressed by the signal flow diagram
shown in the figure.
u

Control Systems

The state transition matrix (t) of a


x
x
system [ ] 0
1 0x 1 is
x
t
(A) 0
(C) 0
1
1
t
t
(B) 0
(D) 0
1
1
t

EE - 2006
1.
For a system with the transfer function
(

H(s) =

, the matrix A in the

state space form x = Ax + Bu is equal to


The corresponding system is
(A) always controllable
(B) always observable
(C) always stable
(D) always unstable
14.

15.

An unforced linear time invariant (LTI)


system is represented by
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1
x
If the initial conditions are x (0)=1 and
x ( )
t
solut on o t
st t
equation is
(A) x (t)
x (t)
(B) x (t)
x (t)
(C) x (t)
x (t)
(D) x (t)
t x (t)
The state equation of a second-order
linear system is given by
x (t)
x(t)
x( ) x
or x

1 x(t)

(A) [

(B) [

(C) [

(D) [

EE - 2008
Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2
and 3
The state space equation of a system is
described by x = Ax + Bu, y = Cx, where
x is state vector, u is input, y is output
1 , B = 0 1, C = ,

and A = 0
2.

The transfer function G(s) of this system


will be

(A)

1 n

(B)
th

(
th

(C)

(D)

)
th

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Page 332

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

A unity feedback is provided to the above


system G(S) to make it a closed loop
system as shown in figure.

r +
(
t
)

y
(
t
)

G(s)

For a unit step input r(t), the steady state


error in the output will be
(A) 0
(C) 2
(B) 1
(D)
EE - 2009
Common Data Questions: 4 & 5
A system is described by the following
state and output equations
()

x (t)

x (t)

()

x (t)

u(t)

4.

5.

EE - 2013
Common Data Questions 7 and 8
The state variable formulation of a system
is given as
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u x ( )
x
x
- 0x 1
x ( )
n y ,
7.
The system is
(A) Controllable but not observable
(B) Not controllable but observable
(C) Both controllable and observable
(D) Both not controllable and not
observable
8.

The response y(t) to a unit step input is


(A)
(B)

u(t)

y(t) = x1(t)
Where u(t)is the input and y(t) is the
output

(C)
(D)
EE - 2014
9.
A system matrix is given as follows.
[

The system transfer function is


(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

The state transition matrix of the above


system is
(A) [

(B) 0

(C) 0

(D) 0

0
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

The absolute value of the ratio of the


maximum eigenvalue to the minimum
eigenvalue is _____
10.

The second order dynamic system


u

y
the matrices P, Q and R as follows:
0

0 1

EE - 2010
6.
The system

Control Systems

,
The system has the following controllability
and observability properties:
(A) Controllable and observable
(B) Not controllable but observable
(C) Controllable but not observable
(D) Not controllable and not observable

with
0 1 is

stable and controllable


stable but uncontrollable
unstable but controllable
unstable and uncontrollable
th

th

th

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Page 333

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

The state transition matrix for the system


x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u is
x
(A) 0
(B) 0

(C) 0

1
t

(D) 0

Control Systems

IN - 2008
2.
The state space representation of a
= 0

system is given by

y = [1 0]x. The transfer function

t 1

Consider the system described by


following state space equations
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u
x
x
- 0x 1
y ,
If u is unit step input, then the steady
state error of the system is
(A) 0
(C) 2/3
(B) 1/2
(D) 1

IN - 2006
1.
The state-variable representation of a
plant is given by
= Ax + Bu , y = Cx.
Where x is the state, u is the input and y is
the output. Assuming zero initial
conditions, the impulse response of the
plant is given by
(A) exp (At)
(B)
xp , (t - )] Bu () d
(C) C exp (At) B
(D)
xp , (t - )] Bu () d

( )
( )

of

the system will be


(A)

12.

1 X + 0 1u,

(C)

(B)

(D)

IN - 2009
3.
A linear time-invariant single-input
single-output system has a state space
model given by

=Fx + Gu; y = Hx

Where F =0

1; G=0 1; H =,

-.

Here, x is the state vector, u is the input,


and y is the output. The damping ratio of
the system is
(A) 0.25
(C) 1
(B) 0.5
(D) 2
IN - 2011
4.
The transfer function of the system
described by the state-space equations
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u
x
x
- 0x 1 is
y ,
(A)
(C)
(B)

th

(D)

th

th

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Page 334

GATE QUESTION BANK

Control Systems

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

6.
[Ans. A]
(t) = L *( I
( I

) +

( I

)
s nt
1
os t

x
x
y

x
u ( )
x
x ( )
(x
x )
(x
x
x )
y
x ( )
From equation 1, 2, 3 the state variable
representation of the system is

(s)

I (s)

I (s)
(s)
u(s)

u(s)

( )
( )

(t)

1x

0 1u

[Ans. C]
,sI

,
&

-0

,
s

10 1

s
(s

s
s

) )
s

s
s

-[

1
)

(( I
(s
)(s
find eigen vector

s
s
Method II
It can also be solved by applying the
M sons g n ormul

&

[Ans. D]
From above, , I
0

5.

[Ans. A]
Let A = [

4.

7.
3.

x
x

(s)

(s)
) (s)

(s)
x

u
(s)
)(s

[Ans. A]

(s

(s)

(
os t
(t) = 0
s nt

2.

[Ans. B]

8.

[Ans. B]
(s)
u(s) s
(s) x (s)
x (s) u(s) s
x (s)
y (s)
u(s) s
x (s)
Similarly
x (s)
y (s)
u(s)
s
u(s)
so sx (s)
x (s) u(s)
y (s) x (s)
sx (s)
x (s) u(s)

[Ans. C]
,

p p
0q q1
p q un ontroll

p, q

th

th

th

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Page 335

GATE QUESTION BANK

y (s)
x (s)
x (t)
x (t) u(t) y (t)
x (t)
x (t) u(t) y (t)
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u(t)
x
x
x
u
,y y -

rom qu st on y
9.

x (t)
x (t)

y=,

From the graph we can find that


,u
x - ( ) x
x
x
u ( )
n
( ),x
x
x
x
x
x
From eq. (i) put value of x
( x
x
x
u)
x
x
x
u ( )
s m l rly y x ( )
y x
x
u ( )
(
x
x
x ) ( u)
[
]
(
x
x
x ) u
In matrix form
x
x
[ ] 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u
x
x
x 0
1 0x 1 0 1 u
And
x
,
- 0x 1 u
y
-x u
y ,

0 1

x
] [x ] + [ ]u
x
x
- [x ]
x

A=[

]& B = [ ]

So, AB = [
=*

][ ] = [ ]
+

So, the controllability matrix, h

=[

11.

[Ans. A]
,s I

Determinant should be non-zero


So, a1a2 ( a2)
1
a2
a3 may be 0
10.

[Ans. D]
x
*x + = [
x

Control Systems

s0

s
-

sI

[Ans. A]
For state variable form, we have to find
number of integral (1/s) in the graph
Assign output of these integral with state
variable & input of these integral with
derivative of state variable.
1. Then find out the relation between
these derivative in terms of state
variable and input
2. Similarly we can write the relation
between output and these variable
and input using state flow graph
3. Lets assume & as state variable

,sI

s
s

(s

sI

) s
[(s
]
Take inverse Laplace transform both side
,sI

[(s
0

th

th

th

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Page 336

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

[Ans. B]
[

[ ]

,
Controllable matrix
,

[Ans. B]
Applying linearity property
0

o x(t)
the state
16.

[Ans. D]
(t)

, I

s
s

EE
1.

x
1 0x 1

s ]

3
1t

0
0

1
1

(s)
(s)

(s)
( )

( )

( )

( )

(s)
(s)
(s)
s x
t

)
0

[Ans. B]

x ( )
x ( )

(t)

The rank of S is 3
So the system is always controllable

(I

) -

[s

(t)

[Ans. C]
x
[ ] 0

,( I
s
0

The state controllable matrix is


,

14.

0 1

-[ ]

[Ans. A]
From the state diagram,
equations are

[ ][
][ ] [ ]

15.

0 1

so o s rv

x (t) x ( )
x (t) x ( )

2
0

Rank is less than 3, so uncontrollable


Observability matrix
o ,
( )

13.

Control Systems

(s

).

)
s
/

s
s
s
(s)
s x
sx (s)
u(s)

(s
s

x (s)

Replacing s by
x
t

th

x
t
x
t
th

x
t

u(t) ( )

th

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Page 337

3]

GATE QUESTION BANK

x
x
x
t
Replacing eq.(i)
x
x
x
x
u(t)
x
x
x
x
u(t)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
u(t)
x
x
[x ] [
] [x ] [ ] u(t)
x
x
o

2.

3.

- (0

5.

[Ans. B]
0
( I

( I

( ))

x (t)

y(t)

x (t)
-[
]
x (t)

y
o

-&

, I

s
s

s
0

s
(s
)(s
r ns r un t on
, I
-

[Ans. C]
, AB] |

controllable
(s) ( I
) & (t)
( (s )) has
exponential with positive power
Unstable

7.

[Ans. A]
,
M

1
ontroll

8.

( I

, I

*, I

(s)+

1
)

ot o s rv

[Ans. A]
Y(t) ,

6.

t(M )

t(M )
1

0 1

y(t)

)(s

[Ans. C]
Selecting x (t) and x (t) as state variables
x (t)
x (t)
x (t) x (t)
u(t)
t
x (t)
x (t)
x (t) u(t)
t
x (t)
x (t)
[
] 0
] 0 1 u(t)
1[
x (t)
x (t)
x

, I

(s

[s
m

s
s

[Ans. A]

1 )0 1

1
s
0 1
(s
)(s
)
(s
)
,
-0
1
s
(s
)(s
)
s
s
(s
)(s
) s
s
,

s
4.

[Ans. D]
(s)

Control Systems

[s

]
s

th

th

th

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Page 338

GATE QUESTION BANK

[, I
x (t)
[
]
x (t)

9.

[s(s

)]

,, I

s
[(s
* I

(s)-

12.

)(

(s)

0
,

)
)-

,(
(

(s)

[Ans. C]
0

or ontroll
,

0 1

11.

1
2.

[Ans. C]
0

1+

1
s 0 1

rror

lm

(s)

l ms (

l m u(t)
s

s(s

y(t)
s

[Ans. A]
(s)
( I

1
(

th

(sI

(s)

th

)
s

)
(s)

y(t)

( I

(sI

(t)
(sI

( I

State transition matrix


s
I
0
1
s
s
0
s
I
(s
)

s
y st t

u(t)
(s)

ot o s rv

[Ans. C]

(s)
(s)

ontroll
For observability:

y(s)
(s)
)

(s)

s(s

l
-

IN
1.

y(s)
u(s)

v n

- *0 s

10.

[Ans. A]

,(

( I

[Ans. *] Range 2.9 to 3.1


Characteristic equation
|

r ns r un t on

x (t)
-[
]
x (t)

Y(t)

s(s

(s)]

Control Systems

.,

-0

-0

.,
1/

th

1 0 1/
(s)

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Page 339

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

Control Systems

[Ans. B]
The poles of the s/y are obtained from the
s/y matrix, f
det (SI F )= 0
0

S(S + 2) + 4 = 0

4.

[Ans. A]
T(s) = ( I
,
(

)
-

10 1

th

th

th

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Page 340

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Diode Circuits - Analysis and Application


ECE - 2006
1.
For the circuit shown below, assume that
the zener diode is ideal with a breakdown
voltage of 6 Volts. The waveform
observed across R is

ECE - 2007
2.
The correct full wave rectifier circuit is
(A)

Input
Output

(B)

(A)

6V

Input

6V

(B)

Output

(C)

12V

(C)

12V
Input
Output

6V
(D)

(D)

Input

6V

Output

3.

For the Zener diode shown in the figure,


the Zener voltage at knee is 7 V, the knee
current is negligible and the Zener
dynamic resistance is 10 . If the input
voltage ( ) range is from 10 to 16 V, the
th

th

th

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Page 341

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

output voltage ( ) range from

. The small signal input


where

(A) 7.00 to 7.29V


(B) 7.14 to 7.29 V

(C) 7.14 to 7.43 V


(D) 7.29 to 7.43 V

ECE - 2008
4.
In the following limiter circuit, an input
voltage
= 10sin100 t is applied.
Assume that the diode drop is 0.7V when
it is forward biased. The Zener
breakdown voltage is 6.8V.The maximum
and minimum values of the output
voltage respectively are

6.

The bias current


(A) 1 mA
(B) 1.28 mA

7.

The ac output voltage


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

8.

A Zener diode, when used in voltage


stabilization circuits, is biased in
(A) reverse bias region below the
breakdown voltage
(B) reverse breakdown region
(C) forward bias region
(D) forward bias constant current mode

1k
D1

through the diodes is


(C) 1.5 mA
(D) 2 mA
is

D2
Z

(A) 6.1V, 0.7 V


(B) 0.7 V, 7.5 V

6.8 V

(C) 7.5 V, 0.7 V


(D) 7.5 V, 7.5 V

ECE - 2009
5.
In the circuit below, the diode is ideal. The
voltage V is given by

(A) min (
(B) max (

)
)

(C) min (
(D) max(

ECE - 2012
9.
The diodes and capacitors in the circuit
shown are ideal. The voltage v(t) across
the diode
is

)
)

ECE - 2011
Statements for Linked Answer Questions 6
and 7
In the circuit shown below, assume that
the voltage drop across a forward biased
diode is 0.7V. The thermal voltage

(A)
(B) i

th

th

(C) 1
(D) 1 i

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
10. The I-V characteristics of the diode in the
circuit given below are
i

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

sin
(sin
(sin
0 for all t

Analog Circuits

i
i

)/2
)/2

{
ECE - 2014
13. In the figure, assume that the forward
voltage drops of the PN diode
and
Schottky diode
are 0.7 V and 0.3 V,
respectively. If ON denotes conducting
state of the diode and OFF denotes nonconducting state of the diode, then in the
circuit,

The current in the circuit is


(A) 10 mA
(C) 6.67 mA
(B) 9.3 mA
(D) 6.2 mA
ECE/EE/IN - 2013
11. In the circuit shown below, the knee
current of the ideal Zener diode is 10 mA.
To maintain 5 V across RL, the minimum
value of RL in and the minimum power
rating of the Zener diode in mW,
respectively , are

(A) both
and
are ON
(B)
is ON and
is OFF
(C) both
and
are OFF
(D)
is OFF and
is ON
14.

100

ILoad
10V

RL

VZ=5V

(A) 125 and 125


(B) 125 and 250
12.

The diode in the circuit shown has


= 0.7 Volts but is ideal otherwise.
If = 5sin()Volts, the minimum and
maximum values of
(in Volts) are,
respectively,

(C) 250 and 125


(D) 250 and 250

A voltage 1000 sin


Volts is applied
across YZ. Assuming ideal diodes, the
voltage measured across WX in Volts, is

(A) 5 and 2.7


(B) 2.7 and 5

(C) 5 and 3.85


(D) 1.3 and 5

1k
W

Y
Z

15.
X

1k

th

The figure shows a half-wave rectifier.


The diode D is ideal. The average steadystate current (in Amperes) through the
diode is approximately __________

th

th

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Page 343

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

D1
D2

i
z

Vi

V0

RL =

5V

10V

16.

(A)

Two silicon diodes, with a forward


voltage drop of 0.7 V, are used in the
circuit shown in the figure. The range of
input voltage
for which the output
voltage
is

10

10

(B)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5
5

EE - 2006
1.
What are the states of the three ideal
diodes of the circuit shown in figure?

(C)
10
5
5 10

10V

5A

(D)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

ON,
OFF,
ON,
OFF,

OFF,
ON,
OFF,
ON,

OFF
OFF
ON
ON

10

10
2.

Assuming the diodes D1 and D2 of the


circuit shown in figure to be ideal ones,
the transfer characteristics of the circuit
will be
th

th

th

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Page 344

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(B)

EE - 2007
3.
The three terminal linear voltage
regula r i
e e
a
l a
resistor as shown in the figure. If Vin is
10 V, what is the power dissipated in the
transistor?
+10V

(C)
RL
Vin
6.6V
Zener diode
0

(A) 0.6 W
(B) 2.4 W

(D)

(C) 4.2 W
(D) 5.4 W

EE - 2008
4.
The equivalent circuits of a diode, during
forward biased and reverse biased
conditions, are shown in the figure.
+

0.7
V

5.

In the voltage doubler circuit shown in


he igure he wi h S i l e a
Assuming diodes D1 and D2 to be ideal,
load resistance to be infinite and initial
capacitor voltages to be zero, the steady
state voltage across capacitors C1 and C2
will be

~
If such diodes is used in clipper circuit of
figure given above, the output voltage (v0)
of the circuit will be

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A)

= 10V,
= 10V,
= 5V,
= 5V,

= 5V
= 5V
= 10V
= 10V

EE - 2009
6.
The following circuit shown has a source
voltage Vs as shown in the graph. The
current through the circuit is also shown
th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

10V

15V

15
10

(A) 4V
(B) 5V

Vs (Volts)

5
0

EE - 2011
8.
A clipper circuit is shown below.

-5

1k

-10
-15

100

200
300
Time (ms)

400

1.5
Current (mA)

(C) 7.5V
(D) 12.12V

5V

1.0
0.5

Assuming forward voltage drops of the


diodes to be 0.7 V, the input-output
transfer characteristics of the circuit is

0
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5

(A)
0

100

200
300
Time (ms)

400

The element connected between a and b


could be

4.3

4.3
a

(B)
10

4.3

EE - 2010
7.
Assuming that the diodes in the given
circuit are ideal, the voltage
is

4.3

th

th

th

10

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Page 346

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

dynamic resistance of the diode at room


temperature is approximately,

(C)

5.7

1.7V
0.7
0.7 5.7

(A)
(B)
(D)
10

10

(C)
(D)

IN - 2011
2.
Assuming zener diode
has currentvoltage characteristics as shown below on
the right and forward voltage drop of
diode
is 0.7 V, the voltage
in the
circuit shown below is

EE - 2014
9.
The sinusoidal ac source in the figure has
an rms value of

. Considering all

possible values of , the minimum value


of
in to avoid burnout of the Zener
diode is __________

2.7V

0.7V

~
(A) 3.7 V
(B) 2.7 V

10.

Assuming the diodes to be ideal in the


figure, for the output to be clipped, the
input voltage must be outside the range

~
(A)
(B)

(C) 2.2 V
(D) 0 V

IN - 2014
3.
For the circuit shown in the figure assume
ideal diodes with zero forward resistance
and zero forward voltage drop. The
current through the diode
in mA is
___________.

(C)
(D)

IN - 2008
1.
In the circuit shown below, the ideality
factor
of the diode is unity and the
voltage drop across it is 0.7V. The
th

th

th

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Page 347

GATE QUESTION BANK

4.

Analog Circuits

For the circuit shown in the figure, the


ra i r ha
=0.7 V, and the
voltage across the Zener diode is 15 V.The
current (in mA) through the Zener diode
is ___________.

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. B]
When
, zener diode is in forward
bias so
When
, zener diode is in reverse
bias, so when
, zener diode
will be OFF and
.
When
, zener diode will be in
breakdown region and
.

2.

[Ans. C]
Option C, Circuit makes Full wave
rectifier.

3.

[Ans. C]
For zener

When

4.

[Ans. C]
When
,
is forward bias and
are OFF, and
When
is +10V,
are ON and zener
diode is in reverse bias so
V

5.

[Ans. A]
When
, diode is ON and V =
When
, diode is OFF and V = 1 V
So V = min (

6.

[Ans. A]

7.

[Ans. B]

and

When

, current

~
th

th

th

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Page 348

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. D]

8.

[Ans. B]
Zener diode operated in reverse in
breakdown region.

i
i
r
Since diode will be forward biased voltage
across diode will be 0.7 V
i

Stabilized

9.

11.

[Ans. A]

[Ans. B]
i

5v

40 mA

10 V

la per

ea

e i ier

10 mA

he ex i e
y
he la pi g
section clamp the positive peak to 0 volts
and negative peak to 2 volts. So whole
cos (
i l wer y 1 volts

When zener starts


will be held @ 5V.
i

pu

When zener starts the current drawn


from supply is 50 mA at 10 V
p wer drawn = 500 mW
This should be dissipates in circuit power
i ipa e i
Resistance
=
Remaining 250 mW has to be dissipated
by zener assuming worst bad
ze er h ul e ra e r

th

th

th

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Page 349

GATE QUESTION BANK

12.

[Ans. D]

14.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. C]

1k
y
i
tz

1k
w

When Z is relatively positive to y


Both D1& D2 are
&
l a
Gets shorted.

When

positive maximum

When y is relatively positive to Z all Diode


Biased
urre
ll w
always.
13.

[Ans. D]

When

negative minimum

Assume both the diode ON.


Then circuit will be as per figure (2)

15.

w
p
is off and hence

i le

[Ans. *] Range 0.08 to 0.12


For average steady state case, capacitor is
open circuited
S i

th

a pere

th

th

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Page 350

GATE QUESTION BANK

16.

[Ans. D]

3.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. B]
So current through
Current through 1k ,

So

mA

mA

= 0.5893
Power dissipated in transistor
i

r hi
W

4.

[Ans. A]
When diode is OFF, the equivalent circuit
is shown as follows:
i

EE
1.

r hi

[Ans. A]
Let
is ON,
OFF and
equivalent circuit

10 V

~
i

OFF, then

i.e. when
is max i.e.,
so
diode never conducts and it is always
OFF. So,
i

5A

In this case,

5.

10A

[Ans. D]
When
,
is ON and
charges upto 5V and
When
,
is ON and
charges by -10 V and
So in steady state,
and

A
So voltage across diode
So
is in reverse bias i.e. it is OFF.
Voltage across diode
V it is
also in Reverse bias so OFF.
Voltage across diode
it is in
forward bias and ON.

2.

[Ans. A]
When

,
,

and

is ON and

6.

is OFF so
.
is OFF, so

[Ans. A]
It is

are OFF, so
When

OFF so,

mA, and diode conducts


, diode will be reverse bias
and I will become zero.

th

th

th

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Page 351

GATE QUESTION BANK

7.

Analog Circuits

Hence for output to be clipped input


should not be lie inside this range

[Ans. B]
Right side diode is off
So ,

8.

9.

[Ans. C]
When
output will
follow input, because zener diode and
normal diodes are off
When
V Zener diode forward
bias and
V
When
V Diode is forward bias and

IN
1.

[Ans. B]
Dynamic resistance r

r
2.

[Ans. C]
First Assume that the diode
does not
reach reverse breakdown. So circuit
becomes

[Ans. *] Range 299 to 301

10.

[Ans. B]

S
S
This is less than reverse breakdown
voltage
of diode
. So our
assumption is correct

3.

[Ans. 10]
Diode
goes to forward biased due to
10 V and 8V across
diode and current
through diode is

4.

[Ans. *] Range 40 to 43

Given circuit is union of both the above


circuit for range

th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Nodal at

th

th

th

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Page 353

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

AC & DC Biasing-BJT and FET


ECE - 2006
1.
An n- channel depletion MOSFET has
following two points on its
curve:
(i)
d
(ii)
Which of the following Q-points will give
the highest trans-conductance gain for
small signals.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
ECE - 2007
2.
The DC current gain ( ) of a BJT is 50.
Assuming that the emitter injection
efficiency is 0.995, the base transport
factor is
(A) 0.980
(C) 0.990
(B) 0.985
(D) 0.995
3.

For the BJT circuit shown, assume that


the of the transistor is very large and
= 0.7 V. The mode of operation of the
BJT is

The value of current is approximately


(A) 0.5 mA
(C) 9.3 mA
(B) 2 mA
(D) 15 mA
ECE - 2011
5.
For a BJT, the common base current
g i
.98
d he c ec r b e
junction reverse bias saturation current
.
. This BJT is connected in the
common emitter mode and operated in
the active region with a base drive
current
. The collector current
for this mode of operation is
(A) 0.98 mA
(C) 1.0 mA
(B) 0.99 mA
(D) 1.01 mA
6.

10 k

2V

9.

In the circuit shown below, for the MOS


transistor,
and the
threshold voltage
. The voltage
at the source of the upper transistor is
6V

1 k

5V

(A) cut-off
(B) saturation

W/L = 4

(C) normal active


(D) reverse active
W/L = 1

ECE - 2010
4.
In the silicon BJT circuit shown below,
assume that the emitter area of transistor
Q1 is half that of transistor Q2.

(A) 1 V
(B) 2 V

th

th

(C) 3 V
(D) 3.67 V

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2013
7.
In the circuit shown below, the silicon
npn transistor Q has a very high value of
. The required value of R2 in k to
produce IC = 1mA is

10.

Analog Circuits

For the MOSFETs shown in the figure, the


threshold voltage | | = 2 V and
( )

. The value of

(in mA) is ______.

VCC
3V

R1
60 k

IC

Q
R2

(A) 20
(B) 30
8.

RE
500

(C) 40
(D) 50

11.

In a MOSFET operating in the saturation


region, the channel length modulation
effect causes
(A) an increase in the gate source
capacitance
(B) a decrease in the transconductance
(C) a decrease in the unity gain cutoff
frequency
(D) a decrease in the output resistance

ECE - 2014
9.
For the n-channel MOS transistor shown
in the figure, the threshold voltage
is
0.8 V. Neglect channel length modulation
effects. When the drain voltage =1.6 V,
the drain current
was found to be 0.5
mA. If
is adjusted to be 2 V by changing
the values of R and
, the new value of
(in mA) is

For the MOSFET


shown in
assume W/L = 2,
= 2.0 V,
100
/ and
=
transistor
switches from
region to linear region when
is__________

the figure,
0.5 V. The
saturation
(in Volts)

EE - 2006
1.
Consider the circuit shown in figure. If
the of the transistor is 30 and ICBO is 20
nA and the input voltage is + 5 V, then
transistor would be operating in
+12V
.

(A) 0.625
(B) 0.75

(C) 1.125
(D) 1.5

12V

(A) saturation region


(B) active region
th

th

th

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Page 355

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(C) breakdown region


(D) cut off region
2.

A TTL NOT gate circuit is shown in fig.


Assuming
.
of both the
transistor, if
.
then the states of
the two transistors will be,
+5V

(A) 0 mA
(B) 3.6 mA

(C) 4.3 mA
(D) 5.7 mA

EE - 2010
5.
The transistor circuit shown uses a silicon
transistor with
= 0.7V,
and a
dc current gain of 100. The value of is
+10 V

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

d
e er e
e er e
d

d
d
e er e

50 k

10 k

EE - 2007
3.
The common emitter forward current
g i f he r i r h w i F = 100.

100

+10V

(A) 4.65V
(B) 5V
6.

(C) 6.3V
(D) 7.23V

Figure shows a composite switch


consisting of a power transistor (BJT) in
series with a diode. Assuming that the
transistor switch and the diode are ideal ,
the I-V characteristic of the composite
switch is

The transistor is operating in


(A) Saturation region
(B) Cutoff region
(C) Reverse active region
(D) Forward active region

EE - 2008
4.
Two perfectly matched silicon transistors
are connected as shown in the figure.
Assuming the of the transistors to be
very high and the forward voltage drop in
diodes to be 0.7 V, the value of current I is

(B)

(A)

th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK


I

(D)

(C)
V

IN - 2006
1.
The biasing circuit of a silicon transistor
is shown below. If = 80, then what is VCE
for the transistor?
+12V

EE - 2011
7.
The transistor used in the circuit shown
be w h
f
d
is negligible.
15k
1k

Analog Circuits

RB

RC

2.2k

D
= 0.7V
.

(A) 6.08 V
(B) 0.2 V

(C) 1.2 V
(D) 6.08 V

IN - 2007
2.
In the circuit shown below,

If the forward voltage drop of diode is


0.7V, then the current through collector
will be
(A) 168 mA
(C) 20.54 mA
(B) 108 mA
(D) 5.36 mA
EE - 2014
8.
The transistor in the given circuit should
always be in active region. Take
= 0.2 V,
= 0.7 V. The
maximum value of
in . Which can be
used, is__________

The
f he r
respectively,
(A) 19 and 2.8 V
(B) 19 and 4.7 V
(C) 38 and 2.8 V
(D) 38 and 4.7 V
3.

are,

The three transistors in the circuit shown


below are identical, with
= 0.7 V and
.

th

th

th

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Page 357

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

IN - 2014
6.
In the figure, transistors T and T have
identical characteristics.
of
transistor T is 0.1 V. The voltage
is
high enough to put T in saturation.
Voltage
of transistors T T and T is 0.7
V. The value of (
) in V is ___________.

10 V

2V

The voltage
(A) 0.2 V
(B) 2 V

is
(C) 7.4 V
(D) 10 V

IN - 2010
4.
The matched transistors
and
shown
in the adjoining figure have
=100.
Assuming the base-emitter voltages to be
0.7V, the collector-emitter voltage V2 of
the transistor
is

(A) 33.9V
(B) 27.8V

(C) 16.2V
(D) 0.7V

IN - 2013
5.
In the transistor circuit as shown below,
the value of resistance RE in k is
approximately,
+10V

1.5k
15k
.

(A) 1.0
(B) 1.5

6k

IC=2.0 mA
.
VCE=5.0 V
RE

Vout

(C) 2.0
(D) 2.5

th

th

th

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GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

5.

[Ans. D]

[Ans. D]
From the below graph it is clear that
a
increase conductance i.e. slope of
graph is increased.

.98
.98
.
6.

9
.

[Ans. C]
The transistor which has

12mA

and

6
V

So that transistor in saturation region.


The transistor which has

2.

Transfer characteristic of n-channel DMOSFET.

Drain is connected to gate


So that transistor in saturation

[Ans. B]

The current flow in both the transistor is


same

( ) (

base transport factor emitter injection


efficiency
b e r

r f c r

( )
(

.99
.98

3.

[Ans. B]
Given is large so
d
Assuming BJT is in active
Applying KVL in Base. Emitter loop
.
.
.
9.8
w
.9

7.

[Ans. C]

So BJT is in saturation
4.

[Ans. B]
Assuming
.
.

i ce is very large

=1mA

So,

eg igib e

So,
= 2.04 mA

ge dr

2 mA
th

th

cr
th

e i er f

re i

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Page 359

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.
.
w

Analog Circuits

[Ans. *] Range 1.4 to 1.6


Initially the transistor
is in saturation
[

.
.

( )]

gi e circ i

r .

r .

b i

i g

.
.

.
.

.8
.

8.

[Ans. D]

9.

[Ans. C]
ere

EE
1.
i

r i

[Ans. B]
Let the device is in saturation and
. V

regi

Collector current
.

.8

For saturation

Base voltage
.
current through 100

.
.

.8

.
.

.
.

10.

.
.

= 5.3mA

= 0.178 mA
re i

ce

= 0.127 mA
c rre hr
.

[Ans. *] Range 0.88 to 0.92

gh

re i

ce

= 0.29 mA
Base current

. 9
.
= 0.163 mA
So this is less than
it means device
is not in saturation. It is in active region.

NMOS is in saturation region


.
.
.9

2.

[Ans. C]
When
.
he
will be in
reverse active mode .i.e. Reverse on and
will be ON.

3.

[Ans. D]
We assume BJT is in active region
applying KVL in base emitter circuit
.
i g
th

th

th

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Page 360

GATE QUESTION BANK

8.

[Ans. *] Range 22 to 23
To calculate
max, take end condition
.
i
.
.
i

9.
9
.

Ti i
4.

Analog Circuits

.9

ci e
c i e regi

.
.

.
.8

[Ans. B]

.
IN
1.

[Ans. B]
.

.
9
9
. and drop across diode = 0.7
.
.
.
i

So device is not active region.


Let the device is in saturation and
. V
.
.9

ery rge

As both transistors are perfectly matched


and
. of both transistors.
. mA
5.

.9
8

.
.

[Ans. A]

So device is in saturation, so

.
9.

2.

.
.

[Ans. A]

6.

[Ans. C]
When V will be + ve both transistor and
diode will be on making V across them
Zero and Current I will be flow and when
V is -ve both will be off offering infinite
resistance so current I will be Zero.

7.

[Ans. D]
Transistor is in Saturation region
.
.
.

.
.
th

th

th

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Page 361

GATE QUESTION BANK

Apply KVL
.

Analog Circuits

.
8
For matched transistor
.

di
is same for both the
transistors)
Now apply KVL in the outer port of
transistor
.
8
.8

9
9.
Apply KVL to output terminals
5.
.9
3.

9.
.

[Ans. A]
10 V

.
.8

2m A

V=IR=1.5k 2mA=3V

15k

[Ans. C]

=10-3=7V

10V

gi e

2V
6k

gi e

Using KVL in the left hand transistor,


.

be
.

6.

gi e

[Ans. *] Range 5.5 to 5.8


9

Now again apply KVL to the collector


resistor of the right and transistor
T
.

.
.

.
4.

[Ans. B]
rre hr
.

T
.

gh

re i

ce

Apply KVL on path 1


9
.
.

.
.

=1.66mA

.
th

th

th

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Page 362

GATE QUESTION BANK

Tr

.
r ide ic

h
.

Analog Circuits

.
.
.98

.
.

th

th

th

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Page 363

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Small Signal Modeling of BJT and FET


ECE - 2006
Common Data Questions 1, 2, 3
In the transistor amplifier circuit shown
in the figure below, the transistor has the
following parameters:
h
h
The capacitance can be assumed to be
infinite.

defined to be

2.

3.

In the figure above, the ground has been


shown by the symbol
Under the DC conditions, the collector-toemitter voltage drop is
(A) 4.8 Volts
(C) 6.0Volts
(B) 5.3 Volts
(D) 6.6Volts

ECE - 2008
4.
Two identical NMOS transistors M1 and
M2 are connected as shown below.
is
chosen so that both transistors are in
saturation.The equivalent g of the Pair is

of the
of the

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 5


and 6
In the following transistor circuit,

If
is increased by 10%, then collectorto-emitter voltage drop
(A) increases by less than or equal to
10%
(B) decreases by less than or equal to
10%
(C) increases by more than 10%
(D) decreases by more than 10%
The small-signal gain of the amplifier
is
(A) 10
(C) 5.3
(B) 5.3
(D) 10

The equivalent g of the pair is


(A) the sum of individual g
transistors
(B) the product of individual g
transistors
(C) nearly equal to the g of M1
(D) nearly equal to g g of M2

1.

at constant

, and

and all the

capacitances are very large.

5.

The value of DC current is


(A) 1mA
(C) 5mA
(B) 2mA
(D) 10mA

6.

The mid-band voltage gain


amplifier is approximately
(A) 180
(C) 90
(B) 120
(D) 60
th

th

th

of

the

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Page 364

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2009
7.
A small signal source
() A
+B i
is applied to
a transistor amplifier as shown below.
The transistor has =150 and h =3k
.Which expression best approximates
( )?

(B) The input resistance


decreases
and the magnitude of voltage gain
increases
(C) Both input resistance
and the
magnitude of voltage gain
decrease
(D) Both input resistance
and the
magnitude of voltage gain
increase

12V

3k

100k

V0(t)
100 nF
Vi(t)
100nF
20k

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(
(
(
(

)=
)=
)=
)=

900k

ECE - 2012
9.
The current ib through the base of a
silicon npn transistor is
1 + 0.1 cos(10000 t) mA . At 300 K, the
r in the small signal model of the
transistor is
i

Analog Circuits

i
i

ECE - 2010
8.
The amplifier circuit shown below uses a
silicon transistor. The capacitors
and
can be assumed to be short at signal
frequency and the effect of output
resistance
can be ignored. If
is
disconnected from the circuit, which one
of the following statements is TRUE?

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

ECE - 2013
10. The small-signal resistance(i.e., dVB/dID)
in k offered by the n channel MOSFET
M shown in the figure below, at a bias
point of VB =2V is (device data for M:
device
transconductance
parameter
2
kn nCox(W/L) 4 / ,
threshold
voltage VTN=1V and neglect body effect
and channel length modulation effects)
ID

VB

(A) The input resistance increases and


the magnitude of voltage gain
decreases

(A) 12.5
(B) 25
th

th

(C) 50
(D) 100
th

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Page 365

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

ECE - 2014
11. For the amplifier shown in the figure, the
BJT parameters are
and thermal voltage
= 25 mV. The
voltage gain ( / ) of the amplifier is
_____ .

(A) g
(B)
F

12.

(C) g
(D)

14.

A BJT in a common-base configuration is


used to amplify a signal received by a 50
antenna. Assume kT/q = 25 mV. The
value of the collector bias current (in mA)
required to match the input impedance of
the amplifier to the impedance of the
antenna is __________

15.

For the common collector amplifier


h w i he figu e he JT h high
negligible
= 0.7 V. The
( ) and
maximum
undistorted
peak-to-peak
output voltage
(in Volts) is

In the circuit shown, the PNP transistor


has
= 0.7 Vand = 50. Assume that
= 100 k . For to be 5 V, the value of
(in k .) is __________

F
F

13.

Consider the common-collector amplifier


in the figure (bias circuitry ensures that
the transistor operates in forward active
region, but has been omitted for
simplicity). Let be the collector current,
be the base-emitter voltage and
be
the thermal voltage. Also, g
are
the small-signal transconductance and
output resistance of the transistor,
respectively. Which one of the following
conditions ensures a nearly constant
small signal voltage gain for a wide range
of values of ?
th

th

th

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Page 366

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE/EE/IN - 2012
1.
The voltage gain
below is

(A) 0.967
(B) 0.976

of the circuit shown

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

EE - 2014
2.
The magnitude of the mid-band voltage
gain of the circuit shown in figure is
(assuming h of the transistor to be 100)

Analog Circuits

(C) 0.983
(D) 0.998

IN - 2008
2.
For a single stage BJT common base
amplifier
(A) current gain as well as voltage gain
can be greater than unity
(B) current gain can be greater than
unity but voltage gain is always less
than unity
(C) voltage gain can be greater than
unity but current gain is always less
than unity
(D) current gain as well as voltage gain is
always less than unity
3.

In the amplifier circuit shown below,


assume VBE
he
f he
transistor and the values of C1 and C2 are
extremely high. If the amplifier is
designed such that at the quiescent point

its VCE =

where VCC is the power supply

voltage, its small signal voltage gain |

will be

(A) 1
(B) 10

(C) 20
(D) 100

IN - 2006
1.
An amplifier circuit is shown below.
Assume that the transistor works in
active region. The low frequency smallsignal parameters for the transistor are
g = 20 mS, 0 = 50, =, =0. What
is the voltage gain,

( ) of the

amplifier?
(A) 3.75
(B) 4.5

+Vcc

Vi

(C) 9
(D) 19

IN - 2009
Common Data Questions 4 and 5
The circuit shown in the figure uses three
identical transistors with
= 0.7V and
Gi e : = =

th

th

th

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Page 367

GATE QUESTION BANK

kT/ = 25mV.
The collector current of transistor
2mA.

4.

The bias voltage


at the base of the
transistor
is approximately
(A) 9.3V
(C) 10.3V
(B) 10.0V
(D) 11.0V
The small signal voltage gain of the circuit
is
(A) 20
(C) 20
(B) 40
(D) 40

is

+12V

5.
R1

R2

Q1

Analog Circuits

Q2
Q3
R3
12V

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

So,
[Ans. C]
Under DC conditions capacitor
as open. By KVL,

will act

(
)
Which is equal to the g of

but

[Ans. A]
Equivalent circuit

5.

= 6V
2.

[Ans. B]
in increased by 10%, i.e.
By KVL,

4
i e
ge
By KVL, in E B loop,
e e e
3.

[Ans. A]

4.

[Ans. C]
Both transistor carry same current and
both are in saturation

[Ans. D]

6.

Voltage gain
u

th

th

)(

ge

th

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Page 368

GATE QUESTION BANK

11.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. *] Range 240 to 230


From the model
i

7.

[Ans. B]
The e
is

we f

u u

) e

ge

h
h
(

For the calculation of gain we need to


calculate . so DC analysis is required

8.

[Ans. A]
The moment
is disconnected from the
circuit,
h
(
h )
but with capacitor,
h
which also reduces voltage gain
So, increases and
decreases.

9.

[Ans. C]

i = 1 + 0.1 cos (
Calculate
Solution:
[

)
= 3V

whe e

i he he

ge

e u e

44

10.

[Ans. B]

4
4

)
i

)
(

4
th

th

th

)i

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Page 369

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

i
i
i
i

i
i

4 4
he e
e figu e
i
i
(
) i
i
(
)i (
)
) (
i (
)
i
(
) i

4 4

Now assuming that


collector current g
emitter terminal.
g

is very large, the


flows through the

4 4

g
g

12.

So if g
constant g

[Ans. *] Range 1.04 to 1.12


(

which is nearly

14.

[Ans. *] Range 0.49 to 0.51


For CB configuration

15.

[Ans. *] Range 9.39 to 9.41

4
4
13.

[Ans. B]
This is a common-collector configuration.

i e
eg i e
can vary
( )i
between 12V in the positive direction and
0V in the negative direction biased
around
So, positive excursion of output voltage =
4
Negative excursion of output voltage

i
u

`
Replacing the transistor
equivalent model, we get

with

So, undistorted peak to peak output


voltage
4
4
th

th

th

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Page 370

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Apply millers theorem


ge
i

u e
i
i

i e
eg i e
can vary
( )i
between 12V in the positive direction and
0V in the negative direction biased
around
So, positive excursion of output voltage
=
4
Negative excursion of output voltage

i (
(
) i
i (
(
) i

[Ans. D]
In DC Analysis capacitor will behave as an
open circuit

whe e

So, undistorted peak to peak output


voltage
4
4
EE
1.

)
)
4

Consider input section

i
i

(i
i

i )

)i

i
(

i
i
i

i
(

)
2.

)i

[Ans. D]
g

whe e

g
Small signal analysis of circuit

i g
and Q point to be in
the middle of the load line

th

th

th

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Page 371

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN
1.

Analog Circuits

By Voltage division rule


[Ans. D]
Apply KVL to the base emitter circuit

Vi

AC equivalent circuit for

he

e i e

i ui

model

4
g

G i

4
| |

4.

[Ans. A]
Emitter

voltage

of

transistor,

g
L
i
Where
i i
i

10 V

i
i

(i
i
(i
(

So
i )

5.

)
i
(
(i
[
2.

3.

[Ans. B]
When output is taken between one
collector and ground then

)i
)

g
i
i
i

(i e

i g

e g i )

and if take the output between two


collectors then differential gain.
g
collector resistance

[Ans. C]
For CB, current gain is close to unity while
voltage gain is very high.

/
and here output is taken between one
collector and ground therefore gain
g

[Ans. A]

th

th

th

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Page 372

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

BJT and JFET Frequency Response


ECE - 2010
Common Data for Questions 1 and 2
Consider the common emitter amplifier
shown below with the following circuit
parameters:
g
A/V,
,

RD
10 k

C
V0

Vi

M
RL
10 k

and
(A) 8
(B) 32

(C) 50
(D) 200

ECE - 2014
4.

1.

The resistance seen by the source v is


(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

2.

The lower cut off frequency due to


(A) 33.9 Hz
(C) 13.6 Hz
(B) 27.1 Hz
(D) 16.9 Hz

A cascade connection of two voltage


amplifiers
and
is shown in the
figure. The open-loop gain
, input
resistance
, and output resistance
for
and
are as follows:

The approximate overall voltage gain


/ is __________.
is

ECE - 2013
3.
The ac schematic of an NMOS common
source stage is shown in the figure below,
where part of the biasing circuits has
been omitted for simplicity. For the nchannel MOSFET M, the transconductance
gm =1mA/V, and body effect and channel
length modulation effect are to be
neglected. The lower cutoff frequency in
Hz of the circuit is approximately at

IN - 2011
1.
The amplifier shown below has a voltage
gain of
an input esistance of
and a lower 3-dB cut-off frequency of 20
Hz. Which one of the following statements
is TRUE when the emitter resistance
is
doubled?

th

th

th

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Page 373

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(A) Magnitude of voltage gain will


decrease
(B) Input resistance will decrease
(C) Collector bias current will increase
(D) Lower 3-dB cut-off frequency will
increase

th

th

th

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Page 374

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

[Ans. B]
Equivalent model of the given circuit is
shown below

[
IN
1.

[Ans. A]
The small signal model is

g
The resistance seen by the source
h

2.

[Ans. B]
Lower cut-off frequency due to

f
h
increases

3.

ec eases
ec ease

f
f
4.

doubled Zi

ou e
ec eases
owe
frequency decreases as
increases
s
inc eases

[Ans. A]
w

ec eases

[Ans. *] Range 34 to 34.72

p ifie

p ifie

th

th

th

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Page 375

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Feedback and Oscillator Circuits


ECE - 2006
1.
The input impedance ( ) and the output
( )
impedance
of
an
ideal
transconductance (voltage controlled
current source) amplifier are
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)

ECE - 2011
4.
In the circuit shown below, capacitors
and are very large and are shorts at the
input frequency. is a small signal input.
The gain magnitude | | at 10 Mrad/s
is
5V
2k

ECE - 2007
2.
In a transconductance amplifier, it is
desirable to have
(A) A large input resistance and a large
output resistance
(B) A large input resistance and a
small output resistance
(C) A small input resistance and a
large output resistance
(D) A small input resistance and a
small output resistance
ECE - 2009
3.
In the circuit shown below, the op-amp is
ideal the transistor has
Decide whether the feedback in the
circuit is positive or negative and
determine the voltage V at the output of
the op-amp

1nF

2k

2.7V
2k
~

(A) Maximum
(B) Minimum

(C) Unity
(D) Zero

ECE - 2014
5.
In the ac equivalent circuit shown in the
figure, if is the input current and
is
very large, the type of feedback is

10V

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A) voltage-voltage feedback


(B) voltage-current feedback
(C) current-voltage feedback
(D) current-current feedback

Positive Feedback V=10V


Positive Feedback V= 0V
Positive Feedback V=5V
Positive Feedback V=2V
th

th

th

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Page 376

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

The feedback topology in the amplifier


circuit ( the base bias circuit is not shown
for simplicity) in the figure is

Analog Circuits

(A)
5

10
(B)
10
5

~
(C)

(A) Voltage shunt feedback


(B) Current series feedback
(C) Current shunt feedback
(D) Voltage series feedback
7.

10

The desirable characteristics of a


transconductance amplifier are
(A) high input resistance and high output
resistance
(B) high input resistance and low output
resistance
(C) low input resistance and high output
resistance
(D) low input resistance and low output
resistance

EE - 2006
1.
A relaxation oscillator is made using
OPAMP as shown in figure. The supply
voltages of the OPAMP are
12V. The
voltage waveform at point P will be

(D)

10

EE - 2009
2.
The nature of feedback in the op-amp
circuit shown is
+6V
2

R1
Vin
C

6V

R2

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

_
+
2k

P
10k

Current - Current feedback


Voltage - Voltage feedback
Current - Voltage feedback
Voltage - Current feedback

10k

th

th

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Page 377

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

EE - 2014
3.
In the Wien Bridge oscillator circuit
shown in figure, the bridge is balanced
when
F

If the lower and upper trigger level


voltages are 0.9 V and 1.7 V, the period
(in ms), for which output is LOW,
is_________

( )

IN - 2007
1.
A FET source follower is shown in the
figure below:

+ 15 V

( )
( )

( )
4.

An oscillator circuit using ideal op-amp


and diodes is shown in the figure.

The nature of feedback in this circuit is


(A) Positive current
(B) Negative current
(C) Positive voltage
(D) Negative voltage
ECE/IN - 2013
2.
In the feedback network shown below , if
the feedback factor k is increased , then
the
The time duration for +ve part of the
cycle is
and for ve part is
. The
value of
5.

Vin

V1

A0

vf=kvout

Vout

will be _______________

A hysteresis type TTL inverter is used to


realize an oscillator in the circuit shown
in the figure.

(A) Input impedance increases and output


impedance decreases
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Page 378

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(B) Input impedance increases and output


impedance also increases
(C) Input impedance decreases and
output impedance also decreases
(D) Input impedance decreases and
output impedance increases

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

6.

[Ans. B]
Current Series
O/P is taken at collector which is voltage
emitter node will be current and
resistor is grounded
Series

7.

[Ans. A]

[Ans. D]
Ideal transconductance amplifier has
infinite input and output resistance.

2.

[Ans. A]

3.

[Ans. D]

EE
1.
2

[Ans. A]
Output will be either at
.
When output will be at
diode
connected to
resistance will be on
making voltage at point P equal to 6V.
When output is at
diode connected
to 2
resistance will be on making
voltage at point equal to
.

( Refer Diagram below)

5v
V
+

+
-

[Ans. B]
It is voltage voltage feedback.

3.

[Ans. C]
Barkhausen criteria for oscillation (for
positive feedback)

4.

2.

[Ans. A]
In the parallel RLC Ckt
Hand
F

A = open loop gain


B = feedback factor
=

So that for a tuned amplifier, gain is


maximum at resonant frequency
5.

||

[Ans. B]

th

th

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Page 379

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

)(

Real and imaginary part on LHS and RHS


are same so imaginary part = 0

For (+Ve) cycle capacitor charges from


2
2
Apply KCL at node (
)
4.

[Ans. *] Range 1.2 to 1.3

)
2

( 2

)
)

(
(

2
2
2

2
[

For (- Ve) cycle capacitor discharges from


2
2
Apply KCL at node (
)
(

(
K
th

th

2
( 2 )
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Page 380

GATE QUESTION BANK

( 2 )
(

IN
1.

[Ans. D]
Feedback in this circuit is drain voltage as
negative.

)
2
(

2.

[Ans. A]
Given connection is voltage series F/B.
increases and
decreases

2
]
2

Analog Circuits

y q
2
2
[
5.

2 ]

[Ans. *] Range 0.62 to 0.66

During the charging of capacitor


()
( ) ( ( )
( ))
(

()
During discharging of capacitor
()

( )

()

( ( )

( ))

)
(

th

th

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Page 381

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Operational Amplifiers and Its Applications


ECE - 2006
1.
For the circuit shown in the following
figure, the capacitor C is initially
uncharged. At t
, the switch S is closed.
The voltage
across the capacitor at
t
millisecond is

ECE - 2007
4.
For the Op-amp circuit shown in the
figure, is
2 k

1 k
1V
1 k

1 k

In the figure shown above, the OP AMP is


supplied with 15V.
(A) 0 Volts
(C) 9.45 Volts
(B) 6.3 Volts
(D) 10 Volts

(A)
(B)
5.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

2.

3.

(C) 0.5 V
(D) 0.5 V

In the Op-amp circuit shown, assume that


the diode current follows the equation
I = exp (V/ ). For = 2 V,
=
and for
= 4 V,
=
. The
relationship between
and
is

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 2


and 3
A regulated power supply, shown in
figure below, has an unregulated input
(UR) of 15 Volts and generates a
regulated output
. Use the component
values shown in the figure.
k

2V
1V

=
=e
=
ln 2
= ln 2

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 6


and 7
Consider the Op-Amp circuit shown in the
figure.

In the figure above, the ground has been


shown by the symbol
The Power dissipation across the
transistor Q1, shown in the figure is
(A) 4.8 Watts
(C) 5.4 Watts
(B) 5.0 Watts
(D) 6.0 Watts
If the unregulated voltage increases by
20%, then power dissipation across the
transistor Q1
(A) Increases by 20%
(B) Increases by 50%
(C) Remains unchanged
(D) Decreases by 20%
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Page 382

GATE QUESTION BANK

6.

7.

The transfer function

(s)/

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

(s) is

10.

Analog Circuits

Consider the Schmidt trigger circuit


shown below
k

If

sin t and
sin t
, then the minimum
and maximum values of
(in radians)
are respectively
(A) / and /
(C) and
(B) and /
(D) / and

k
k

A triangular wave which goes from 12V


to 12V is applied to the inverting input of
the OPAMP. Assume that the output of the
OPAMP swings from +15V to 15V.The
voltage at the non-inverting input
switches between
(A) 12V and +12 V
(B) 7.5V and 7.5V
(C) 5V and +5V
(D) 0V and 5V

ECE - 2008
8.
Consider the following circuit using an
ideal OPAMP. The I-V characteristics of
the diode is described by the relation
I= (e

) where
m
and V is the voltage across the
diode (taken as positive for forward bias)
D

4k

= 1
100k

ECE - 2009
11. In the following astable multivibrator
circuit, which properties of
t depend
on ?

For an input voltage


the output
voltage is
(A) 0V
(C) 0.7V
(B) 0.1V
(D) 1.1V
9.

The OPAMP circuit shown below


represents a

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

High pass filter


Low pass filter
Band pass filter
Band reject filter

th

Only the frequency


Only the amplitude
Both the amplitude and frequency
Neither the amplitude nor the
frequency

th

th

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Page 383

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

ECE - 2010
12. Assuming the OP AMP to be ideal, the
voltage gain of the amplifier shown below
is

13.

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

The transfer characteristic for the


precision rectifier circuit shown below is
(assume ideal OP AMP and practical
diodes)

ECE - 2011
14. The circuit below implements a filter
between the input current i and the
output voltage v . Assume that the opamp
is ideal. The filter implemented is a

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

low pass filter


band pass filter
band stop filter
high pass filter

ECE/EE/IN - 2013
15. In the circuit shown below what is the
output voltage (Vout) if a silicon transistor
Q and an ideal op amp are used?

th

th

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Page 384

GATE QUESTION BANK


+15 V

Analog Circuits

1 k
k

k
Vout
.7

5V

(A)
(B)
16.

15 V

15 V
0.7 V

(C) +0.7 V
(D) +15 V

19.

In the circuit shown below the op amps


are ideal. The Vout in Volts is
1 k

1 k
+15 V

+15 V

Vout

1 k
-15 V

+1V

-15 V

(A)
(B)

1 k

1 k

20.
(A) 4
(B) 6

(C) 8
(D) 10

ECE - 2014
17. In the low-pass filter shown in the figure,
for a cut-off frequency of 5 kHz , the value
of
(in k ) is ________

18.

In the circuit shown, the op-amp has finite


input impedance, infinite voltage gain and
zero input offset voltage. The output
voltage
is

(C)
(D)

In the differential amplifier shown in the


figure, the magnitudes of the commonmode and differential-mode gains are
and , respectively. If the resistance
is increased, then

In the voltage regulator circuit shown in


the figure, the op-amp is ideal. The BJT
has
.7
and
and the
zener voltage is 4.7 V. For a regulated
output of 9V, the value of R (in is
_________

(A)
increases
(B) common-mode rejection ratio
increases
(C)
increases
(D) common-mode rejection ratio
decreases

th

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Page 385

GATE QUESTION BANK

21.

Assuming that the Op-amp in the circuit


shown is ideal, is given by

Analog Circuits

(A)

(B)

22.

(A)

(C)

(B)

(D)

The circuit shown represents


(C)

12V
0.7V

(A) a bandpass filter


(B) a voltage controlled oscillator
(C) an amplitude modulator
(D) a monostable multivibrator

(D)

EE -2006
1.
For a given sinusoidal input voltage, the
voltage waveform at point P of the
clamper circuit shown in figure will be

0.7V
12V

EE -2007
2.
The circuit shown in the figure is

~
oad
r

Vin

(A) A voltage source with voltage


(B) A voltage source with voltage
(C) A

current

source

with

current

th

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Page 386

GATE QUESTION BANK

(D) A

current

source

with

current

Analog Circuits

(D)

.
3.

IC 555 in the adjacent figure is configured


as an astable multivibrator. It is enabled
to oscillate at t =0 by applying a high
input to pin 4. The pin description is: 1
and 8 supply; 2- trigger; 4- reset;
6 threshold; 7 discharge. The
waveform appearing across the capacitor
starting from t = 0, as observed on a
storage CRO is

4.

The switch S in the circuit of the figure is


initially closed. It is opened at time t=0.
You may neglect the Zener diode forward
voltage drops. What is the behaviour of
for t
?
+10V

10K

+10 V

8
7

+
IC 555

10K

10V

0.01

2, 6
C

5.0V

5.0V

k
1
10V

(A) It

(A)

makes a
to
at t
makes a
to
at t
makes a
to
at t
makes a
to
at t

(B) It
(C) It
(D) It
(B)

transition
.
s
transition
. 7 s
transition
.
s
transition
. 7 s

from
from
from
from

EE -2008
5.
The block diagrams of two types of half
wave rectifiers are shown in the figure.
The transfer characteristics of the
rectifiers are also shown within the block.
P

(C)

V0

V0

Vin

V0

Vin

V0

Vin
0

Vin

It is desired to make full wave rectifier


using above two half wave rectifiers.
The resultant circuit will be

th

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Page 387

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(A)
5V
2.5V
t(sec)
(B)
t(sec)

0
2.5V
5V
(C)
5V
0

t(sec)

5V
(D)
5V
0
5V

t(sec)

Statement for Linked Answer Questions


7 and 8
A general filter circuit is shown in the
figure:
6.

A waveform generator circuit using


OPAMPs is shown in the figure. It
produces a triangle wave at point with
a peak to peak voltage of 5V for = 0 V.

If the voltage
is made + 2.5 V, the
voltage waveform at point will become

7.

If R1 = R2 = RA and R3 = R4 = RB, the


circuit acts as a
(A) all pass filter
(C) high pass filter
(B) band pass filter (D) low pass filter

8.

The output of the filter in Q.7 is given to


the circuit shown in below figure

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Page 388

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

/
k
z

rms

pamp

The gain vs frequency characteristic of


output (Vo) will be
(A)

Gain

(A)
m
(B)
m
(C) 1 m
(D)
m

()

leading by 0
leading by 0
leading by 900
lagging by 0

(B)
10.

Gain

An ideal op-amp circuit and its input


waveform are shown in the figures.
The output waveform of this circuit will
be

()

(C)

Gain
6V
k

()
+

(D)

3V

Gain

()
t

EE -2009
9.
The following circuit has
k
C = 10 F . The input voltage is a sinusoid
at 50Hz with an rms value of 10V. Under
ideal conditions, the current is from the
source is
th

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Page 389

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

(A)

(B)
t
t

t
t

(C)
EE -2010
11. Given that the op-amp is ideal, the output
voltage is

(D)

(A) 4V
(B) 6V

(C) 7.5V
(D) 12.12V

EE -2011
12. For the circuit shown below,

13.

the CORRECT transfer characteristic is

th

A-Low pass filter with a cut-off frequency


of 30Hz is cascaded with a high pass filter
with a cut-off frequency of 20Hz. The
resultant system of filter will function as ,
(A) An all-pass filter
(B) An all-Stop filter
(C) A band stop (band -reject) filter
(D) An band-pass filter

th

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Page 390

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

ECE/EE/IN -2012
14. The circuit shown is a
(|

|)

utput

ntput

(A) Low pass filter with


f

rad/s

(B) High pass filter with f

rad/s

(C) Low pass filter with f

rad/s

(D) High pass filter with f

rad/s

/
/

EE -2014
15. Given that the op-amps in the figure are
ideal, the output voltage is

(|

|)

(A)
(B)
16.

(C)
(D)

In the figure shown, assume the op-amp


to be ideal. Which of the alternatives gives
the correct Bode plots for the transfer
function

/
/

/
/

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Page 391

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.
(|

Analog Circuits

An operational-amplifier circuit is shown


in the figure.

|)

The output of the circuit for a given input


is

/
/

)
or

(|

18.

|)

The transfer characteristic of the Op-amp


circuit shown in figure is

/
/

th

th

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Page 392

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

Analog Circuits

When the switch S2 is closed the gain of


the programmable gain amplifier shown
in the following Figure is

k
k

(A) 0.5
(B) 2

IN - 2006
1.
If the value of the resistance R in the
following figure is increased by 50%, then
voltage gain of the amplifier shown in the
figure will change by

(C) 4
(D) 8

3.

The potential difference between the


input terminals of an op-amp may be
treated to be nearly zero, if
(A) The two supply voltages are
balanced
(B) The output voltage is not saturated
(C) The op amp is used in a circuit
having negative feedback
(D) There is a dc bias path between each
of the input terminals and the circuit
ground

4.

A dual op-amp instrumentation amplifier


is shown below. The expression for the
output of the amplifier is given by

k
k
Vin

(A) 50%
(B) 5%
(C) 50%
(D) negligible amount

(A) v0 1

th

th

R2
(v v 1 )
R1 2

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GATE QUESTION BANK

(B) v0 1

2R2
(v v 1 )
R1 2

8.

In the circuit shown in the following


figure , the op-amp has input bias current
n
and input offset voltage
m . The maximum dc error in the
output voltage is

2R2
(C) v0
(v v 1 )
R1 2

(D) v0 1

Analog Circuits

2R1
(v v 1 )
R 2 2

k
k

5.

An astable multivibrator circuit using a


555 IC is given in the following figure. The
frequency of oscillation is
8

I=5 mA

(A) 1.0 mV
(B) 2.0 mV

Output
6
2

555
discharge

(C= 0.1 uF)

(A) 20 kHz
(B) 30 kHz

(C) 2.5mV
(D) 3.0 mV

(C) 40 kHz
(D) 45 kHz

IN - 2007
9.
When light falls on the photodiode shown
in the following circuit, the reverse
saturation current of the photodiode
changes from
to
.
k

Statement for linked answer questions 6


and 7
In the Schmitt trigger circuit shown
below, the Zener diodes have VZ (reverse
saturation voltage) = 6V and VD (forward
voltage drop) = 0.7V

6.

If the circuit has the input lower trip point


(LTP)=0V, then the value of
(A) 0.223
(B) 2.67

Assuming the op amp to be ideal, the


output voltage,
of the circuit.
(A) does not change
(B) changes from 1 V to 2V
(C) changes from 2 V to 1 V
(D) changes from 1 V to 2V
10.

is given as

Consider the linear circuit with and ideal


op-amp shown in the figure below.
1

(C) 4.67
(D)

7.

The input upper trip point (UTP) of the


Schmitt trigger is
(A) 1.5 V
(C) 2.42V
(B) 2.1 V
(D) 7V

Vi

Vo

The Z-parameters of the two port


feedback network are
k
th

th

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Page 394

GATE QUESTION BANK

and
=
amplifier is
(A) + 110
(B) + 11
11.

k. The gain of the

Analog Circuits

(D)
o/ i
4 dB

(C)
1
(D) 120

1dB
20 dB/decade

Consider the circuit shown below

f
330pF
22k

21.9kHz

22k

330pF

12.

10k

In the circuit shown below the switch (S)


is closed whenever the input voltage
is positive and open otherwise.

7k

The correct frequency response of the


circuit is
(A)

.
Vin

o/ i
4 dB

The circuit is a
(A) Low pass filter
(B) Level shifter
(C) Modulator
(D) Precision rectifier

1 dB
20dB/decade
f

21. 9kHz

(B)

13.

/
0 dB
3 dB

Consider the triangular wave generator


shown below.

40dB/decade
R k

Input

1 k
10 k

21. 9kHz

(C)

o/ i

Assume that the op amps are ideal and


have 2 V power supply. If the input is a
5 V, 50 Hz square wave of duty cycle
50%, the condition that results in a
triangular wave of peak to peak
amplitude 5 V and frequency 50 Hz at the
output is
(A) RC = 1
(C)

4 dB
1 dB
40 dB/decade

21. 9kHz

Output

(B)

th

(D)

th

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Page 395

GATE QUESTION BANK

14.

A 555 astable multivibrator circuit is


shown in the figure below

Analog Circuits

Noise

Square Wave

7V
8V

3V
RA

RB

output

-7V

threshold

Which one of the following is an


appropriate choice for the upper and
lower trip points of the Schmitt trigger to
recover a square wave of the same
frequency from the corrupted input
signal
(A) 8.0 V
(C) 0.5 V
(B) 2.0 V
(D) 0V

ground

is shorted, the waveform at

is

(A)
VC
2/3 VCC
cc
cc
1/3VCC
0

16.

(B)

V
ccC
2/3 VCC
cc
cc
1/3 VCC

cc

The figure shows a signal op-amp


differential amplifier circuit .
k

(C)

-3V

tr gger

If

6V

1V
-1V

reset
discharge

cc
VC

+
+

k
k

cc

cc

2/3 VCC

Which of the following statement about


the output is correct?
(A)
m
(B)
m
m
(C)
m
v
m
(D)
m

1/3 VCC
0

(D)
VC
cc
2/3 VCC
1/3 VCC
0

15.

The input signal shown in the figure


below is fed to a Schmitt trigger. The
signal has a square wave amplitude of
6 V p-p. It is corrupted by an additive high
frequency noise of amplitude 8 V p-p.

th

th

th

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Page 396

GATE QUESTION BANK

Common Data Question for Q.No. 17, 18 &


19
Consider the op-amp circuit shown in the
figure below:

21.

-+

(A) 10V
(B) 10.5V

22.
-

18.

19.

A differential amplifier shown below has


a differential mode gain of 100 and a
CMRR of 40dB. If
.
and
.
, the output V0 is

17.

Analog Circuits

If
.
.
and
7
and the op-amp is ideal , the value of the
is
(A) k
(C)
k
(B)
k
(D)
k
Let
sin f t and
K .
The Op-amp has a slew rate of . / s
with its other parameters being ideal .The
values of
and f for which the amplifier
output will have no distortion are,
respectively,
(A) 0.1 V and 300kHz
(B) 0.5 V and 300kHz
(C) 0.1 V and 30kHz
(D) 0.5 V and 30kHz

(C) 11V
(D) 15V

The op-amp circuit shown below is that of


a

(A) Low-pass filter with a maximum gain


of 1
(B) Low-pass filter with a maximum,
gain of 2
(C) High-pass filter with a maximum
gain of 1
(D) High-pass filter with a maximum
gain of 2
23.

Let
and
k . Assume
that the op-amp is ideal except for a
non-Zero input bias current. What is the
value of
for the output Voltage of the
op-amp to be Zero?
(A) . k
(C)
k
(B) . k
(D)
k

In the op-amp circuit shown below the


input voltage vin is gradually increased
from 10V to +10V. Assuming that the
output voltage vout saturates at 10V and
+10V,vout will change from

IN - 2008
20. An ideal op-amp has the characteristics of
an ideal
(A) Voltage controlled voltage source
(B) Voltage controlled current source
(C) Current controlled voltage source
(D) Current controlled current source

(A) 10V to +10V when vin


(B) 10V to +10V when vin
(C) +10V to 10V when vin
(D) +10V to 10V when vin

th

th

th

1V
1V
1V
1V

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Page 397

GATE QUESTION BANK

24.

For the op-amp circuit shown below


approximately equal to

is

27.

Analog Circuits

The input resistance of the circuit shown


in the figure, assuming an ideal op-amp, is
2R
3R

(A)
(B)

10V
5V

(A) R/3
(B) 2R/3

(C) +5V
(D) +10V

IN - 2009
25. The circuit shown is the figure is

28.

(C) R
(D) 4R/3

In the circuit shown in the figure, the


switch S has been in Position 1 for a long
time. It is then moved to Position 2.
Assume the Zener diodes to be ideal. The
time delay between the switch moving to
Position 2 and the transition in the output
voltage is
osition

osition

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
26.

An all-pass filter
A bandpass filter
A highpass filter
A lowpass filter

In the circuit shown, the Zener diode has


ideal characteristics and a breakdown
voltage of 3.2V. The output voltage
for
an input voltage = +1V is closest to

(A) 5.00ms
(B) 8.75ms

.7k

ener
diode

.7k

ener
diode

(C) 10.00ms
(D) 13.75ms

IN - 2010
29. In the ideal opamp circuit given in the
below figure, the value of Rf is varied from

1k to 100k . The gain G = ( ) will

k
k

(A)
(B)

10V
6.6V

(C)
(D)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

5V
3.2V

th

remain constant at +1
remain constant at -1
vary as -( /10,000 )
vary as (
/10,000)
th

th

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Page 398

GATE QUESTION BANK

30.

An active filter is shown in the below


figure. The dc gain and the 3dB cut-off
frequency of the filter respectively, are,
nearly

Analog Circuits

IN - 2011
Statement for Linked Answer Questions
33and 34
and in the circuit shown below
are matched n-channel enhancement
mode MOSFETs operating in saturation
mode, forward voltage drop of each diode
is .7 reverse leakage current of each
diode is negligible and the op-amp is ideal
k

R1 = 15.9 k , R2 = 159 k , C1 = 1.0nF


(A) 40dB, 3.14 kHz
(B) 40dB, 1.00 kHz
(C) 20dB, 6.28 kHz
(D) 20dB, 1.00 kHz
Common Data for Questions: 31 & 32
A differential amplifier is constructed
using an ideal op-amp as shown in the
adjoining figure. The values of R1 and R2
are 47k and 470k respectively.

31.

32.

The input impedances seen looking into


the terminals V1 and V2, with respect to
ground, respectively are
(A) 47k and 43k
(B) 47k and 47k
(C) 47k and 517k
(D) 517k and 47k

33.

The current
(A) 1 mA
(B) .5 mA

34.

For the computed value of current


output voltage is
(A) 1.2V
(C) 0.2V
(B) 0.7V
(D) 0.7V

35.

The ideal op-amp based circuit shown


below acts as a

in the circuit is
(C) m
(D) 2 ma

0.5 F

, the

0.5 F

k
1 F

V1 and V2 are connected to voltage


sources having an open circuit output of
+1V each and internal resistances of
13k and 3k respectively. The output
voltage V0 is
(A) 0V
(C) 1.5V
(B) 0.15V
(D) 10V

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

th

low-pass filter
high-pass filter
band-pass filter
band-reject filter

th

th

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Page 399

GATE QUESTION BANK

36.

The value of
shown below is

of the series regulator

40 V(DC)
k

(C) 6.7 V and 4.7 V


(D) 5.3 V and 3.3 V
38.

k
6 V(DC)

(A) 24 V
(B) 28 V

Assuming base-emitter voltage of 0.7V


and
of transistor
, the output
voltage
in the ideal opamp circuit
shown below is
5V
k

(C) 30 V
(D) 32 V

The transfer characteristics of the circuit


drawn below is observed on the
oscilloscope used in XY mode. The display
on the oscilloscope is shown on the right
hand side.
is connected to the X input
with a setting of 0.5 V/div, and
is
connected to the Y input with a setting of
2 V/div. The beam is positioned at the
origin when is zero.

sin

37.

1k

Analog Circuits

5V

1V

(C)
(D)

(A) 1V
(B) 1/3.3V

V
V

IN - 2013
39. The operational amplifier shown in the
circuit below has a slew rate of 0.8 Volts /
s. The input signal is .
sin( t . The
maximum frequency of input in kHz for
which there is no distortion in the output
is

~V

470k

22k

0.25sin t

V0

(A) 23.84
(B) 25.0
40.
Assuming that the op-amp is ideal and the
zener diodes have forward biased voltage
drop of 0.7V, the values of reverse breakdown voltages of
and
are,
respectively.
(A) 3.3 V and 5.3 V
(B) 4.7 V and 6.7 V
th

(C) 50.0
(D) 46.60

The circuit below incorporates a


permanent magnet moving coil milli
ammeter of range 1 mA having a series
resistance of 10k. Assuming constant
diode forward resistance of 50, a
forward diode drop of 0.7 V and infinite
reverse diode resistance for each diode ,
the reading of the meter in mA is

th

th

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Page 400

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits
R2

mA

10 k

R1

10 k

Z
Y

5V,
50Hz

V0

R3

V0

V1

(A) 0.45
(B) 0.5
41.

R4

(C) 0.7
(D) 0.9
Fig. a
+5V

A signal Vi(t)=10+10sin 100t + 10 sin


4000t + 10sin 100000t is supplied to a
filter circuit (shown below) made up of
ideal opAmp. The least attenuated
frequency component in the output will
be

R
X

.
2k
1k

Strain
Gage

750

.
V1(t)

(A) 0 Hz
(B) 50 Hz

Differential
Amplifier

V0(t)

(C) 2 kHz
(D) 50kHz

Statement for Linked Answer Questions 42


and 43
A differential amplifier with signal
terminals X, Y, Z is connected as shown in
Fig. (a) below for CMRR measurement
where the differential amplifier has an
additional constant offset voltage in the
output. The observations obtained are :
when Vi= 2V, V0=3mV, and when Vi=3V,
V0=4mV.

42.

43.

th

Fig. b
Assuming its differential gain to be 10 and
the op amp to be otherwise ideal , the
CMRR is
(C)
(A)
(B)
(D)

The differential amplifier is connected as


shown in Fig. (b) above to a single strain
gage bridge. Let the strain gage resistance
vary around its no load resistance R by
1%. Assume the input impedance of the
amplifier to be high compared to the
equivalent source resistance of the
bridge, and the common mode
characteristic to be as obtained above.
The output voltage in mV varies
approximately from
(A) +128 to 128 (C) +122 to 122
(B) + 128 to 122 (D) +99 to 101

th

th

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Page 401

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN - 2014
44. For the op-amp shown in the figure, the
bias currents are
= 450 nA and
=350 nA. The values of the input bias
current ( ) and the input offset current
( ) are:

47.

For the given low-pass circuit shown in


the figure below, the cutoff frequency in
Hz will be ___________.
. 7
k

k
. 7

(A) = 800 nA, =50 nA


(B) = 800 nA, =100nA
(C) = 400 nA, =50nA
(D) = 400 nA,
100nA
45.

Analog Circuits

48.

The amplifier in the figure has gain of -10


and input resistance of 50 k . The value
of and are

The figures show an oscillator circuit


having an ideal Schmitt trigger and its
input-output characteristics. The time
period (in ms) of
t is___________.

output

k
nput

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
46.

k
k

k
k

k
k

Assuming an ideal op-amp in linear range


of operation, the magnitude of the
transfer impedance

in

of the

current to voltage converter shown in the


figure is ___________.
k

k
. k

th

th

th

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Page 402

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

4.

[Ans. C]
2 k

[Ans. D]
Initially the switch is closed at t= 0
Then circuit is
The circuit is integrator circuit

1 k
1V

dt

1 k

pply K at node
dv
k
dt
(
k

2.

k
k
k
k
( )
k

[Ans. D]

1 k

)
.
k
) .
k

(
.

.
k

5.

[Ans. D]
Applying KCL

exp (

k
Volt across 24 k
due to virtual
ground concept. So voltage across 12k
is 3V

exp (

ln
ow

)
i

k
ln
ln

watts
3.

[Ans. B]
Unregulated voltage increases by 20%
i. e. New regulated voltage = 18V

6.

k
k
ln

[Ans. A]

watts
increases

th

th

th

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Page 403

GATE QUESTION BANK

10.
.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. C]
k
k

j
j

j
s
s
s
s
7.

From KCL

s
s

[Ans. C]
s
s

..
Threshold depends on output
So, when

s
s
s
s

When

s
s
tan
tan
tan
inimum value of
at
maximum value of
at

11.

[Ans. A]

12.

[Ans. C]
a

8.

[Ans. B]
(e

Where

Voltage across diode = 60 mV


Voltage across 4k resistor s
k
m
Total voltage
is
m
m
9.

and
k

Op-amp is ideal, so it will satisfy the


virtual ground property
a
c
So, we can redraw the circuit as

m
.

[Ans. B]
At low frequency, capacitor is open and
inductor short so,
At high frequency capacitor is short and
inductor open so,
so it is low pass filter.

Circuit is similar to standard inverting


amplifier
th

th

th

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Page 404

GATE QUESTION BANK

[
13.

Analog Circuits

)]

[Ans. B]
i

i
Hence given circuit is a high pass filter

15.

[Ans. B]

k
.7

Redraw the given circuit


Case (1)
5V

i
For non-zero value of
off, so i

, diode

must be
by virtual short
equivalent connection for transistor is

Then

t
0
t
.7
When
,
conducting so =0V
14.

both

diode

are
16.

0.7V

[Ans. C]
ain of

stage
k
(
)
k

[Ans. D]
At
Hence circuit can be redrawn as below

1k
-2V

k
i

k
)
k

1k

Vout

+1V

-15 V
1k

1k

Hence circuit can be redrawn as below

Gain of stage II =

th

th

th

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Page 405

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

[Ans. *] Range 3.1 to 3.26


ut off frequency f

20.

18.

[Ans. B]
e
h

is inversily proportional to Re
if
increases
decreases

f
.
k z

Analog Circuits

if

[Ans. *] Range 1092 to 1094

21.

decreases CMRR increases

[Ans. D]

a
.7

Op-Amp ideal so it will satisfy the


property of virtual ground
.7
ere
.

k
.7k
.7
.7k
.7k
.
7

22.

[Ans. C]

[Ans. D]
The circuit shown in the figure has
positive feedback. So it can be either a
oscillator or multivibrator.
So option A and C are cancelled out
Now, a voltage controlled oscillator is
usually implemented using a artleys
oscillator where the feedback is like
shown below.

Due to virtual ground

must have inductors in the feedback


circuit. Since the given circuit has no
inductors, it has to be a multivibrator.

.
19.

.7

th

th

th

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Page 406

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE
1.

2.

5.
[Ans. D]
When
is positive,
diode will be OFF, so
When
is negative,
diode will be ON, so

Analog Circuits

[Ans. B]
From the transfer characteristic of the
rectifier P is
for
for

will be ve and
V
will be ve and
.7

[Ans. D]
Voltage at non inverting terminal,
From the transfer characteristics of the
rectifier Q is
for
for

Due to virtual ground


current through Load,
r
r
So this circuit acts as a current source
with current

3.

[Ans. A]
An astable multi-vibrator is providing
pulses as given below.

But in this case initial voltage at capacitor


is zero so it starts from zero also charging
time will be larger (normally) than
discharging time but it is made equal by
using a diode.
4.

[Ans. D]
It is limited circuit
It makes transition from +5V to 5V
(

For full wave rectifier output is W


must be connected to inverting and
must be connected to non-inverting
terminal of the op-amp
6.

[Ans. A]
When
. , O/P will be clamped by a
dc value of 2.5 V

7.

[Ans. C]

(Voltage across 100k )


.
sec
t
. 7 s

th

th

th

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Page 407

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

i
Let,

only inverting terminal

magnitude i

ere

s
s
is only on non-inverting terminal

Let,

mA
and it will be lagging by 90

)
10.
(

[Ans. D]
k

Putting the value of


(

, we get
k

ere
(

When
When

upto t
after t

ve
ve

( )
o it is high pass filter
8.

11.

[Ans. B]

[Ans. D]

(
12.
C

[Ans. D]
First section is differential amplifier
having gain off 1.

.
.
.
=

.
.

So gain
frequency characteristics will
be as option (D)
9.

[Ans. D]
Voltage at inverting terminal
Output is

So
th

th

th

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Page 408

GATE QUESTION BANK

15.

econd stage

Analog Circuits

[Ans. B]

schmitt trigger

x
x
y
y
Applying superposition theorem
When y = 0
x

when x
y/
13.

[Ans. D]
Low Pass Filter

y
y

High Pass Filter

x
from equation

16.

and

[Ans. A]
k
i

20Hz

30Hz

Pass band

It is a band pass filter.


14.

[Ans. B]
V= =0
=
=-

=
=

=
High pass Fitter with f

s
rad /sec

th

th

th

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Page 409

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. D]

Since positive feedback is there at the


output of op-amp 1 depending on
output will vary between
and
At the output of op-amp

Gain of op-amp
is
Hence net output
will vary between
and

IN
1.

[Ans. D]
Voltage gain
So it does not depend on R.

2.

[Ans. B]
When switch
(

18.

is closed,
)

[Ans. C]
3.

[Ans. C]
When Op-Amp is used in ve feedback
then voltage difference between the
terminals is treated as zero.

4.

[Ans. A]
The equivalent circuit is as follows:

When
is on
is off

when
is on
is off

------------- (1)

and

From equation (1)

=(
th

th

)
th

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Page 410

GATE QUESTION BANK

5.

[Ans. B]
It is a sawtooth wave generator across
capacitor C.

8.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. D]
DC output Voltage that is output offset
voltage,
(

So maximum offset (dc voltage) at the


output will be,
(

t
T

d
o
dt
d
dt
d
dt

) m
m
m

T
9.

[Ans. B]
k

.
a

T
f

T
6.

k z
The given circuit is
pply K at a

[Ans. C]
.7
=0
.

When
When
When reverse circuit of the photodiode
changes from 100 to
, the output
voltage change from 1V to 2V

I=
I

. =0
.

1.5 =

= 4.47
7.

10.

[Ans. C]
6.7V
I
1.5V

I=

=I
=

. =
.

[Ans. D]
Given that the imp. Parameters are
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Then the given op-amp circuit is

= 2.45V

th

th

th

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Page 411

GATE QUESTION BANK


k

12.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. D]
R

R
k

k
a
Vin
b

pply K

at a

pply K

at x

Case-1
When
ve half cycle then switch (s)
is closed and circuit will become

ain
11.

[Ans. B]
.

p
Vin
k

k
p

( )

(
7k

Case -2
When
ve half cycle then switch s is
open and circuit will become

The given circuit is a second order low


pass filter therefore it has a
dB/decade and it has 3 dB cut-off
frequency as
f

Vin

. k z
It has a decade form 0 dB to
frequency range.

3 dB in mid

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Page 412

GATE QUESTION BANK

No circuit flow through left side Op-Amp


due to open switch so

through resistor
. But
is shorted
out. So discharge time constant
.So
capacitor
will
instantly discharge so correct output is in
option (A)

=
So, the circuit as a rectifier (fullwave)
13.

[Ans. B]
O/P of first OPAMP
t

15.

t dt, where

and O/P of second OPAMP


t
t

t dt

t dt

input is
, 50Hz square wave. O/P
should be triangular wave of
.
50Hz means 20msec, so in 10msec O/P
should charge from
.
to
. ,
when
.

Analog Circuits

[Ans. B]
The UTP value selected in such a way that
to recover a square wave of same
frequency from the input signal
When
The output is
When
and
When
We can recover a square wave of same
frequency from the corrupted input signal
when UTP and LTP value are

16.

[Ans. B]
k

dt
k

+
+

14.

[Ans. C]

Apply KCL at
K

RA

node

reset
discharge

RB

out

tr gger

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Now, Apply KCL at

threshold
ground

Capacitor C charges toward


through
and
until in raises upto 2/3
.
This voltage is the threshold voltage of
pin 6 which drives comparator 1 to
trigger the flip-flop so that the output at
pin 3 goes low. In addition, the discharge
transistor is driven on. Causing the output
at pin 7 to discharge the capacitor

Node

.
For an ideal op-amp
.
.
.
.
.7
. m

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Page 413

GATE QUESTION BANK

17.

[Ans. B]

Analog Circuits

K
.

--

20.

[Ans. A]

21.

[Ans. B]

K
K

. K

and
.

Apply the KCL at the inverting node

[
Put,

. 7

]
.

and

.
22.

[Ans. D]
At low frequency, C is open and
At high frequency C is short and
(

k
18.

so it is a high pass filter with max. gain of


2.

[Ans. C]
sin f (

23.

sin ft
d
| |
dt

f cos ft

[Ans. D]
When
and is connected to
inverting terminal, output will saturate to
+10V.

f
To avoid distortion,
Slew rate
.
f

|
f

f
7 7. 7
So when f
k z and
Then f
7 7.7
So option (C) is correct.
19.

nd

oltage divider rule

When
crosses 1 V,
So, output
will not change to
.
So, output will change from
to
when
.

[Ans. B]
In order to avoid the effect of the bias
current, resistance at +ve terminal must
be equal to dc resistance seen from ve
terminal by replacing all the sources by
their internal resistances.
Therefore,
k
K
K
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Page 414

GATE QUESTION BANK

24.

[Ans. B]
Equivalent circuit
k

Analog Circuits

.
Now first open the zener diode then
circuit will be
k

k
k
k

By neglecting current through, 100K


compare to current through 105
resistance,

.
Similarly, by neglecting current through
K compare to current through
resistance,

So zener will be on and circuit will be as


i

k
.

i
k

.7

.7
.7

o
.

will lie between


and
.
Because zener will be on then current 1
mA will be divided in two parts and
output will be 10V < < 3.2V
f output
then i
. m
i
. m
oi
i
hence this is not possible
When
.
Then i
. m
.
.
i
. m

5.2 V
25.

[Ans. A]
s

s [

So it is all - pass filter.


26.

[Ans. B]
Zener diode is in reverse bias. The
equivalent circuit is,

here i

k
k

th

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Page 415

GATE QUESTION BANK

27.

[Ans. A]

Analog Circuits

at time t , when
will switch to 5V.

2R

. ,

e
.7 ms

.
t

3R

becomes

29.

[Ans. A]

Input resistance

a
b

Voltage at inverting terminal,


By KCL at node A,

and
pply K

at a

By KCL at inverting terminal

By equ (1) and (2),


Gain =
28.

[Ans. B]
When the switch is at position 1,
capacitor will be charged by +30V and
. so voltage at non inverting
terminal will be 2.5V.
When switch is moved to position 2,
capacitor will start discharging and when
. .
will switch to 5V.
Equivalent circuit

30.

[Ans. D]
DC gain = 20 log | | = 20 dB
3-dB cut-off frequency =

31.

= 1 kHz

[Ans. C]
7 k
7k

k
nvertinf terminal

7k
7 k

Input impedance seen looking into the


terminals
and
with respect to
ground
Apply superposition theorem put
So voltage at
By virtual ground concept voltage at

s
voltage
i t
e

at

i t
inverting

terminal

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Page 416

GATE QUESTION BANK

So input impedance seen from


respect to ground is
7k
Now put
The input impedance from
respect to ground
7
7 k
7k
32.

with

Since,
and
are all matched
transistors
So,
say
Then
m
or
. m
lso
. m

with

[Ans. B]
Now the effective circuit is
7 k

34.

[Ans. A]
will be reverse biased while
will be
forward biased
o
(Forward voltage drop of )
.7
.
.

35.

[Ans. A]
The ideal op-amp based circuit is shown
in figure 1. with T-network at the input
and feedback paths,. Note the specific
relations between resistances and
capacitances used. It can be shown that
this circuit acts as a double integrator and
hence it is a low pass filter specifically
transfer function

7k

Analog Circuits

7 k

Now voltage at point P is


7
7
By virtual ground capacitor, voltage at
point Q is
7

Now apply KCL at point Q


k

7 k
.
.

33.

igure

[Ans. B]
k

s
s

s
.

or
.

. sec

. s
s
The frequency response is given by
j

which shows the gain falls by

40 dB per decade
Clearly

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Page 417

GATE QUESTION BANK

36.

[Ans. C]

When input voltage


cycle)
everse biased
}
orward iased
.7
.7
.

38.

Using voltage divider rule

[Ans. D]
When input voltage
cycle)
Forward biased
Reverse biased

(During

(During

ve

[Ans. C]
.7
. m

or
so

or
37.

Analog Circuits

ve

.7

ow

39.

[Ans. A]
.

1k

Where
f
.7
.7
.7
.7

or

.
.

40.

[Ans. A]

41.

[Ans. C]
For Op-Amp
Analysis

k z

sin t
.

sin t

.7

th

th

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Page 418

GATE QUESTION BANK

s
s

T.

Analog Circuits

. k z

7
d

. k z

d
d
Lower 3 dB dominant frequency is 0.5
kHz.
Total response

ere
one pole

s
OP-Amp

and reject response

is low pass response;

east attenuated
frequency k z

Low frequencies
z
z
k z

f
. k z

k z

Only option (C)is lying in this range


Option (C) is correct

k z
Op-Amp
Analysis

42.

[Ans. C]
from given data
m
m
Solving (1) & (2)

s
s

T.

s
s
*

43.

[Ans. B]
5V

+*
*

High pass response


R
High frequencies

. k z

For
variation is
varies from 12.48mV to 12.56mV

.
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Page 419

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

m , given
from bridge
For
change
.
m
=127.8 mV
For
change
op amp
. m
m
. m
m
. m
O/P varies from 7. m to
. m

i
.
47.

[Ans. *]Range 15 to 16
It is second-order low pass system. ts
high cut-off-frequency
f

ere

44.

[Ans. D]
In an OPAMP,

45.

48.

[Ans. B]
Given
k and gain
For an inverting amplifier, Gain =
-10
/ k
Then
k

f
. 7

nput bias current


n /
input offset current
n

k
k

. 7
. 7

[Ans. *] Range 8.0 to 8.5


T

ln [
ln [

]
]

.
Time period
.

46.

.
m secs

[Ans. 0.6]
k

. k

i
d

virtual ground
K
i

at ode

k
oi
i
. ki

. k
ki
ki
. k
ki
. k
ki
ki
. ki
ki

ki
k

th

th

th

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Page 420

GATE QUESTION BANK

Analog Circuits

Power Amplifiers
EE - 2007
1.
The input signal Vin shown in the figure is
a 1 KHz square wave voltage that
alternates between +7V and 7V with a
50% duty cycle. Both transistors have the
same current gain, which is large. The
circuit delivers power to the load resistor
RL. What is the efficiency of this circuit for
the given input? Choose the closest
answer.

(A) 46%
(B) 55%

EE - 2009
2.
Transformer and emitter follower can
both be used for impedance matching
at the output of an audio amplifier. The
basic relationship between the input
power Pin and output power Pout in both
the cases is
(A) Pin = Pout for both transformer and
emitter follower
(B) Pin > Pout for both transformer and
emitter follower
(C) Pin < Pout for transformer and
Pin = Pout for emitter follower
(D) Pin = Pout for transformer and
Pin < Pout for emitter follower

(C) 63%
(D) 92%

Answer Keys and Explanations


EE
1.

[Ans. C]
load voltage = 6.3 V
So efficiency

2.

[Ans. D]
For emitter follower

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Page 421

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Number Systems & Code Conversions


ECE-2006
1.
A new Binary Coded Pentary (BCP)
number system is proposed in which
every digit of a base-5 number is
represented by its corresponding 3-bit
binary code. For example, the base-5
number 24 will be represented by its BCP
code 010100. In this numbering system,
the
BCP
code
100010011001
corresponds to the following number in
base-5 system
(A) 423
(C) 2201
(B) 1324
(D) 4231
2.

The number of product terms in the


minimized sum-of-product expression
obtained through the following K-map is
(where, d denotes dont care states)
1
0
0
1
0
d
0
0
0
0
d
1
1
0
0
1
(A) 2
(C) 4
(B) 3
(D) 5

ECE-2007
3.
X = 01110 and Y = 11001 are two 5-bit
binary numbers represented in twos
complement format. The sum of X and Y
represented in twos complement format
using 6 bits is,
(A) 100111
(C) 000111
(B) 001000
(D) 101001
ECE-2008
4.
The two numbers represented in signed
2s complement form are P = 11101101
and Q = 11100110. If Q is subtracted
from P, the value obtained in signed 2s
complement form is
(A) 100000111
(C) 11111001
(B) 00000111
(D) 111111001

ECE-2014
5.
The number of bytes required to
represent the decimal number 1856357
in packed BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)
form is __________.
EE-2007
1.
The octal equivalent of the HEX number
AB.CD is
(A) 253.314
(C) 526.314
(B) 253.632
(D) 526.632
EE-2014
2.
A cascade of three identical modulo-5
counters has an overall modulus of
(A) 5
(C) 125
(B) 25
(D) 625
3.

Which of the following is an invalid state


in an 8-4-2-1 Binary Coded Decimal
counter
(A) 1 0 0 0
(C) 0 0 1 1
(B) 1 0 0 1
(D) 1 1 0 0

IN-2006
1.
A number N is stored in a 4-bit 2s
complement representation as
a3
a2
a1
a0
It is copied into a 6-bit register and after a
few operations, the final bit pattern is
a
a
a
a
a
1
The value of this bit pattern in 2s
complement representation is given in
terms of the original number is N as
(A) 32 a3 + 2N + 1 (C) 2N 1
(B) 32 a3 2N 1
(D) 2N + 1
IN-2008
2.
The result of (45)10 (45)16 expressed in
6-bit 2s complement representation is,
(A) 011000
(C) 101000
(B) 100111
(D) 101001

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Page 422

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN-2009
3.
The binary representation of the decimal
number 1.375 is,
(A) 1.111
(C) 1.011
(B) 1.010
(D) 1.001

Digital Circuits

IN-2011
4.
The base of the number
addition operation 24 +
true is
(A) 8
(C)
(B) 7
(D)

system for the


14 = 41 to be
6
5

Answer Keys & Explanations


ECE
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

[Ans. D]
100 010
4
2

011
3

001
1

[Ans. A]
1

1 byte = 8 bit so
Here d = 7
No. of bits = 28

[Ans. C]
x
= 01110
y
= 11001
)
x y(
= 100111
Carry discard it
00111 in 6 bits will be 000111
[Ans. B]
igned 2 s complement of
P = 11101101
o P = 00010011
igned 2 scomplement of
= 11100110
P
= P (2 s complement of )
= 00010011
11100110
11111001
) = 00000111
2 s complement of (P

byte =
EE
1.

= 3 5= 4

[Ans. B]
Hex number (AB.CD)

1010
1011
1100
1101
For finding its octal number, we add one
zero in both extreme and group 3 bit
together
010
101
011
110
011
010

quivalent octal number 253 632

2.

[Ans. C]
Overall modulus = 5 = 125

3.

[Ans. D]
BCD counter counts up to 1001

IN
1.

[Ans. D]
Given number is a a a a in 2s
complement form.
We know that in 2s complement form if
we copy MSB at left of MSB any times the
number remains unchanged.
So a a a a = a a a a a a =
When we left shift a number by 1 bit then
it is multiplied by 2, a a a a a 0 = 2
Now,
a a a a a 0 1=a a a a a 1=2
1

[Ans. *] Range 3.9 to 4.1


A decimal digit is represented by 4 bit in
BCD format, so for a decimal number with
digits requires 4d bit and
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Page 423

GATE QUESTION BANK

2.

[Ans. C]
(45)
(45)

= ( 24)

3.

[Ans. C]
0.375 2 = 0.750
0.750 2 = 1.5
1.5 2 = 1.0
Hence answer is 1.011

4.

[Ans. B]
Let the base is x, Here
(24)
(14) = (41)
(4 x
2 x) (4 x
= (4 x
4 + 2x + 4 + x = 4x + 1
x=7

Digital Circuits

= (101000)

1 x)
1 x )

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Page 424

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Boolean Algebra & Karnaugh Maps


ECE-2007
1.
The Boolean expression

be minimized to

(A)

(B)

can

(A) X
(B) Y

(C)

ECE-2014
5.
The Boolean expression (

( ) simplifies to

Consider the Boolean function, F(w, x, y,


z) = wy + xy + xyz + y + xz + .
Which one of the following is the
complete set of essential prime
implicates?
(A)

(C)

(B)
(D)

7.

For an n-variable Boolean function, the


maximum number of prime implicants is
(A) (
)
(C)
(B)
(D) ( )

ECE-2009
2.
If X = 1 in the logic equation

EC/EE/IN -2012
3.
In the sum of
products function
(
) (
), the prime implicants
are

(A)


(B)

(C)

(D)

(C) XY
(D) X+Y

6.

(D)

[X+Z{
( +X ) }] { + ( X + Y)}
=1 then
(A) Y = Z
(C) Z = 1
(D) Z = 0
(B) Y =

)(

EE-2010
Statement for Linked Answer Questions1
and 2
The following Karnaugh map represent a
function .

F
YZ

ECE-2013
4.
In the circuit shown below, Q1 has
negligible collector to emitter
saturation voltage and the diode drops
negligible voltage across it under forward
bias. If Vcc is +5 V, X and Y are digital
signals with 0 V as logic 0 and
as logic
1, then the Boolean expression for Z is

X
YZ
0

01

11

10

00
01
11
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
A minimized form of the function is
(A)
(C)0
1
0
1
(B)
(D)

1.
R1
Z
R2
X

00

F
10
0
0
0

Q1
Diode

2.

Which of the following circuits is a


realization of the above function ?

(A) XY

(C) X

(B)

(D)
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Page 425

GATE QUESTION BANK

(A)

Digital Circuits

( )

X
F
(A)

Y
Z

(B)
X

(B)
X

F
Y
Z

(C)
X

F
Y
Z
F

(C)
X

Y
Z

(D)
X

4.

The SOP (sum of products) form of a


Boolean function is (0,1,3,7,11), where
inputs are A,B,C,D (A is MSB, and D is
LSB).
The
equivalent
minimized
expression of the function is
)( )(
(A) (
)(
)

)(
)(
(B) (
)(
)
)( )( )
(C) (
)(
)( )(
(D) (
)(
)

F
Y
Z

(D)
Y
X

( )

Y
Z

F
Z
F

EE-2014Y
Z
3.
Which of the following
logic circuits is a
realization of the function F whose
Karnaugh map is shown in figure

( )

( )

IN-2006
1.
Min-term (Sum of Products) expression
for a Boolean function is given as follows.
f(A, B, C) = m (0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6) where A is
the MSB and C is the LSB. The minimized
expression for the function is
(A) A + (B C)
(C)
(B C)
(B) (A B) + C
(D)
IN-2007
2.
A logic circuit implements the Boolean
function F = . Y + X . . . It is found that
the input combination X = Y = 1 can
never occur. Taking this into account, a
simplified expression for F, is given by
(C) X + Y
(A) + .
(B) X + Z
(D) Y + X.

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Page 426

GATE QUESTION BANK

3.

Let X
and Y =
be unsigned
2-bit numbers. The function F = 1 if X > Y
and F = 0 otherwise. The minimized sum
of products expression for F is
(A)
+ . .
+ +

(B)

(C)
+
+
+
. +

(D)

Digital Circuits

IN-2011
6.
For the Boolean expression


,
the
minimized Product of Sum (PoS)
expression is
(
(A)
) (
)

)
(B)
(
) (

(C)
(
)(
)
(D)

IN-2008
4.
The minimum sum of products form of
the Boolean expression

Y =

(A) Y = P +
(B) Y = P
(C) Y = P

(D) Y =
IN-2009
5.
The minimal sum-of-products expression
for the logic function f represented by the
given Karnaugh map is
PQ
RS
00 01 11 10
00 0 1 0 0

01
11
10

(A) QS +
(B)
(C)

+
+

(D)

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Page 427

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Answer Keys & Explanations


ECE
1.

4.

[Ans. B]
X Y Z
0 0 0

[Ans. D]
K-map corresponding to given Boolean
expression
CD
AB

01

00

00

11

10

1
1

01
11

Comments
Transistor off
diode ON
Transistor off
diode rev biases
Transistor ON
diode rev biases
Transistor ON
diode rev biased

10

So, Y=Z

OR

5.

[Ans. A]
(
)(

6.

2.

[Ans. D]
yz

[Ans. D]
(

wx

))+ [

)]

By putting X = 1
(

*
[

) (
)

))+ [

)]

xz
y

So, P.I. are


y, zx,
3.

[Ans. A]
(

YZ
1

7.

[Ans. D]
Maximum P.I will occurs at condition like

1 1

(
)
So prime implicants are and .

1
1

1
1

1
1

i.e., no grouping at all so


)
So, (

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Page 428

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE
1.

2.

[Ans. D]

[Ans. B]
X

01 11 10

F = + YZ
2.

3.

4.

[Ans. D]
From the figure it is clear that, two NAND
and now two
gates generate the
and inputs
AND gates with inputs
Y and Z is used to generate two terms of
SOP form and now OR gate is used to sum
them and generate the F.
[Ans. C]

[Ans. A]

K map
YZ
00
X
0 0

[by consensus theorem]

)(

)(

)(

X
F=Y+X
[Ans. D]
F = 1 if X > Y, so following will be K map
of function F.

00

00
0

01
0

11
0

10
0

01

11

10

F=
4.

00

01

11

10

1 0

F
0
0
1
1
1
0
x
x

10
1

[Ans. C]
From K map

BC

Z
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

01 11
0
1

3.

IN
1.

Truth table:
X
Y
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1

YZ
00

Digital Circuits

[Ans. A]

By K map

f = + B + C
=+B C
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Page 429

GATE QUESTION BANK


PQ RS

5.

00
00 1

01
0

11
0

10
1

01

11

10

[Ans. A]
PQ
RS
00
Q
S 00
0

6.

Digital Circuits

01
1

11
0

10
0

01

11

10

[Ans. A]

(
)
(

[
)(

[(
)]

(
)

(
)

(
)(
)
(
)(
)
Alternative method:

00
1

01
0

11
0

10
1

)(

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Page 430

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Logic Gates
ECE-2007
1.
The Boolean function Y =AB + CD is to be
realized using only 2 input NAND gates.
The minimum number of gates required
is
(A) 2
(C) 4
(B) 3
(D) 5

5.

Match the logic gates in Column A with


their equivalents in Column B.
Column B
Column A

ECE-2008
2.
The logic function implemented by the
following circuit at the terminal OUT is

(A) P NOR Q
(B) P NAND Q
3.

P-2, Q-4, R-1, S-3


P-4, Q-2, R-1, S-3
P-2, Q-4, R-3, S-1
P-4, Q-2, R-3, S-1

P
Q
Y
R

(A) Two or more of the inputs P, Q, R are


0
(B) Two or more of the inputs P, Q, R are
1
(C) Any odd number of the inputs P, Q, R
is 0
(D) Any odd number of the inputs P, Q, R
is 1

Y
R
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

ECE-2011
6.
The output Y in the circuit below is
always 1 when

(C) P OR Q
(D) P AND Q

Which of the following Boolean


Expressions correctly represents the
relation between P, Q, R and ?
P
Q

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

OUT
P

= (P OR Q)XOR R
= (P AND Q) XOR R
= (P NOR Q) XOR R
= (P XOR Q) XOR R

ECE-2010
4.
For the output F to be 1 in the logic circuit
shown, the input combination should be
A

B
F
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

A=1, B=1, C=0


A=1, B=0, C=0
A=0, B=1, C=0
A=0, B=0, C=1
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Page 431

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

ECE-2012
7.
In the circuit shown
5 Volts
A
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

B
Y
C

10.
A

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

4
1024
3
1024
E
2
1024
E

B.
C.
D.

In the circuit shown in the figure, if


the expression for is

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

input
S1 S0

0C00H
2C00H
1800H
3800H
0500H
3500H
0800H
2800H

0FFFH, 1C00H
2FFFH, 3C00H
1FFFH, 2800H
3FFFH, 4800H
08FFH, 1500H
38FFH, 5500H
0BFFH, 1800H
2BFFH, 3800H

XOR

1
11
10
01
00

0,

EE-2007
1.
A, B, C and D are input bits, and Y is the
output bit in the XOR gate circuit of the
figure below. Which of the following
statements about the sum S of A, B, C, D
and Y is correct?
A
XOR
B

1024

A15

A.

8 bit data bus

A10
A11
A12
A13
A14

y
y
y
y

ECE-2013
8.
There are four chips each of 1024 bytes
connected to a 16 bit address bus as
shown in the figure below. RAMs 1, 2, 3
and 4 respectively are mapped to
addresses

A0 A9

y
y
y
y

1FFFH,
3FFFH
2FFFH,
4FFFH
18FFH,
58FFH
1BFFH,
3BFFH

ECE-2014
9.
The output F in the digital logic circuit
shown in the figure is

C
XOR
D
(A) S is always either zero or odd
(B) S is always either zero or even
(C) S = 1 only if the sum of A, B, C and D
is even
(D) S = 1 only if the sum of A, B, C and D
is odd

EE-2009
2.
The complete set of only those Logic
Gates designated as Universal Gates is
(A) NOT, OR and AND Gates
(B) XNOR, NOR and NAND Gate
(C) NOR and NAND Gates
(D) XOR, NOR and NAND Gates
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Page 432

GATE QUESTION BANK

EE-2011
3.
The output Y of the logic circuit given
below is

(A) 1
(B) 0

Digital Circuits

average value of the output voltage as


function of for 0

(A)

( )?

Vav
5V

(C) X
(D)

T/2

IN-2006
1.
All the logic gates in the circuit shown
below have finite propagation delay. The
circuit can be used as a clock generator, if

(B)

Vav
5V
Vav

Y
(C)
Vav

X
(A) X = 0
(B) X = 1

1
T/2

Vav

(C) X = 0 or 1
(D) X = Y

IN-2007
2.
Two square waves of equal period T, but
with a time delay are applied to a digital
circuit whose truth table is shown in the
following figure.
X
Y
Output
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
X

5V

T/2
(D)

Vav
2.5V
T/2

IN-2009
3.
The diodes in the circuit shown are ideal.
A voltage of 0V represents logic 0 and
+5V represents logic1.The function Z
realized by the circuit for inputs X and Y
is
+ 5V

T/2

Y
1

T/2

The high and the low levels of the output


of the digital circuit are 5 V and 0 V,
respectively. Which one of the following
figures shows the correct variation of the

(C) Z =
(D) Z=

(A) Z=X + Y
(B) Z=XY

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Page 433

GATE QUESTION BANK

IN-2010
4.
The logic gate circuit shown in the figure
realizes the function
A
X

(A) XOR
(B) XNOR

(C) Half adder


(D) Full adder

Digital Circuits

EC/EE/IN-2013
5.
A bulb in a staircase has two switches,
one switch being at the ground floor and
the other one at the first floor. The bulb
can be turned ON and also can be turned
OFF by any one of the switch irrespective
of the state of the other switch. The logic
of switching of the bulb resembles
(A) An AND gate
(C) A XOR gate
(B) An OR gate
(D) A NAND gate

Answer Keys & Explanations


ECE
1.

5.

[Ans. D]
P = = = 4
Q = = + = 2
R = A B = A + B = 3
S = A B = AB + = 1

6.

[Ans. B]
The output Y expression in the ckt
(Majority circuit)
So that two or more inputs are 1,
always 1.

[Ans. B]
A
B
AB + CD
C
D

2.

3.

[Ans. D]
When P = Q = 1, then OUT = 1
P = Q = 0, then OUT = 0
P = 0, Q = 1, then OUT = 0
P = 1, Q = 0, then OUT = 0
So, it is AND gate

7.

[Ans. A]
In NMOS circuit
Since & are in parallel so those
represent (
) & is in sense, so it
represents dot operation and the whole
function should be inverted or it is
complementary logic.
So,


(
)

8.

[Ans. D]
For RAM #1

[Ans. D]
X=

;Y=P+Q

Z = XY =
=(

. (P + Q)
)(

4.

[Ans. D]
For 3 input XNOR for output to be one,
two input must be one, and we know that
2- input XOR & XNOR gate are
complementary & hence only 1(1s) will
be generated & C=1 is required
i.e, When A = 0, B = 0 and C = 1,
then F = 1

is

0 0 0
0

0 0
0

ower add

ighest add
0000
1 0 1 1 11
0
So range of add for RAM #1
0 00
0
which is present only in option D
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Page 434

GATE QUESTION BANK

9.

10.

[Ans. A]
( )(( )
( )(( )
( )
)
(

)
(

IN
1.

A
B

[Ans. B]
When X = 1, equivalent circuit is

))

Y
This circuits act as clock generator.

[Ans. A]
C

2.

[Ans. C]
When = 0 X and Y will be same and
out-put will be equal to dc of 5V.

(
(

EE
1.

2.

3.

of each other and output will be equal to


dc 0.

AB

When = , X and Y will be complement

A
B

)
) (

[Ans. B]

from the given
diagram. We know that sum of any
number of bits is XOR of all bits.
So
S

S=YY
S = either zero or even because LSB is
zero (always).
[Ans. C]
NOR and NAND are designated as
universal logic gates, because using any
one of them we can implement all the
logic gates.
[Ans. A]
Y= .
X
1
0

0
1

.
Y

Digital Circuits

When increases from 0 to

, O/P will

decrease from 5V to 0V linearly.


3.

[Ans. B]
When any of X or Y is zero, Z = 0. For
X = Y = 1, Z = 1

4.

[Ans. A]
X

y
x

Z= y. y
5.

= y

y =xy

[Ans. C]
When both switches in on position, bulb
is off
When both switches in off position, bulb
is off
Bulb
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
It is a XOR gate

1
1

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Page 435

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Logic Gate Families


ECE - 2007
1.
The circuit diagram of a standard TTL
NOT gate is shown in the figure. When
Vi = 2.5V, the modes of operation of the
transistors will be

1 4k
4k

Q1

Ignoring the body-effect, the output


voltages at P, Q and R are,

100k

R
2

(A) 4 V, 3 V, 2 V
(B) 5 V, 5 V, 5 V

Q4
D

4.

Q2

(C) 4 V, 4 V, 4 V
(D) 5 V, 4 V, 3 V

The output (Y) of the circuit shown in the


figure is

Q3
1k
-

(A) Q1: reverse active; Q2: normal active;


Q3: saturation; Q4: cut-off
(B) Q1: reverse active; Q2: saturation;
Q3: saturation; Q4: cut-off
(C) Q1: normal active; Q2: cut-off;
Q3: cut-off; Q4: saturation
(D) Q1: saturation; Q2: saturation;
Q3: saturation; Q4: normal active
ECE - 2009
2.
The full forms of the abbreviations TTL
and CMOS in reference of logic families
are
(A) Triple Transistor Logic and Chip
Metal Oxide Semiconductor
(B) Tristate Transistor Logic and Chip
Metal Oxide Semiconductor
(C) Transistor Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor
(D) Tristate Transistor Logic and
Complementary Metal Oxide Silicon

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

EE - 2010
1.
The TTL circuit shown in the figure is fed
with the waveform X (also shown). All
gates have equal propagation delay of
10ns. The output Y of the circuit is
x
100 ns

ECE - 2014
3.
In the following circuit employing pass
transistor logic, all NMOS transistors are
identical with a threshold voltage of 1V.

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Page 436

GATE QUESTION BANK


X

Digital Circuits

IN - 2007
1.
A CMOS implementation of a logic gate is
shown in the following figure:
5v

(A)
Y

X
Y

PMOS

1
0

NMOS

(B)
Y

The Boolean logic function realized by the


circuit is.
(A) AND
(C) NOR
(B) NAND
(D) OR

1
0

(C)

IN - 2014
2.
The figure is a logic circuit with inputs A
and B and output Y. = + 5 V. The
circuit is of type

(D)

1
0

(A) NOR
(B) AND

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(C) OR
(D) NAND

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Page 437

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Answer Keys and Explanations


ECE
1.

EE
1.

[Ans. B]
reverse active,

saturation

saturation,
2.

[Ans. A]
X

cut off

[Ans. C]
TTL Transistor Transistor Logic
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide
Semiconductor

1
X
0

3.

[Ans. C]
Suppose all NMOS at saturation

For
1 &

Y=X

4
For
(

IN
1.

1)

(4

[Ans. C]
NOR Gate

(4

2.

[Ans. D]
Given circuit is of the standard 2 input
NAND gate.

4
1
(4

4.

4
4

[Ans. A]
The given circuit is CMOS implementation
If the NMOS is connected in series, then
the output expression is product of each
input with complement to the final
product.

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Page 438

GATE QUESTION BANK

Digital Circuits

Combinational and Sequential Digital Circuits


ECE - 2006
1.
The point P in the following figure is
stuck-at-1. The output f will be
A
B

1 0 1 1
MSB

LSB

FULL
ADDER

CK
f

0 0 1 1
Shift Registers

Ci

C0

CK
D

(A)
(B)

CK

(C)
(D) A
CLOCK

2.

Two D-flip-flops, as shown below, are to


be connected as a synchronous counter
that goes through the following Q1Q0
sequence

The inputs
and
respectively should
be connected as

(A) S =0, C0= 0


(B) S = 0, C0= 1

ECE - 2007
4.
For the circuit shown, the counter state
(Q1 Q0) follows the sequence

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
3.

(C) S = 1, C0= 0
(D) S = 1, C0= 1

and
and
and
and

For the circuit shown in figure below, two


4-bit parallel-in serial-out shift registers
loaded with the data shown are used to
feed the data to a full adder. Initially, all
the flip-flops are in clear state. After
applying two clock pulses, the outputs of
the full adder should be

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
5.

The following binary values were applied


to the X and Y inputs of the NAND latch
shown in the figure in the sequence
indicated below:
X=0, Y=1; X=0, Y=0; X=1, Y=1
The corresponding stable P, Q outputs
will be
X
P

Y
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GATE QUESTION BANK

(A) P=1, Q=0; P=1, Q=0; P=1, Q=0 or


P=0, Q=1
(B) P=1, Q=0; P=0, Q=1 or P=0, Q=1;
P=0, Q=1
(C) P=1, Q=0; P=1, Q=1; P=1, Q=0 or
P=0, Q=1
(D) P=1, Q=0; P=1, Q=1; P=1, Q=1

Digital Circuits

CLK

1
CLK
0
T

6.

In the following circuit, X is given by


0
1
1
0

I0
I1
I2
I3

4-to-1
MUX
Y
S1

S0

0
1
1
0

I0
I1
I2
I3
S1

4-to-1
MUX
Y

Which of the following waveforms


correctly represents the output at ?

S0

(A)

1
0
2T

t
1

(A)

(B)

(B)
(C)

0
4T
t

(D)

(C)

ECE - 2008
7. For the circuit shown in the following
figure,
are inputs to the 4:1
multiplexer. R(MSB) and S are control
bits.

1
0
2T

(D)

1
0
4T
t

9.

For the circuit shown in the figure, D has a


transition from 0 to 1 after CLK changes
from 1 to 0. Assume gate delays to be
negligible

The output Z can be represented by


(A) PQ + P S +
(B) P +PQ +
(C) P + QR +PQRS +
(D) PQ +PQR +P S +
8.

Which of the following statements is true?


(A) Q goes to 1 at the CLK transition and
stays at 1.
(B) Q goes to 0 at the CLK transition and
stays at 0.
(C) Q goes to 1 at the CLK transition and
goes to 0 when D goes to 1.
(D) Q goes to 0 at the CLK transition and
goes to 1 when D goes to 1.

For each of the positive edge triggered


J-K flip flop used in the following figure,
the propagation delay is T.

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Page 440

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2009
10. What are the counting states (Q1, Q2) for
the counter shown in the figure below?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
11.

ip

Statement for Linked Answer Question 13


and 14.
Two products are sold from a vending
machine, which has two push buttons
and . When a button is pressed, the
price of the corresponding product is
displayed in a 7-segment display.
If no buttons are pressed is displayed,
signifying s.
If only
is pressed, is disp ayed
signifying s.
If only p are pressed, 5 is disp ayed
signifying s.5
If both
a d
are pressed, E is
displayed, Signifying Err r.
The names of the segments in 7-segment
display, and the glow of the display for
5 a d E are sh w be w.

ip

11, 10, 00, 11, 10 . . . . .


01, 10, 11, 00, 01 . . . . .
00, 11, 01, 10, 00, . . . . .
01, 10, 00, 01, 10 . . . . . .

Refer to the NAND and NOR latches


shown in the figure. The inputs
for
both the latches are first made (0, 1) and
then, after a few seconds, made (1, 1). The
corresponding stable outputs (
) are
P1

Q1 P 1

Digital Circuits

a
f
Q1

b
c

d
P2

Q2 P 2

(A) NAND : first (0, 1) then (0, 1)


NOR: first (1, 0) then (0, 0)
(B) NAND : first (1, 0) then (1, 0)
NOR: first (1, 0) then (1, 0)
(C) NAND : first (1, 0) then (1, 0)
NOR: first (1, 0) then (0, 0)
(D) NAND : first (1, 0) then (1, 1)
NOR: first (0, 1) then (0, 1)
12.

What are the minimum number of


2 to. 1 multiplexers required to
generate a
2-input AND gate and a 2-input Ex-OR
gate?
(A) 1 and 2
(C) 1 and 1
(B) 1 and 3
(D) 2 and 2

Q2

Consider
(i) Push Button pressed/not Pressed in a
equivalent to logic 1/0 respectively.
(ii) A segment glowing / not glowing in the
display is equivalent to logic 1/0
respectively.
13.

If segment a to g are considered as


functions of
and
, then which are of
the following is correct?
(A) g
d c e
(B) g
d c e

(C) g
e b c
(D) g
e b c

14.

What are the minimum numbers of NOT


gates and 2-input OR gates required to
design the logic of the driver for this
7-segment display?
(A)
a d
(B)
a d
(C)
a d
(D)
a d

th

th

th

THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11
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Page 441

GATE QUESTION BANK

ECE - 2010
15. The Boolean function realized by the logic
circuit shown is

Data

Digital Circuits

Clock

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

MUX

19.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
16.

5
5
5

cha ged fr
t
cha ged fr
t
changed in either direction
not changed

The logic function implemented by the


circuit below is (ground implies a logic

MUX

Assuming that all flips flops are in reset


condition initially, the count sequence
observed at
in the circuit shown is
utput

(A) F = AND(P, Q)
(B) F = OR(P, Q)

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

ECE - 2014
20. Five JK flip-flops are cascaded to form the
circuit shown in Figure. Clock pulses at a
frequency of 1 MHz are applied as shown.
The frequency (in kHz) of the waveform
at Q3 is _____.

ECE - 2011
17. Two D flip flops are connected as a
synchronous counter that goes through
the
following
sequence
The connections to the inputs
are
(A)

and

(C) F = XNOR(P, Q)
(D) F = XOR(P, Q)

21.

The digital logic shown in the figure


satisfies the given state diagram when Q1
is connected to input A of the XOR gate.

(B)
(C)
(D)

18.

When the output Y in the circuit below is


it i p ies that data has
th

th

th

THE GATE ACADEMY PVT.LTD. H.O.: #74, KeshavaKrupa (third Floor), 30 Cross, 10 Main, Jayanagar 4 Block, Bangalore-11
: 080-65700750, info@thegateacademy.com Copyright reserved. Web: www.thegateacademy.com
Page 442

GATE QUESTION BANK

Suppose the XOR gate is replaced by an


XNOR gate. Which one of the following
options preserves the state diagram?
(A) Input A is connected to
(B) Input A is connected to
(C) Input A is connected to
complemented
(D) Input A is connected to
22.

23.

Digital Circuits

(A)
(B)

(C)
(D)

and S is
24.

In a half-subtractor circuit with X and Y as


inputs, the Borrow (M) and Difference
(N = X Y) are given by
(A)
(B)

(